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The Limitation Of Spread Of Non-Native Marine Invertebrates From Artificial Structures To Natural Habitats, Whitney McClees, Catherine E. de Rivera 2017 Portland State University

The Limitation Of Spread Of Non-Native Marine Invertebrates From Artificial Structures To Natural Habitats, Whitney Mcclees, Catherine E. De Rivera

ESM Colloquium

Artificial structures created for aquatic anthropogenic activities are often colonized and fouled by many non-native species, few of which have invaded natural areas. Some research has indicated predation is limiting the spread of non-native species, while other research has indicated that it is dispersal-driven. To determine the effects of dispersal limitation and predation on the risk to surrounding habitats of being invaded by non-native species established on marina docks, we used a three-factor design, deploying seven unglazed ceramic panels per each treatment combination of 1) inside versus outside a marina in Yaquina Bay, Oregon; 2) cage keeping out predators >mesh ...


Early Regeneration Response To Aggregate Overstory And Harvest Residue Retention In Populus Tremuloides (Michx.)-Dominated Forests., Miranda Curzon, Anthony W. D'Amato, Brian J. Palik 2017 University of Minnesota

Early Regeneration Response To Aggregate Overstory And Harvest Residue Retention In Populus Tremuloides (Michx.)-Dominated Forests., Miranda Curzon, Anthony W. D'Amato, Brian J. Palik

Miranda Curzon

Recent emphasis on increasing structural complexity and species diversity reflective of natural ecosystems through the use of retention harvesting approaches is coinciding with increased demand for forest-derived bioenergy feedstocks, largely sourced through the removal of harvest residues associated with whole-tree harvest. Uncertainties about the consequences of such approaches prompted us to examine the combined impacts of aggregated overstory retention and harvest residue retention on the composition and density of regeneration following biomass harvests on four operational-scale (40 ha) study areas dominated by Populus tremuloides Michx. in northern Minnesota. Whole-tree harvest had no statistically significant effects on initial (2-year) regeneration densities ...


Evaluation Of A Fluorescence Method For Quantifying Bioaerosol Concentrations On Air Quality Filter Samples, Rachel Kolberg 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Evaluation Of A Fluorescence Method For Quantifying Bioaerosol Concentrations On Air Quality Filter Samples, Rachel Kolberg

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Airborne particulate matter (PM) in outdoor environments contains many components that cause adverse human health effects. The size of the particulates determine in what manner the particles would bypass the body’s defense mechanisms to enter the respiratory system and is directly related to their health impacts. Currently the United States Environmental Protection Agency is enforcing the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to regulate the annual and 24-hour average concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in the air. PM2.5 are fine particles with aerodynamic diameter <2.5μm, small enough to reach the deepest parts of the bronchi and lungs. PM10 include PM2.5 and larger particles with aerodynamic diameter of 2.5-10μm. Both PM2.5 and PM10 contain multiple components from multiple sources. Bioaerosols are an important component of PM, but there is limited knowledge about how bioaerosols contribute to PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations. There is also a lack of research about the incidence and prevalence of disease caused by bioaerosols and about the limits of exposure to bioaerosol particulates. The main barrier to assess bioaerosol concentrations and health-related effects is the absence of quick and inexpensive methodology for quantifying bioaerosols. This study explored the feasibility of using fluorescence microscopy to quickly quantify bioaerosols in PM2.5 and PM10 collected on polycarbonate filters. Bioaerosols were stained with a DNA marker directly on a filter, followed by fixation, microscopic imaging, and automatic counting. The method was first validated using reference samples prepared by depositing different known concentrations of E. coli onto blank polycarbonate filters. The results indicated a linear response over two orders of magnitude (R2 = 0.9) and an accuracy within ±25%. E. coli were also deposited onto selected ambient PM10 and PM2.5 filter samples to determine if pre-loaded particles would interfere with bioaerosol imaging and counting. It was found that despite an increase in uncertainty (variability), the calibration slope remained within ±10% of unity for both PM2.5 and PM10 samples. Bioaerosol concentrations in ambient samples, as quantified by this method, were on average 14% higher for PM10 than for PM2.5 acquired concurrently in a desert environment of Las Vegas, Nevada. The application of this method to other types of compliance filters, such as Teflon filters and tapes of a Beta Attenuation Monitor (BAM) were also explored in this study. By means of a high-yield approach this method is expected to facilitate bioaerosol research, support exposure and health assessments, and help refine NAAQS for PM2.5 and PM10.


Determining The Effects Of Social Media Monitoring To Identify Potential Foodborne Illness In Southern Nevada, Lauren Diprete 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Determining The Effects Of Social Media Monitoring To Identify Potential Foodborne Illness In Southern Nevada, Lauren Diprete

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Foodborne illness, commonly referred to as food poisoning, affects an estimated 1 in 6 Americans every year, despite the fact that it is entirely preventable. Many cases of foodborne illness go unreported; however, better reporting leads to faster health department response and containment. Social media monitoring, using software to identify trends in social media posts, is a novel new tool that has been tested in a variety of public health fields with promising preliminary results. The Southern Nevada Health District (SNHD) has employed social media monitoring software to identify potential foodborne illness within Southern Nevada. The purpose of this study ...


A Rural And Urban Study Of The Food Environment In Select Nevada Geographies, Joseph Nickelson 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

A Rural And Urban Study Of The Food Environment In Select Nevada Geographies, Joseph Nickelson

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

National and county level examination of urban and rural food environments has taken place, but primary validation of venue existence and in-venue data are lacking. The literature show disparities in access to healthy foods through low density of large grocers/supermarkets, low variety and quality of produce and higher prices for a healthy diet in rural versus urban geographies. Rural areas are of unique concern due to poor health indicators such as higher obesity rates, higher diabetes rates, lower incomes and lower educations than urban residents. The goal of this study was to explore differences in the community and consumer ...


Funding Strategies For Non-Traditional University Ms4 Stormwater Programs, Elizabeth M. Garrett 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Funding Strategies For Non-Traditional University Ms4 Stormwater Programs, Elizabeth M. Garrett

Community and Regional Planning Program: Student Projects and Theses

Stormwater programs have historically been stymied by lack of proper funding resources. Unlike drinking water and sanitary sewer utility services that long ago transitioned to enterprise funds, a stormwater utility continues to evade stable and direct revenue sources throughout much of the United States. Inefficiently funded stormwater programs utilizing general funding practices leaves stormwater management programs unable to properly plan for long-term improvement, management, regulatory compliance, and maintenance. Funding research has established that forms of direct funding sources are crucial for successful stormwater programs, however, focus has been directed to strategies for municipalities. This paper will attempt to analyze, through ...


Financial Assessment Of Agricultural Lands At Risk To Coastal Salt Marsh Migration In Relation To Climate Change Induced Sea Level Rise In Dorchester County, Maryland, Jewell Porter 2017 Clark University

Financial Assessment Of Agricultural Lands At Risk To Coastal Salt Marsh Migration In Relation To Climate Change Induced Sea Level Rise In Dorchester County, Maryland, Jewell Porter

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

The increasing rate and effects of sea level rise is a major environmental concern in the Chesapeake Bay. This paper evaluates the impacts of rising sea level on coastal salt marshes and the surrounding agricultural lands at risk in Dorchester County, Maryland to build off existing environmental monitoring work performed by NOAA’s Sentinel Site Program. The results of the spatial analysis were used to estimate monetary benefits to incentivize farmers to protect these marshes by making their land available for marsh migration to occur. Looking at three scenarios of sea level rise and marsh migration, grain crops (corn, soybeans ...


Tailings Dust Emissions, Emily Degner, Sam Horn, Zakary Galligan, Ryan Bernard, Julie Jameson, Josh Mueller, Natalie Tucker, Joe Griffin 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Tailings Dust Emissions, Emily Degner, Sam Horn, Zakary Galligan, Ryan Bernard, Julie Jameson, Josh Mueller, Natalie Tucker, Joe Griffin

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Fugitive dust emissions from the storage and handling of mine tailings presents environmental and safety concerns, which must be addressed to promote the land sustainability and the health and safety of individuals around a tailings storage facility (TSF). The investigated dust control methods were agglomeration, binder slurry injection, and topical spray.

The Dust Busters determined that pelletizing was the most practical method of agglomeration. In order to produce durable pellets from the mine tailings, which consist primarily of silica, a binder must be added. A variety of binders were considered including magnesium and calcium chloride, bentonite, barite, cement, vinyl polymers ...


Who Is Morally Responsible For Microfiber Pollution?, Luka Cai 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Who Is Morally Responsible For Microfiber Pollution?, Luka Cai

Undergraduate Research Symposium Posters

Microplastic fiber pollution (MFP) is the persistence of microfibers (fibrous plastic particles less than 5mm in diameter and length) in the environment in levels sufficient to harm aquatic/marine ecosystems, primarily caused by the laundering of polyester garments. MFP is a compelling issue because it causes harm to natural habitats, animals, and human beings, harm that moral agents need to be held accountable for. I define moral responsibility as an agent’s accountability for an act which they voluntarily committed/contributed to. Causal responsibility is the relationship between an agent and an outcome of the agent’s act. I theorize ...


Policy Comment: Proposals For Ontario's Solar Future, Rashin Alizadeh 2017 University of Windsor, Faculty of Law

Policy Comment: Proposals For Ontario's Solar Future, Rashin Alizadeh

Western Journal of Legal Studies

In Ontario, the protection of solar energy is both complicated and limited. In order to take advantage of evolving greener energy sources, and reduce our contribution to global warming, Ontario must better protect solar energy use and solar energy investments. This commentary evaluates the incentives for extending the use of solar technology as part of the Green Energy Act, 2009, SO 2009. The analysis focuses on the relationship between the provincial and municipal governments as it relates to the green energy industry, and the level of public engagement and awareness that is being achieved. Reform to municipal zoning bylaws are ...


Assessing Public Health Burden Associated With Exposure To Ambient Black Carbon In The United States, Ying Li, Daven K. Henze, Darby Jack, Barron H. Henderson, Patrick L. Kinney 2017 East Tennessee State University

Assessing Public Health Burden Associated With Exposure To Ambient Black Carbon In The United States, Ying Li, Daven K. Henze, Darby Jack, Barron H. Henderson, Patrick L. Kinney

Ying Li

Black carbon (BC) is a significant component of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) air pollution, which has been linked to a series of adverse health effects, in particular premature mortality. Recent scientific research indicates that BC also plays an important role in climate change. Therefore, controlling black carbon emissions provides an opportunity for a double dividend. This study quantifies the national burden of mortality and morbidity attributable to exposure to ambient BC in the United States (US). We use GEOS–Chem, a global 3-D model of atmospheric composition to estimate the 2010 annual average BC levels at 0.5 x ...


Estimating The Impact Of A Select Criteria Pollutant (Pm2.5) On Childhood Asthma In Florida, Shabnam Mehra 2017 University of South Florida

Estimating The Impact Of A Select Criteria Pollutant (Pm2.5) On Childhood Asthma In Florida, Shabnam Mehra

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Asthma has been reported in children as a leading chronic illness in the US and around the world. It is also the third leading cause of hospitalization among children under the age of 15, and is also one of the most common causes of school absenteeism. Children are at higher risk of asthma attacks and they pose a higher burden on health care system. Nearly 20.6% of middle and high school children in Florida have been told they have asthma, this prevalence has grown over 3% from 2006 to 2012. Changes in air pollutant levels are often related to ...


The Effects Of Traffic Related Air Pollution And Proposed Legal Remedies, Alessandro Magi 2017 Wilfrid Laurier University

The Effects Of Traffic Related Air Pollution And Proposed Legal Remedies, Alessandro Magi

Bridges: An Undergraduate Journal of Contemporary Connections

This paper intends to examine the environmental issues that accompany air pollution generated from traffic related incidents, and the implications that this mass-generated pollution has on air quality, as well as the quality of life of humans exposed chronically to airborne carcinogens. Traffic related air pollution is an environmental problem that is heightened by urban design and population demographics such as urban sprawl, spatial distribution, population density, and infrastructure design. Furthermore, this paper will scrutinize Canadian legislation that regulates traffic related air pollutants, and develop an argument for how to apply legislation going forward. As Cartier, Benmarinha, and Brousselle (2015 ...


Mapping Community Space And Place In Mto Wa Mbu, Tanzania Through Surveys And Gis, Jessica Craigg 2017 Georgia College and State University

Mapping Community Space And Place In Mto Wa Mbu, Tanzania Through Surveys And Gis, Jessica Craigg

Georgia College Student Research Events

Cities throughout the African continent have been developing at an unprecedented pace, many of them due to the influence of the tourism industry. This is particularly true in Tanzania, a country famous for its national parks and their draw to tourists who help provide money for development. However, the only way to get the whole story on how to spend this money is through the experiences and needs of the people themselves. This study focuses on a small town in northeastern Tanzania, Mto wa Mbu, situated near Lake Manyara National Park, and its people’s perceptions of the park and ...


Winter Rye Cover Crop Biomass Production, Degradation, And N Recycling, J. L. Pantoja, J. E. Sawyer, D. W. Barker 2017 Iowa State University

Winter Rye Cover Crop Biomass Production, Degradation, And N Recycling, J. L. Pantoja, J. E. Sawyer, D. W. Barker

John E. Sawyer

Winter rye (Secale cereale L.) as a cover crop can take up residual inorganic N between annual row crops and therefore be used to help reduce NO3 -–N loss from fields and movement to water systems. However, does the rye N uptake affect N recycling to soil and add to plant available N? The rye carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio could also influence N recycling. The objectives of this study were to evaluate rye biomass degradation and N recycling after spring rye termination in a no-till corn (Zea mays L.) - soybean [Glycine max. (L.) Merr.] rotation. A two year experiment ...


The Influence Of Tropical Forests And Climate Change On The Fates Of Select Organic Pollutants In A Jamaican Watershed, Kayon Barrett 2017 University of South Florida

The Influence Of Tropical Forests And Climate Change On The Fates Of Select Organic Pollutants In A Jamaican Watershed, Kayon Barrett

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Many organic compounds, although beneficial, are associated with negative health and ecological impacts. It is therefore imperative to understand the environmental fates of these contaminants. Whereas the fates and health impacts of many persistent organic pollutants have been extensively examined, there is limited research characterizing the fates of these and the less persistent organic compounds in tropical multi-use watersheds. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the roles of forests and climate change on the environmental fates and health impacts of select organic chemicals in the Rio Cobre watershed, a tropical river basin in Jamaica. A total of 16 organic compounds ...


Solid Waste Management In The Developing World: The Role Of Local Government In Kisumu, Kenya, Rachel Schlueter 2017 SIT Study Abroad

Solid Waste Management In The Developing World: The Role Of Local Government In Kisumu, Kenya, Rachel Schlueter

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

As the world becomes more urbanized, more waste is being produced. According to United Nations projections in 2014, 66% of the world’s population will be living in cities by 2050 with the majority of growth occurring in African cities. Managing urban waste in lower-middle income countries, such as Kenya, poses a particular challenge as income levels rise, municipal capacities are stretched, and foreign loans complicate accountability. This project sought to assess the practical role of local government when managing solid waste in the context of long-term development strategies. The objectives of this study are to first establish the current ...


Multi-Scaled Approaches For Protecting Montana's Watersheds And Water Resources, Elizabeth Yoder 2017 University of Montana, Missoula

Multi-Scaled Approaches For Protecting Montana's Watersheds And Water Resources, Elizabeth Yoder

Graduate Student Portfolios

The central theme carried among my four portfolio pieces is: using scientific and governmental approaches to conserve watershed health. For the purposes of this portfolio, I define watershed health as a very general term that describes the state of water quantity and quality that is available for human and ecosystem needs in a watershed. I see each of my portfolio pieces focusing on a different scale and method (i.e., science or government, including different levels of government, local, state and federal) for conserving watershed health. My first portfolio piece reviews water quality degradation caused by pharmaceuticals and personal care ...


Persistent Organic Pollutants And Mortality In The United States, Kristiann Fry, Melinda Power 2017 George Washington University

Persistent Organic Pollutants And Mortality In The United States, Kristiann Fry, Melinda Power

GW Research Days 2016 - Present

Background/Objectives: Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are environmentally and biologically persistent chemicals that include polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), per- and polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFASs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine (OC) pesticides. Currently, there is limited data on the association between exposure to POPs and the risk of mortality in the general US population. The objective of this study was to determine if higher exposure to POPs are associated with greater risk of all-cause, cancer, heart/cerebrovascular disease, or other-cause mortality in persons aged 60 years and older.

Methods: The analyses included participants aged 60 years and older from the 1999-2006 National ...


Quality Of Water In Relation To Diarrheal Disease Incidence In Obunga, Tianna Herman 2017 SIT Study Abroad

Quality Of Water In Relation To Diarrheal Disease Incidence In Obunga, Tianna Herman

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Kenyan cities are experiencing a serious dilemma in dealing with the large influx of people from rural parts of the country to the cities. Most people come to the city in pursuit of better opportunities and jobs. Rapid urban growth with little planning and preparation by the national and county governments has led to the development of informal settlements. These informal settlements are characterized by poor environmental conditions that predispose their residents for poor health conditions. Because of their illegal status, most residents of informal settlements in Kenya do not receive government services such as water, drainage, sewerage, and rubbish ...


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