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Veterinary Toxicology and Pharmacology Commons

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320 full-text articles. Page 2 of 5.

The Efficacy Of Antibiotic Treatments In Dairy Cows At Dry-Off To Prevent New Intramammary Infections During The Dry-Period Or Clinical Mastitis During Early Lactation: A Protocol For A Systematic Review, Jan M. Sargeant, Charlotte Winder, Annette M. O'Connor, Hannah Wood, Julie M. Glanville, David F. Kelton, Stephen LeBlanc, Todd Duffield 2018 Universty of Guelph

The Efficacy Of Antibiotic Treatments In Dairy Cows At Dry-Off To Prevent New Intramammary Infections During The Dry-Period Or Clinical Mastitis During Early Lactation: A Protocol For A Systematic Review, Jan M. Sargeant, Charlotte Winder, Annette M. O'Connor, Hannah Wood, Julie M. Glanville, David F. Kelton, Stephen Leblanc, Todd Duffield

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Rationale: The majority of antibiotic use in the dairy industry is for the treatment and prevention of intramammary infections (IMI); in the Netherlands, approximately 60 % of all antimicrobial use in dairy is for this purpose, with two-thirds being dry cow therapy (Lam et al., 2012). In the United States, over 90 % of dairy cows receive dry cow therapy after every lactation (USDA-APHIS, 2016), with the goal of treating or preventing IMI during the dry period. These infections are strongly associated with risk of development of clinical mastitis in the first two weeks post-calving, which represents the highest risk period for ...


Intestinal Stem Cells To Advance Drug Development, Precision, And Regenerative Medicine: A Paradigm Shift In Translational Research, Jonathan P. Mochel, Albert E. Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G. Martín, Karin Allenspach 2018 Iowa State University

Intestinal Stem Cells To Advance Drug Development, Precision, And Regenerative Medicine: A Paradigm Shift In Translational Research, Jonathan P. Mochel, Albert E. Jergens, Dawn Kingsbury, Hyun Jung Kim, Martín G. Martín, Karin Allenspach

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Recent advances in our understanding of the intestinal stem cell niche and the role of key signaling pathways on cell growth and maintenance have allowed the development of fully differentiated epithelial cells in 3D organoids. Stem cell-derived organoids carry significant levels of proteins that are natively expressed in the gut and have important roles in drug transport and metabolism. They are, therefore, particularly relevant to study the gastrointestinal (GI) absorption of oral medications. In addition, organoids have the potential to serve as a robust preclinical model for demonstrating the effectiveness of new drugs more rapidly, with more certainty, and at ...


The Efficacy Of Teat Sealants In Dairy Cows At Dry-Off To Prevent New Intra-Mammary Infections During The Dry-Period Or Clinical Mastitis During Early Lactation: A Protocol For A Systematic Review, Jan M. Sargeant, Charlotte Winder, Annette M. O'Connor, Hannah Wood, Julie M. Glanville, David F. Kelton, Stephen LeBlanc, Todd Duffield 2018 University of Guelph

The Efficacy Of Teat Sealants In Dairy Cows At Dry-Off To Prevent New Intra-Mammary Infections During The Dry-Period Or Clinical Mastitis During Early Lactation: A Protocol For A Systematic Review, Jan M. Sargeant, Charlotte Winder, Annette M. O'Connor, Hannah Wood, Julie M. Glanville, David F. Kelton, Stephen Leblanc, Todd Duffield

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Reports

Rationale: The majority of antibiotic use in the dairy industry is for intramammary infections (IMI), with a large portion of this aimed at treating and preventing IMI during the dry period (Lam et al., 2102). During dry off, formation of the teat-canal keratin plug plays an important role in susceptibility to IMI (Huxley et al., 2002), but there is wide variation between cows on time to complete closure of the teat-canal, or indeed if closure occurs at all (Dingwell et al., 2003). In heifers, pre-partum IMI is an important risk factor for the development of clinical mastitis in early lactation ...


Network On Veterinary Medicines Initiated By The European Federation For Pharmaceutical Sciences, J. P. Mochel, E. Tyden, K. Hellmann, J. C. Vendrig, S. Senel, L. Dencker, R. T. Cristina, H. Linden, I. Schmerold 2017 Iowa State University

Network On Veterinary Medicines Initiated By The European Federation For Pharmaceutical Sciences, J. P. Mochel, E. Tyden, K. Hellmann, J. C. Vendrig, S. Senel, L. Dencker, R. T. Cristina, H. Linden, I. Schmerold

Biomedical Sciences Publications

The European Federation for Pharmaceutical Sciences (EUFEPS) was founded 25 years ago by more than 20 national pharmaceutical societies and faculty members. As a pan- European organisation it brings together pharmaceutical societies as well as academic, industrial, and regulatory scientists engaged in drug research and development, drug regulation, and education of professionals working in these fields.

EUFEPS represents pharmaceutical sciences in Europe and is recognised as such by both the European Commission and the European Medicines Agency. EUFEPS cooperates with the European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and other European organisations and maintains global connections with agencies such as the US ...


Lead Poisoning In Bald Eagles Admitted To Wildlife Rehabilitation Facilities In Iowa, 2004–2014, Taylor Yaw, Kay Neumann, Linette Bernard, Jodeane Cancilla, Terese Evans, Adam Martin-Schwarze, Bianca Zaffarano 2017 Iowa State University

Lead Poisoning In Bald Eagles Admitted To Wildlife Rehabilitation Facilities In Iowa, 2004–2014, Taylor Yaw, Kay Neumann, Linette Bernard, Jodeane Cancilla, Terese Evans, Adam Martin-Schwarze, Bianca Zaffarano

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Eleven years (2004–2014) of bald eagle Haliaeetus leucocephalus data from four independent, state and federally permitted wildlife rehabilitators in Iowa were assessed for the prevalence of elevated lead levels in blood or tissue samples. The relationship between blood lead concentrations and recorded information (age, season, radiographs, and clinical outcome) was investigated. Adult birds had higher blood lead concentrations than immature and juvenile birds. Highest blood lead levels were found during October–January. Bald eagles with positive radiographs for metallic opacities in the digestive tract had higher blood and tissue lead concentrations than those with negative results or those on ...


Spotlight On The Perioperative Use Of Maropitant Citrate, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus 2017 Iowa State University

Spotlight On The Perioperative Use Of Maropitant Citrate, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors are present in both the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. Substance P (SP) is the major ligand and is involved in multiple processes including pain transmission, vasodilation, modulation of the inflammatory response, as well as the sensory neuronal transmission involved in stress, anxiety, and emesis. The involvement of NK-1 and SP in the vomiting reflex has led to the development of NK-1 antagonists to prevent and treat vomiting in human and veterinary medicine. Maropitant is a potent, selective neurokinin (NK-1) receptor antagonist that blocks the pharmacologic action of SP in the central nervous system. Maropitant is ...


Efflux Pump Overexpression Contributes To Tigecycline Heteroresistance In Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium, Yi Chen, Daxing Hu, Qijing Zhang, Xiao-Ping Liao, Ya-Hong Liu, Jian Sun 2017 South China Agricultural University

Efflux Pump Overexpression Contributes To Tigecycline Heteroresistance In Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium, Yi Chen, Daxing Hu, Qijing Zhang, Xiao-Ping Liao, Ya-Hong Liu, Jian Sun

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Bacterial heteroresistance has been identified in several combinations of bacteria and antibiotics, and it complicated the therapeutic strategies. Tigecycline is being used as one of the optimal options for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant Salmonella. This study investigated whether heterorresistance to tigecycline exists in a Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium strain harboring the oqxAB-bearing IncHI2 plasmid pHXY0908. MIC and population analyses were performed to evaluate population-wide susceptibility to tigecycline. The effects of efflux pumps on MIC levels were assessed using the efflux pump inhibitor Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide, measuring intracellular tigecycline accumulation as well as mRNA levels of regulatory and efflux ...


Microtransplantation Of Rat Brain Neurolemma Into Xenopus Laevis Oocytes To Study The Effect Of Environmental Toxicants On Endogenous Voltage-Sensitive Ion Channels, Edwin Murenzi 2017 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Microtransplantation Of Rat Brain Neurolemma Into Xenopus Laevis Oocytes To Study The Effect Of Environmental Toxicants On Endogenous Voltage-Sensitive Ion Channels, Edwin Murenzi

Masters Theses

Microtransplantation of mammalian neurolemma into Xenopus laevis oocytes has been used to study ion channels in terms of their structure and function in the central nervous system. Use of microtransplanted neurolemma is advantageous in that tissue can be obtained from various sources, ion channels and receptors are present in their native configuration and they can be used to evaluate numerous channelpathies caused by environmental toxicants. Here we show that Xenopus oocytes injected with fragments of rat brain neurolemma successfully express functional native ion channels that are assembled in their own plasma membrane. Using a high throughput two electrode voltage clamp ...


Mathematical Modeling And Simulation In Animal Health. Part Iii: Using Nonlinear Mixed-Effects To Characterize And Quantify Variability In Drug Pharmacokinetics, C. Bon, P. L. Toutain, D. Concordet, R. Gehring, T. Martin-Jimenez, J. Smith, L. Pelligand, M. Martinez, T. Whittem, J. E. Riviere, J. P. Mochel 2017 Roche Innovation Center, Basel, Switzerland

Mathematical Modeling And Simulation In Animal Health. Part Iii: Using Nonlinear Mixed-Effects To Characterize And Quantify Variability In Drug Pharmacokinetics, C. Bon, P. L. Toutain, D. Concordet, R. Gehring, T. Martin-Jimenez, J. Smith, L. Pelligand, M. Martinez, T. Whittem, J. E. Riviere, J. P. Mochel

Biomedical Sciences Publications

A common feature of human and veterinary pharmacokinetics is the importance of identifying and quantifying the key determinants of between-patient variability in drug disposition and effects. Some of these attributes are already well known to the field of human pharmacology such as bodyweight, age, or sex, while others are more specific to veterinary medicine, such as species, breed, and social behavior. Identification of these attributes has the potential to allow a better and more tailored use of therapeutic drugs both in companion and food-producing animals. Nonlinear mixed effects (NLME) have been purposely designed to characterize the sources of variability in ...


Model-Based Reverse Translation Between Veterinary And Human Medicine: The One Health Initiative, Benjamin Schneider, Violeta Balbas-Martinez, Albert E. Jergens, Inaki F. Troconiz, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel 2017 Iowa State University

Model-Based Reverse Translation Between Veterinary And Human Medicine: The One Health Initiative, Benjamin Schneider, Violeta Balbas-Martinez, Albert E. Jergens, Inaki F. Troconiz, Karin Allenspach, Jonathan P. Mochel

Biomedical Sciences Publications

There is growing concern about the limitations of rodent models with regard to recapitulation of human disease pathogenesis. Computational modeling of data from humans and animals sharing similar diseases provides an opportunity for parallel drug development in human and veterinary medicine. This “reverse translational” approach needs to be supported by continuing efforts to refine the in silico tools that allow extrapolation of results between species.


Physiological Changes Associated With Pregnant Or Nonpregnant Mares Grazing Pastures Of Orchardgrass-Bluegrass, Kentucky 31 Tall Fescue Infected With Epichloë Coenophiala, Or Kyfa9821 Tall Fescue Infected With The Novel Endophyte Ar584, Victoria A. Taylor 2017 University of Kentucky

Physiological Changes Associated With Pregnant Or Nonpregnant Mares Grazing Pastures Of Orchardgrass-Bluegrass, Kentucky 31 Tall Fescue Infected With Epichloë Coenophiala, Or Kyfa9821 Tall Fescue Infected With The Novel Endophyte Ar584, Victoria A. Taylor

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Kentucky 31 tall fescue (KY31) infected with the common toxic endophyte strains of Epichloё coenophiala produces toxic alkaloids that improve plant vigor, but cause numerous adverse effects in grazing animals. Researchers developed a variety of KY31 containing an alternative strain of E. coenophiala, termed novel endophyte (NE). Adverse health effects in mares have not been evaluated.

Experiments in this thesis tested the hypothesis that the NE pasture does not cause adverse effects typically associated with KY31. Specific aims were to: 1) compare forage ergovaline concentrations between KY31 vs NE pastures; 2) evaluate palmar artery diameters in mares grazing KY31, NE ...


Emergence Of A Potent Multidrug Efflux Pump Variant That Enhances Campylobacter Resistance To Multiple Antibiotics, Hong Yao, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang, Fengru Deng, Dejun Liu, Gaowa Naren, Lei Dai, Chih-Chia Su, Bing Wang, Shaolin Wang, Congming Wu, Edward W. Yu, Qijing Zhang, Jianzhong Shen 2016 China Agricultural University

Emergence Of A Potent Multidrug Efflux Pump Variant That Enhances Campylobacter Resistance To Multiple Antibiotics, Hong Yao, Zhangqi Shen, Yang Wang, Fengru Deng, Dejun Liu, Gaowa Naren, Lei Dai, Chih-Chia Su, Bing Wang, Shaolin Wang, Congming Wu, Edward W. Yu, Qijing Zhang, Jianzhong Shen

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Bacterial antibiotic efflux pumps are key players in antibiotic resistance. Although their role in conferring multidrug resistance is well documented, the emergence of “super” efflux pump variants that enhance bacterial resistance to multiple drugs has not been reported. Here, we describe the emergence of a resistance-enhancing variant (named RE-CmeABC) of the predominant efflux pump CmeABC in Campylobacter, a major zoonotic pathogen whose resistance to antibiotics is considered a serious antibiotic resistance threat in the United States. Compared to the previously characterized CmeABC transporters, RE-CmeABC is much more potent in conferring Campylobacter resistance to antibiotics, which was shown by increased MICs ...


A Comparison Of Classical And H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Associated With E211k Prion Protein Polymorphism In Wild-Type And Ek211 Cattle Following Intracranial Inoculation, S. Jo Moore, M. Heather West Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, Catherine E. Vrentas, Eric M. Nicholson, Justin J. Greenlee 2016 United States Department of Agriculture

A Comparison Of Classical And H-Type Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy Associated With E211k Prion Protein Polymorphism In Wild-Type And Ek211 Cattle Following Intracranial Inoculation, S. Jo Moore, M. Heather West Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, Catherine E. Vrentas, Eric M. Nicholson, Justin J. Greenlee

Biomedical Sciences Publications

In 2006, a case of H-type bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE-H) was diagnosed in a cow that was associated with a heritable polymorphism in the bovine prion protein gene (PRNP) resulting in a lysine for glutamate amino acid substitution at codon 211 (called E211K) of the prion protein. Although the prevalence of this polymorphism is low, cattle carrying the K211 allele may be predisposed to rapid onset of BSE-H when exposed or to the potential development of a genetic BSE. This study was conducted to better understand the relationship between the K211 polymorphism and its effect on BSE phenotype. BSE-H from ...


The Relationship Between Canine Nasal Length And Second-Hand Smoke Cotinine Levels, Sierra Wilson, Terry Derting 2016 Murray State University

The Relationship Between Canine Nasal Length And Second-Hand Smoke Cotinine Levels, Sierra Wilson, Terry Derting

Scholars Week

Second-hand smoke (SHS) has been associated with respiratory cancers in canines, with the predisposed locations determined by the cephalic ratio (head length / head width). Exposure to SHS is frequently measured by analyzing urine or blood samples for the nicotine by-product cotinine. We investigated the suitability of saliva as an alternative source for cotinine analyses in dogs because obtaining saliva is less invasive and cotinine concentrations from SHS exposure are instantaneously measurable in saliva compared to other collection methods. Specifically, we tested for a quantitative relationship between cephalic ratio and the salivary concentration of cotinine. Our null hypothesis was that there ...


Taylor, Charles Forman, Jr., 1862-1946 (Sc 2975), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives 2016 Western Kentucky University

Taylor, Charles Forman, Jr., 1862-1946 (Sc 2975), Manuscripts & Folklife Archives

MSS Finding Aids

Finding aid only for Manuscripts Small Collection 2975. Letter written by Charles Forman Taylor Jr., Bowling Green, Kentucky to Joe Werthan, Nashville, Tennessee, describing a cough syrup to be used on Mr. Werthan’s horses. The letter includes a list of Taylor’s other equine medications with prices.


Intestinal Enterobacteriaceae That Protect Nematodes From The Effects Of Benzimidazoles, John H. Whittaker, Alan P. Robertson, Michael J. Kimber, Tim A. Day, Steve A. Carlson 2016 Iowa State University

Intestinal Enterobacteriaceae That Protect Nematodes From The Effects Of Benzimidazoles, John H. Whittaker, Alan P. Robertson, Michael J. Kimber, Tim A. Day, Steve A. Carlson

Biomedical Sciences Publications

The objective of this study was to investigate an interaction between nematodes and gut Enterobacteriaceae that use benzimidazoles as a carbon source. By addressing this objective, we identified an anthelmintic resistance-like mechanism for gastrointestinal nematodes. We isolated 30 gut bacteria (family Enterobacteriaceae) that subsist on and putatively catabolize benzimidazole-class anthelmintics. C. elegans was protected from the effects of benzimidazoles when co-incubated with these Enterobacteriaceae that also protect adult ascarids from the effects of albendazole. This bacterial phenotype represents a novel mechanism by which gastrointestinal nematodes are potentially spared from the effects of benzimidazoles, without any apparent fitness cost to the ...


Anesthesia For Cesarean Section In The Dog, Bonnie Hay Kraus 2016 Iowa State University

Anesthesia For Cesarean Section In The Dog, Bonnie Hay Kraus

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

The major goal in anesthesia for cesarean section (CS) is to minimize fetal effects of anesthetic drugs in order to minimize fetal respiratory, central nervous system and cardiovascular depression and deliver live, vigorous puppies. Of equal importance is to provide adequate analgesia to the dam and prevent anesthesia-related complications such as hypotension, hypoventilation, hypoxemia, hemorrhage and hypothermia, which will increase morbidity and mortality in both mother and puppies. The physiochemical properties which allow drugs to cross the blood-brain barrier also facilitate crossing of the placenta, therefore the assumption should be made (with very few exceptions) that anes- thetics, analgesics and ...


The Impact Of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals On Wildlife Conservation, Eda Reed 2016 Colby College

The Impact Of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals On Wildlife Conservation, Eda Reed

Honors Theses

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as those from plastics and pesticides, have been hypothesized to affect wildlife populations. According to the U.S. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, EDCs ‘are chemicals that may interfere with the body’s endocrine system and produce adverse developmental, reproductive, neurological, and immune effects in both humans and wildlife.’ A growing number of studies suggest wildlife are being exposed to EDCs, but how EDCs affect wildlife health and wildlife conservation is less well-understood. Through scientific literature analysis and a survey of wildlife conservationists and practitioners, this study aims to determine the current state of knowledge ...


Anesthetic Efficacy Of Tricaine Methanesulfonate, Metomidate And Eugenol: Effects On Plasma Cortisol Concentration And Neutrophil Function In Fathead Minnows (Pimephales Promelas Rafinesque, 1820), Dušan Palić, Dawn M. Herolt, Claire B. Andreasen, Bruce W. Menzel, James A. Roth 2015 Iowa State University

Anesthetic Efficacy Of Tricaine Methanesulfonate, Metomidate And Eugenol: Effects On Plasma Cortisol Concentration And Neutrophil Function In Fathead Minnows (Pimephales Promelas Rafinesque, 1820), Dušan Palić, Dawn M. Herolt, Claire B. Andreasen, Bruce W. Menzel, James A. Roth

James A. Roth

Anesthetic efficacy, plasma cortisol concentration, and two parameters of neutrophil function (oxidative burst and degranulation of primary granules) were compared among three anesthetics in the fathead minnow: tricaine methanesulfonate (MS 222), metomidate hydrochloride (MTMD), and eugenol (EUG). The optimum anesthetic concentration was determined as: MS 222 75 mg L− 1, EUG 30 mg L− 1 and MTMD 4 mg L− 1. Handling and crowding stress was induced in fish with (SA) and without (S) anesthetic. Plasma cortisol concentration was measured at 0, 30, 90, and 240 min after stress and found to increase at 30 min post-stress in S and ...


The Effects Of The Acetic Acid “Pain” Test On Feeding, Swimming, And Respiratory Responses Of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss): A Critique On Newby And Stevens (2008), Lynne U. Sneddon 2015 University of Liverpool

The Effects Of The Acetic Acid “Pain” Test On Feeding, Swimming, And Respiratory Responses Of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss): A Critique On Newby And Stevens (2008), Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne U. Sneddon, Ph.D.

Newby and Stevens’ (2008) paper ‘‘The effects of the acetic acid ‘pain’ test on feeding, swimming, and respiratory responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)’’ examines the effects of a noxious stimulus on the behaviour of trout in an attempt to replicate research conducted in my laboratory (Sneddon, 2003a; Sneddon, 2007; Sneddon et al., 2003a,b; Reilly et al., 2008). However, the authors used a different protocol to the one already published and I would like to respond to some of their points of discussion to provide scientific explanations for their results using data from my laboratory. The authors show that ...


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