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Veterinary Toxicology and Pharmacology Commons

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379 full-text articles. Page 4 of 7.

(S)-5-Ethynyl-Anabasine, A Novel Compound, Is A More Potent Agonist Than Other Nicotine Alkaloids On The Nematode Asu-Acr-16 Receptor, Fudan Zheng, Xiangwei Du, Tsung-Han Chou, Alan P. Robertson, Edward W. Yu, Brett VanVeller, Richard J. Martin 2017 Iowa State University

(S)-5-Ethynyl-Anabasine, A Novel Compound, Is A More Potent Agonist Than Other Nicotine Alkaloids On The Nematode Asu-Acr-16 Receptor, Fudan Zheng, Xiangwei Du, Tsung-Han Chou, Alan P. Robertson, Edward W. Yu, Brett Vanveller, Richard J. Martin

Chemistry Publications

Nematode parasites infect ∼2 billion people world-wide. Infections are treated and prevented by anthelmintic drugs, some of which act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). There is an unmet need for novel therapeutic agents because of concerns about the development of resistance. We have selected Asu-ACR-16 from a significant nematode parasite genus, Ascaris suum, as a pharmaceutical target and nicotine as our basic moiety (EC50 6.21 ± 0.56 μM, Imax 82.39 ± 2.52%) to facilitate the development of more effective anthelmintics.

We expressed Asu-ACR-16 in Xenopus oocytes and used two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology to determine agonist concentration-current-response relationships and ...


Efflux Pump Overexpression Contributes To Tigecycline Heteroresistance In Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium, Yi Chen, Daxing Hu, Qijing Zhang, Xiao-Ping Liao, Ya-Hong Liu, Jian Sun 2017 South China Agricultural University

Efflux Pump Overexpression Contributes To Tigecycline Heteroresistance In Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium, Yi Chen, Daxing Hu, Qijing Zhang, Xiao-Ping Liao, Ya-Hong Liu, Jian Sun

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Bacterial heteroresistance has been identified in several combinations of bacteria and antibiotics, and it complicated the therapeutic strategies. Tigecycline is being used as one of the optimal options for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Salmonella. This study investigated whether heterorresistance to tigecycline exists in a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain harboring the oqxAB-bearing IncHI2 plasmid pHXY0908. MIC and population analyses were performed to evaluate population-wide susceptibility to tigecycline. The effects of efflux pumps on MIC levels were assessed using the efflux pump inhibitor Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide, measuring intracellular tigecycline accumulation as well as mRNA levels of regulatory and efflux ...


Physiological Changes Associated With Pregnant Or Nonpregnant Mares Grazing Pastures Of Orchardgrass-Bluegrass, Kentucky 31 Tall Fescue Infected With Epichloë Coenophiala, Or Kyfa9821 Tall Fescue Infected With The Novel Endophyte Ar584, Victoria A. Taylor 2017 University of Kentucky

Physiological Changes Associated With Pregnant Or Nonpregnant Mares Grazing Pastures Of Orchardgrass-Bluegrass, Kentucky 31 Tall Fescue Infected With Epichloë Coenophiala, Or Kyfa9821 Tall Fescue Infected With The Novel Endophyte Ar584, Victoria A. Taylor

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Kentucky 31 tall fescue (KY31) infected with the common toxic endophyte strains of Epichloё coenophiala produces toxic alkaloids that improve plant vigor, but cause numerous adverse effects in grazing animals. Researchers developed a variety of KY31 containing an alternative strain of E. coenophiala, termed novel endophyte (NE). Adverse health effects in mares have not been evaluated.

Experiments in this thesis tested the hypothesis that the NE pasture does not cause adverse effects typically associated with KY31. Specific aims were to: 1) compare forage ergovaline concentrations between KY31 vs NE pastures; 2) evaluate palmar artery diameters in mares grazing KY31, NE ...


Physiological And Behavioural Evaluation Of Common Anaesthesia Practices In The Rainbow Trout, Kieran C. Pounder, Jennifer L. Mitchell, Jack S. Thomson, Tom G. Pottinger, Lynne U. Sneddon 2017 University of Liverpool

Physiological And Behavioural Evaluation Of Common Anaesthesia Practices In The Rainbow Trout, Kieran C. Pounder, Jennifer L. Mitchell, Jack S. Thomson, Tom G. Pottinger, Lynne U. Sneddon

Anesthesia and Analgesia Collection

Anaesthetic drugs are commonly administered to fish in aquaculture, research and veterinary contexts. Anaesthesia causes temporary absence of consciousness and may reduce the stress and/or pain associated with handling and certain invasive procedures. The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is a widely-used model species with relevance to both aquaculture and natural ecosystems. This study sought to establish the relative acute impact of commonly used anaesthetics on rainbow trout when used for anaesthesia or euthanasia by exploring their effects on aversion behaviour and stress physiology. Five widely used anaesthetics were investigated at two concentrations reflective of common laboratory practises: MS-222, benzocaine ...


Model-Based Reverse Translation Between Veterinary And Human Medicine: The One Health Initiative, Benjamin Schneider, Violeta Balbas-Martinez, Albert E. Jergens, Inaki F. Troconiz, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel 2017 Iowa State University

Model-Based Reverse Translation Between Veterinary And Human Medicine: The One Health Initiative, Benjamin Schneider, Violeta Balbas-Martinez, Albert E. Jergens, Inaki F. Troconiz, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel

Biomedical Sciences Publications

There is growing concern about the limitations of rodent models with regard to recapitulation of human disease pathogenesis. Computational modeling of data from humans and animals sharing similar diseases provides an opportunity for parallel drug development in human and veterinary medicine. This “reverse translational” approach needs to be supported by continuing efforts to refine the in silico tools that allow extrapolation of results between species.


Mathematical Modeling And Simulation In Animal Health. Part Iii: Using Nonlinear Mixed-Effects To Characterize And Quantify Variability In Drug Pharmacokinetics, C. Bon, P. L. Toutain, D. Concordet, R. Gehring, T. Martin-Jimenez, J. Smith, L. Pelligand, M. Martinez, T. Whittem, J. E. Riviere, J. P. Mochel 2017 Roche Innovation Center, Basel, Switzerland

Mathematical Modeling And Simulation In Animal Health. Part Iii: Using Nonlinear Mixed-Effects To Characterize And Quantify Variability In Drug Pharmacokinetics, C. Bon, P. L. Toutain, D. Concordet, R. Gehring, T. Martin-Jimenez, J. Smith, L. Pelligand, M. Martinez, T. Whittem, J. E. Riviere, J. P. Mochel

Biomedical Sciences Publications

A common feature of human and veterinary pharmacokinetics is the importance of identifying and quantifying the key determinants of between-patient variability in drug disposition and effects. Some of these attributes are already well known to the field of human pharmacology such as bodyweight, age, or sex, while others are more specific to veterinary medicine, such as species, breed, and social behavior. Identification of these attributes has the potential to allow a better and more tailored use of therapeutic drugs both in companion and food-producing animals. Nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) have been purposely designed to characterize the sources of variability in ...


Emergence Of A Potent Multidrug Efflux Pump Variant That Enhances Campylobacter Resistance To Multiple Antibiotics, Hong Yao, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang, Fengru Deng, Dejun Liu, Gaowa Naren, Lei Dai, Chih-Chia Su, Bing Wang, Shaolin Wang, Congming Wu, Edward W. Yu, Qijing Zhang, Jianzhong Shen 2016 China Agricultural University

Emergence Of A Potent Multidrug Efflux Pump Variant That Enhances Campylobacter Resistance To Multiple Antibiotics, Hong Yao, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang, Fengru Deng, Dejun Liu, Gaowa Naren, Lei Dai, Chih-Chia Su, Bing Wang, Shaolin Wang, Congming Wu, Edward W. Yu, Qijing Zhang, Jianzhong Shen

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Bacterial antibiotic efflux pumps are key players in antibiotic resistance. Although their role in conferring multidrug resistance is well documented, the emergence of “super” efflux pump variants that enhance bacterial resistance to multiple drugs has not been reported. Here, we describe the emergence of a resistance-enhancing variant (named RE-CmeABC) of the predominant efflux pump CmeABC in Campylobacter, a major zoonotic pathogen whose resistance to antibiotics is considered a serious antibiotic resistance threat in the United States. Compared to the previously characterized CmeABC transporters, RE-CmeABC is much more potent in conferring Campylobacter resistance to antibiotics, which was shown by increased MICs ...


A Comparison Of Classical And H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Associated With E211k Prion Protein Polymorphism In Wild-Type And Ek211 Cattle Following Intracranial Inoculation, S. Jo Moore, M. Heather West Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, Catherine E. Vrentas, Eric M. Nicholson, Justin J. Greenlee 2016 United States Department of Agriculture

A Comparison Of Classical And H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Associated With E211k Prion Protein Polymorphism In Wild-Type And Ek211 Cattle Following Intracranial Inoculation, S. Jo Moore, M. Heather West Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, Catherine E. Vrentas, Eric M. Nicholson, Justin J. Greenlee

Biomedical Sciences Publications

In 2006, a case of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE-H) was diagnosed in a cow that was associated with a heritable polymorphism in the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) resulting in a lysine for glutamate amino acid substitution at codon 211 (called E211K) of the prion protein. Although the prevalence of this polymorphism is low, cattle carrying the K211 allele may be predisposed to rapid onset of BSE-H when exposed or to the potential development of a genetic BSE. This study was conducted to better understand the relationship between the K211 polymorphism and its effect on BSE phenotype. BSE-H from ...


The Relationship Between Canine Nasal Length And Second-Hand Smoke Cotinine Levels, Sierra Wilson, Terry Derting 2016 Murray State University

The Relationship Between Canine Nasal Length And Second-Hand Smoke Cotinine Levels, Sierra Wilson, Terry Derting

Scholars Week

Second-hand smoke (SHS) has been associated with respiratory cancers in canines, with the predisposed locations determined by the cephalic ratio (head length / head width). Exposure to SHS is frequently measured by analyzing urine or blood samples for the nicotine by-product cotinine. We investigated the suitability of saliva as an alternative source for cotinine analyses in dogs because obtaining saliva is less invasive and cotinine concentrations from SHS exposure are instantaneously measurable in saliva compared to other collection methods. Specifically, we tested for a quantitative relationship between cephalic ratio and the salivary concentration of cotinine. Our null hypothesis was that there ...


Taylor, Charles Forman, Jr., 1862-1946 (Sc 2975), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives 2016 Western Kentucky University

Taylor, Charles Forman, Jr., 1862-1946 (Sc 2975), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 2975. Letter written by Charles Forman Taylor Jr., Bowling Green, Kentucky to Joe Werthan, Nashville, Tennessee, describing a cough syrup to be used on Mr. Werthan’s horses. The letter includes a list of Taylor’s other equine medications with prices.


Anesthesia For Cesarean Section In The Dog, Bonnie Hay Kraus 2016 Iowa State University

Anesthesia For Cesarean Section In The Dog, Bonnie Hay Kraus

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

The major goal in anesthesia for cesarean section (CS) is to minimize fetal effects of anesthetic drugs in order to minimize fetal respiratory, central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and deliver live, vigorous puppies. Of equal importance is to provide adequate analgesia to the dam and prevent anesthesia-related complications such as hypotension, hypoventilation, hypoxemia, hemorrhage and hypothermia, which will increase morbidity and mortality in both mother and puppies. The physiochemical properties which allow drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier also facilitate crossing of the placenta, therefore the assumption should be made (with very few exceptions) that anes- thetics, analgesics and ...


Intestinal Enterobacteriaceae That Protect Nematodes From The Effects Of Benzimidazoles, John H. Whittaker, Alan P. Robertson, Michael J. Kimber, Tim A. Day, Steve A. Carlson 2016 Iowa State University

Intestinal Enterobacteriaceae That Protect Nematodes From The Effects Of Benzimidazoles, John H. Whittaker, Alan P. Robertson, Michael J. Kimber, Tim A. Day, Steve A. Carlson

Biomedical Sciences Publications

The objective of this study was to investigate an interaction between nematodes and gut Enterobacteriaceae that use benzimidazoles as a carbon source. By addressing this objective, we identified an anthelmintic resistance-like mechanism for gastrointestinal nematodes. We isolated 30 gut bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) that subsist on and putatively catabolize benzimidazole-class anthelmintics. C. elegans was protected from the effects of benzimidazoles when co-incubated with these Enterobacteriaceae that also protect adult ascarids from the effects of albendazole. This bacterial phenotype represents a novel mechanism by which gastrointestinal nematodes are potentially spared from the effects of benzimidazoles, without any apparent fitness cost to the ...


The Impact Of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals On Wildlife Conservation, Eda Reed 2016 Colby College

The Impact Of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals On Wildlife Conservation, Eda Reed

Honors Theses

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as those from plastics and pesticides, have been hypothesized to affect wildlife populations. According to the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, EDCs ‘are chemicals that may interfere with the body’s endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, and immune effects in both humans and wildlife.’ A growing number of studies suggest wildlife are being exposed to EDCs, but how EDCs affect wildlife health and wildlife conservation is less well-understood. Through scientific literature analysis and a survey of wildlife conservationists and practitioners, this study aims to determine the current state of knowledge ...


Three Rs Approaches In The Production And Quality Control Of Fish Vaccines, Paul J. Midtlyng, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Elisabeth Balks, Lukas Bruckner, Lawrence Elsken, Øystein Evensen, Kjetil Fyrand, Allison Guy, Marlies Halder, Penny Hawkins, Gunn Kisen, Anne Berit Romstad, Kira Salonius, Patrick Smith, Lynne U. Sneddon 2015 Center for Veterinary Biologics

Three Rs Approaches In The Production And Quality Control Of Fish Vaccines, Paul J. Midtlyng, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Elisabeth Balks, Lukas Bruckner, Lawrence Elsken, Øystein Evensen, Kjetil Fyrand, Allison Guy, Marlies Halder, Penny Hawkins, Gunn Kisen, Anne Berit Romstad, Kira Salonius, Patrick Smith, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

The workshop on Three Rs Approaches in the Production and Quality Control of Fish Vaccines aimed a) to identify animal tests currently stipulated for the production and quality control of fish vaccines and to highlight animal welfare concerns associated with these tests; b) to identify viable options to replace, reduce, and refine animal use for fish vaccine testing; and c) to discuss the way forward and set out how the Three Rs may be implemented without jeopardizing the quality of the vaccines. The workshop participants -- experts from academia, regulatory authorities, a scientific animal welfare organization, and the fish vaccine industry ...


Clinical Anesthesia And Analgesia In Fish, Lynne U. Sneddon 2015 University of Liverpool

Clinical Anesthesia And Analgesia In Fish, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Fish have become a popular experimental model and companion animal, and are also farmed and caught for food. Thus, surgical and invasive procedures in this animal group are common, and this review will focus on the anesthesia and analgesia of fish. A variety of anesthetic agents are commonly applied to fish via immersion. Correct dosing can result in effective anesthesia for acute procedures as well as loss of consciousness for surgical interventions. Dose and anesthetic agent vary between species of fish and are further confounded by a variety of physiological parameters (e.g., body weight, physiological stress) as well as ...


The Efficacy Of Three Types Of Analgesic Drugs In Reducing Pain In The Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss, Jessica J. Mettam, Lois J. Oulton, Catherine R. McCrohan, Lynne U. Sneddon 2015 University of Liverpool

The Efficacy Of Three Types Of Analgesic Drugs In Reducing Pain In The Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss, Jessica J. Mettam, Lois J. Oulton, Catherine R. Mccrohan, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne Sneddon, PhD

Recent research has shown the possibility of pain perception in fish; therefore, the use of analgesia or “painkillers” should be considered for invasive procedures. However, there is relatively little information on the effectiveness of analgesic drugs nor on the appropriate dose for fish. This study assessed the efficacy of three types of drug: an opioid, buprenorphine, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), carprofen and a local anaesthetic, lidocaine. Each drug was tested at three doses on rainbow trout that were noxiously stimulated and the most effective dose was also given to fish experiencing no pain to investigate side-effects. Ventilation rate and ...


A Constitutively Active G Protein-Coupled Acetylcholine Receptor Regulates Motility Of Larval Schistosoma Mansoni, Kevin MacDonald, Michael J. Kimber, Timothy A. Day, Paula Ribeiro 2015 McGill University

A Constitutively Active G Protein-Coupled Acetylcholine Receptor Regulates Motility Of Larval Schistosoma Mansoni, Kevin Macdonald, Michael J. Kimber, Timothy A. Day, Paula Ribeiro

Biomedical Sciences Publications

The neuromuscular system of helminths controls a variety of essential biological processes and therefore represents a good source of novel drug targets. The neuroactive substance, acetylcholine controls movement of Schistosoma mansoni but the mode of action is poorly understood. Here, we present first evidence of a functional G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor in S. mansoni, which we have named SmGAR. A bioinformatics analysis indicated that SmGAR belongs to a clade of invertebrate GAR-like receptors and is related to vertebrate muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Functional expression studies in yeast showed that SmGAR is constitutively active but can be further activated by acetylcholine and ...


Changes In Retinal Function And Morphology Are Early Clinical Signs Of Disease In Cattle With Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, M. Heather West Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, Ekundayo M. Platt, Jessica R. Juarez, Leo L. Timms, Justin J. Greenlee 2015 Iowa State University

Changes In Retinal Function And Morphology Are Early Clinical Signs Of Disease In Cattle With Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, M. Heather West Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, Ekundayo M. Platt, Jessica R. Juarez, Leo L. Timms, Justin J. Greenlee

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) belongs to a group of fatal, transmissible protein misfolding diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). All TSEs are caused by accumulation of misfolded prion protein (PrPSc) throughout the central nervous system (CNS), which results in neuronal loss and ultimately death. Like other protein misfolding diseases including Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, TSEs are generally not diagnosed until the onset of disease after the appearance of unequivocal clinical signs. As such, identification of the earliest clinical signs of disease may facilitate diagnosis. The retina is the most accessible part of the central nervous ...


Effects Of Label Dose Permethrin Use In Yearling Angus Beef Bulls On Reproductive Function And Testicular Histopathology, Tyler M. Dohlman, Patrick E. Phillips, Darin M. Madson, Christopher A. Clark, Patrick J. Gunn 2015 Iowa State University

Effects Of Label Dose Permethrin Use In Yearling Angus Beef Bulls On Reproductive Function And Testicular Histopathology, Tyler M. Dohlman, Patrick E. Phillips, Darin M. Madson, Christopher A. Clark, Patrick J. Gunn

Animal Industry Report

To eliminate the potential for insect borne diseases and improve productivity in cow-calf operations, many producers use pour-on pyrethroids. However, popular press literature has identified potential links between use of pyrethroids and reproductive function failures in bulls. While literature in mice and rats have reported potential endocrine disruption of sex steroids resulting from pyrethroid exposure, effects of pyrethroid use on bull fertility is still questionable. The objective of this study was to measure reproductive parameters in peripubertal Angus bulls using a commonly used pyrethroid pour-on. We hypothesized that use of a pyrethroid pour-on at labeled dose would have limited effects ...


Reversible Downregulation Of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis In The Stallion With A Third-Generation Gnrh Antagonist, Gabriel Monteiro Davolli 2015 University of Kentucky

Reversible Downregulation Of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis In The Stallion With A Third-Generation Gnrh Antagonist, Gabriel Monteiro Davolli

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

The objectives of this thesis were: (1) to evaluate the downregulation of the stallion hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis by a GnRH antagonist (acyline) based upon endocrine, seminal, testicular and behavioral effects, and (2) to assess recovery after treatment. Stallions were treated for 50 days (n=4; 330µg/kg acyline q 5d) and controls (n=4) received vehicle alone. Stallions were assessed pre-treatment and for 72 days after last treatment. Treatment induced declines (p<0.05) in FSH, LH, testosterone (to castrate levels) and estrone sulfate. Gonadotropins and testosterone returned to control values within nine days and estrone sulfate by 14 days after treatment discontinuation. Acyline-treated stallions failed to respond with FSH, LH and testosterone increase after exogenous GnRH stimulation (25µg gonadorelin, IV) compared to pre-treatment and control stimulation. Total sperm numbers and motility were reduced in acyline-treated stallions, as well as total seminal plasma protein and testicular volume (p<0.05). Time to ejaculation was increased in acyline group (p<0.5). Testicular, sexual behavior and most seminal parameters regained normal levels within 72 days after treatment ceased. Sperm output of acyline-treated stallions was regained within seven months after ending treatment. Acyline reversibly suppressed the stallion HPG axis, thus has potential for treating the androgen-dependent Equine-Arteritis-Virus carrier state and as behavior modulator.


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