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On The Boundary Of The Cosmos, Daniel Linford 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

On The Boundary Of The Cosmos, Daniel Linford

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

Intuitively, the totality of physical reality – the Cosmos – has a beginning only if (i) all parts of the Cosmos agree on the direction of time (the Direction Condition) and (ii) there is a boundary to the past of all non-initial spacetime points such that there are no spacetime points to the past of the boundary (the Boundary Condition). Following a distinction previously introduced by J. Brian Pitts, the Boundary Condition can be conceived of in two distinct ways: either topologically, i.e., in terms of a closed boundary, or metrically, i.e., in terms of the Cosmos having a finite …


Differential Membrane Binding Of Α/Β-Peptide Foldamers: Implications For Cellular Delivery And Mitochondrial Targeting, Tzong-Hsien Lee, James W. Checco, Tess Malcolm, Chelcie H. Eller, Ronald T. Raines, Samuel H. Gellman, Erinna F. Lee, W. Douglas Fairlie, Marie-Isabel Aguilar 2023 Monash University

Differential Membrane Binding Of Α/Β-Peptide Foldamers: Implications For Cellular Delivery And Mitochondrial Targeting, Tzong-Hsien Lee, James W. Checco, Tess Malcolm, Chelcie H. Eller, Ronald T. Raines, Samuel H. Gellman, Erinna F. Lee, W. Douglas Fairlie, Marie-Isabel Aguilar

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

The intrinsic pathway of apoptosis is regulated by the Bcl-2 family of proteins. Inhibition of the anti-apoptotic members represents a strategy to induce apoptotic cell death in cancer cells. We have measured the membrane binding properties of a series of peptides, including modified α/β-peptides, designed to exhibit enhanced membrane permeability to allow cell entry and improved access for engagement of Bcl-2 family members. The peptide cargo is based on the pro-apoptotic protein Bim, which interacts with all anti-apoptotic proteins to initiate apoptosis. The α/β-peptides contained cyclic β-amino acid residues designed to increase their stability and membrane-permeability. Dual polarisation interferometry was …


Dinitroxides In Rapid Scan Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging, Lukas B. Woodcock 2023 University of Denver

Dinitroxides In Rapid Scan Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging, Lukas B. Woodcock

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Local tissue physiology is an important parameter in understanding disease behavior. Rapid Scan (RS) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) offers a unique, non-invasive tool for investigation of these so-called microenvironments through EPR Imaging (EPRI). Research into advancement of EPRI falls into many categories. Not least among those are advances in instrumentation and methodology. Presented here are updates to a benchtop EPRI instrument operating at 1 GHz targeted at pre-clinical EPRI applications. Newly developed methods for reducing RS-EPR background through inversion of the magnetic field are also demonstrated. EPR applications are limited in native biological systems due to the miniscule concentration of …


From Waste To Energy: The Electrochemical Reduction Of Co2 Using Recycled Nanostructured Catalysts, Ibrahim Badawy 2023 American University in Cairo

From Waste To Energy: The Electrochemical Reduction Of Co2 Using Recycled Nanostructured Catalysts, Ibrahim Badawy

Theses and Dissertations

The reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2RR) using electrochemistry is a promising solution for the burgeoning global energy crisis. The overall vision of its implementation relies on renewable energy sources to power the reaction creating carbon neutral products and effectively closing the carbon cycle. Research in this field has come a long way since its inception in the mid-1900s. However, there remain significant hurdles and important considerations to overcome in order to reach full commercialization. Most electrocatalysts tested for CO2RR have been designed solely for maximum performance while ignoring the environmental consequences if such a material were …


Temperature-Pressure Phase Diagram Of Confined Monolayer Water/Ice At First-Principles Accuracy With A Machine-Learning Force Field, Bo Lin, Jian Jiang, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Lei Li 2023 Southern University of Science and Technology

Temperature-Pressure Phase Diagram Of Confined Monolayer Water/Ice At First-Principles Accuracy With A Machine-Learning Force Field, Bo Lin, Jian Jiang, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Lei Li

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

Understanding the phase behaviour of nanoconfined water films is of fundamental importance in broad fields of science and engineering. However, the phase behaviour of the thinnest water film – monolayer water – is still incompletely known. Here, we developed a machine-learning force field (MLFF) at first-principles accuracy to determine the phase diagram of monolayer water/ice in nanoconfinement with hydrophobic walls. We observed the spontaneous formation of two previously unreported high-density ices, namely, zigzag quasi-bilayer ice (ZZ-qBI) and branched-zigzag quasi-bilayer ice (bZZ-qBI). Unlike conventional bilayer ices, few inter-layer hydrogen bonds were observed in both quasi-bilayer ices. Notably, the bZZ-qBI entails a …


Stepwise Assembly Of Quinary Multivariate Metal−Organic Frameworks Via Diversified Linker Exchange And Installation, Yuchen Hu, Xin Zhang, Rebecca Shu Hui Khoo, Christian Fiankor, Xu Zhang, Jian Zhang 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Stepwise Assembly Of Quinary Multivariate Metal−Organic Frameworks Via Diversified Linker Exchange And Installation, Yuchen Hu, Xin Zhang, Rebecca Shu Hui Khoo, Christian Fiankor, Xu Zhang, Jian Zhang

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

Multivariate MOFs (MTV-MOFs) constructed from multiple components with atomistic precision hold the promise for many fascinating developments in both fundamental sciences and applications. Sequential linker installation can be an effective method to introduce different functional linkers into an MOF that contains coordinatively unsaturated metal sites. However, in many cases, these linkers must be installed according to a specific sequence and the complete synthetic flexibility and freedom is yet to be realized. Here, we rationally decreased the size of the primary ligand used in NPF-300, a Zr-MOF with scu topology (NPF = Nebraska Porous Framework), and synthesized its isostructure, NPF-320. NPF-320 …


Long-Term Degradation Mechanisms In Application-Implemented Radical Thin Films, Ewa Malgorzata Nowik-Boltyk, Tobias Junghoefer, Mathias Glaser, Erika Giangrisostomi, Ruslan Ovsyannikov, Shuyang Zhang, Chan Shu, Andrzej Rajca, Arrigo Calzolari, M. Benedetta Casu 2023 University of Tübingen

Long-Term Degradation Mechanisms In Application-Implemented Radical Thin Films, Ewa Malgorzata Nowik-Boltyk, Tobias Junghoefer, Mathias Glaser, Erika Giangrisostomi, Ruslan Ovsyannikov, Shuyang Zhang, Chan Shu, Andrzej Rajca, Arrigo Calzolari, M. Benedetta Casu

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

Blatter radical derivatives are very attractive due to their potential applications, ranging from batteries to quantum technologies. In this work, we focus on the latest insights regarding the fundamental mechanisms of radical thin film (long-term) degradation, by comparing two Blatter radical derivatives. We find that the interaction with different contaminants (such as atomic H, Ar, N, and O and molecular H2, N2, O2, H2O, and NH2) affects the chemical and magnetic properties of the thin films upon air exposure. Also, the radical-specific site, where the contaminant interaction takes place, plays …


Structural Integrity And Stability Of Dna In Ionic Liquid And Near-Infrared Indolizine Squaraine Dye, Ember Yeji Suh 2023 University of Mississippi

Structural Integrity And Stability Of Dna In Ionic Liquid And Near-Infrared Indolizine Squaraine Dye, Ember Yeji Suh

Honors Theses

Luminol, the most common presumptive test for blood at a crime scene, has multiple issues, such as false positive results with chemical agents, no luminescence due to “active oxygen” cleaning agents on bloodstains, and inability to penetrate textile materials. A combination of indolizine squaraine dye and ionic liquid (IL), or Dye Enhanced Textile Emission for Crime Tracking (DETECT), have shown potential to address these issues. The purpose of this study was to assess the binding mechanism of CG (1:1) and SO3SQ dye to HSA and how the mechanism can explain the W214 fluorescence quenching effect and to determine …


Photodynamic Therapy Agents: The Power Of Mjöllnir To Eradicate Cancer, Sidney M. Hopper 2023 Georgia Southern University

Photodynamic Therapy Agents: The Power Of Mjöllnir To Eradicate Cancer, Sidney M. Hopper

Honors College Theses

After its discovery back in the 1900s, photosensitizers became a critical study for potential treatments and cures for medical issues, including cancer. It was discovered that porphyrins appeared to target and accumulate in proliferating cells, and to reach the cells, a certain wavelength of light with maximum absorbance associated with the porphyrin was necessary to achieve cell death. Photodynamic therapy involves making use of porphyrins or metalloporphyrins as activators when exposed to such light. When activated, these compounds generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as HO- or O2-, which can react with nucleic acids found in DNA and RNA. In …


The Impact Of Glacial Proximity On The Elemental Composition Of Leachate Derived From Sediment Weathering, Karoline Ford 2023 University of Nebraska at Omaha

The Impact Of Glacial Proximity On The Elemental Composition Of Leachate Derived From Sediment Weathering, Karoline Ford

Theses/Capstones/Creative Projects

This study assesses chemical weathering trends as they relate to glacial retreat. The chemical environment of surfaces exposed to the atmosphere differs significantly from beneath a glacier. As a glacier melts, changes to the biogeochemical processes generate environmental gradients. This study analyzed chemical weathering signals at different distances from a glacial front by comparing the elemental composition of leachate derived from sediments in southeastern Greenland. Samples from proglacial, nonglacial, and moraine locations were weathered in a laboratory setting, and ion chromatography was used to determine the elemental composition of the products. Divergent trends in leachate composition were observed as distance …


Survey Of The Performance Of 5 Nm Gold Nanoparticles Within An Ssdna-Stabilized Biosensor For The Detection Of Hg2+, Madalyn Zagajowski 2023 Olivet Nazarene University

Survey Of The Performance Of 5 Nm Gold Nanoparticles Within An Ssdna-Stabilized Biosensor For The Detection Of Hg2+, Madalyn Zagajowski

Honors Program Projects

The formation of a fluorescent biosensor complex consisting of 5 nm diameter gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) was conducted using a low-cost, efficient binding method. The analytical potential for the complex to detect mercuric ions (Hg2+) in an aqueous solution was assessed through the collection of UV-vis and fluorescence spectrometry data for the AuNP-ssDNA complex. The researcher aimed to investigate this potential in case the nanoparticles formed utilizing this method were too small to result in detectable fluorescence. To eliminate this possibility, the complex synthesized from this specific method was qualitatively evaluated to determine if it …


Impact Of Cover Crop Species Diversity On Soil Nutrient Availability And Crop Productivity, Amanda Kramer 2023 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Impact Of Cover Crop Species Diversity On Soil Nutrient Availability And Crop Productivity, Amanda Kramer

Masters Theses

Cover crops provide multiple environmental benefits that improve both soil and water quality; however, farmers only utilize them on approximately 5% of harvested U.S. cropland. Low adoption rates are attributed to yield impact concerns, seed and planting costs, and lack of advocacy. This study, which began in October 2019, assessed the effects of nitrogen rate and cover crop diversity on weed biomass, soil coverage, in-situ residue decomposition, soil nitrogen and phosphorus availability, and cash crop yield to better understand the costs and benefits of cover crop adoption at two locations in Tennessee (Milan and Spring Hill). Treatments were replicated 4 …


Survey Of The Performance Of 5 Nm Gold Nanoparticles Within An Ssdna-Stabilized Biosensor For The Detection Of Hg2+, Madalyn Zagajowski 2023 Olivet Nazarene University

Survey Of The Performance Of 5 Nm Gold Nanoparticles Within An Ssdna-Stabilized Biosensor For The Detection Of Hg2+, Madalyn Zagajowski

Scholar Week 2016 - present

The formation of a fluorescent biosensor complex consisting of 5 nm diameter gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) was conducted using a low-cost, efficient binding method. Furthermore, we assessed the analytical potential for the complex to detect mercury ions (Hg2+) in an aqueous solution upon collection of UV-vis and fluorescence spectrometry data for the AuNP-ssDNA complex. We aimed to investigate this potential due to the possibility that the nanoparticles formed utilizing this method would produce nanoparticles of too small a size to result in detectable fluorescence, thus the complex synthesized from this specific method was qualitatively evaluated …


Nanoscale Imaging Of Electrocatalytic Nanomaterials By High-Resolution Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy, Xiang Wang 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Nanoscale Imaging Of Electrocatalytic Nanomaterials By High-Resolution Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy, Xiang Wang

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Numerous insights of the structure–electrochemical activity relationship of nanocatalysts have been obtained by using macroscopic electrochemical measurements over the last several decades. However, signals measured by large electrodes are inevitably averaged out of many nanocatalysts, non-uniformed sizes, uneven morphologies, and multiple crystallographic facets. Over the last ten years, Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (SECM) has advanced electrochemical measurements toward micro- to nanoscale level at a high spatial resolution. The advantages of using nanoelectrode in SECM include fast mass transfer of reactive species, dominated radial diffusion pattern, small double layer capacitance and small RC constant. In this thesis, high-resolution SECM is applied to …


Ultra-Fast Bioorthogonal Spin-Labeling And Distance Measurements In Mammalian Cells Using Small, Genetically Encoded Tetrazine Amino Acids, Subhashis Jana, Eric G. B. Evans, Hyo Sang Jang, Shuyang Zhang, Hui Zhang, Andrzej Rajca, Sharona E. Gordon, William N. Zagotta, Stefan Stoll, Ryan A. Mehl 2023 Oregon State University

Ultra-Fast Bioorthogonal Spin-Labeling And Distance Measurements In Mammalian Cells Using Small, Genetically Encoded Tetrazine Amino Acids, Subhashis Jana, Eric G. B. Evans, Hyo Sang Jang, Shuyang Zhang, Hui Zhang, Andrzej Rajca, Sharona E. Gordon, William N. Zagotta, Stefan Stoll, Ryan A. Mehl

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

Studying protein structures and dynamics directly in the cellular environments in which they function is essential to fully understand the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular processes. Site-directed spin-labeling (SDSL)—in combination with double electron–electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy—has emerged as a powerful technique for determining both the structural states and the conformational equilibria of biomacromolecules. In-cell DEER spectroscopy on proteins in mammalian cells has thus far not been possible due to the notable challenges of spin-labeling in live cells. In-cell SDSL requires exquisite biorthogonality, high labeling reaction rates and low background signal from unreacted residual spin label. While the bioorthogonal reaction must be …


Data Set For "Atmospheric Aging Of Combustion-Derived Particles: Impact On Stable Free Radical Concentration And Its Ability To Produce Reactive Oxygen Species In Aqueous Media", Brian Majestic, Heather L. Runberg 2023 University of Denver

Data Set For "Atmospheric Aging Of Combustion-Derived Particles: Impact On Stable Free Radical Concentration And Its Ability To Produce Reactive Oxygen Species In Aqueous Media", Brian Majestic, Heather L. Runberg

Chemistry and Biochemistry: Data Sets

Environmentally persistent free radicals (EPFR) are an emerging pollutant found in soot particles. Understanding how these change as they move through the atmosphere is important to human health. Here, soot was generated in the laboratory and exposed to simulated sunlight. The concentrations and characteristics of EPFR in the soot was recorded. Additionally, formation of hydroxyl radical from the photoactivated soot was measured.


Exploring The Complementarity Of Measures Of Instructional Practices, Lu Shi, Robert M. Erdmann, Anthony Pellegrini, Victoria Johnson, Binh Le, Trina Popple, Zachary Nelson, Molly Undersander Gaston, Marilyne Stains 2023 University of Virginia

Exploring The Complementarity Of Measures Of Instructional Practices, Lu Shi, Robert M. Erdmann, Anthony Pellegrini, Victoria Johnson, Binh Le, Trina Popple, Zachary Nelson, Molly Undersander Gaston, Marilyne Stains

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

The assessment of instructional quality has been and continues to be a desirable, yet difficult endeavor in higher education. The development of new teaching evaluation frameworks along with instruments to measure various aspects of teaching practices holds promise. The challenge rests in the implementation of these frameworks and measures in authentic settings. Part of this challenge is for instructors, researchers, and administrators to parse through and select a meaningful set of tools from the plethora of existing instruments. In this study, we aim to start clarifying the landscape of measures of instructional practice by exploring the complementarity of two existing …


Progress In 7sk Ribonucleoprotein Structural Biology, Momodou B. Camara, Amr M. Sobeh, Catherine D. Eichhorn 2023 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Progress In 7sk Ribonucleoprotein Structural Biology, Momodou B. Camara, Amr M. Sobeh, Catherine D. Eichhorn

Chemistry Department: Faculty Publications

The 7SK ribonucleoprotein (RNP) is a dynamic and multifunctional regulator of RNA Polymerase II (RNAPII) transcription in metazoa. Comprised of the noncoding 7SK RNA, core proteins, and numerous accessory proteins, the most wellknown 7SK RNP function is the sequestration and inactivation of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). More recently, 7SK RNP has been shown to regulate RNAPII transcription through P-TEFb-independent pathways. Due to its fundamental role in cellular function, dysregulation has been linked with human diseases including cancers, heart disease, developmental disorders, and viral infection. Significant advances in 7SK RNP structural biology have improved our understanding of 7SK …


Enhancing The Forensic Comparison Process Of Common Trace Materials Through The Development Of Practical And Systematic Methods, Meghan Nicole Prusinowski 2023 West Virginia University

Enhancing The Forensic Comparison Process Of Common Trace Materials Through The Development Of Practical And Systematic Methods, Meghan Nicole Prusinowski

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

An ongoing advancement in forensic trace evidence has driven the development of new and objective methods for comparing various materials. While many standard guides have been published for use in trace laboratories, different areas require a more comprehensive understanding of error rates and an urgent need for harmonizing methods of examination and interpretation. Two critical areas are the forensic examination of physical fits and the comparison of spectral data, which depend highly on the examiner’s judgment.

The long-term goal of this study is to advance and modernize the comparative process of physical fit examinations and spectral interpretation. This goal is …


Feasibility Studies For Use Of Copper Slag In Clinker Manufacture, Suresh Vanguri, Suresh Palla, Gonthi Prasad, Sanjeev Kumar Chaturvedi, Bibekananda Mohapatra 2022 National Council for Cement and Building Materials, Ballabhgarh, Faridabad, Haryana 121004, India

Feasibility Studies For Use Of Copper Slag In Clinker Manufacture, Suresh Vanguri, Suresh Palla, Gonthi Prasad, Sanjeev Kumar Chaturvedi, Bibekananda Mohapatra

Makara Journal of Science

This study investigated the feasibility of using copper slag (CS-C) as a raw material in the production of Portland cement (PC). The effect of addition of 0%-3.5% CS-C on the clinkerization process, mineralogy, microstructure, and compressive strength development was studied. The Presence of CS-C in the raw mix resulted in the reduced temperature of clinkerization by about 50 °C. The quality of clinker prepared from the raw mix containing 3% CS-C and burned at 1400 °C was comparable to that of clinker prepared from the raw mix containing no CS-C and burned at 1450 °C. Gradual polymorphic modification of alite …


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