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Evaluating The Impact Of Fine Particulate Matter Pollution Standards On Mortality Rates In The Southeastern United States, Lauren Wice 2019 University of Kentucky

Evaluating The Impact Of Fine Particulate Matter Pollution Standards On Mortality Rates In The Southeastern United States, Lauren Wice

MPA/MPP Capstone Projects

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continuously monitors six criteria pollutants that are known to have impacts on public health and welfare. One of these pollutants, fine particulate matter, or PM2.5 (which includes particles that are smaller than 2.5 micrometers in diameter), is easily inhalable and can enter the lining of the lungs and the bloodstream, posing a great risk to human health. Standards for allowable concentrations of PM2.5 were amended in 1997, 2006, and again in 2012, becoming increasingly stringent each time. According to the EPA, health organizations, and other research studies, these particles can ...


Does The Emission Trading System Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions & Coal Consumption And Lead To An Increase In Renewable Energy? – Evidence From Oecd Member Countries, Pilmu Ryu 2019 University of Kentucky

Does The Emission Trading System Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions & Coal Consumption And Lead To An Increase In Renewable Energy? – Evidence From Oecd Member Countries, Pilmu Ryu

MPA/MPP Capstone Projects

The Emission Trading System (ETS) on greenhouse gas (GHG) is a climate change policy well-known as a market-based mitigation mechanism. However, policymakers have faced strong opposition of many stakeholders and failed to persuade them in the process to introduce the ETS. Objective evidence on ETS impact not only provides information to policymakers but also may help alleviate controversy between stakeholders and policymakers. Also, empirical results on ETS will be able to contribute to the theoretical economic study of cap-and-trade. In this context, this research aims at empirical analyses of ETS impact with regard to GHG emissions, coal consumption, and renewable ...


Cheating The (Eco)System: Potential For Invasive Grass Growth Above Treeline, Halina North 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Cheating The (Eco)System: Potential For Invasive Grass Growth Above Treeline, Halina North

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Invasive species are increasing in abundance globally and have had detrimental effects on ecosystems by altering nutrient cycling and harming native biodiversity. Generally, high-elevation alpine ecosystems are believed to be the least invaded global biomes. One particularly problematic invasive in the American West is Bromus tectorum, commonly known as Cheatgrass, which is an aggressive competitor and can displace native species. While there is a plethora of research concerning its invasive range in the Great Basin, few studies have addressed what inhibits growth at its high elevation range margin. An earlier study showed that while increased temperatures and N deposition increased ...


Using Citizen Science To Approach Invasive Species: A Case Study Of An Early Detection And Rapid Response Invasion Program In The National Park Service, Parker Hopkins 2019 University of Colorado, Boulder

Using Citizen Science To Approach Invasive Species: A Case Study Of An Early Detection And Rapid Response Invasion Program In The National Park Service, Parker Hopkins

Undergraduate Honors Theses

In practice, public land managers must constantly innovate and adapt to keep up with constantly changing issues and concerns associated with the public lands for which they are responsible. Having access to the most current and reliable information is critical to respond effectively to arising disturbances related to public lands. In an effort to increase civic engagement in National Parks, new management and information-gathering methods are being embraced, such as citizen science. Technology has greatly aided in gathering more information to match demands, as projects and tools for citizen science are continuously in development, building a community of passionate amateur ...


An Introduction To The 'Oceans And Society: Blue Planet' Initiative, Emily A. Smail, Paul M. DiGiacomo, Sophie Seeyave, Samy Djavidnia, Louis Celliers, Pierre-Yves Le Traon, Jeremy Gault, Elva Escobar-Briones, Hans-Peter Plag, Christine Pequignet, Lenore Bajona, Li Zhang, Jay Pearlman, Andy Steven, Jonathan Hodge, Marie-Fanny Racault, Curt Storlazzi, William Skirving, Ron Hoeke, John Marra, Ap van Dongeren, Frank Muller-Karger, Douglas Cripe, Daniel Takaki 2019 Old Dominion University

An Introduction To The 'Oceans And Society: Blue Planet' Initiative, Emily A. Smail, Paul M. Digiacomo, Sophie Seeyave, Samy Djavidnia, Louis Celliers, Pierre-Yves Le Traon, Jeremy Gault, Elva Escobar-Briones, Hans-Peter Plag, Christine Pequignet, Lenore Bajona, Li Zhang, Jay Pearlman, Andy Steven, Jonathan Hodge, Marie-Fanny Racault, Curt Storlazzi, William Skirving, Ron Hoeke, John Marra, Ap Van Dongeren, Frank Muller-Karger, Douglas Cripe, Daniel Takaki

OEAS Faculty Publications

We live on a blue planet, and Earth’s waters benefit many sectors of society. The future of our blue planet is increasingly reliant on the services delivered by marine, coastal and inland waters and on the advancement of effective, evidence-based decisions on sustainable development. ‘Oceans and Society: Blue Planet’ is an initiative of the Group on Earth Observations (GEO) that aims to ensure the sustained development and use of ocean and coastal observations for the benefit of society. The initiative works to advance and exploit synergies among the many observational programmes devoted to ocean and coastal waters; to improve ...


Hazardous Waste Site Proximity And Type 2 Diabetes: From Youths To Adults, Theresa Ann Johnson 2019 Walden University

Hazardous Waste Site Proximity And Type 2 Diabetes: From Youths To Adults, Theresa Ann Johnson

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in adults and youths. Persistent organic pollutants and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as pesticides, dioxins, and organochlorines, are omnipresent and persist in the environment with potential for human exposure via contaminated air, waterways, soil, and human food supply. EDCs have been correlated with diabetes incidence and risks. Residential proximity to hazardous waste sites (HWS) has been correlated with increased hospital admission rates for diabetes. The study used a sample population (N = 1,724), ages ≥ 12 years from the 2005-2012 Continuous NHANES and HWS data from the National Priorities List of Superfund Sites. The ...


The Problem Of Failing Septic Systems, Center for Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute of Marine Science. 2019 William & Mary

The Problem Of Failing Septic Systems, Center For Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science.

Reports

Rivers & Coast is a periodic publication of the Center for Coastal Resources Management, Virginia Institute of Marine Science. The goal of Rivers & Coast is to keep readers well informed of current scientific understanding behind key environmental issues related to watershed rivers and coastal ecosystems of the Chesapeake Bay.


Noise Pollution/Reduction Education For Frontline Staff In The Acute Care Setting, Lopa Patel 2019 Walden University

Noise Pollution/Reduction Education For Frontline Staff In The Acute Care Setting, Lopa Patel

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Noise levels in hospital settings have risen beyond the recommended range of 35-40 decibels, resulting in poor patient healing outcomes and other health conditions ranging from sleep deprivation, anxiety, agitation, delirium, depression, and high heart rate and blood pressure. These negative patient health experiences are evidenced by poor scores for the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems, which are indicators of patients' perceptions of care. This project explored whether an educational activity for 48 direct care staff, who include registered nurses and nursing assistants, in a cardiac unit on the impact of noise pollution on patient healing would ...


Safe Chemical Handling By Agrochemical Users In Plateau State, Nigeria, Adaobi Ifeoma Ekwempu 2019 Walden University

Safe Chemical Handling By Agrochemical Users In Plateau State, Nigeria, Adaobi Ifeoma Ekwempu

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Agrochemical use has been increasing in both developing and the developed nations. The unsafe handling and use of agrochemicals can lead to accumulation of hazardous chemicals in the body, causing adverse effects on health. This quantitative cross sectional study sought to understand the level of awareness, practices, and perceptions of safe chemical handling by agrochemical using the Theory of Planned Behavior. This study was conducted among 260 farmers in Plateau State, Nigeria. Data on background knowledge and practices of safe agrochemical handling by farmers were collected using a structured paper based, interviewer-€administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics revealed that the most ...


Improving Access To Clean Water In Rural Ecuador: The Connection Between Willingness To Pay And Population Health, Micalea Leaska 2019 SIT Graduate Institute

Improving Access To Clean Water In Rural Ecuador: The Connection Between Willingness To Pay And Population Health, Micalea Leaska

Capstone Collection

Climate change is affecting social and environmental determinants of health through access to safe drinking water, safely managed sanitation systems, and access to health care services and the ability for individuals to break free from unsuitable circumstances. Ecological disturbances such as those caused by climate change can cause a shift in host vectors or a change in habitat that results in a greater likelihood of the pathogen coming in contact with humans. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services and their accessibility to populations can directly impact a community’s vulnerability to diseases and limiting factors to increase economic growth. If ...


The Phenomenon Of Living Close To Nuclear Power Plants, Jacquelynn Isabel Miles 2019 Walden University

The Phenomenon Of Living Close To Nuclear Power Plants, Jacquelynn Isabel Miles

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Communities near nuclear power plants are at potential risk from natural and man-made failures at the nuclear power plants located within those communities. This study explored the concerns and rationalizations of residents of a community who live within a 10-mile evacuation zone of the nuclear power plant located there. Using the general theory of deliberative democracy, the purpose of this qualitative study was to understand and explore why individuals continue to live close to nuclear power plants. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 15 individuals who live within a 10- mile radius of a nuclear power plant in the ...


Evaluation Of Ufp Number Concentrations Near A Natural Gas Transmissions Station, John M. Thornsbury 2019 West Virginia University

Evaluation Of Ufp Number Concentrations Near A Natural Gas Transmissions Station, John M. Thornsbury

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Identifying UFP number concentrations near a natural gas compressor station is key to understanding ambient exposures associated with the transmission station. Developing an atmospheric survey to characterize these concentrations was key in understanding ambient exposures. The aims of this study are to compare and contrast number concentrations taken in a hollow, near the transmission station to those of the background. From this, it would be possible to identify whether or not the compressor station was a contributing factor to peaks and spikes in number concentrations.

This study begins with a review of what UFPs are, how they react in different ...


Twenty-Three Unsolved Problems In Hydrology (Uph) – A Community Perspective, Günter Blöschl, Christopher M. U. Neale, A cast of thousands 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Twenty-Three Unsolved Problems In Hydrology (Uph) – A Community Perspective, Günter Blöschl, Christopher M. U. Neale, A Cast Of Thousands

Water for Food Faculty Publications

This paper is the outcome of a community initiative to identify major unsolved scientific problems in hydrology motivated by a need for stronger harmonisation of research efforts. The procedure involved a public consultation through online media, followed by two workshops through which a large number of potential science questions were collated, prioritised, and synthesised. In spite of the diversity of the participants (230 scientists in total), the process revealed much about community priorities and the state of our science: a preference for continuity in research questions rather than radical departures or redirections from past and current work. Questions remain focused ...


An Assessment Of Fecal Water Contamination In The Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness, Daniel Paul Pendergraph 5024527 2019 University of Montana

An Assessment Of Fecal Water Contamination In The Absaroka-Beartooth Wilderness, Daniel Paul Pendergraph 5024527

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Wilderness water sources are often defined as pristine or high quality due to the lack of point source pollution. Non-point source pollution from recreation to water resources can be extensive and is well-studied in protected areas globally. Bacterial contamination, specifically fecal bacteria, poses a significant threat to human health because of the risk for outbreaks of illness and disease. Water sources in designated Wilderness areas are particularly vulnerable to fecal water contamination due to high volume of backpackers and lack of backcountry waste facilities. To estimate the occurrence of fecal water contamination in Wilderness water resources, an exploratory analysis was ...


On The Brink Of Extinction: The Fate Of The Pacific Northwest's Southern Resident Killer Whales, Sabrina Wilk 2019 Claremont Colleges

On The Brink Of Extinction: The Fate Of The Pacific Northwest's Southern Resident Killer Whales, Sabrina Wilk

Pomona Senior Theses

The killer whales that roam the northeastern Pacific Ocean have been the objects of studies since the 1970s, making them the most well-studied population of orcas in the world. Three distinct ecotypes of killer whales (Orcinus orca), known as residents, transients, and offshores, share these waters. The ecotypes are morphologically and behaviorally distinct to the extent that some scientists consider them separate species, with residents eating salmon, transients specializing on marine mammals, and offshores preferring Pacific sleeper sharks and Pacific halibut. Resident populations have endeared themselves to the region's locals with their striking black and white markings and their ...


In The Eye Of The Storm: Houston After Hurricane Harvey, Brandon Tolentino-Serrano 2019 Claremont Colleges

In The Eye Of The Storm: Houston After Hurricane Harvey, Brandon Tolentino-Serrano

Pomona Senior Theses

Situated in one of the wettest climates in America, Houston, TX has had a long history of heavy rains and unprecedented floods. Unfortunately, floods have become more common over the last few decades as climate change increases the frequency and intensity of hurricanes around the globe. To complicate matters further, Houston has quickly sprawled to accommodate over 2.5 billion people. Rapid urbanization has rendered the landscape even more susceptible to floods through excess concretization and watershed disturbance. This thesis traces the history of the Bayou City in relation to the damages caused by Hurricane Harvey. By mapping out the ...


Factors Influencing Fish Mercury Concentrations In Iowa Rivers, Nathan Mills, Michael J. Weber, Clay L. Pierce, Darcy Cashatt 2019 Iowa State University

Factors Influencing Fish Mercury Concentrations In Iowa Rivers, Nathan Mills, Michael J. Weber, Clay L. Pierce, Darcy Cashatt

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Fish mercury concentrations have received considerable attention due to human health implications. Fish mercury concentrations are variable within and among systems due to a suite of biotic and abiotic influences that vary among regions and are difficult to predict. Understanding factors associated with variability in fish mercury concentrations would help guide consumption advisories. Mercury concentrations in channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus, n = 205), flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris, n = 123), northern pike (Esox lucius, n = 60), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu, n = 176), and walleye (Sander vitreus, n = 176) were assessed in ten Iowa rivers and relationships with land use, water chemistry, and ...


Optimizing A Municipal Wastewater-Based Chlorella Vulgaris Photobioreactor For Sequestering Atmospheric Co2, Patrick Kim, Ochan Otim 2019 North Hollywood High School

Optimizing A Municipal Wastewater-Based Chlorella Vulgaris Photobioreactor For Sequestering Atmospheric Co2, Patrick Kim, Ochan Otim

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Abstract. - Microalgae photobioreactors are among the most effective systems for capturing gaseous CO2, the main contributor to global warming. Their capacity to generate massive amounts of biomass has been exploited serendipitously to sequester CO2 and explicitly to remove nutrients from municipal wastewater. Unfortunately, research in this area has not included merging this dual capacity to address global warming. Instead, most are focused on thermolytic conversion of biomass into energy which in end returns CO2 to the atmosphere. In this study, we investigated the potential of combining the two microalgal capacities (that of deriving nutrients from municipal wastewater and metabolic carbon ...


Effects Of Ambient Air Pollution On Asthma-Related Emergency Department Visits Within The Las Vegas Metropolitan Area, Loiren E. Monardes 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Effects Of Ambient Air Pollution On Asthma-Related Emergency Department Visits Within The Las Vegas Metropolitan Area, Loiren E. Monardes

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The objective of this research was to evaluate the risk for asthma-related Emergency Department visits and their association with ambient air pollution within the Las Vegas metropolitan area. All data were aggregated by date and ZIP Code. The association was analyzed by applying the distributed lag non-linear model in an attempt to identify elevated concentrations of specific air pollutants

as triggers and their delayed effects (lag days). Relative Risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals were produced, while adjusting for socioeconomic status. This ecological population-based study analyzed daily asthma counts of Emergency Department visits from January 1st, 2009 to December 31st ...


Examining Environmental Hazards In Rental Homes And Habitability Laws In Clark County, Nevada, Jorge Luis Bertran 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Examining Environmental Hazards In Rental Homes And Habitability Laws In Clark County, Nevada, Jorge Luis Bertran

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

It is well established that home conditions are linked to the health outcomes of occupants. There are over 880,000 housing units in Clark County, Nevada; nearly half of those are renter-occupied units (ROUs). Currently, there is limited research on the characteristics of environmental hazards found in Clark County ROUs and the strength of habitability statutes created to protect tenants from substandard housing. Understanding how renters in Clark County are affected by environmental hazards in ROUs and the processes by which landlords and tenants resolve grievances related to those hazards would benefit public health. It would enhance the ability to ...


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