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Modification Of An Implant Material, Emily Leung, Nina A. Reger, Ashley Blystone, Ellen S. Gawalt PhD 2017 Duquesne University

Modification Of An Implant Material, Emily Leung, Nina A. Reger, Ashley Blystone, Ellen S. Gawalt Phd

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Titanium metal is a commonly used implant material which can be colonized by bacteria. Biofilms are formed when bacteria colonizes, attaches to a surface, and immobilizes. Bacterial infections or biofilms are hard to treat once formed on the surface of a metal implant. Coating the material may minimize bacteria attachment. Self-assembled monolayers are comprised of molecules that contain both a head and tail group, and can be used to coat metal to prevent biofilm formation and bacteria growth. 12-mercaptododecylphosphonic acid self-assembled monolayers have a phosphonic acid head group and a thiol tail group. A solution of
12-mercaptododecylphosphonic acid in tetrahydrofuran ...


Modification Of A Junior-Level Capstone Course To Incorporate Scientific Writing, Bradley M. Wile 2017 Ohio Northern University

Modification Of A Junior-Level Capstone Course To Incorporate Scientific Writing, Bradley M. Wile

Chemistry Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Technical Feasibility Of Selectively Separating Rare Earth Elements By Vapor Phase Extraction And Condensation, Katie Lyons 2017 Montana Tech

Technical Feasibility Of Selectively Separating Rare Earth Elements By Vapor Phase Extraction And Condensation, Katie Lyons

Graduate Theses & Non-Theses

Experiments were performed to evaluate the technical feasibility of selectively separating selected rare earth halides (bromides and chlorides) using a volatilization and condensation technique. Initially, optimum chloridizing and bromidizing roast parameters were secured in studies performed on reagent grade rare earth oxide samples and subsequently confirmed in tests performed on mineral ore and concentrate samples. The volatilization and condensation experiments were performed by placing the subject rare earth halide samples in an argon-purged multiple-zone tube furnace wherein the temperature profile was controlled to establish separate vaporization and condensation regions. Following each experiment, condensate and solid residue samples were analyzed to ...


Characterization Of The Mannose-6-Phosphate/Insulin-Like Growth Factor Ii Receptor Using 1-3mh, Zechariah Craig 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Characterization Of The Mannose-6-Phosphate/Insulin-Like Growth Factor Ii Receptor Using 1-3mh, Zechariah Craig

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

The mannose-6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor 2 receptor (M6P/IGF2R), a recombinant triplet protein receptor for studies involving receptor dimerization, plays a pivotal role in mediating cellular growth. This receptor is comprised of fifteen similar units that fold into five triplet subunits. The goal of this experiment is to investigate how to make the 1-3MH protein more stable at the DNA level and generate a larger yield from DNA extractions for more effective transfections. This was accomplished by minorly changing the protocols for the DNA purification. Instead of using a standard column DNA purification kit, a crude DNA purification was done ...


Catalysis In Real Time Using X-Ray Lasers, A. Nilsson, Jerry L. LaRue, H. Öberg, H. Ogasawara, M. Dell’Angela, M. Beye, H. Öström, J. Gladh, J. K. Nørskov, W. Wurth, F. Abild-Pedersen, L. G. M. Pettersson 2017 Stockholm University

Catalysis In Real Time Using X-Ray Lasers, A. Nilsson, Jerry L. Larue, H. Öberg, H. Ogasawara, M. Dell’Angela, M. Beye, H. Öström, J. Gladh, J. K. Nørskov, W. Wurth, F. Abild-Pedersen, L. G. M. Pettersson

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

We describe how the unique temporal and spectral characteristics of X-ray free-electron lasers (XFEL) can be utilized to follow chemical transformations in heterogeneous catalysis in real time. We highlight the systematic study of CO oxidation on Ru(0001), which we initiate either using a femtosecond pulse from an optical laser or by activating only the oxygen atoms using a THz pulse. We find that CO is promoted into an entropy-controlled precursor state prior to desorbing when the surface is heated in the absence of oxygen, whereas in the presence of oxygen, CO desorbs directly into the gas phase. We monitor ...


Design Of Collagen-Mimetic Peptides, Parminder Jeet Kaur 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Design Of Collagen-Mimetic Peptides, Parminder Jeet Kaur

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Collagen is the major component of the extracellular matrix and is involved in a wide range of cellular functions during tissue development and action. At the core of the diverse functions of this versatile protein is its remarkable ability to form supramolecular structures through self-assembly and/or through interactions with other biomolecules. One typical example of such supramolecular structure is the fibrils of collagen types I, II and III of the connective tissues. These fibrils have staggered arrangement of the laterally associated collagen triple helices – the structural unit of collagen – to form long, smooth fibrils with a characteristic 67 nm ...


Safer Chemicals Design Diagrams, Longzhu Shen, Fjodor Melnikov, John Roethle, Aditya Gudibanda, Richard Judson, Julie Zimmerman, Paul Anastas 2017 Yale University

Safer Chemicals Design Diagrams, Longzhu Shen, Fjodor Melnikov, John Roethle, Aditya Gudibanda, Richard Judson, Julie Zimmerman, Paul Anastas

Yale Day of Data

The NRF2-ARE antioxidant pathway is an important biological sensing and regulating system that responds to chemical insults. At minute level, it protects a living species to go through hard environmental conditions. However, when the external disruption exceeds the inherent resilience, cellular damage can occur, eventually leading to cytotoxicity. Therefore, studying the likelihood of a chemical activating the NRF2-ARE pathway is interesting to discovering therapeutic agents and designing safer chemicals. In this research, we engaged a combination of computational chemistry, statistical learning and mechanistic toxicology to estimate the likelihood of a chemical to perturb this critical toxicological pathway and derive a ...


Infusion Of Essentail Oils In Agarose Gels To Create Antimicrobial Surfaces, Simran Guron 2017 Honors College, Pace University

Infusion Of Essentail Oils In Agarose Gels To Create Antimicrobial Surfaces, Simran Guron

Honors College Theses

The current use of antibiotics is very excessive in multiple settings, from treating patients to being present in cleaning products. This overuse of antibiotics is resulting in multiple consequences, ranging from having a negative impact on human health to breeding antibiotic-resistant strains of microorganisms. Antimicrobial surfaces are useful today to aid in sterilization, especially in the medical setting. This would help prevent the spread of infection of microorganisms in these settings. In our research, agarose acts as the antimicrobial surface and essential oils would act as the solution incorporated into the surface that has the antimicrobial properties. Agarose is a ...


Phage Display To Identify Functional Resistance Mutations To Rigosertib, Nedim Filipovic 2017 Claremont McKenna College

Phage Display To Identify Functional Resistance Mutations To Rigosertib, Nedim Filipovic

CMC Senior Theses

In vitro protein selection has had major impacts in the field of protein engineering. Traditional screens assay individual proteins for specific function. Selection, however, analyzes a pool of mutants and yields the best variants. Phage display, a successful selection technique, also provides a reliable link between variant phenotype and genotype. It can also be coupled with high throughput sequencing to map protein mutations; potentially highlighting vital mutations in variants. We propose to apply this technique to cancer therapy. RAF, a serine/threonine kinase, is critical for cell regulation in mammals. RAF can be activated by oncogenic RAS, found in over ...


Analysis Of Structural Stability Of Human Prosecretory Mitogenic Lacritin By Circular Dichroism, Casey Q. Ramirez Cortes, Anna P. Desmarais 2017 James Madison University

Analysis Of Structural Stability Of Human Prosecretory Mitogenic Lacritin By Circular Dichroism, Casey Q. Ramirez Cortes, Anna P. Desmarais

Senior Honors Projects, 2010-current

Purpose: Lacritin is a human tear glycoprotein that has high thermal stability. When cleaved, lacritin has antimicrobial activity resulting from the C-terminus amphipathic alpha helical region. The alpha helices contain three salt bridges; ionic bonds between neighboring oppositely charged amino acids. The purpose of this research was to investigate the hypothesis that the salt bridges within the alpha helices contribute to the high thermal stability.

Methods: To determine the role of salt bridges in the thermal stability of lacritin, point mutants were prepared for each salt bridge by site directed mutagenesis that replaced the oppositely charged amino acids with serine ...


How The E. Coli Hsp70 Molecular Chaperone, Dnak, Binds A Client Protein, Joseph Tilitsky 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

How The E. Coli Hsp70 Molecular Chaperone, Dnak, Binds A Client Protein, Joseph Tilitsky

Masters Theses

Protein folding is essential for all cellular life. While some proteins are able to reach their folded state reliably using nothing but their amino acid sequence, a great number of essential proteins are unable to do so without the aid of molecular chaperones. One family of molecular chaperone, the Hsp70 family, is found in virtually all cell types and across all domains of life. Certain to the function of Hsp70s are how they bind their client proteins. Substantial effort has been expended to study how Hsp70s work on model peptides as a substrate mimic, but relatively little work has been ...


A Computational Study Of Silver Doped Cdse Quantum Dots, Heather Gaebler 2017 Wilfrid Laurier University

A Computational Study Of Silver Doped Cdse Quantum Dots, Heather Gaebler

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

Due to quantum dot’s ability to emit photons when subjected to light of sufficient energy, they have become optimal candidates for biomedical research and for optoelectronic applications. Fascination towards quantum dots arises from the fact that their properties are easily fine-tuned through a variety of different techniques. Electronic doping is a popular technique used to control the properties of quantum dots through the addition of different elements.

Via density functional theory calculations, this work investigated how the structural energies and HOMO-LUMO gaps were altered by the addition of impurity atoms. First, interstitial and substitutional doping styles were investigated at ...


Assessment Of Short-Term Toxicity Of Titanium Dioxide Nano Fiber (Tdnf) In Sprague Dawley Rats, Daniel Hunter 2017 Georgia Southern University

Assessment Of Short-Term Toxicity Of Titanium Dioxide Nano Fiber (Tdnf) In Sprague Dawley Rats, Daniel Hunter

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Nanotechnology is easily becoming one of the fastest growing markets around the globe. Synthetic nanomaterials have many unique chemical and physical properties, mainly due to their huge specific surface area and chemical makeup. Specifically, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanomaterials have high stability, anticorrosive and photocatalytic properties. These nanomaterials have applications for semiconductor photocatalysis, treatment of water, as a photoactive material in nanocrystalline solar cells, and medicine. However, not much is known about the toxicity of TiO2 in the nanofiber form. The objective of the present study is to investigate the adverse effects associated with acute ingestion of TiO2 ...


The Future Of Nmr-Based Metabolomics, John L. Markley, Rafael Bruschweiler, Arthur S. Edison, Hamid R. Eghbalnia, Robert Powers, Daniel Raftery, David S. Wishart 2017 University of Wisconsin-Madison

The Future Of Nmr-Based Metabolomics, John L. Markley, Rafael Bruschweiler, Arthur S. Edison, Hamid R. Eghbalnia, Robert Powers, Daniel Raftery, David S. Wishart

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

The two leading analytical approaches to metabolomics are mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Although currently overshadowed by MS in terms of numbers of compounds resolved, NMR spectroscopy offers advantages both on its own and coupled with MS. NMR data are highly reproducible and quantitative over a wide dynamic range and are unmatched for determining structures of unknowns. NMR is adept at tracing metabolic pathways and fluxes using isotope labels. Moreover, NMR is non-destructive and can be utilized in vivo. NMR results have a proven track record of translating in vitro findings to in vivo clinical applications.


Amino Acid Catabolism In Staphylococcus Aureus And The Function Of Carbon Catabolite Repression, Cortney R. Halsey, Shulei Lei, Jacqueline K. Wax, Mckenzie K. Lehman, Austin S. Nuxoll, Laurey Steinke, Marat Sadykov, Robert Powers, Paul D. Fey 2017 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Amino Acid Catabolism In Staphylococcus Aureus And The Function Of Carbon Catabolite Repression, Cortney R. Halsey, Shulei Lei, Jacqueline K. Wax, Mckenzie K. Lehman, Austin S. Nuxoll, Laurey Steinke, Marat Sadykov, Robert Powers, Paul D. Fey

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Staphylococcus aureus must rapidly adapt to a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources during invasion of a host. Within a staphylococcal abscess, preferred carbon sources such as glucose are limiting, suggesting that S. aureus survives through the catabolism of secondary carbon sources. S. aureus encodes pathways to catabolize multiple amino acids, including those that generate pyruvate, 2-oxoglutarate, and oxaloacetate. To assess amino acid catabolism, S. aureus JE2 and mutants were grown in complete defined medium containing 18 amino acids but lacking glucose (CDM). A mutation in the gudB gene, coding for glutamate dehydrogenase, which generates 2-oxoglutarate from glutamate, significantly reduced ...


Fluorogenic Protein Labeling Using A Genetically Encoded Unstrained Alkene, Xin Shang, X. Song, C. Faller, R. Lai, H. Li, R. Cerny, Wei Niu, Jiantao Guo 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Fluorogenic Protein Labeling Using A Genetically Encoded Unstrained Alkene, Xin Shang, X. Song, C. Faller, R. Lai, H. Li, R. Cerny, Wei Niu, Jiantao Guo

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

We developed a new fluorogenic bioorthogonal reaction that is based on the inverse electron-demand Diels–Alder reaction between styrene (an unstrained alkene) and a simple tetrazine. The reaction forms a new fluorophore with no literature precedent. We have identified an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pair for the efficient and site-specific incorporation of a styrene-containing amino acid into proteins in response to amber nonsense codon. Fluorogenic labeling of purified proteins and intact proteins in live cells were demonstrated. The fluorogenicity of the styrene–tetrazine reaction can be potentially applied to the study of protein folding and function under physiological conditions with low ...


Fidelity Of Implementation: An Overlooked Yet Critical Construct To Establish Effectiveness Of Evidence-Based Instructional Practices, Marilyne Stains, Trisha Vickrey 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Fidelity Of Implementation: An Overlooked Yet Critical Construct To Establish Effectiveness Of Evidence-Based Instructional Practices, Marilyne Stains, Trisha Vickrey

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

The discipline-based education research (DBER) community has been invested in the research and development of evidence-based instructional practices (EBIPs) for decades. Unfortunately, investigations of the impact of EBIPs on student outcomes typically do not characterize instructors’ adherence to an EBIP, often assuming that implementation was as intended by developers. The validity of such findings is compromised, since positive or negative outcomes can be incorrectly attributed to an EBIP when other factors impacting implementation are often present. This methodological flaw can be overcome by developing measures to determine the fidelity of implementation (FOI) of an intervention, a construct extensively studied in ...


Fluorogenic Protein Labeling Using A Genetically Encoded Unstrained Alkene, X. Shang, X. Song, C. Faller, R. Lai, H. Li, Ronald Cerny, Wei Niu, Jiantao Guo 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Fluorogenic Protein Labeling Using A Genetically Encoded Unstrained Alkene, X. Shang, X. Song, C. Faller, R. Lai, H. Li, Ronald Cerny, Wei Niu, Jiantao Guo

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

We developed a new fluorogenic bioorthogonal reaction that is based on the inverse electron-demand Diels–Alder reaction between styrene (an unstrained alkene) and a simple tetrazine. The reaction forms a new fluorophore with no literature precedent. We have identified an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNA pair for the efficient and site-specific incorporation of a styrene-containing amino acid into proteins in response to amber nonsense codon. Fluorogenic labeling of purified proteins and intact proteins in live cells were demonstrated. The fluorogenicity of the styrene–tetrazine reaction can be potentially applied to the study of protein folding and function under physiological conditions with low ...


Cytotoxic Polyketides With An Oxygen-Bridged Cyclooctadiene Core Skeleton From The Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Phomosis Sp. A818, Wei Zhang, Baobing Zhao, Liangcheng Du, Yuemao Shen 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Cytotoxic Polyketides With An Oxygen-Bridged Cyclooctadiene Core Skeleton From The Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Phomosis Sp. A818, Wei Zhang, Baobing Zhao, Liangcheng Du, Yuemao Shen

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Plant endophytic microorganisms represent a largely untapped resource for new bioactive natural products. Eight polyketide natural products were isolated from a mangrove endophytic fungus Phomosis sp. A818. The structural elucidation of these compounds revealed that they share a distinct feature in their chemical structures, an oxygen-bridged cyclooctadiene core skeleton. The study on their structure–activity relationship showed that the α,β-unsaturated δ-lactone moiety, as exemplified in compounds 1 and 2, was critical to the cytotoxic activity of these compounds. In addition, compound 4 might be a potential agonist of AMPK (5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase).


Chemoselective Alteration Of Fluorophore Scaffolds As A Strategy For The Development Of Ratiometric Chemodosimeters, Xinqi Zhou, Lauren Lesiak, Rui Lai, Jon R. Beck, Jia Zhao, Christian Elowsky, Hui Li, Cliff I. Stains 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Chemoselective Alteration Of Fluorophore Scaffolds As A Strategy For The Development Of Ratiometric Chemodosimeters, Xinqi Zhou, Lauren Lesiak, Rui Lai, Jon R. Beck, Jia Zhao, Christian Elowsky, Hui Li, Cliff I. Stains

Faculty Publications -- Chemistry Department

Ratiometric sensors generally couple binding events or chemical reactions at a distal site to changes in the fluorescence of a core fluorophore scaffold. However, such approaches are often hindered by spectral overlap of the product and reactant species. We provide a strategy to design ratiometric sensors that display dramatic spectral shifts by leveraging the chemoselective reactivity of novel functional groups inserted within fluorophore scaffolds. As a proof-of-principle, fluorophores containing a borinate (RF620) or silanediol (SiOH2R) functionality at the bridging position of the xanthene ring system are developed as endogenous H2O2 sensors. Both these fluorophores display far-red ...


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