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The Energy Policy Act Of 2005: The Rapid Decline Of Jura Majestatis For Communities In Ohio, Alexander Krokus 2019 Mark O. Hatfield Graduate School of Political Science, Portland State University

The Energy Policy Act Of 2005: The Rapid Decline Of Jura Majestatis For Communities In Ohio, Alexander Krokus

Hatfield Graduate Journal of Public Affairs

Since Nobel Prize recipient Svante Arrhenius realized that fossil fuel combustion increased CO2 emissions in our atmosphere in 1896, scientists and policy makers have acknowledged the calamitous potential for the oil and gas industry to render substantial deleterious effects on ecosystems. Yet in 2016, the U.S. utilized fossil fuels to facilitate 80.9% of all energy consumption.1 Subsequent to the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission vastly encouraged outside economic investment into our oil and gas infrastructure. Natural resources situated in geologic formations that possess low permeability, which were once considered ...


Federal Jurisdiction For Above-Ground Oil Storage Tanks: A Practical Analysis For Navigating Federal Regulations, Kathryn Hussong 2019 St. Mary's University School of Law

Federal Jurisdiction For Above-Ground Oil Storage Tanks: A Practical Analysis For Navigating Federal Regulations, Kathryn Hussong

St. Mary's Law Journal

Clear, consistent, and concise jurisdictional boundaries will aid pipeline operators to determine which regulations apply to their operations and associated facilities. This will help alleviate legal and financial risk to pipeline operators, who may be liable for noncompliance regardless of whether the pipeline operator or the associated refinery commits the violation. Overlapping state and federal regulations of pipelines and refineries has created confusion amongst operators regarding what regulations apply to their facilities. Three federal agencies—the Pipeline and Hazardous Safety Administration (PHMSA), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) respectively—and a myriad of state ...


How Pennsylvanians Define Environmental Justice, Kayla Hofmann 2019 Ursinus College

How Pennsylvanians Define Environmental Justice, Kayla Hofmann

Sociology Summer Fellows

The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) defines an environmental justice area as any census tract that partially or wholly includes a 30 percent or greater minority population or 20 percent or more of a population living in poverty. However, little is known about how the average Pennsylvanian defines environmental justice, hindering our ability to determine whether the current definition is adequate. Using transcripts from nine listening sessions on the DEP’s tour of affected counties, I address 3 questions: (1) How do people define environmental justice? (2) What do people think are the most pressing issues in each county ...


Renewable Energy Access And Resilience In Urban Developing Areas: Distributed Solar Networks And Peer-To-Peer Energy Trading In Puerto Rico, Pascale Bronder 2019 Yale University

Renewable Energy Access And Resilience In Urban Developing Areas: Distributed Solar Networks And Peer-To-Peer Energy Trading In Puerto Rico, Pascale Bronder

Harvey M. Applebaum ’59 Award

This senior essay under the Environmental Studies major at Yale University explores the environmental and social benefits of applying innovative technology to the energy sector. Three types of energy networks are analyzed, focusing on the use of distributed energy and peer to peer energy trading on a blockchain platform. The benefits of distributed renewable energy networks can most strongly be applied to locations in need of more reliable, resilient, and cost-effective electricity. Puerto Rico is a case study. Methods include analysis of U.S. Energy Information Administration and Census Bureau data as well as personal interviews with Puerto Rican energy ...


Estimating Live Fuel Moisture Using Smap L-Band Radiometer Soil Moisture For Southern California, Usa, Shenyue Jia, Seung Hee Kim, Son V. Nghiem, Menas Kafatos 2019 Chapman University

Estimating Live Fuel Moisture Using Smap L-Band Radiometer Soil Moisture For Southern California, Usa, Shenyue Jia, Seung Hee Kim, Son V. Nghiem, Menas Kafatos

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Live fuel moisture (LFM) is a field-measured indicator of vegetation water content and a crucial observation of vegetation flammability. This study presents a new multi-variant regression model to estimate LFM in the Mediterranean ecosystem of Southern California, USA, using the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) L-band radiometer soil moisture (SMAP SM) from April 2015 to December 2018 over 12 chamise (Adenostoma fasciculatum) LFM sites. The two-month lag between SMAP SM and LFM was utilized either as steps to synchronize the SMAP SM to the LFM series or as the leading time window to calculate the accumulative SMAP SM. Cumulative growing ...


Assessment Of Excess Thyroid Cancer Risk Following A Hypothetical Radiological Incident In Louisiana And Best-Case Risk Reduction Achieved By Thyroid Blockade, Garrett A. Otis 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Assessment Of Excess Thyroid Cancer Risk Following A Hypothetical Radiological Incident In Louisiana And Best-Case Risk Reduction Achieved By Thyroid Blockade, Garrett A. Otis

LSU Master's Theses

Radioactive isotopes of iodine are produced by nuclear power plants as a byproduct of nuclear fission reactions. If these isotopes are released into the environment, such as during a breach of containment, they constitute a health risk to exposed individuals. To mitigate the risk of thyroid cancer due to exposure to radioactive iodine, “iodide prophylaxis,” also known as “thyroid blockade,” can be used, usually by administration of potassium iodide (KI). In some areas of the world, KI has been provided to the general public by their governments as a precautionary measure against potential nuclear power plant incidents. However, in the ...


Microplastic Concentrations In Two Oregon Bivalve Species: Spatial, Temporal, And Species Variability, Britta Baechler, Elise F. Granek, Matthew V. Hunter, Kathleen E. Conn 2019 Portland State University

Microplastic Concentrations In Two Oregon Bivalve Species: Spatial, Temporal, And Species Variability, Britta Baechler, Elise F. Granek, Matthew V. Hunter, Kathleen E. Conn

Environmental Science and Management Datasets

Microplastics are an ecological stressor with implications for ecosystem and human health when present in seafood. We quantified microplastic types, concentrations, anatomical burdens, geographic distribution, and temporal differences in Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and Pacific razor clams (Siliqua patula) from 15 Oregon coast, U.S.A. sites. Organisms were chemically digested and visually analyzed for microplastics, and material type was determined using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Microplastics were present in organisms from all sites. On average, whole oysters and razor clams contained 10.95 ± 0.77 and 8.84 ± 0.45 microplastic pieces per individual, or 0.35 ± 0.04 ...


Assessment Of Spray Polyurethane Foam Worker Exposure To Organophosphate Flame Retardants Through Measures In Air, Hand Wipes, And Urine, CF Estill, J Slone, et al, MJ La Guardia, et al 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Assessment Of Spray Polyurethane Foam Worker Exposure To Organophosphate Flame Retardants Through Measures In Air, Hand Wipes, And Urine, Cf Estill, J Slone, Et Al, Mj La Guardia, Et Al

VIMS Articles

Tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP, also referenced as TCIPP), a flame retardant used in spray polyurethane foam insulation, increases cell toxicity and affects fetal development. Spray polyurethane foam workers have the potential to be exposed to TCPP during application. In this study, we determined exposure to TCPP and concentrations of the urinary biomarker bis(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BCPP) among 29 spray polyurethane foam workers over 2 work days. Work was conducted at residential or commercial facilities using both open-cell (low density) and closed-cell (high density) foam. Study participants provided two personal air samples (Day 1 and Day 2), two hand wipe samples ...


An Urban Karst Aquifer Resource Evaluation And Monitoring Toolbox, Rachel Anne Kaiser 2019 Western Kentucky University

An Urban Karst Aquifer Resource Evaluation And Monitoring Toolbox, Rachel Anne Kaiser

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

In urban karst areas, such as the City of Bowling Green, Kentucky and the Tampa Bay Metropolitan Area, groundwater quality faces a variety of threats. The development of residential, commercial, and industrial landuse types allows for a wide variety of groundwater pollutants to enter the karst groundwater systems. Various different models and indices have attempted evaluative approaches to identify issues in urban karst areas, but the methods vary by location and lack a focus on urban karst groundwater quality. There also exists a lack of a data-driven approach that is able to capture short- and long-term changes in threats to ...


Coral Reef Change Detection In Remote Pacific Islands Using Support Vector Machine Classifiers, Justin J. Gapper, Hesham el-Askary, Erik Linstead, Thomas Piechota 2019 Chapman University

Coral Reef Change Detection In Remote Pacific Islands Using Support Vector Machine Classifiers, Justin J. Gapper, Hesham El-Askary, Erik Linstead, Thomas Piechota

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Despite the abundance of research on coral reef change detection, few studies have been conducted to assess the spatial generalization principles of a live coral cover classifier trained using remote sensing data from multiple locations. The aim of this study is to develop a machine learning classifier for coral dominated benthic cover-type class (CDBCTC) based on ground truth observations and Landsat images, evaluate the performance of this classifier when tested against new data, then deploy the classifier to perform CDBCTC change analysis of multiple locations. The proposed framework includes image calibration, support vector machine (SVM) training and tuning, statistical assessment ...


Shale Play: Poems And Photographs From The Fracking Fields By Julia Spicher Kasdorf And Steven Rubin, Kelly Shepherd 2019 Northern Alberta Institute of Technology

Shale Play: Poems And Photographs From The Fracking Fields By Julia Spicher Kasdorf And Steven Rubin, Kelly Shepherd

The Goose

Review of Julia Spicher Kasdorf and Steven Rubin's Shale Play: Poems and Photographs from the Fracking Fields


Incorporating Antecedent Soil Moisture Into Streamflow Forecasting, Abdoul Oubeidillah, Glenn Tootle, Thomas Piechota 2019 University of Texas-Rio Grande Valley

Incorporating Antecedent Soil Moisture Into Streamflow Forecasting, Abdoul Oubeidillah, Glenn Tootle, Thomas Piechota

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This study incorporates antecedent (preceding) soil moisture into forecasting streamflow volumes within the North Platte River Basin, Colorado/Wyoming (USA). The incorporation of antecedent soil moisture accounts for infiltration and can improve streamflow predictions. Current Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) forecasting methods are replicated, and a comparison is drawn between current NRCS forecasts and proposed forecasting methods using antecedent soil moisture. Current predictors used by the NRCS in regression-based streamflow forecasting include precipitation, streamflow persistence (previous season streamflow volume) and snow water equivalent (SWE) from SNOTEL (snow telemetry) sites. Proposed methods utilize antecedent soil moisture as a predictor variable in ...


Species Determination Of Ulvoid Algae Through Genotyping; What Are The Environmental Implications?, Kora S. Krumm 2019 Seattle Pacific University

Species Determination Of Ulvoid Algae Through Genotyping; What Are The Environmental Implications?, Kora S. Krumm

Honors Projects

Ulva is a genus of marine green algae native to many of the world’s coastlines and is especially difficult to identify via traditional methods such as dichotomous keying. This project aims to streamline taxonomic classification of Ulva species through DNA sequence analysis. Local samples of Ulva were obtained from Puget Sound, Seattle, WA, and two target genes (rbcL and its1) were amplified via PCR and sequenced for comparative analysis between samples. Ulvoids have a detrimental impact on marine ecosystems in the Pacific Northwest due to their role in eutrophication-caused algal blooms, and reliable identification can help inform conservation efforts ...


Law Library Blog (June 2019): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School of Law 2019 Roger Williams University

Law Library Blog (June 2019): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Law Library Newsletters/Blog

No abstract provided.


Process-Based Modeling Of The Dairy- Mckay Watershed To Inform Monitoring For Agricultural Best Management Practices, Brittany Saeman 2019 Portland State University

Process-Based Modeling Of The Dairy- Mckay Watershed To Inform Monitoring For Agricultural Best Management Practices, Brittany Saeman

Master of Environmental Management Project Reports

The project described in this paper specifically looks at the influence of land management practices on water quality, specifically total phosphorus (TP) loads in the Dairy McKay Watershed (DMW). The project is being used to inform a water quality monitoring plan for the Oregon DEQ via outputs from a SWAT model. The DMW is known to have high TP levels that are linked to low dissolved oxygen levels in the Tualatin River. There is a total maximum daily load (TMDL) for the Tualatin River that specifies target TP levels coming out of the DMW, if met these targets are met ...


Assessment Of Agricultural Drought Considering The Hydrological Cycle And Crop Phenology In The Korean Peninsula, Chul-Hee Lim, Seung Hee Kim, Jong Ahn Chun, Menas Kafatos, Woo-Kyun Lee 2019 Korea University

Assessment Of Agricultural Drought Considering The Hydrological Cycle And Crop Phenology In The Korean Peninsula, Chul-Hee Lim, Seung Hee Kim, Jong Ahn Chun, Menas Kafatos, Woo-Kyun Lee

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Hydrological changes attributable to global warming increase the severity and frequency of droughts, which in turn affect agriculture. Hence, we proposed the Standardized Agricultural Drought Index (SADI), which is a new drought index specialized for agriculture and crops, and evaluated current and expected droughts in the Korean Peninsula. The SADI applies crop phenology to the hydrological cycle, which is a basic element that assesses drought. The SADI of rice and maize was calculated using representative hydrological variables (precipitation, evapotranspiration, and runoff) of the crop growing season. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of SADI, the three-month Standardized Precipitation Index, which ...


Riparian Resilience In The Face Of Interacting Disturbances, Alexa S. Whipple 2019 Eastern Washington University

Riparian Resilience In The Face Of Interacting Disturbances, Alexa S. Whipple

2019 Symposium

Riparian systems of the dryland western United States provide critical ecosystem functions such as diverse habitat for numerous species, flood attenuation and essential water storage in water-limited environments. These systems have experienced long term disturbance from anthropogenic activities including the grazing of livestock in dryland riparian systems and near extirpation of a keystone riparian species, Castor canadensis (beaver). However, increasing frequency of large-scale wildfires and climate change driven weather is altering the severity and scale of riparian disturbance. Beaver restoration has been gaining use to address long term riparian disturbances, yet little is understood regarding the impact of restored beaver ...


Nature As Privilege: How Environmental Racism Changes The Access To Fresh Air And The Effects On New York City’S Communities, Sarah C. Morrison 2019 Fordham University

Nature As Privilege: How Environmental Racism Changes The Access To Fresh Air And The Effects On New York City’S Communities, Sarah C. Morrison

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper serves to addresses the issue of environmental racism in relation to New York City, and more specifically comparing the South Bronx and Central Brooklyn, often characterized as low- income and high-minority populations with their white counterparts. New York, among other urban centers in the United States serves as an example of environmental racism because of the discrepancy in high air pollution levels in marginalized communities, the subsequent negative health effects (specifically asthma), and the lack of green spaces. The root of this issue is prominent in the history and construction of New York during the 1900s. The construction ...


Assessing The Potential Impact Of Nanotechnology On The Purification Of Water, Noor Khan 2019 Collin College

Assessing The Potential Impact Of Nanotechnology On The Purification Of Water, Noor Khan

Quest

Independent Research Paper

Research in progress for PHYS 2426: University Physics II

Faculty Mentor: Raji Kannampuzha, Ph.D.

The following paper represents research work done by students in a University Physics 2426 class, the second half of a two-semester introductory course in physics. It is a calculus-based physics course, intended primarily for physics, chemistry, math, and engineering majors. Students are introduced to the concept of academic research by learning to ask research-focused questions and then use the library resources to pursue outside research to find answers. For this assignment, students are asked to investigate a physical science, biological science, or ...


Fluoride Removal From Water Using A 3d Printed Calcium Carbonate Filter, Sophia Bakar, David Kahler, Benjamin S. Goldschmidt 2019 Duquesne University

Fluoride Removal From Water Using A 3d Printed Calcium Carbonate Filter, Sophia Bakar, David Kahler, Benjamin S. Goldschmidt

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Groundwater containing high concentrations of fluoride is the most common source of drinking water in rural areas in parts of east Africa, India, and China. The elevated levels of fluoride cause skeletal and dental fluorosis, which is the weakening and decay of bone structures due to the leeching of calcium from the body as calcium and fluoride bond by the process of adsorption. Over 150 million people are suffering from some form of fluorosis due to the consumption of groundwater. Calcium carbonate has been demonstrated to influence fluoride removal in several forms. To make fluoride removal a cost-effective and user-friendly ...


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