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Success Stories And Emerging Themes In Conservation Physiology, Christine L. Madliger, Steven J. Cooke, Erica J. Crespi, Jennifer L. Funk, Kevin R. Hultine, Kathleen E. Hunt, Jason R. Rohr, Brent J. Sinclair, Cory D. Suski, Craig K. R. Willis, Oliver P. Love 2016 University of Windsor

Success Stories And Emerging Themes In Conservation Physiology, Christine L. Madliger, Steven J. Cooke, Erica J. Crespi, Jennifer L. Funk, Kevin R. Hultine, Kathleen E. Hunt, Jason R. Rohr, Brent J. Sinclair, Cory D. Suski, Craig K. R. Willis, Oliver P. Love

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The potential benefits of physiology for conservation are well established and include greater specificity of management techniques, determination of cause–effect relationships, increased sensitivity of health and disturbance monitoring and greater capacity for predicting future change. While descriptions of the specific avenues in which conservation and physiology can be integrated are readily available and important to the continuing expansion of the discipline of ‘conservation physiology’, to date there has been no assessment of how the field has specifically contributed to conservation success. However, the goal of conservation physiology is to foster conservation solutions and it is therefore important to assess ...


Human Shields And Redistribution Of Prey Species Complicate The Utility Of Protected Areas As Ecological Baselines, Wesley Sarmento 2016 University of Montana, Missoula

Human Shields And Redistribution Of Prey Species Complicate The Utility Of Protected Areas As Ecological Baselines, Wesley Sarmento

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

A key goal of protected areas is the conservation of biodiversity, an aim that garners increasing public support through positive experiences. Increasing visitation, however, can come at the cost of reduced ecological integrity. A fundamental conundrum is that if parks are to serve as our most pristine places, then we must understand how our presence alters species interactions. Species redistributing closer to people is of growing management concern both in and out of national parks because of 1) human safety, 2) animal health, and 3) ecological consequences. Across parks drivers of distributional change are often dissimilar, and include movement to ...


Of Life And Limb: The Failure Of Florida's Water Quality Criteria To Test For Vibrio Vulnificus In Coastal Waters And The Need For Enhanced Criteria, Regulation, And Notification To Protect Public Health, Felicia Thomas 2016 Florida A&M University College of Law

Of Life And Limb: The Failure Of Florida's Water Quality Criteria To Test For Vibrio Vulnificus In Coastal Waters And The Need For Enhanced Criteria, Regulation, And Notification To Protect Public Health, Felicia Thomas

Student Works

The nefarious duo of warming oceans and rising sea levels has created a menacing yet lesser-known climate change-induced problem: an increase in sea-borne diseases. For most, the biggest concern when diving into the ocean is a possible, though exceedingly rare, shark encounter; however, it is the unexpected, unseen risk of Vibrio vulnificus that poses the greater danger. Part I of this paper discusses Vibrio vulnificus cases along the coasts of Florida, examining both the illnesses that were contracted through exposure of open wounds to seawater and those contracted through the consumption of raw oysters from the Gulf Coast. Part II ...


Compost Land Management And Soil Carbon Sequestration, Kylene A. Hohman 2016 James Madison University

Compost Land Management And Soil Carbon Sequestration, Kylene A. Hohman

Senior Honors Projects

Extensive fossil fuel burning has released carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Under proper ecological conditions plants convert atmospheric carbon dioxide into stable soil organic matter, a natural and efficient means of mitigating climate change. In the symbiotic relationship between mycorrhizae and plants, mycorrhizae provide plants with essential nutrients in exchange for carbon sugars leaked from the plants. Mycorrhizae convert carbon sugars to an exudate called glomalin, a protein that assists in developing soil aggregates composed of sand, silt, and clay. These aggregates, called humus, store carbon for hundreds of years under healthy ecological conditions. Compost prompts soil microbes to aerobically ...


Assessing The Impact Of A Constructed Wetland Biome On The Ecosystem Health Of Cedar Run, Thomas Vasilopoulos, Casey Lee 2016 James Madison University

Assessing The Impact Of A Constructed Wetland Biome On The Ecosystem Health Of Cedar Run, Thomas Vasilopoulos, Casey Lee

Senior Honors Projects

A wetlands ecosystem is defined as “an area saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency or duration sufficient to support...a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions” (Batzer and Sharitz, 2007). Wetlands serve as biofilters and thus have been used to treat sewage and wastewater, as well as to restore the health of polluted water systems. Solly Walker and Lorinda Palin, owners of a certified natural and biodynamic farm called Avalon Acres located in Broadway, Virginia, constructed a wetland two years ago, using the stream, Cedar Run, that flows through their property. Pollution from ...


Population Projection And Habitat Preference Modeling Of The Endangered James Spinymussel (Pleurobema Collina), Marisa Draper 2016 James Madison University

Population Projection And Habitat Preference Modeling Of The Endangered James Spinymussel (Pleurobema Collina), Marisa Draper

Senior Honors Projects

The James Spinymussel (Pleurobema collina) is an endangered mussel species at the top of Virginia’s conservation list. The James Spinymussel plays a critical role in the environment by filtering and cleaning stream water while providing shelter and food for macroinvertebrates; however, conservation efforts are complicated by the mussels’ burrowing behavior, camouflage, and complex life cycle. The goals of the research conducted were to estimate detection probabilities that could be used to predict species presence and facilitate field work, and to track individually marked mussels to test for habitat preferences. Using existing literature and mark-recapture field data, these goals were ...


Demonstrating Cover Crop Mixtures On Iowa Farmland: Management, Soil Health, And Water Quality Benefits, Mark Licht, Liz Juchems, Jacqueline Comito, Matt Helmers, Sarah Carlson 2016 Iowa State University

Demonstrating Cover Crop Mixtures On Iowa Farmland: Management, Soil Health, And Water Quality Benefits, Mark Licht, Liz Juchems, Jacqueline Comito, Matt Helmers, Sarah Carlson

Farm Progress Reports

Cover crops are an important component of the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy, which calls for a high level of adoption to reach the goals of reducing nitrate-nitrogen and phosphorus. Iowa landowners and farmers are increasingly seeing the value of single species cover crops and incorporating them into their cropping systems. However, in Iowa and the Upper Midwest, there is limited research on using cover crop mixtures.


Influential Factors In Encouraging Or Dissuading Orlando Businesses To Seek Leed Certification, Katrina M. Zdanowicz 2016 Rollins College

Influential Factors In Encouraging Or Dissuading Orlando Businesses To Seek Leed Certification, Katrina M. Zdanowicz

Honors Program Theses

Orlando, Florida, is home to 85 building projects that have received a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification and 74 projects that are in the process of seeking certification. Over 90 percent of these 159 buildings have been or are being rated by LEED commercial standards. This paper argues that while LEED has played a valuable role in encouraging environmentally sustainable design in the Orlando commercial sector and will continue to be a significant presence in sustainability discussions, local government legislation can assist the end-goals of LEED by promoting more localized initiatives. The benefits of LEED certification include ...


Migrate, Mutate, Or Die: The Effects Of The Lake Trout Introduction In Yellowstone Lake On Populations Outside The Aquatic A Meta-Analytic Study, Sarah Gandhi-Besbes 2016 University of Colorado, Boulder

Migrate, Mutate, Or Die: The Effects Of The Lake Trout Introduction In Yellowstone Lake On Populations Outside The Aquatic A Meta-Analytic Study, Sarah Gandhi-Besbes

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Yellowstone National Park is a relatively pristine ecosystem preserved through time. The Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri population, inhabiting shallower waters in Yellowstone Lake and spawning in its tributaries, has been declining primarily due to the introduction of a predatory fish. The lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, which rapidly grow to large sizes, feed on the Yellowstone cutthroat trout, breed and spawn in Yellowstone Lake, and dwell in deeper waters out of predatory reach. The Yellowstone cutthroat trout is relied upon both directly and indirectly by more than 40 species within Yellowstone National Park. The grizzly bear Ursus arctos horribilis ...


Drinking Water And Autism: Using Spatial Cluster Detection To Explore Patterns Of Autism Cases In Lane County, Oregon, Sherry Sandreth 2016 Walden University

Drinking Water And Autism: Using Spatial Cluster Detection To Explore Patterns Of Autism Cases In Lane County, Oregon, Sherry Sandreth

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a complex array of neurological disorders with a diverse presentation, multiple etiologies, and long-term ramifications. Prevalence of ASD in the United States is about 1 in 50 children as of 2013, making it a significant public health problem. The etiology is not understood, and it is widely accepted that it is multicausal, with genetic and environmental influences. Prior research suggests an association between water source and ASD. Contaminants such as lead, arsenic, mercury, pharmaceuticals and pesticides found in water are associated with developmental disorders suggesting that a systematic review focused on water source was warranted ...


Perceptions Of Emergency Preparedness Among Immigrant Hispanics Living In Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Rebekah Doyle 2016 Walden University

Perceptions Of Emergency Preparedness Among Immigrant Hispanics Living In Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Rebekah Doyle

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Tornadoes are occurring with increased frequency in Oklahoma. Emergency preparedness planning is essential to decreasing individuals' risks of injury or death from a tornado. Research on immigrant Hispanics' knowledge and perceptions of emergency preparedness is limited. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions and lived experiences of immigrant Hispanics who had experienced a tornado or other crisis weather conditions in Oklahoma during spring of 2013. The research questions explored their perceived risk for injury and knowledge of tornado preparedness planning. The health belief model provided the theoretical underpinnings for this qualitative phenomenological study. Semi structured interviews were ...


Methylmercury Exposure Via Canned Tuna Fish Consumption And Breast Cancer, Jennifer Bodenrader 2016 Walden University

Methylmercury Exposure Via Canned Tuna Fish Consumption And Breast Cancer, Jennifer Bodenrader

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Widespread consumption of canned tuna fish since the 1950s may explain some of the increase in breast cancer prevalence in the United States and Europe. Although canned tuna is the primary source of human exposure to methylmercury, its role as an estrogen activating metalloestrogen has been overlooked in the etiology and incidence of breast cancer. Carcinogenic theory asserts that increased exposure to estrogen elevates the risk of breast cancer. The purpose of this population-based, case control study was to examine the association between canned tuna consumption, total blood mercury, and breast cancer in the NHANES 2003-2006 surveys. A multivariable logistic ...


North D Compost Pilot Semester Report, Kevin J. Hollerbach, Jordan Chan 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

North D Compost Pilot Semester Report, Kevin J. Hollerbach, Jordan Chan

Student Showcase

Following the completion of a 14-week-long residential compost pilot program in North Apartment D at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, this review summarizes the proposition, implementation, and operation of the project. The success of this pilot provides the framework for the expansion of residential composting at UMass Amherst, resulting in higher trash diversion rates from residence halls, and encouraging students to reduce their environmental footprint both on and off campus. The demonstrated success for this pilot program and upcoming expanded pilot provides further justification for expansion across residential life, other University departments, or other institutions to participate in waste-reduction initiatives ...


Assessment Of Her2-Neu In Breast Cancer Lines Upon Differential Exposures To Xenoestrogens, Abha Aggarwal 2016 Walden University

Assessment Of Her2-Neu In Breast Cancer Lines Upon Differential Exposures To Xenoestrogens, Abha Aggarwal

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Synthetic xenoestrogens have differential estrogenic properties. Research has shown that exposures to xenoestrogens could promote breast cancer by disrupting normal function of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) gene. Although animal models demonstrated a connection between xenoestrogen exposure and Her2 activity, no study using human cells has systematically examined their carcinogenic potential influencing the Her2 gene expression. Furthermore, breast cancer cells are phenotypically disparate (ER+, Her2+), with some phenotypes (Her2+), leading to more aggressive disease. This study aimed to dosimetrically assess the carcinogenic potential of commonly used xenoestrogens influencing Her2 gene expression, and delineate cellular phenotypes at greater ...


Social License For Industrial Developments In Rural Areas : A Case Study Of Unconventional Gas Development In The Northern Rivers, Australia ; An Investigation Of Regional Values, Identity And Social Dynamics, Hanabeth Luke 2016 Southern Cross University

Social License For Industrial Developments In Rural Areas : A Case Study Of Unconventional Gas Development In The Northern Rivers, Australia ; An Investigation Of Regional Values, Identity And Social Dynamics, Hanabeth Luke

Theses

Rural areas globally are subject to the converging pressures of climate change, urbanisation, market forces and energy expansion. Large-scale industrial projects can add to land-use competition and resource conflicts, potentially leading to dramatic impact on rural environments and their communities. Social licence can be used as a lens for understanding how communities respond to proposed industrial developments. A disconnect between the social license concept and the aims of sustainable development manifests itself in rural areas as a tension between industry activity and community aspirations. Mismatches between land-use planning decisions and community aspirations can create conflict, and potentially, social resistance. Social ...


The Toxicity Of Physically And Chemically Dispersed Fuels To Antarctic Marine Invertebrates, Frances Jane Alexander 2016 Southern Cross University

The Toxicity Of Physically And Chemically Dispersed Fuels To Antarctic Marine Invertebrates, Frances Jane Alexander

Theses

The risk of a major marine fuel spill in Antarctic waters is increasing, yet there are currently no adequate response methods to deal with such an event. Chemical fuel dispersants have not previously been used in Antarctica, but may offer an alternative solution for spill management. Very few data on the toxicity of physically and chemically dispersed fuels and fuel dispersants to Antarctic marine species are available, thus preventing informed management decisions. This research investigated the toxicity of three fuels commonly used in Antarctica (Special Antarctic Blend diesel, marine gas oil and an intermediate fuel oil) and of three dispersants ...


Understanding And Reducing The Anthropogenic Heat Emission, Nektarios Chrysoulakis, C.S.B. Grimmond 2015 Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas (FORTH)

Understanding And Reducing The Anthropogenic Heat Emission, Nektarios Chrysoulakis, C.S.B. Grimmond

N. Chrysoulakis

Anthropogenic heat emission includes heat generated by the combustion process in vehicles, heat emitted by industrial processes, the conduction of heat through building walls, or emitted directly into the atmosphere by air-conditioning systems and the metabolic heat produced by humans. The magnitude of the anthropogenic heat flux is highly dependent on the spatial scale at which it is estimated. In cities, peak values are associated with large buildings and busy roads. In terms of its temporal variability, the diurnal profile of total anthropogenic heating has local peaks in the early-morning and late-afternoon, corresponding to peaks in transportation and building energy ...


Ambient Air Concentrations Exceeded Health Based Standards For Fine Particulate Matter And Benzene During The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Earthea Nance, Denae King, Beverly Wright, Robert Bullard 2015 Selected Works

Ambient Air Concentrations Exceeded Health Based Standards For Fine Particulate Matter And Benzene During The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, Earthea Nance, Denae King, Beverly Wright, Robert Bullard

Earthea Nance, PhD (Stanford University, 2004)

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Estimating Urban Pm10 And Pm2.5 Concentrations, Based On Synergistic Meris/Aatsr Aerosol Observations, Land Cover And Morphology Data, A. Beloconi, Y. Kamarianakis, Nektarios Chrysoulakis 2015 Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas (FORTH)

Estimating Urban Pm10 And Pm2.5 Concentrations, Based On Synergistic Meris/Aatsr Aerosol Observations, Land Cover And Morphology Data, A. Beloconi, Y. Kamarianakis, Nektarios Chrysoulakis

N. Chrysoulakis

This study evaluates alternative spatio-temporal approaches for quantitative estimation of daily mean Particulate Matter (PM) concentrations. Both fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM10) concentrations were estimated over the area of London (UK) for the 2002–2012 time period, using Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) derived from MERIS (Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer)/AATSR (Advanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer) synergistic observations at 1 km × 1 km resolution. Relative humidity, temperature and the K-Index obtained from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor were used as additional predictors. High-resolution (100 m × 100 m) local urban land cover and morphology datasets were incorporated in the ...


Greenpoint's Superfund Problem, Helina Selemon 2015 CUNY Graduate School of Journalism

Greenpoint's Superfund Problem, Helina Selemon

Capstones

A feature observing a community living in the shadow of a superfund site, a toxic industrial site in need of cleanup, that was recently purchased for development. The story looks at the complicated nature of this particular superfund and the problems the community around it has--including potential health risks during cleanup, rapid development, and an inescapable industrial past.


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