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Avifaunal Community Composition In A Tropical Forest Corridor: A Case Study From The Atherton Tableland, North Queensland, Don Jones 2016 SIT Graduate Institute - Study Abroad

Avifaunal Community Composition In A Tropical Forest Corridor: A Case Study From The Atherton Tableland, North Queensland, Don Jones

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Bird communities in tropical forest ecosystems are highly threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. Replanted corridors connecting isolated forest remnants are a popular method of ameliorating certain negative impacts of habitat fragmentation. Such linkages can theoretically facilitate greater dispersal, increase gene flow, and reduce the risk of local extinctions in forest birds. However, relatively few studies have examined the utilization of reforested corridors by birds, and little hard data exists to support claims that this type of resource and time intensive project is the best use of often scarce funding for conservation. This study examined the avifaunal community present in ...


Tracking The Elephant (Lexodonta Africana) Corridor And The Human-­‐Wildlife Conflict In Esilalei Village, A Continuation Study, Victoria Gray, Cara Cappelletti 2016 SIT Graduate Institute - Study Abroad

Tracking The Elephant (Lexodonta Africana) Corridor And The Human-­‐Wildlife Conflict In Esilalei Village, A Continuation Study, Victoria Gray, Cara Cappelletti

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Elephants are threatened and their habitat, wildlife corridors and overall space to roam is diminishing due to an increasing human population. As more and more space is being utilized for human development, it has begun to interfere with existing migratory corridors. This is a problem because elephants tend to destroy farmlands on their route, destroying villagers’ livelihoods, and also on occasion, may kill or hurt humans. As a result, there is a human elephant conflict. This study focused on human elephant conflict in Esilalei as well as GPS mapping evidence of elephant migration along the projected corridor between Lake Manyara ...


An Assessment Of Soil Erosion On Pemba Island Using The Universal Soil Loss Equation, Emily Gillispie 2016 SIT Graduate Institute - Study Abroad

An Assessment Of Soil Erosion On Pemba Island Using The Universal Soil Loss Equation, Emily Gillispie

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Healthy soil is necessary for maintaining agricultural productivity, which is the basis of the economy on Pemba Island, Tanzania. Soil erosion is a notable concern for subsidence-farming villages, as it reduces the agricultural potential of farmland through the loss of nutrients, organic matter, and depth of quality growing soil (Georhing, 2009). The island of Pemba is the perfect case study for soil erosion, as their economy is largely based in agriculture, and the combined hilly topography and monsoonal climate make it highly susceptible to soil erosion. Yet, Pemba’s main cash crops are clove and fruit trees, which have potential ...


An Adaptive Visual Learning Approach For Waterborne Disease Prevention In Rural West Africa, Jonathan Le Mar Oglesby 2016 Western Kentucky University

An Adaptive Visual Learning Approach For Waterborne Disease Prevention In Rural West Africa, Jonathan Le Mar Oglesby

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Depleted water supplies, along with industrial and human waste, are driving a world water crisis that poses a growing risk to food markets, energy production, political stability, and human health (Global Water Security 2012). One obvious example of the this crisis is the more than 1 billion people who obtain their drinking water from contaminated sources (WHO/UNICEF 2006; Clasen et al. 2008). With a projected increase of 1.3 billion people between now and 2050, Africa will add more to the global population than any other world region (Haub and Kaneda 2013). For this research, visual learning design factors ...


Crafting A Campus Sustainability Action Plan: A Grassroots Approach, Jolina A. Kenney 2016 Gettysburg College

Crafting A Campus Sustainability Action Plan: A Grassroots Approach, Jolina A. Kenney

Student Publications

In recent decades, colleges and universities have taken a leadership role in developing institution-based Sustainability Action Plans (SAPs). A SAP includes a summation of past achievements, current initiatives, and the prioritized goals and implementation strategies for future action in terms of promoting environmental sustainability. These plans can also serve as pedagogical devices that teach students, staff and faculty important lessons of intentional living, global citizenship, and environmental responsibility. While many plans are adopted as top-down initiatives, there is great value in finding ways to engage the entire campus community in such endeavors at the grassroots level. This project documents a ...


A Study On The Effect Of Non – Asthmatic Atopy On Pregnancy Outcomes, Ayesha Johnson 2016 University of South Florida

A Study On The Effect Of Non – Asthmatic Atopy On Pregnancy Outcomes, Ayesha Johnson

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Objectives – To measure the effect of non – asthmatic atopy (NAA) on the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes; low birth weight (LBW), small for gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth (PTB), among primiparous women 19 – 25 years of age.

Methods – Vital Statistics records from births occurring between 2004 and 2014, from approximately 60,000 primiparous women in South Carolina, aged 19 to 25 years, were linked to their Medicaid records. Maternal records were examined to determine if they had a previous diagnosis of NAA. Women with a diagnosis of NAA were frequency matched with a ratio of 1:4 to non ...


Environmental Variables Affecting The Performance Of Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants, Parikhit Sinha 2016 First Solar

Environmental Variables Affecting The Performance Of Large-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants, Parikhit Sinha

Climate Sustainability Lecture Series

The environmental sciences have been critical to identifying global environmental challenges such as climate change, but they have been less extensively utilized in deploying solutions to those challenges, such as solar energy. Environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, aerosols, clouds, soiling, and snowfall have important effects on solar PV performance, and these effects can vary regionally. The current status of large-scale solar PV deployment will be discussed along with the role of environmental variables on PV performance.


Comparison Of Urinary Pahs Among Firefighters And Asphalt Pavers, Theodore Aquino 2016 University of South Florida

Comparison Of Urinary Pahs Among Firefighters And Asphalt Pavers, Theodore Aquino

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Firefighters and asphalt pavers are exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during various work activities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate urinary PAH levels and compare these bio-monitoring levels among firefighters, asphalt pavers, and non-occupationally exposed individuals. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) urinary PAH levels were used for non-occupationally exposed controls. When compared to the NIST standard for smokers and non-smokers, firefighters demonstrated statistically significant differences in urinary concentration differences for the following metabolites: 2-OH-fluorene, 3-OH-fluorene and 1-OH-pyrene, which were lower in firefighters than the NIST mean for smokers. 1-OH-phenanthrene, 2-OH-phenanthrene and 3-OH-phenanthrene were higher ...


Effects Of Watershed Characteristics On Stream Vulnerability To Urbanization: Implications Of Future Land Use On Streams In Maine, Usa, Kristen Weil 2016 The University of Maine

Effects Of Watershed Characteristics On Stream Vulnerability To Urbanization: Implications Of Future Land Use On Streams In Maine, Usa, Kristen Weil

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Catchment urbanization has deleterious effects on freshwater resources and aquatic communities in small stream ecosystems. In the State of Maine, many streams have been negatively affected by urbanization and are in need of management and restoration. Impervious cover (IC), i.e., any surface that impedes water infiltration into the ground, can serve as a measure of watershed urbanization. Recent studies conducted in Maine have indicated that stream biotic community structure and function begin to decline at impervious cover levels of approximately 1 to 15%. This wide range presents a challenge to regulatory agencies and watershed managers charged with protecting stream ...


Powering The Planet: The Role Chemistry Plays In Solar Energy Technology, Amy M. Scott 2016 University of Miami

Powering The Planet: The Role Chemistry Plays In Solar Energy Technology, Amy M. Scott

Climate Sustainability Lecture Series

Global energy demands are projected to double by 2050, according to the U.S. Department of Energy, and solar energy has the greatest potential as the most benign, universal resource for generating electricity. However, harnessing the solar energy efficiently and converting it towards useful forms of power that are compatible with our current infrastructure remains an elusive goal. Today’s solar energy utilization relies on silicon-based photovoltaic (PV) technology, which converts photon energy to electrical energy. The efficiency of these devices remains low (< 30%) and the cost of processing silicon and installing solar panels in homes makes PV uneconomical compared to the current price of electricity. Research efforts towards developing new inorganic and organic materials for thin film PV to replace silicon are currently underway. Organic materials are particularly interesting from the standpoint of developing simple, cheap materials that can be easily tailored for future PV devices. The future of solar energy utilization relies on developing solar paints for vehicles, solar shingles for rooftops, and spray-on solar ink for small device applications, but continued fundamental research is needed for decreasing cost and improving efficiency for next generation devices.


The Unintended Consequences Of Household Phosphate Bans, Alex Cohen, David A. Keiser 2016 Yale University

The Unintended Consequences Of Household Phosphate Bans, Alex Cohen, David A. Keiser

David A. Keiser

In 2010, seventeen US states implemented mandatory bans on the sale of phosphates in automatic dishwasher detergent, due to concern over the adverse effects that arise from excess phosphorus loads to our lakes, rivers, and streams.1 Excess phosphorus can lead to harmful algal blooms, excessive aquatic plant growth, and alterations to the composition of aquatic species, among other changes. Accordingly, the US EPA considers nutrient pollution to be one of the most important environmental challenges we face in the twenty-first century (USEPA 2009). Effectively and efficiently addressing this challenge requires a sound understanding of phosphorus control policies. We find ...


Thawing Out: The Role Of The Arctic Council Service In A Melting Arctic, Taylor J. Enos 2016 Salve Regina University

Thawing Out: The Role Of The Arctic Council Service In A Melting Arctic, Taylor J. Enos

Pell Scholars and Senior Theses

With the changing natural and political climate of the Arctic, conflicts over resource extraction and navigation will become inevitable. Empowering an intergovernmental institution like the Arctic Council Service may be the only solution. This paper analyzes the importance and history of the Arctic as a political environment, which is prone to abuse in the very near future at the hands of Russia and the United States.


Nitrogen Management Under Uncertainty: An Investigation Of Farmers’ Decision Processes, Keri L. Jacobs, Quinn Weninger 2016 Iowa State University

Nitrogen Management Under Uncertainty: An Investigation Of Farmers’ Decision Processes, Keri L. Jacobs, Quinn Weninger

Keri Jacobs

Des Moines Water Works has recently threatened a lawsuit against three upstream Iowa counties they claim are responsible for excessive nitrate loading in the Raccoon and Des Moines rivers. Excess nitrate loads, which must be reduced before water is safe to drink, is reported to have cost Des Moines taxpayers upwards of $1 million in 2013. The cost of nitrate removal, which could include investment in new treatment capacity, will continue, and may grow, unless steps are taken to reduce nitrate runoff from agriculture. While such water treatment is costly, yield losses may be more costly if rates are capped ...


The Socio-Political Impact Of Large-Scale Damming Along The Mekong River, Particularly In Cambodia, John M. Lynch 2016 American Public University System

The Socio-Political Impact Of Large-Scale Damming Along The Mekong River, Particularly In Cambodia, John M. Lynch

Master's Capstone Theses

Potential ecological change along in the Mekong River Basin do to the rapid development of hydropower is well-researched. However, little is known about socio-political factors that are contributing to the creation of numerous dams along the Mekong River and major tributaries. A quantitative analysis of precipitation amounts and water levels in the Upper Mekong River Basin attempts to establish a relationship between dams in China and alterations to water levels through the Lower Mekong River. A qualitative analysis is used to explore the political and economic influences that contribute to additional dam construction within the Lower Mekong River Basin that ...


Climate Change Impacts On New York Wine Grape Growing Regions, Benjamin L. Davis 2016 American Public University System

Climate Change Impacts On New York Wine Grape Growing Regions, Benjamin L. Davis

Master's Capstone Theses

This study aimed to determine whether changes in climate would influence the quality and quantity of New York wine grape growing regions by analyzing historical temperature and precipitation levels and forecasting future levels. It was shown that the climate in New York and within New York climate divisions that encompass federally accepted New York American Viticultural Areas has changed over time; specifically average minimum, average maximum, and overall average temperatures have gradually increased since the year 1895 with statistical significance. The cool New York climate is normally on the edge of acceptability for supporting many of the grape varieties that ...


Questioning Ecosystem Assessment And Restoration Practices In A Major Urban Estuary: Perpetuating Myths Of Degradation In Spite Of Facts, John T. Tanacredi Ph.D., Martin P. Schreibman, Kevin McDonnell 2016 Molloy College

Questioning Ecosystem Assessment And Restoration Practices In A Major Urban Estuary: Perpetuating Myths Of Degradation In Spite Of Facts, John T. Tanacredi Ph.D., Martin P. Schreibman, Kevin Mcdonnell

Faculty Works: CERCOM

The Jamaica Bay ecosystem is a dichotomy. It encompasses more than 12,000 acres of coastal estuarine marshes and an ecological diversity rivaling any coastal environment in the world. It is considerably altered, and is affected by a variety of ecological insults directly related to the fact that more than 14 million people live in its vicinity. Environmental protection institutions responded to the challenge of protecting the bay, surrounding wetlands and recreational benefits by addressing the increasing load of contaminants into the ecosystem. Billions of dollars have been spent during the past five decades on restoration attempts, including upgrading wastewater ...


Global Fossil Energy Markets And Climate Change Mitigation: An Analysis With Remind, Nico Bauer, Ioanna Mouratiadou, Gunnar Luderer, Lavinia Baumstark, Robert Brecha, Ottmar Edenhofer, Elmar Kriegler 2016 Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research

Global Fossil Energy Markets And Climate Change Mitigation: An Analysis With Remind, Nico Bauer, Ioanna Mouratiadou, Gunnar Luderer, Lavinia Baumstark, Robert Brecha, Ottmar Edenhofer, Elmar Kriegler

Robert J. Brecha

We analyze the dynamics of global fossil resource markets under different assumptions for the supply of fossil fuel resources, development pathways for energy demand, and climate policy settings. Resource markets, in particular the oil market, are characterized by a large discrepancy between costs of resource extraction and commodity prices on international markets. We explain this observation in terms of (a) the intertemporal scarcity rent, (b) regional price differentials arising from trade and transport costs, (c) heterogeneity and inertia in the extraction sector. These effects are captured by the REMIND model. We use the model to explore economic effects of changes ...


Logistic Curves, Extraction Costs And Peak Oil, Robert Brecha 2016 University of Dayton

Logistic Curves, Extraction Costs And Peak Oil, Robert Brecha

Robert J. Brecha

Debates about the possibility of a near-term maximum in world oil production have become increasingly prominent over the past decade, with the focus often being on the quantification of geologically available and technologically recoverable amounts of oil in the ground. Economically, the important parameter is not a physical limit to resources in the ground, but whether market price signals and costs of extraction will indicate the efficiency of extracting conventional or nonconventional resources as opposed to making substitutions over time for other fuels and technologies. We present a hybrid approach to the peak-oil question with two models in which the ...


Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Community-Based Residential Building Energy Efficiency Investment, Jun-Ki Choi, Drew Morrison, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha 2016 University of Dayton

Economic And Environmental Impacts Of Community-Based Residential Building Energy Efficiency Investment, Jun-Ki Choi, Drew Morrison, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha

Robert J. Brecha

A systematic framework for evaluating the local economic and environmental impacts of investment in building energy efficiency is developed. Historical residential building energy data, community-wide economic input-output data, and emission intensity data are utilized. The aim of this study is to show the comprehensive insights and connection among achieving variable target reductions for a residential building energy use, economic and environmental impacts. Central to this approach for the building energy reduction goal is the creation of individual energy models for each building based upon historical energy data and available building data. From these models, savings estimates and cost implications can ...


Cost-Availability Curves For Hierarchical Implementation Of Residential Energy-Efficiency Measures, Roman Villoria-Siegert, Philip Brodrick, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha 2016 University of Dayton

Cost-Availability Curves For Hierarchical Implementation Of Residential Energy-Efficiency Measures, Roman Villoria-Siegert, Philip Brodrick, Kevin Hallinan, Robert Brecha

Robert J. Brecha

Historical residential electricity data and natural gas consumption data were collected for, respectively, 1,200 and 178 residences in a small town in the USA. These data were merged with local building and weather databases, and energy consumption models were developed for each residence, revealing substantial variation in heating and cooling intensity. After estimating approximate physical building characteristics, energy profiles for each residence were calculated, and savings from adoption of the most cost-effective energy-efficiency measures for each residence were estimated. Effectively, we wish to leverage commonly available data sets to infer characteristics of building envelopes and equipment, without the need ...


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