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Cyanotoxins In Inland Lakes Of The United States: Occurrence And Potential Recreational Health Risks In The Epa National Lakes Assessment 2007, Keith A. Loftin, Jennifer L. Graham, Elizabeth D. Hillborn, Sarah C. Lehmann, Michael T. Meyer, Julie E. Dietze, Christopher B. Griffith 2016 U.S. Geological Survey

Cyanotoxins In Inland Lakes Of The United States: Occurrence And Potential Recreational Health Risks In The Epa National Lakes Assessment 2007, Keith A. Loftin, Jennifer L. Graham, Elizabeth D. Hillborn, Sarah C. Lehmann, Michael T. Meyer, Julie E. Dietze, Christopher B. Griffith

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Papers

A large nation-wide survey of cyanotoxins (1161 lakes) in the United States (U.S.) was conducted during the EPA National Lakes Assessment 2007. Cyanotoxin data were compared with cyanobacteria abundance- and chlorophyll-based World Health Organization (WHO) thresholds and mouse toxicity data to evaluate potential recreational risks. Cylindrospermopsins, microcystins, and saxitoxins were detected (ELISA) in 4.0, 32, and 7.7% of samples with mean concentrations of 0.56, 3.0, and 0.061 mg/L, respectively (detections only). Co-occurrence of the three cyanotoxin classes was rare (0.32%) when at least one toxin was detected. Cyanobacteria were present and dominant ...


Alpha-Lipoic Acid Supplementation Protects Enzymes From Damage By Nitrosative And Oxidative Stress, Sylvia Hiller, Robert DeKroon, Eric D. Hamlett, Longquan Xu, Cristina Osorio, Jennifer Robinette, Witold Winnik, Stephen Simington, Nobuyo Maeda, Oscar Alzate, Xianwen Yi 2016 The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

Alpha-Lipoic Acid Supplementation Protects Enzymes From Damage By Nitrosative And Oxidative Stress, Sylvia Hiller, Robert Dekroon, Eric D. Hamlett, Longquan Xu, Cristina Osorio, Jennifer Robinette, Witold Winnik, Stephen Simington, Nobuyo Maeda, Oscar Alzate, Xianwen Yi

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Papers

Background: S-nitrosylation of mitochondrial enzymes involved in energy transfer under nitrosative stress may result in ATP deficiency. We investigated whether α-lipoic acid, a powerful antioxidant, could alleviate nitrosative stress by regulating S-nitrosylation,which could result in retaining themitochondrial enzyme activity.

Methods: In this study, we have identified the S-nitrosylated forms of subunit 1 of dihydrolipoyllysine succinyltransferase (complex III), and subunit 2 of the α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex by implementing a fluorescence-based differential quantitative proteomics method.

Results: We found that the activities of these two mitochondrial enzymes were partially but reversibly inhibited by S-nitrosylation in cultured endothelial cells, and that their activities ...


Estimating Ozone And Secondary Pm2.5 Impacts From Hypothetical Single Source Emissions In The Central And Eastern United States, Kirk R. Baker, Robert A. Kotchenruther, Rynda C. Hudman 2016 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Estimating Ozone And Secondary Pm2.5 Impacts From Hypothetical Single Source Emissions In The Central And Eastern United States, Kirk R. Baker, Robert A. Kotchenruther, Rynda C. Hudman

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Papers

Secondary pollutant impacts from emissions of single sources may need to be assessed to satisfy a variety of regulatory requirements including the Clean Air Act New Source Review and Prevention of Significant Deterioration programs and the National Environmental Policy Act. In this work, single source impacts on O3 and secondary PM2.5 are estimated with annual 2011 photochemical grid model simulations where new hypothetical sources are added to the central and eastern United States with varying precursor emission rates and emission release heights. Impacts from these hypothetical sources are tracked with photochemical grid model source apportionment. Single source ...


Seasonality Of Coliform Bacteria Detection Rates In New Jersey Domestic Wells, Thomas B. Atherholt, Nicholas A. Procopio, Sandra M. Goodrow 2016 New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection

Seasonality Of Coliform Bacteria Detection Rates In New Jersey Domestic Wells, Thomas B. Atherholt, Nicholas A. Procopio, Sandra M. Goodrow

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Papers

It is important that indicators of fecal pollution are reliable. Coliform bacteria are a commonly used indicator of fecal pollution. As other investigators have reported elsewhere, we observed a seasonal pattern of coliform bacteria detections in domestic wells in New Jersey. Examination of a statewide database of 10 years of water quality data from 93,447 samples, from 78,207 wells, generated during real estate transactions, revealed that coliform bacteria were detected in a higher proportion of wells during warm weather months. Further examination of the seasonal pattern of other data, including well water pH, precipitation, ground and surface water ...


Temporal Trends In The Spatial Distribution Of Impervious Cover Relative To Stream Location, J. Wickham, A. Neale, M. Mehaffey, T. Jarnagin, D. Norton 2016 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Temporal Trends In The Spatial Distribution Of Impervious Cover Relative To Stream Location, J. Wickham, A. Neale, M. Mehaffey, T. Jarnagin, D. Norton

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Papers

Use of impervious cover is transitioning from an indicator of surface water condition to one that also guides and informs watershed planning and management, including Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. §1251 et seq.) reporting. Whether it is for understanding surface water condition or planning and management, impervious cover is most commonly expressed as summary measurement (e.g., percentage watershed in impervious cover). We use the National Land Cover Database to estimate impervious cover in the vicinity of surface waters for three time periods (2001, 2006, 2011). We also compare impervious cover in the vicinity of surface waters to ...


Composting Safety And Health, Nellie J. Brown 2016 Cornell University

Composting Safety And Health, Nellie J. Brown

Manuals and User Guides

[Excerpt] This chapter describes safety and health issues related to composting and the practices that minimize the associated risks. While safety and health are not inseparable, in this chapter, safety is informally associated with physical trauma, such as an equipment accident, a fall or impact from a projectile. In contrast, health risks are loosely linked with physiological injury or illness to a person, usually from continued or repeated exposure to a hazard.


Earth Stewardship And The Missio Dei: Participating In The Care And Redemption Of All God Has Made, David M. Carlson 2016 Luther Seminary

Earth Stewardship And The Missio Dei: Participating In The Care And Redemption Of All God Has Made, David M. Carlson

Doctor of Ministry Theses

This explanatory sequential mixed methods research project surveyed leaders and conducted focus group interviews in an ELCA synod. It evaluated earthkeeping practices and perceptions using several lenses: sustainability, globalization, global civil society, nature as active subject, stewardship as participating in God’s mission, perichoresis as modeling reciprocal relationships with nature, eschatological themes of redemption and reformation, and sacramental imagination. Results revealed concern about environmental challenges, openness to earth stewardship, significant differences by political preference, and more pronounced personal than congregational practices. Congregations with creation care teams have promising capacity to exhibit earth stewardship’s missional character through personal, congregational, and ...


Corporate Social Responsibility/Sustainability Reporting Among The Fortune Global 250: Greenwashing Or Green Supply Chain?, John K. Lewis 2016 Salve Regina University

Corporate Social Responsibility/Sustainability Reporting Among The Fortune Global 250: Greenwashing Or Green Supply Chain?, John K. Lewis

Faculty and Staff - Articles & Papers

The sustainability reporting efforts of MNCs who are members of the Fortune Global 250 (FG250) was investigated. The focus was on sustainability reporting by MNCs of supply chain impacts. The reporting of FG250 MNCs was examined to determine if greenwashing was occurring or whether MNCs had committed to operating a green supply chain. A mixed methodology was used consisting of quantitative analysis of twenty-five MNC CSR/sustainability reports which were randomly selected from the FG250 listing. Qualitative analysis using content analysis was also conducted on the reports. Both methodologies concentrated on the sustainability reporting of the selected MNCs in regard ...


Success Stories And Emerging Themes In Conservation Physiology, Christine L. Madliger, Steven J. Cooke, Erica J. Crespi, Jennifer L. Funk, Kevin R. Hultine, Kathleen E. Hunt, Jason R. Rohr, Brent J. Sinclair, Cory D. Suski, Craig K. R. Willis, Oliver P. Love 2016 University of Windsor

Success Stories And Emerging Themes In Conservation Physiology, Christine L. Madliger, Steven J. Cooke, Erica J. Crespi, Jennifer L. Funk, Kevin R. Hultine, Kathleen E. Hunt, Jason R. Rohr, Brent J. Sinclair, Cory D. Suski, Craig K. R. Willis, Oliver P. Love

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

The potential benefits of physiology for conservation are well established and include greater specificity of management techniques, determination of cause–effect relationships, increased sensitivity of health and disturbance monitoring and greater capacity for predicting future change. While descriptions of the specific avenues in which conservation and physiology can be integrated are readily available and important to the continuing expansion of the discipline of ‘conservation physiology’, to date there has been no assessment of how the field has specifically contributed to conservation success. However, the goal of conservation physiology is to foster conservation solutions and it is therefore important to assess ...


Of Life And Limb: The Failure Of Florida's Water Quality Criteria To Test For Vibrio Vulnificus In Coastal Waters And The Need For Enhanced Criteria, Regulation, And Notification To Protect Public Health, Felicia Thomas 2016 Florida A&M University College of Law

Of Life And Limb: The Failure Of Florida's Water Quality Criteria To Test For Vibrio Vulnificus In Coastal Waters And The Need For Enhanced Criteria, Regulation, And Notification To Protect Public Health, Felicia Thomas

Student Works

The nefarious duo of warming oceans and rising sea levels has created a menacing yet lesser-known climate change-induced problem: an increase in sea-borne diseases. For most, the biggest concern when diving into the ocean is a possible, though exceedingly rare, shark encounter; however, it is the unexpected, unseen risk of Vibrio vulnificus that poses the greater danger. Part I of this paper discusses Vibrio vulnificus cases along the coasts of Florida, examining both the illnesses that were contracted through exposure of open wounds to seawater and those contracted through the consumption of raw oysters from the Gulf Coast. Part II ...


Compost Land Management And Soil Carbon Sequestration, Kylene A. Hohman 2016 James Madison University

Compost Land Management And Soil Carbon Sequestration, Kylene A. Hohman

Senior Honors Projects

Extensive fossil fuel burning has released carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Under proper ecological conditions plants convert atmospheric carbon dioxide into stable soil organic matter, a natural and efficient means of mitigating climate change. In the symbiotic relationship between mycorrhizae and plants, mycorrhizae provide plants with essential nutrients in exchange for carbon sugars leaked from the plants. Mycorrhizae convert carbon sugars to an exudate called glomalin, a protein that assists in developing soil aggregates composed of sand, silt, and clay. These aggregates, called humus, store carbon for hundreds of years under healthy ecological conditions. Compost prompts soil microbes to aerobically ...


Assessing The Impact Of A Constructed Wetland Biome On The Ecosystem Health Of Cedar Run, Thomas Vasilopoulos, Casey Lee 2016 James Madison University

Assessing The Impact Of A Constructed Wetland Biome On The Ecosystem Health Of Cedar Run, Thomas Vasilopoulos, Casey Lee

Senior Honors Projects

A wetlands ecosystem is defined as “an area saturated by surface or groundwater at a frequency or duration sufficient to support...a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil conditions” (Batzer and Sharitz, 2007). Wetlands serve as biofilters and thus have been used to treat sewage and wastewater, as well as to restore the health of polluted water systems. Solly Walker and Lorinda Palin, owners of a certified natural and biodynamic farm called Avalon Acres located in Broadway, Virginia, constructed a wetland two years ago, using the stream, Cedar Run, that flows through their property. Pollution from ...


Population Projection And Habitat Preference Modeling Of The Endangered James Spinymussel (Pleurobema Collina), Marisa Draper 2016 James Madison University

Population Projection And Habitat Preference Modeling Of The Endangered James Spinymussel (Pleurobema Collina), Marisa Draper

Senior Honors Projects

The James Spinymussel (Pleurobema collina) is an endangered mussel species at the top of Virginia’s conservation list. The James Spinymussel plays a critical role in the environment by filtering and cleaning stream water while providing shelter and food for macroinvertebrates; however, conservation efforts are complicated by the mussels’ burrowing behavior, camouflage, and complex life cycle. The goals of the research conducted were to estimate detection probabilities that could be used to predict species presence and facilitate field work, and to track individually marked mussels to test for habitat preferences. Using existing literature and mark-recapture field data, these goals were ...


North D Compost Pilot Semester Report, Kevin J. Hollerbach, Jordan Chan 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

North D Compost Pilot Semester Report, Kevin J. Hollerbach, Jordan Chan

Student Showcase

Following the completion of a 14-week-long residential compost pilot program in North Apartment D at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, this review summarizes the proposition, implementation, and operation of the project. The success of this pilot provides the framework for the expansion of residential composting at UMass Amherst, resulting in higher trash diversion rates from residence halls, and encouraging students to reduce their environmental footprint both on and off campus. The demonstrated success for this pilot program and upcoming expanded pilot provides further justification for expansion across residential life, other University departments, or other institutions to participate in waste-reduction initiatives ...


Near-Roadway Air Pollution And Coronary Heart Disease: Burden Of Disease And Potential Impact Of A Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategy In Southern California, Rakesh Ghosh, Frederick Lurmann, Laura Perez, Bryan Penfold, Sylvia Brandt, John Wilson, Meredith Milet, Nino Künzli, Rob McConnell 2016 University of Southern California

Near-Roadway Air Pollution And Coronary Heart Disease: Burden Of Disease And Potential Impact Of A Greenhouse Gas Reduction Strategy In Southern California, Rakesh Ghosh, Frederick Lurmann, Laura Perez, Bryan Penfold, Sylvia Brandt, John Wilson, Meredith Milet, Nino Künzli, Rob Mcconnell

Resource Economics Department Faculty Publication Series

Background: Several studies have estimated the burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality from ambient regional particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5). The burden of near-roadway air pollution (NRAP) generally has not been examined, despite evidence of a causal link with CHD.

Objective: We investigated the CHD burden from NRAP and compared it with the PM2.5 burden in the California South Coast Air Basin for 2008 and under a compact urban growth greenhouse gas reduction scenario for 2035.

Methods: We estimated the population attributable fraction and number of CHD events attributable to residential traffic density, proximity to a ...


Drinking Water And Autism: Using Spatial Cluster Detection To Explore Patterns Of Autism Cases In Lane County, Oregon, Sherry Sandreth 2016 Walden University

Drinking Water And Autism: Using Spatial Cluster Detection To Explore Patterns Of Autism Cases In Lane County, Oregon, Sherry Sandreth

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are a complex array of neurological disorders with a diverse presentation, multiple etiologies, and long-term ramifications. Prevalence of ASD in the United States is about 1 in 50 children as of 2013, making it a significant public health problem. The etiology is not understood, and it is widely accepted that it is multicausal, with genetic and environmental influences. Prior research suggests an association between water source and ASD. Contaminants such as lead, arsenic, mercury, pharmaceuticals and pesticides found in water are associated with developmental disorders suggesting that a systematic review focused on water source was warranted ...


Perceptions Of Emergency Preparedness Among Immigrant Hispanics Living In Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Rebekah Doyle 2016 Walden University

Perceptions Of Emergency Preparedness Among Immigrant Hispanics Living In Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, Rebekah Doyle

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Tornadoes are occurring with increased frequency in Oklahoma. Emergency preparedness planning is essential to decreasing individuals' risks of injury or death from a tornado. Research on immigrant Hispanics' knowledge and perceptions of emergency preparedness is limited. The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions and lived experiences of immigrant Hispanics who had experienced a tornado or other crisis weather conditions in Oklahoma during spring of 2013. The research questions explored their perceived risk for injury and knowledge of tornado preparedness planning. The health belief model provided the theoretical underpinnings for this qualitative phenomenological study. Semi structured interviews were ...


Methylmercury Exposure Via Canned Tuna Fish Consumption And Breast Cancer, Jennifer Bodenrader 2016 Walden University

Methylmercury Exposure Via Canned Tuna Fish Consumption And Breast Cancer, Jennifer Bodenrader

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Widespread consumption of canned tuna fish since the 1950s may explain some of the increase in breast cancer prevalence in the United States and Europe. Although canned tuna is the primary source of human exposure to methylmercury, its role as an estrogen activating metalloestrogen has been overlooked in the etiology and incidence of breast cancer. Carcinogenic theory asserts that increased exposure to estrogen elevates the risk of breast cancer. The purpose of this population-based, case control study was to examine the association between canned tuna consumption, total blood mercury, and breast cancer in the NHANES 2003-2006 surveys. A multivariable logistic ...


Assessment Of Her2-Neu In Breast Cancer Lines Upon Differential Exposures To Xenoestrogens, Abha Aggarwal 2016 Walden University

Assessment Of Her2-Neu In Breast Cancer Lines Upon Differential Exposures To Xenoestrogens, Abha Aggarwal

Walden Dissertations and Doctoral Studies

Synthetic xenoestrogens have differential estrogenic properties. Research has shown that exposures to xenoestrogens could promote breast cancer by disrupting normal function of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) gene. Although animal models demonstrated a connection between xenoestrogen exposure and Her2 activity, no study using human cells has systematically examined their carcinogenic potential influencing the Her2 gene expression. Furthermore, breast cancer cells are phenotypically disparate (ER+, Her2+), with some phenotypes (Her2+), leading to more aggressive disease. This study aimed to dosimetrically assess the carcinogenic potential of commonly used xenoestrogens influencing Her2 gene expression, and delineate cellular phenotypes at greater ...


Mobility Of Escherichia Coli Within Karst Terrains, Kentucky, Usa, Ashley M. Bandy 2016 University of Kentucky

Mobility Of Escherichia Coli Within Karst Terrains, Kentucky, Usa, Ashley M. Bandy

Theses and Dissertations--Earth and Environmental Sciences

Bacterial contamination of karst aquifers is a concern as water quality across the globe deteriorates in the face of decreasing water security. This study examined the transport and attenuation of two non-virulent isolates of Escherichia coli in relation to traditional groundwater tracers such as rhodamine WT dye and latex microspheres in two karst regions in Kentucky. Differential movement between the four tracers was observed in both epikarst and karst aquifer traces, with differences in behavior dependent on flow conditions. Attenuation was greater for the bacterial isolate containing the iha gene, compared to the isolate containing the kps gene. Microspheres of ...


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