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Chemistry Of Toothpaste, Kayla Blanche Kirtley 2022 Taylor University

Chemistry Of Toothpaste, Kayla Blanche Kirtley

Chemistry & Biochemistry Student Projects

The chemistry of toothpaste is explained, with a description of the chemical components and their mode of action in the role of toothpaste.


Oxidation Of Thiols To Disulfides Using An Environmentally “Green” Organocatalyst And New Mechanistic Insights, Kosta V. Vlasakakis, Olivia M. White, Robert P. Reynolds, Shayne M. Weierbach, Shannon M. Weaver, Ramsey T. Ritter, Nishi H. Patel, Eric C. Hayes, Sydney Dunmire, Kyle M. Lambert 2022 Old Dominion University

Oxidation Of Thiols To Disulfides Using An Environmentally “Green” Organocatalyst And New Mechanistic Insights, Kosta V. Vlasakakis, Olivia M. White, Robert P. Reynolds, Shayne M. Weierbach, Shannon M. Weaver, Ramsey T. Ritter, Nishi H. Patel, Eric C. Hayes, Sydney Dunmire, Kyle M. Lambert

Undergraduate Research Symposium

The selective oxidation of thiols to disulfides is an area of great importance in the areas of materials and medicinal chemistry research. The production of polymers, rubber, pharmaceuticals, and the folding of proteins in biological systems all rely on the formation of disulfide bonds. Herein, we introduce a stoichiometric and electrocatalytic method for the oxidation of various pharmaceutically and biologically relevant thiols into their respective disulfides in more environmentally benign solvents such as water and alcohol solvents. The scope of the transformation was evaluated and a detailed mechanistic study involving control experiments, experimental kinetic studies, and computational investigations led to …


Synthesis And Evaluation Of 11c-Labeled Triazolones As Probes For Imaging Fatty Acid Synthase Expression By Positron Emission Tomography, James M. Kelly, Thomas M. Jeitner, Nicole N. Waterhouse, Wenchao Qu, Ethan J. Linstad, Banafshe Samani, Clarence Williams Jr., Anastasia Nikolopoulou, Alejandro Amor-Coarasa, Stephen G. DiMagno, John W. Babich 2022 Weill Cornell Medicine

Synthesis And Evaluation Of 11c-Labeled Triazolones As Probes For Imaging Fatty Acid Synthase Expression By Positron Emission Tomography, James M. Kelly, Thomas M. Jeitner, Nicole N. Waterhouse, Wenchao Qu, Ethan J. Linstad, Banafshe Samani, Clarence Williams Jr., Anastasia Nikolopoulou, Alejandro Amor-Coarasa, Stephen G. Dimagno, John W. Babich

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

Cancer cells require lipids to fulfill energetic, proliferative, and signaling requirements. Even though these cells can take up exogenous fatty acids, the majority exhibit a dependency on de novo fatty acid synthesis. Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is the rate-limiting enzyme in this process. Expression and activity of FASN is elevated in multiple cancers, where it correlates with disease progression and poor prognosis. These observations have sparked interest in developing methods of detecting FASN expression in vivo. One promising approach is the imaging of radiolabeled molecular probes targeting FASN by positron emission tomography (PET). However, although [11C]acetate uptake by …


Chemical Reversible Crosslinking Enables Measurement Of Rna 3d Distances And Alternative Conformations In Cells, Ryan Van Damme, Kongpan Li, Minjie Zhang, Jianhui Bai, Wilson H. Lee, Joseph D. Yesselman, Zhipeng Lu, Willem A. Velema 2022 University of Southern California,

Chemical Reversible Crosslinking Enables Measurement Of Rna 3d Distances And Alternative Conformations In Cells, Ryan Van Damme, Kongpan Li, Minjie Zhang, Jianhui Bai, Wilson H. Lee, Joseph D. Yesselman, Zhipeng Lu, Willem A. Velema

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

Three-dimensional (3D) structures dictate the functions of RNA molecules in a wide variety of biological processes. However, direct determination of RNA 3D structures in vivo is difficult due to their large sizes, conformational heterogeneity, and dynamics. Here we present a method, Spatial 2′-Hydroxyl Acylation Reversible Crosslinking (SHARC), which uses chemical crosslinkers of defined lengths to measure distances between nucleotides in cellular RNA. Integrating crosslinking, exonuclease (exo) trimming, proximity ligation, and high throughput sequencing, SHARC enables transcriptome-wide tertiary structure contact maps at high accuracy and precision, revealing heterogeneous RNA structures and interactions. SHARC data provide constraints that improves Rosetta-based RNA 3D …


Escherichia Coli Alanyl-Trna Synthetase Maintains Proofreading Activity And Translational Accuracy Under Oxidative Stress, Arundhati Kavoor, Paul Kelly, Michael Ibba 2022 The Ohio State University

Escherichia Coli Alanyl-Trna Synthetase Maintains Proofreading Activity And Translational Accuracy Under Oxidative Stress, Arundhati Kavoor, Paul Kelly, Michael Ibba

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs) are enzymes that synthesize aminoacyl-tRNAs to facilitate translation of the genetic code. Quality control by aaRS proofreading and other mechanisms maintains translational accuracy, which promotes cellular viability. Systematic disruption of proofreading, as recently demonstrated for alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS), leads to dysregulation of the proteome and reduced viability. Recent studies showed that environmental challenges such as exposure to reactive oxygen species can also alter aaRS synthetic and proofreading functions, prompting us to investigate if oxidation might positively or negatively affect AlaRS activity. We found that while oxidation leads to modification of several residues in Escherichia coli AlaRS, unlike …


Decomposition Of Organic Peroxides And Hydrogen Peroxide By The Iron Thiolates And Related Complexes, Patrick H. Dussault, Andrew Olson 2022 Lincoln , NE

Decomposition Of Organic Peroxides And Hydrogen Peroxide By The Iron Thiolates And Related Complexes, Patrick H. Dussault, Andrew Olson

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

Disclosed herein is a method of reducing or disproportionating peroxide, comprising combining an organic chalcogenide, an iron salt, and the peroxide in the presence of an additional reductant, which can be the organic chalcogenide. The method can be used to, e.g., prepare alcohols from peroxides and to disproportionate hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen.


Effects Of Long-Term Fluoride Exposure Are Associated With Oxidative Biochemistry Impairment And Global Proteomic Modulation, But Not Genotoxicity, In Parotid Glands Of Mice, Giza Hellen Nonato MirandaI, Leidiane Alencar de Oliveira Lima, Leonardo Oliveira Bittencourt, Sa´vio Monteiro dos Santos, Michel Platini Caldas de Souza, Lygia Sega Nogueira, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa de Oliveira, Marta Chagas Monteir, Aline Dionizio, Aline Lima Leite, Juliano Pelim Pessan, Juliano Pelim Pessan, Marı´lia Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf, Rafael Rodrigues LimaI 2022 Federal University of Para

Effects Of Long-Term Fluoride Exposure Are Associated With Oxidative Biochemistry Impairment And Global Proteomic Modulation, But Not Genotoxicity, In Parotid Glands Of Mice, Giza Hellen Nonato Mirandai, Leidiane Alencar De Oliveira Lima, Leonardo Oliveira Bittencourt, Sa´Vio Monteiro Dos Santos, Michel Platini Caldas De Souza, Lygia Sega Nogueira, Edivaldo Herculano Corrêa De Oliveira, Marta Chagas Monteir, Aline Dionizio, Aline Lima Leite, Juliano Pelim Pessan, Juliano Pelim Pessan, Marı´Lia Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf, Rafael Rodrigues Limai

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

Fluoride has become widely used in dentistry because of its effectiveness in caries control. However, evidence indicates that excessive intake interferes with the metabolic processes of different tissues. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of long-term exposure to F on the parotid salivary gland of mice, from the analysis of oxidative, proteomic and genotoxic parameters.

The animals received deionized water containing 0, 10 or 50 mg/L of F, as sodium fluoride, for 60 days. After, parotid glands were collected for analysis of oxidative biochemistry, global proteomic profile, genotoxicity assessment and histopathological analyses.

The results revealed that exposure to …


Methanol Decomposition On Ni(111) And O/Ni(111), Henrik Öström, Bingjie Zhang, Tiffany Vallejo, Bryn Merrill, Jeremy Huang, Jerry LaRue 2022 Stockholm University

Methanol Decomposition On Ni(111) And O/Ni(111), Henrik Öström, Bingjie Zhang, Tiffany Vallejo, Bryn Merrill, Jeremy Huang, Jerry Larue

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

Methanol decomposition on Ni(111) surfaces has been studied in the presence and absence of oxygen using temperature-programmed desorption and temperature-dependent sum frequency generation spectroscopy. Under both conditions the C–H and O–H bonds break, forming carbon monoxide and atomic hydrogen on the surface. No C–O bond scission was observed, limiting the number of reaction pathways. The O–H bonds break first (>150 K), forming surface methoxy, followed by C–H bond breakage (>250 K). All atomic hydrogen desorbs from the surface as H2 through H+H recombinative desorption. H2 desorbs at a higher temperature in the presence of oxygen (>300 K) …


Web-Based Platform For Analysis Of Rna Folding From High Throughput Chemical Probing Data, Christopher Jurich, Amir Brivanlou, Silvi Rouskin, Joseph D. Yesselman 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Web-Based Platform For Analysis Of Rna Folding From High Throughput Chemical Probing Data, Christopher Jurich, Amir Brivanlou, Silvi Rouskin, Joseph D. Yesselman

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

RNA structures play critical roles in regulating gene expression across all domains of life and viruses. Chemical probing methods coupled with massively parallel sequencing have revolutionized the RNA structure field by enabling the assessment of many structures in their native, physiological context. Previously, we developed Dimethyl-Sulfate-based Mutational Profiling and Sequencing (DMS-MaPseq), which uses DMS to label the Watson-Crick face of open and accessible adenine and cytosine bases in the RNA. We used this approach to determine the genome-wide structures of HIV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 in infected cells, which permitted uncovering new biology and identifying therapeutic targets. Due to the simplicity and …


Peptidomics Analysis Reveals Changes In Small Urinary Peptides In Patients With Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome, Md Shadman Ridwan Abid, Haowen Qiu, Bridget Tripp, Aline De Lima Leite, Heidi E. Roth, Jiri Adamec, Robert Powers, James W. Checco 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Peptidomics Analysis Reveals Changes In Small Urinary Peptides In Patients With Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome, Md Shadman Ridwan Abid, Haowen Qiu, Bridget Tripp, Aline De Lima Leite, Heidi E. Roth, Jiri Adamec, Robert Powers, James W. Checco

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a chronic and debilitating pain disorder of the bladder and urinary tract with poorly understood etiology. A definitive diagnosis of IC/BPS can be challenging because many symptoms are shared with other urological disorders. An analysis of urine presents an attractive and non-invasive resource for monitoring and diagnosing IC/BPS. The antiproliferative factor (APF) peptide has been previously identified in the urine of IC/BPS patients and is a proposed biomarker for the disorder. Nevertheless, other small urinary peptides have remained uninvestigated in IC/BPS primarily because protein biomarker discovery efforts employ protocols that remove small endogenous peptides. …


Esipt-Enabled Alkyne Migration Provides Rapid Access To Benzoxazinones, Andrés G. Muñoz 2022 University of Denver

Esipt-Enabled Alkyne Migration Provides Rapid Access To Benzoxazinones, Andrés G. Muñoz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Benozoxazinones have long been of interest to agrochemical scientists and medicinal chemists because of their widespread biological activity. These scaffolds are also of interest to synthetic chemists, who recognize the utility of benzoxazinones for accessing functionalized heterocycles. The use of efavirenz, a benzoxazinone-based reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in the treatment of HIV-1, has brought increased attention to this privileged pharmacophore. While there exist numerous strategies for synthesizing benzoxazinones, methods that do not require the use of acutely toxic and environmentally hazardous reagents are lacking. Consequently, there is a need to develop new methods for constructing this valuable scaffold. Herein, we …


Dynamics And Turnover Of Lipid And Protein Domains In Cells And Supported Bilayers, Alan Weisgerber 2022 University of Denver

Dynamics And Turnover Of Lipid And Protein Domains In Cells And Supported Bilayers, Alan Weisgerber

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Protein and lipid clustering is an important mechanism for cell processes such as exo- and endo-cytosis and creating functional signaling complexes. It has been seen that both lipids and proteins are involved with the formation of cluster domains on cell membranes, yet little is known about the interplay between the two. In this work I began with visualizing lipid sorting to artificially induced curvature in supported lipid bilayers, with lipid tails affecting the sorting differently to curvature. These results demonstrate that lipids sort to curvature on curved, supported lipid bilayers. The sorting depends on the number of lipids in the …


Electron Spin Relaxation Of Nitroxide Spin Labels And Relaxation Processes, Thacien Ngendahimana 2022 University of Denver

Electron Spin Relaxation Of Nitroxide Spin Labels And Relaxation Processes, Thacien Ngendahimana

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

MTSL is the nitroxide spin label that is most commonly used in site-directed spin labeling. However, due to rotation of its gem-dimethyl groups that average anisotropic interactions, Tm becomes short above about 70 K and this makes DEER experiments difficult at these temperatures. Strategies for decreasing spin echo dephasing and electron spin lattice relaxation rates are important for design of nitroxide spin labels and molecular qubits.

In searching for labels with longer Tm, new nitroxide spin labels devoid of gemdimethyl groups or with more rigid structures were synthesized at the University of Nebraska and pulsed EPR measurements …


Inhibitors Of Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation, Jemil Ahmed 2022 University of Denver

Inhibitors Of Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation, Jemil Ahmed

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Alpha-Synuclein (αS) – a neuronal, disordered, presynaptic protein – aggregates into amyloid fibrils and accumulates in the substantia nigra pars compacta of Parkinson's Disease (PD) patients. The aggregation and accumulation of αS amyloid fibrils leads to death of dopaminergic neurons; a hallmark of PD. Although it’s not clear why αS aggregates, prior studies have found that intrastriatal injection of fibril alone is sufficient to cause PD pathology in mouse and non-human primates models. These observations implicate αS as a therapeutic target against PD.

Unfortunately, there are three caveats when attempting to target αS. First, αS is a neuronal protein expressed …


Binding Interactions Between Mixed-Monlayer Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles (Aunps) And The Serum Protein Albumin, Jennifer Hanigan-Diebel 2022 Central Washington University

Binding Interactions Between Mixed-Monlayer Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles (Aunps) And The Serum Protein Albumin, Jennifer Hanigan-Diebel

All Master's Theses

This study investigated the protein adsorption interactions of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with three different functionalized 5 nm gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in order to determine the binding affinity and total amount of protein adsorbed to each AuNP surface chemistry. AuNPs were synthesized using two different capping agents to display three different surface chemistries: a neutral ω-functionalized thiol ligand (mercapto-ethoxy-ethoxy-ethanol, MEEE), a thiol ligand that is negatively charged at pH 7.4 (mercaptohexanoic acid, MHA), and a mixture of the two ligands (mixed-ligand AuNPs). The interactions of this library of AuNPs with bovine serum albumin (BSA) were investigated using UV-visible absorbance spectroscopy, …


Developing A New Treatment For Superficial Fungal Infection Using Antifungal Collagen-Hsaf Dressing, Jing zhong, Xiayi Yan, Xin Zuo, Xuan Zhao, Jiahui Yang, Qin Dou, Lulu Peng, Yuxiang Zhu, Yichen Xiao, Zeran Bian, Dalian He, Qiushuang Xu, Stephen Wright, Yaoyao Li, Liangcheng Du, Yan Wang, Jin Yuan 2022 Sun Yat-sen University

Developing A New Treatment For Superficial Fungal Infection Using Antifungal Collagen-Hsaf Dressing, Jing Zhong, Xiayi Yan, Xin Zuo, Xuan Zhao, Jiahui Yang, Qin Dou, Lulu Peng, Yuxiang Zhu, Yichen Xiao, Zeran Bian, Dalian He, Qiushuang Xu, Stephen Wright, Yaoyao Li, Liangcheng Du, Yan Wang, Jin Yuan

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

Fungal pathogens are common causes of superficial clinical infection. Their increasing drug resistance gradually makes existing antifungal drugs ineffective. Heat stable antifungal factor (HSAF) is a novel antifungal natural product with a unique structure. However, the application of HSAF has been hampered by very low yield in the current microbial producers and from extremely poor solubility in water and common solvents. In this study, we developed an effective mode of treatment applying HSAF to superficial fungal infections. The marine-derived Lysobacter enzymogenes YC36 contains the HSAF biosynthetic gene cluster, which we activated by the interspecific signaling molecule indole. An efficient extraction …


Advancing Competency In Managing Risk And Knowledge: Steps Toward Operationalisation Of The Risk-Knowledge Infinity Cycle (Rki Cycle) - Part 1: Improving Effectiveness Of Risk-Based Decision Making (Rbdm), Martin Lipa, Paige Kane, Anne Green 2022 Pharmaceutical Regulatory Science Team (PRST)

Advancing Competency In Managing Risk And Knowledge: Steps Toward Operationalisation Of The Risk-Knowledge Infinity Cycle (Rki Cycle) - Part 1: Improving Effectiveness Of Risk-Based Decision Making (Rbdm), Martin Lipa, Paige Kane, Anne Green

Articles

To date, literature on the Risk-Knowledge Infinity Cycle (RKI Cycle) has mainly been theoretical. This paper series intent is to focus on the operationalisation of the RKI Cycle by describing a series of steps – the “How to” – for RKI Cycle deployment, to help move the RKI Cycle from theory to practice. The first paper in this series focuses on how the RKI Cycle can support effective Risk-Based Decision Making (RBDM).


Analysis Of Blue Fountain Pen Ink By Uv-Vis Spectroscopy, Atr-Ftir Spectroscopy, And Thin Layer Chromatography Enhanced With Rgb Spot Evaluation To Construct A Database For Comparison And Identification., Elliot D. Quinteros 2022 CUNY City College

Analysis Of Blue Fountain Pen Ink By Uv-Vis Spectroscopy, Atr-Ftir Spectroscopy, And Thin Layer Chromatography Enhanced With Rgb Spot Evaluation To Construct A Database For Comparison And Identification., Elliot D. Quinteros

Dissertations and Theses

Pen ink can be a crucial piece of physical evidence in the area of Forensic Science. For example, evidence such as notes, letters, printed documents, checks, currency, ransom notes, and books may contain ink. Analysis of ink is typically done for identification or differentiation purposes. To improve existing methods, it was proposed to create a database with many samples and experimental information. The methods used and evaluated were thin-layer chromatography (TLC) enhanced with RGB spot evaluation, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. All three methods were used to analyze 89 fountain pen ink samples. All three methods were able to discriminate …


Analysis Of Forensically Relevant Evidence Using Electrochemistry, Spectroscopy, And Mass Spectrometry Tools, Colby Edward Ott 2022 West Virginia University

Analysis Of Forensically Relevant Evidence Using Electrochemistry, Spectroscopy, And Mass Spectrometry Tools, Colby Edward Ott

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Forensic science relies on the use of multiple techniques in the assessment of evidence to increase the accuracy and reliability of the results. However, with the rapidly changing drug landscape due to the introduction of novel psychoactive substances, many traditional screening methods are no longer sensitive or selective enough for use. Additionally, many screening methods such as chemical color tests are prone to false positive and negative results and are subjective. Therefore, the goal of this dissertation was to develop a novel analytical scheme that can provide a more efficient, rapid, and sensitive method that will facilitate adoption in the …


Identifying And Minimizing Sources Of Variability Within Modern Spectroscopic Techniques For The Forensic Analysis Of Glass, Oriana Christy Ovide 2022 West Virginia University

Identifying And Minimizing Sources Of Variability Within Modern Spectroscopic Techniques For The Forensic Analysis Of Glass, Oriana Christy Ovide

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Broken glass is a trace material frequently found at crime scenes such as hit-and-runs, burglaries, assaults, and homicides. Existing research encompassing the forensic analysis of glass evidence is vast. Published studies cover the analysis and interpretation of various types of glass. However, organizations such as the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), National Institute of Standards and Technology Organization of Scientific Area Committees (NIST-OSAC), and American Society of Trace Evidence Examiners (ASTEE) continue to identify glass-specific research needs to strengthen the scientific foundations of the field. Current gaps within the forensic glass community involve understanding modern glass formulations, re-evaluating the performance …


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