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Questioning Ecosystem Assessment And Restoration Practices In A Major Urban Estuary: Perpetuating Myths Of Degradation In Spite Of Facts, John T. Tanacredi Ph.D., Martin P. Schreibman, Kevin McDonnell 2016 Molloy College

Questioning Ecosystem Assessment And Restoration Practices In A Major Urban Estuary: Perpetuating Myths Of Degradation In Spite Of Facts, John T. Tanacredi Ph.D., Martin P. Schreibman, Kevin Mcdonnell

Faculty Works: CERCOM

The Jamaica Bay ecosystem is a dichotomy. It encompasses more than 12,000 acres of coastal estuarine marshes and an ecological diversity rivaling any coastal environment in the world. It is considerably altered, and is affected by a variety of ecological insults directly related to the fact that more than 14 million people live in its vicinity. Environmental protection institutions responded to the challenge of protecting the bay, surrounding wetlands and recreational benefits by addressing the increasing load of contaminants into the ecosystem. Billions of dollars have been spent during the past five decades on restoration attempts, including upgrading wastewater ...


Global Fossil Energy Markets And Climate Change Mitigation: An Analysis With Remind, Nico Bauer, Ioanna Mouratiadou, Gunnar Luderer, Lavinia Baumstark, Robert Brecha, Ottmar Edenhofer, Elmar Kriegler 2016 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

Global Fossil Energy Markets And Climate Change Mitigation: An Analysis With Remind, Nico Bauer, Ioanna Mouratiadou, Gunnar Luderer, Lavinia Baumstark, Robert Brecha, Ottmar Edenhofer, Elmar Kriegler

Robert J. Brecha

We analyze the dynamics of global fossil resource markets under different assumptions for the supply of fossil fuel resources, development pathways for energy demand, and climate policy settings. Resource markets, in particular the oil market, are characterized by a large discrepancy between costs of resource extraction and commodity prices on international markets. We explain this observation in terms of (a) the intertemporal scarcity rent, (b) regional price differentials arising from trade and transport costs, (c) heterogeneity and inertia in the extraction sector. These effects are captured by the REMIND model. We use the model to explore economic effects of changes ...


Logistic Curves, Extraction Costs And Peak Oil, Robert Brecha 2016 University of Dayton

Logistic Curves, Extraction Costs And Peak Oil, Robert Brecha

Robert J. Brecha

Debates about the possibility of a near-term maximum in world oil production have become increasingly prominent over the past decade, with the focus often being on the quantification of geologically available and technologically recoverable amounts of oil in the ground. Economically, the important parameter is not a physical limit to resources in the ground, but whether market price signals and costs of extraction will indicate the efficiency of extracting conventional or nonconventional resources as opposed to making substitutions over time for other fuels and technologies. We present a hybrid approach to the peak-oil question with two models in which the ...


Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Community-Based Residential Building Energy Efficiency Investment, Jun-Ki Choi, Drew Morrison, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha 2016 University of Dayton

Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Community-Based Residential Building Energy Efficiency Investment, Jun-Ki Choi, Drew Morrison, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha

Robert J. Brecha

A systematic framework for evaluating the local economic and environmental impacts of investment in building energy efficiency is developed. Historical residential building energy data, community-wide economic input-output data, and emission intensity data are utilized. The aim of this study is to show the comprehensive insights and connection among achieving variable target reductions for a residential building energy use, economic and environmental impacts. Central to this approach for the building energy reduction goal is the creation of individual energy models for each building based upon historical energy data and available building data. From these models, savings estimates and cost implications can ...


Cost-Availability Curves For Hierarchical Implementation Of Residential Energy-Efficiency Measures, Roman Villoria-Siegert, Philip Brodrick, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha 2016 University of Dayton

Cost-Availability Curves For Hierarchical Implementation Of Residential Energy-Efficiency Measures, Roman Villoria-Siegert, Philip Brodrick, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha

Robert J. Brecha

Historical residential electricity data and natural gas consumption data were collected for, respectively, 1,200 and 178 residences in a small town in the USA. These data were merged with local building and weather databases, and energy consumption models were developed for each residence, revealing substantial variation in heating and cooling intensity. After estimating approximate physical building characteristics, energy profiles for each residence were calculated, and savings from adoption of the most cost-effective energy-efficiency measures for each residence were estimated. Effectively, we wish to leverage commonly available data sets to infer characteristics of building envelopes and equipment, without the need ...


Development Without Energy? Assessing Future Scenarios Of Energy Consumption In Developing Countries, Jan Steckel, Robert Brecha, Michael Jakob, Jessica Strefler, Gunnar Luderer 2016 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

Development Without Energy? Assessing Future Scenarios Of Energy Consumption In Developing Countries, Jan Steckel, Robert Brecha, Michael Jakob, Jessica Strefler, Gunnar Luderer

Robert J. Brecha

We analyze the relationship between economic development and energy consumption in the context of greenhouse gas mitigation. The main contribution of this work is to compare estimates of energy thresholds in the form of minimum energy requirements to reach high levels of development with output projections of per capita final energy supply from a group of integrated assessment models (IAMs). Scenarios project that reductions of carbon emissions in developing countries will be achieved not only by means of decreasing the carbon intensity, but also by making a significant break with the historically observed relationship between energy use and economic growth ...


A Compact To Revitalise Large-Scale Irrigation Systems Using A Leadership-Partnership-Ownership 'Theory Of Change', Bruce Lankford, Ian Makin, Nathanial Matthews, Peter G. McCornick, Andrew Noble, Tushaar Shah 2016 University of East Anglia

A Compact To Revitalise Large-Scale Irrigation Systems Using A Leadership-Partnership-Ownership 'Theory Of Change', Bruce Lankford, Ian Makin, Nathanial Matthews, Peter G. Mccornick, Andrew Noble, Tushaar Shah

Water for Food Faculty Publications

In countries with transitional economies such as those found in South Asia, large-scale irrigation systems (LSIS) with a history of public ownership account for about 115 million ha (Mha) or approximately 45% of their total area under irrigation. In terms of the global area of irrigation (320 Mha) for all countries, LSIS are estimated at 130 Mha or 40% of irrigated land. These systems can potentially deliver significant local, regional, and global benefits in terms of food, water and energy security, employment, economic growth, and ecosystem services. For example, primary crop production is conservatively valued at about US$355 billion ...


Assessing The Impacts Of Climate Change On The Surface Temperature Of Inland Lakes In Michigan, Kaitlin Reinl 2016 Michigan Technological University

Assessing The Impacts Of Climate Change On The Surface Temperature Of Inland Lakes In Michigan, Kaitlin Reinl

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

The aim of this study was to validate and apply a lake model for predicting the susceptibility of small inland lakes in Michigan to changes in thermal regime and increased cyanobacteria growth as a result of future climate conditions. The Freshwater Lake Model was selected, tested for sensitivity to various inputs, and validated through comparison to observed conditions. The sensitivity analysis showed that the lake model was most sensitive to solar radiation, air temperature, and air humidity. Comparison of predicted climate data with observed conditions revealed highly variable climate model error. The lake model validation was conducted using 10 lakes ...


A Comparison Between 2010 And 2006 Air Quality And Meteorological Conditions, And Emissions And Boundary Conditions Used In Simulations Of The Aqmeii-2 North American Domain, Till E. Stoeckenius, Christian Hogrefe, Justin Zagunis, Timonthy M. Sturtz, Benjamin Wells, Tanarit Sakulyanontvittaya 2016 ENVIRON International Corp.

A Comparison Between 2010 And 2006 Air Quality And Meteorological Conditions, And Emissions And Boundary Conditions Used In Simulations Of The Aqmeii-2 North American Domain, Till E. Stoeckenius, Christian Hogrefe, Justin Zagunis, Timonthy M. Sturtz, Benjamin Wells, Tanarit Sakulyanontvittaya

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Papers

Several participants in Phase 2 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII-2) who are applying coupled models to the North American domain are comparing model results for two years, 2006 and 2010, with the goal of performing dynamic model evaluation. From a modeling perspective, the differences of interest are the large reductions in domain total emissions of NOx (21%) and SO2 (37%) from 2006 to 2010 and significant differences in meteorological conditions between these two years. The emission reductions occurred mostly in the eastern U.S, with some reduction in emissions from western wildfires in 2010 ...


Potential Aquifer Vulnerability In Regions Down-Gradient From Uranium In Situ Recovery (Isr) Sites, James A. Saunders, Bruce E. Pivetz, Nathan Voorhies, Richard T. Wilkin 2016 Auburn University

Potential Aquifer Vulnerability In Regions Down-Gradient From Uranium In Situ Recovery (Isr) Sites, James A. Saunders, Bruce E. Pivetz, Nathan Voorhies, Richard T. Wilkin

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Papers

Sandstone-hosted roll-front uranium ore deposits originate when U(VI) dissolved in groundwater is reduced and precipitated as insoluble U(IV) minerals. Groundwater redox geochemistry, aqueous complexation, and solute migration are important in leaching uranium from source rocks and transporting it in low concentrations to a chemical redox interface where it is deposited in an ore zone typically containing the uranium minerals uraninite, pitchblende, and/or coffinite; various iron sulfides; native selenium; clays; and calcite. In situ recovery (ISR) of uranium ores is a process of contacting the uranium mineral deposit with leaching and oxidizing (lixiviant) fluids via injection of the ...


Identification Of Putative Geographically Isolated Wetlands Of The Conterminous United States, Charles R. Lane, Ellen D'Amico 2016 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Identification Of Putative Geographically Isolated Wetlands Of The Conterminous United States, Charles R. Lane, Ellen D'Amico

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Papers

Geographically isolated wetlands (GIWs) are wetlands completely surrounded by uplands. While common throughout the United States (U.S.), there have heretofore been no nationally available, spatially explicit estimates of GIW extent, complicating efforts to understand the myriad biogeochemical, hydrological, and habitat functions of GIWs and hampering conservation and management efforts at local, state, and national scales. We used a 10-m geospatial buffer as a proxy for hydrological or ecological connectivity of National Wetlands Inventory palustrine and lacustrine wetland systems to nationally mapped and available stream, river, and lake data. We identified over 8.3 million putative GIWs across the conterminous ...


Cyanotoxins In Inland Lakes Of The United States: Occurrence And Potential Recreational Health Risks In The Epa National Lakes Assessment 2007, Keith A. Loftin, Jennifer L. Graham, Elizabeth D. Hillborn, Sarah C. Lehmann, Michael T. Meyer, Julie E. Dietze, Christopher B. Griffith 2016 U.S. Geological Survey

Cyanotoxins In Inland Lakes Of The United States: Occurrence And Potential Recreational Health Risks In The Epa National Lakes Assessment 2007, Keith A. Loftin, Jennifer L. Graham, Elizabeth D. Hillborn, Sarah C. Lehmann, Michael T. Meyer, Julie E. Dietze, Christopher B. Griffith

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Papers

A large nation-wide survey of cyanotoxins (1161 lakes) in the United States (U.S.) was conducted during the EPA National Lakes Assessment 2007. Cyanotoxin data were compared with cyanobacteria abundance- and chlorophyll-based World Health Organization (WHO) thresholds and mouse toxicity data to evaluate potential recreational risks. Cylindrospermopsins, microcystins, and saxitoxins were detected (ELISA) in 4.0, 32, and 7.7% of samples with mean concentrations of 0.56, 3.0, and 0.061 mg/L, respectively (detections only). Co-occurrence of the three cyanotoxin classes was rare (0.32%) when at least one toxin was detected. Cyanobacteria were present and dominant ...


Alpha-Lipoic Acid Supplementation Protects Enzymes From Damage By Nitrosative And Oxidative Stress, Sylvia Hiller, Robert DeKroon, Eric D. Hamlett, Longquan Xu, Cristina Osorio, Jennifer Robinette, Witold Winnik, Stephen Simington, Nobuyo Maeda, Oscar Alzate, Xianwen Yi 2016 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Alpha-Lipoic Acid Supplementation Protects Enzymes From Damage By Nitrosative And Oxidative Stress, Sylvia Hiller, Robert Dekroon, Eric D. Hamlett, Longquan Xu, Cristina Osorio, Jennifer Robinette, Witold Winnik, Stephen Simington, Nobuyo Maeda, Oscar Alzate, Xianwen Yi

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Papers

Background: S-nitrosylation of mitochondrial enzymes involved in energy transfer under nitrosative stress may result in ATP deficiency. We investigated whether α-lipoic acid, a powerful antioxidant, could alleviate nitrosative stress by regulating S-nitrosylation,which could result in retaining themitochondrial enzyme activity.

Methods: In this study, we have identified the S-nitrosylated forms of subunit 1 of dihydrolipoyllysine succinyltransferase (complex III), and subunit 2 of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex by implementing a fluorescence-based differential quantitative proteomics method.

Results: We found that the activities of these two mitochondrial enzymes were partially but reversibly inhibited by S-nitrosylation in cultured endothelial cells, and that their activities ...


Estimating Ozone And Secondary Pm2.5 Impacts From Hypothetical Single Source Emissions In The Central And Eastern United States, Kirk R. Baker, Robert A. Kotchenruther, Rynda C. Hudman 2016 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Estimating Ozone And Secondary Pm2.5 Impacts From Hypothetical Single Source Emissions In The Central And Eastern United States, Kirk R. Baker, Robert A. Kotchenruther, Rynda C. Hudman

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Papers

Secondary pollutant impacts from emissions of single sources may need to be assessed to satisfy a variety of regulatory requirements including the Clean Air Act New Source Review and Prevention of Significant Deterioration programs and the National Environmental Policy Act. In this work, single source impacts on O3 and secondary PM2.5 are estimated with annual 2011 photochemical grid model simulations where new hypothetical sources are added to the central and eastern United States with varying precursor emission rates and emission release heights. Impacts from these hypothetical sources are tracked with photochemical grid model source apportionment. Single source ...


Seasonality Of Coliform Bacteria Detection Rates In New Jersey Domestic Wells, Thomas B. Atherholt, Nicholas A. Procopio, Sandra M. Goodrow 2016 New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

Seasonality Of Coliform Bacteria Detection Rates In New Jersey Domestic Wells, Thomas B. Atherholt, Nicholas A. Procopio, Sandra M. Goodrow

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Papers

It is important that indicators of fecal pollution are reliable. Coliform bacteria are a commonly used indicator of fecal pollution. As other investigators have reported elsewhere, we observed a seasonal pattern of coliform bacteria detections in domestic wells in New Jersey. Examination of a statewide database of 10 years of water quality data from 93,447 samples, from 78,207 wells, generated during real estate transactions, revealed that coliform bacteria were detected in a higher proportion of wells during warm weather months. Further examination of the seasonal pattern of other data, including well water pH, precipitation, ground and surface water ...


Temporal Trends In The Spatial Distribution Of Impervious Cover Relative To Stream Location, J. Wickham, A. Neale, M. Mehaffey, T. Jarnagin, D. Norton 2016 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Temporal Trends In The Spatial Distribution Of Impervious Cover Relative To Stream Location, J. Wickham, A. Neale, M. Mehaffey, T. Jarnagin, D. Norton

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Papers

Use of impervious cover is transitioning from an indicator of surface water condition to one that also guides and informs watershed planning and management, including Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §1251 et seq.) reporting. Whether it is for understanding surface water condition or planning and management, impervious cover is most commonly expressed as summary measurement (e.g., percentage watershed in impervious cover). We use the National Land Cover Database to estimate impervious cover in the vicinity of surface waters for three time periods (2001, 2006, 2011). We also compare impervious cover in the vicinity of surface waters to ...


Composting Safety And Health, Nellie J. Brown 2016 Cornell University

Composting Safety And Health, Nellie J. Brown

Manuals and User Guides

[Excerpt] This chapter describes safety and health issues related to composting and the practices that minimize the associated risks. While safety and health are not inseparable, in this chapter, safety is informally associated with physical trauma, such as an equipment accident, a fall or impact from a projectile. In contrast, health risks are loosely linked with physiological injury or illness to a person, usually from continued or repeated exposure to a hazard.


Earth Stewardship And The Missio Dei: Participating In The Care And Redemption Of All God Has Made, David M. Carlson 2016 Luther Seminary

Earth Stewardship And The Missio Dei: Participating In The Care And Redemption Of All God Has Made, David M. Carlson

Doctor of Ministry Theses

This explanatory sequential mixed methods research project surveyed leaders and conducted focus group interviews in an ELCA synod. It evaluated earthkeeping practices and perceptions using several lenses: sustainability, globalization, global civil society, nature as active subject, stewardship as participating in God’s mission, perichoresis as modeling reciprocal relationships with nature, eschatological themes of redemption and reformation, and sacramental imagination. Results revealed concern about environmental challenges, openness to earth stewardship, significant differences by political preference, and more pronounced personal than congregational practices. Congregations with creation care teams have promising capacity to exhibit earth stewardship’s missional character through personal, congregational, and ...


Ex-Situ Conservation Programs: Worthwhile?, Nicolette Sliwa, Aaron Sieve 2016 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Ex-Situ Conservation Programs: Worthwhile?, Nicolette Sliwa, Aaron Sieve

Biology: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

The effectiveness of conservation programs was researched, specifically within zoos, and their attempts to repopulate areas with captive-born individuals of endangered species. There are major biological and economic concerns with these programs focused on, including potential genetic adaptation to captivity, effects of inbreeding, and if this is a truly worthwhile use of funds to restore a species. Looking at the black-footed ferret, the whooping crane, and other supposed successful captive-breeding programs, it is explored whether reintroduced individuals thrive in their new habitats sufficiently enough to contribute to the restoration of the species, and more broadly, their ecosystems.


Corporate Social Responsibility/Sustainability Reporting Among The Fortune Global 250: Greenwashing Or Green Supply Chain?, John K. Lewis 2016 Salve Regina University

Corporate Social Responsibility/Sustainability Reporting Among The Fortune Global 250: Greenwashing Or Green Supply Chain?, John K. Lewis

Faculty and Staff - Articles & Papers

The sustainability reporting efforts of MNCs who are members of the Fortune Global 250 (FG250) was investigated. The focus was on sustainability reporting by MNCs of supply chain impacts. The reporting of FG250 MNCs was examined to determine if greenwashing was occurring or whether MNCs had committed to operating a green supply chain. A mixed methodology was used consisting of quantitative analysis of twenty-five MNC CSR/sustainability reports which were randomly selected from the FG250 listing. Qualitative analysis using content analysis was also conducted on the reports. Both methodologies concentrated on the sustainability reporting of the selected MNCs in regard ...


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