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Veterinary Toxicology and Pharmacology Commons

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Three Rs Approaches In The Production And Quality Control Of Fish Vaccines, Paul J. Midtlyng, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Elisabeth Balks, Lukas Bruckner, Lawrence Elsken, Øystein Evensen, Kjetil Fyrand, Allison Guy, Marlies Halder, Penny Hawkins, Gunn Kisen, Anne Berit Romstad, Kira Salonius, Patrick Smith, Lynne U. Sneddon 2015 Center for Veterinary Biologics

Three Rs Approaches In The Production And Quality Control Of Fish Vaccines, Paul J. Midtlyng, Coenraad F.M. Hendriksen, Elisabeth Balks, Lukas Bruckner, Lawrence Elsken, Øystein Evensen, Kjetil Fyrand, Allison Guy, Marlies Halder, Penny Hawkins, Gunn Kisen, Anne Berit Romstad, Kira Salonius, Patrick Smith, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne U. Sneddon, Ph.D.

The workshop on Three Rs Approaches in the Production and Quality Control of Fish Vaccines aimed a) to identify animal tests currently stipulated for the production and quality control of fish vaccines and to highlight animal welfare concerns associated with these tests; b) to identify viable options to replace, reduce, and refine animal use for fish vaccine testing; and c) to discuss the way forward and set out how the Three Rs may be implemented without jeopardizing the quality of the vaccines. The workshop participants -- experts from academia, regulatory authorities, a scientific animal welfare organization, and the fish vaccine industry ...


The Evidence For Pain In Fish: The Use Of Morphine As An Analgesic, Lynne U. Sneddon 2015 Roslin Institute

The Evidence For Pain In Fish: The Use Of Morphine As An Analgesic, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne U. Sneddon, Ph.D.

This paper discusses the evidence for pain perception in fish and presents new data on morphine analgesia in fish. Recent anatomical and electrophysiological studies have demonstrated that fish are capable of nociception, the simple detection of a noxious, potentially painful stimulus and the reflex response to this. To prove pain perception, it must be demonstrated that an animal’s behaviour is adversely affected by a potentially painful event and this must not be a reflex response. The present study examined the acute effects of administering a noxious chemical to the lips of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to assess what changes ...


Clinical Anesthesia And Analgesia In Fish, Lynne U. Sneddon 2015 University of Liverpool

Clinical Anesthesia And Analgesia In Fish, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne U. Sneddon, Ph.D.

Fish have become a popular experimental model and companion animal, and are also farmed and caught for food. Thus, surgical and invasive procedures in this animal group are common, and this review will focus on the anesthesia and analgesia of fish. A variety of anesthetic agents are commonly applied to fish via immersion. Correct dosing can result in effective anesthesia for acute procedures as well as loss of consciousness for surgical interventions. Dose and anesthetic agent vary between species of fish and are further confounded by a variety of physiological parameters (e.g., body weight, physiological stress) as well as ...


The Efficacy Of Three Types Of Analgesic Drugs In Reducing Pain In The Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss, Jessica J. Mettam, Lois J. Oulton, Catherine R. McCrohan, Lynne U. Sneddon 2015 University of Liverpool

The Efficacy Of Three Types Of Analgesic Drugs In Reducing Pain In The Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus Mykiss, Jessica J. Mettam, Lois J. Oulton, Catherine R. Mccrohan, Lynne U. Sneddon

Lynne U. Sneddon, Ph.D.

Recent research has shown the possibility of pain perception in fish; therefore, the use of analgesia or “painkillers” should be considered for invasive procedures. However, there is relatively little information on the effectiveness of analgesic drugs nor on the appropriate dose for fish. This study assessed the efficacy of three types of drug: an opioid, buprenorphine, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), carprofen and a local anaesthetic, lidocaine. Each drug was tested at three doses on rainbow trout that were noxiously stimulated and the most effective dose was also given to fish experiencing no pain to investigate side-effects. Ventilation rate and ...


A Constitutively Active G Protein-Coupled Acetylcholine Receptor Regulates Motility Of Larval Schistosoma Mansoni, Kevin MacDonald, Michael J. Kimber, Timothy A. Day, Paula Ribeiro 2015 McGill University

A Constitutively Active G Protein-Coupled Acetylcholine Receptor Regulates Motility Of Larval Schistosoma Mansoni, Kevin Macdonald, Michael J. Kimber, Timothy A. Day, Paula Ribeiro

Biomedical Sciences Publications

The neuromuscular system of helminths controls a variety of essential biological processes and therefore represents a good source of novel drug targets. The neuroactive substance, acetylcholine controls movement of Schistosoma mansoni but the mode of action is poorly understood. Here, we present first evidence of a functional G protein-coupled acetylcholine receptor in S. mansoni, which we have named SmGAR. A bioinformatics analysis indicated that SmGAR belongs to a clade of invertebrate GAR-like receptors and is related to vertebrate muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Functional expression studies in yeast showed that SmGAR is constitutively active but can be further activated by acetylcholine and ...


Changes In Retinal Function And Morphology Are Early Clinical Signs Of Disease In Cattle With Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, M. Heather West Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, Ekundayo M. Platt, Jessica R. Juarez, Leo L. Timms, Justin J. Greenlee 2015 Iowa State University

Changes In Retinal Function And Morphology Are Early Clinical Signs Of Disease In Cattle With Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, M. Heather West Greenlee, Jodi D. Smith, Ekundayo M. Platt, Jessica R. Juarez, Leo L. Timms, Justin J. Greenlee

Biomedical Sciences Publications

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) belongs to a group of fatal, transmissible protein misfolding diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). All TSEs are caused by accumulation of misfolded prion protein (PrPSc) throughout the central nervous system (CNS), which results in neuronal loss and ultimately death. Like other protein misfolding diseases including Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease, TSEs are generally not diagnosed until the onset of disease after the appearance of unequivocal clinical signs. As such, identification of the earliest clinical signs of disease may facilitate diagnosis. The retina is the most accessible part of the central nervous ...


Effects Of Label Dose Permethrin Use In Yearling Angus Beef Bulls On Reproductive Function And Testicular Histopathology, Tyler M. Dohlman, Patrick E. Phillips, Darin M. Madson, Christopher A. Clark, Patrick J. Gunn 2015 Iowa State University

Effects Of Label Dose Permethrin Use In Yearling Angus Beef Bulls On Reproductive Function And Testicular Histopathology, Tyler M. Dohlman, Patrick E. Phillips, Darin M. Madson, Christopher A. Clark, Patrick J. Gunn

Animal Industry Report

To eliminate the potential for insect borne diseases and improve productivity in cow-calf operations, many producers use pour-on pyrethroids. However, popular press literature has identified potential links between use of pyrethroids and reproductive function failures in bulls. While literature in mice and rats have reported potential endocrine disruption of sex steroids resulting from pyrethroid exposure, effects of pyrethroid use on bull fertility is still questionable. The objective of this study was to measure reproductive parameters in peripubertal Angus bulls using a commonly used pyrethroid pour-on. We hypothesized that use of a pyrethroid pour-on at labeled dose would have limited effects ...


Reversible Downregulation Of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis In The Stallion With A Third-Generation Gnrh Antagonist, Gabriel Monteiro Davolli 2015 University of Kentucky

Reversible Downregulation Of Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis In The Stallion With A Third-Generation Gnrh Antagonist, Gabriel Monteiro Davolli

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

The objectives of this thesis were: (1) to evaluate the downregulation of the stallion hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis by a GnRH antagonist (acyline) based upon endocrine, seminal, testicular and behavioral effects, and (2) to assess recovery after treatment. Stallions were treated for 50 days (n=4; 330µg/kg acyline q 5d) and controls (n=4) received vehicle alone. Stallions were assessed pre-treatment and for 72 days after last treatment. Treatment induced declines (p<0.05) in FSH, LH, testosterone (to castrate levels) and estrone sulfate. Gonadotropins and testosterone returned to control values within nine days and estrone sulfate by 14 days after treatment discontinuation. Acyline-treated stallions failed to respond with FSH, LH and testosterone increase after exogenous GnRH stimulation (25µg gonadorelin, IV) compared to pre-treatment and control stimulation. Total sperm numbers and motility were reduced in acyline-treated stallions, as well as total seminal plasma protein and testicular volume (p<0.05). Time to ejaculation was increased in acyline group (p<0.5). Testicular, sexual behavior and most seminal parameters regained normal levels within 72 days after treatment ceased. Sperm output of acyline-treated stallions was regained within seven months after ending treatment. Acyline reversibly suppressed the stallion HPG axis, thus has potential for treating the androgen-dependent Equine-Arteritis-Virus carrier state and as behavior modulator.


Glucocorticoid-Induced Chondrocyte Cytotoxicity At Doses Recommended For Intra-Articular Therapy In Horses, Wenying Zhu 2015 University of Kentucky

Glucocorticoid-Induced Chondrocyte Cytotoxicity At Doses Recommended For Intra-Articular Therapy In Horses, Wenying Zhu

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Intra-articular glucocorticoid injections are commonly used to treat synovitis and osteoarthritis in horses. These agents are highly effective at relieving pain, swelling, and other symptoms of joint inflammation. The drugs also have therapeutic benefits by down regulating the expression of cytokines and protease enzymes that participate in the degradation of articular cartilage. However, detrimental effects on chondrocyte function and cell viability that is independent of osteoarthritis pathogenesis have been described and linked to glucocorticoid use. These side effects are both drug- and dose-dependent. This study tested the hypothesis that manufacture recommended dosage levels of methylprednisolone, betamethasone, and triamcinolone that are ...


Synovial Fluid Pharmacokinetics Of Tulathromycin, Gamithromycin And Florfenicol After A Single Subcutaneous Dose In Cattle, Meredyth L. Jones, Kevin E. Washburn, Virginia R. Fajt, Somchai Rice 2015 Texas A&M University

Synovial Fluid Pharmacokinetics Of Tulathromycin, Gamithromycin And Florfenicol After A Single Subcutaneous Dose In Cattle, Meredyth L. Jones, Kevin E. Washburn, Virginia R. Fajt, Somchai Rice

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Background
Deep digital septic conditions represent some of the most refractory causes of severe lameness in cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of tulathromycin, gamithromycin and florfenicol into the synovial fluid of the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint of cattle after single subcutaneous administration of drug to evaluate the potential usefulness of these single-dose, long-acting antimicrobials for treating bacterial infections of the joints in cattle.

Results
Twelve cross-bred beef cows were randomly assigned to one of the drugs. Following subcutaneous administration, arthrocentesis of the left metatarsophalangeal joint was performed at various time points up to 240 hours ...


Survey Of Serum Vitamin D Status Across Stages Of Swine Production And Evaluation Of Supplemental Bulk Vitamin D Premixes Used In Swine Diets, Jessica Arnold, Darin M. Madson, Steve Ensley, Jesse P. Goff, Chris Sparks, Gregory W. Stevenson, Thomas Crenshaw, Chong Wang, Ronald L. Horst 2015 Iowa State University

Survey Of Serum Vitamin D Status Across Stages Of Swine Production And Evaluation Of Supplemental Bulk Vitamin D Premixes Used In Swine Diets, Jessica Arnold, Darin M. Madson, Steve Ensley, Jesse P. Goff, Chris Sparks, Gregory W. Stevenson, Thomas Crenshaw, Chong Wang, Ronald L. Horst

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

The objectives of this investigation were to evaluate the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in pigs of different age groups, to determine if 25(OH)D concentrations varied with season, and to assess the quality of vitamin D supplements used in swine diets from multiple commercial suppliers. Serum samples (n = 1200) submitted to a diagnostic laboratory for routine surveillance were assayed for serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Vitamin D premix samples were obtained from suppliers and analyzed at two laboratories over a 9-month period. In all age categories, 25(OH)D concentrations in numerous serum samples were lower ...


A Modular One-Generation Reproduction Study As A Flexible Testing System For Regulatory Safety Assessment, Richard Vogel, Troy Seidle, Horst Spielmann 2014 Humane Society International

A Modular One-Generation Reproduction Study As A Flexible Testing System For Regulatory Safety Assessment, Richard Vogel, Troy Seidle, Horst Spielmann

Troy Seidle, Ph.D.

The European Union’s Registration, Evaluation and Authorisation of Chemicals (REACH) legislation mandates testing and evaluation of approximately 30,000 existing substances within a short period of time, beginning with the most widely used “high production volume” (HPV) chemicals. REACH testing requirements for the roughly 3000 HPV chemicals specify three separate tests for reproductive toxicity: two developmental toxicity studies on different animal species (OECD Test Guideline 414) and a two-generation reproduction toxicity study (OECD TG 416). These studies are highly costly in both economic and animal welfare terms. OECD TG 416 is a fertility study intended to evaluate reproductive performance ...


Pharmacokinetics Of Intravenous And Subcutaneous Cefovecin In Alpacas, S Cox, C Sommardahl, Reza Seddighi 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Pharmacokinetics Of Intravenous And Subcutaneous Cefovecin In Alpacas, S Cox, C Sommardahl, Reza Seddighi

Reza Seddighi

The purpose of this study was to determine the pharmacokinetics of cefovecin after intravenous and subcutaneous dose of 8 mg/kg to alpacas. Bacterial infections requiring long-term antibiotic therapy such as neonatal bacteremia, pneumonia, peritonitis, dental, and uterine infections are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in this species. However, few antimicrobials have been evaluated and proven to have favorable pharmacokinetics for therapeutic use. Most antimicrobials that are currently used require daily injections for many days. Cefovecin is a long-acting cephalosporin that is formulated for subcutaneous administration, and its long-elimination half-life allows for 14-day dosing intervals in dogs and ...


Effect Of Dosing Interval On Efficacy Of Maropitant For Prevention Of Hydromorphone-Induced Vomiting And Signs Of Nausea In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus 2014 Iowa State University

Effect Of Dosing Interval On Efficacy Of Maropitant For Prevention Of Hydromorphone-Induced Vomiting And Signs Of Nausea In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Objective—To evaluate the effect of dosing interval on the efficacy of maropitant for prevention of opioid-induced vomiting and signs of nausea in dogs.

Design—Randomized prospective clinical study.

Animals—50 client-owned dogs that underwent an elective surgical procedure.

Procedures—Dogs were randomly assigned to receive maropitant (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], SC), then hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], IM) at 0 (simultaneously; group 0; n = 10), 15 (group 15; 10), 30 (group 30; 10), 45 (group 45; 10), or 60 (group 60; 10) minutes later. Dogs were monitored for vomiting and signs of ...


Anticholinergic Drugs In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus 2014 Iowa State University

Anticholinergic Drugs In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Can I use anticholinergic drugs with dexmedetomidine in dogs?


T-61 Use In The Euthanasia Of Domestic Animals: A Survey, Andrew N. Rowan 2014 Tufts University

T-61 Use In The Euthanasia Of Domestic Animals: A Survey, Andrew N. Rowan

Andrew N. Rowan, D.Phil.

A variety of techniques have been proposed and employed for the killing of domestic animals but relatively few have survived as suitable agents for euthanasia-namely, the induction of painless, suffering-free death. Some agents, such as strychnine, curariform agents, or potassium salts cause suffering while others have other disadvantages. 'lbday, dogs and cats are commonly euthanatized with sodium pentobarbital or with T-61 which is a mixture of a central nervous system narcotic, a paralytic agent, and a local anesthetic. The use of T-61 was first reported in the United States in 1963 (Quin 1963). The substance gradually became more popular because ...


Efficacy Of Orally Administered Maropitant Citrate In Preventing Vomiting Associated With Hydromorphone Administration In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus 2014 Iowa State University

Efficacy Of Orally Administered Maropitant Citrate In Preventing Vomiting Associated With Hydromorphone Administration In Dogs, Bonnie L. Hay Kraus

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Objective—To evaluate the effectiveness of orally administered maropitant citrate in preventing vomiting after hydromorphone hydrochloride administration in dogs.

Design—Randomized, blinded, prospective clinical study.

Animals—40 dogs with American Society of Anesthesiologists status of I or II, > 6 months of age, and weighing between 24 and 58.2 kg (52.8 and 128.04 lb).

Procedures—Dogs were randomly selected to receive maropitant (2.0 to 4.0 mg/kg [0.9 to 1.8 mg/lb]) or placebo (lactose monohydrate) orally 2 hours prior to receiving hydromorphone (0.1 mg/kg [0.045 mg/lb], IM). A blinded ...


Target Optimization For Peptide Nucleic Acid (Pna)-Mediated Antisense Inhibition Of The Cmeabc Multidrug Efflux Pump In Campylobacter Jejuni, Euna Oh, Qijing Zhang, Byeonghwa Jeon 2014 University of Alberta

Target Optimization For Peptide Nucleic Acid (Pna)-Mediated Antisense Inhibition Of The Cmeabc Multidrug Efflux Pump In Campylobacter Jejuni, Euna Oh, Qijing Zhang, Byeonghwa Jeon

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Objectives

CmeABC is a resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND)-type multidrug efflux pump conferring resistance to clinically important antibiotics in Campylobacter. This study aimed to identify the optimal target sites for the inhibition of CmeABC with antisense peptide nucleic acid (PNA).

Methods

Eighteen PNAs were designed to bind to the translational initiation regions of cmeABC, spanning the ribosome-binding site (RBS) and the start codon of the cmeABC genes. Campylobacter jejuni was treated with CmeABC-specific PNAs (CmeABC-PNAs) at various concentrations and subjected to western blotting to measure changes in the level of CmeABC expression. The MICs of ciprofloxacin and erythromycin were measured to ...


Impact Of Oral Meloxicam On Circulating Physiological Biomarkers Of Stress And Inflammation In Beef Steers After Long-Distance Transportation, Nicholas K. Van Engen, M. L. Stock, Terry Engelken, R. C. Vann, Larry W. Wulf, Locke A. Karriker, W. D. Busby, J. Lakritz, A. J. Carpenter, B. J. Bradford, Walter H. Hsu, Chong Wang, Johann F. Coetzee 2014 Iowa State University

Impact Of Oral Meloxicam On Circulating Physiological Biomarkers Of Stress And Inflammation In Beef Steers After Long-Distance Transportation, Nicholas K. Van Engen, M. L. Stock, Terry Engelken, R. C. Vann, Larry W. Wulf, Locke A. Karriker, W. D. Busby, J. Lakritz, A. J. Carpenter, B. J. Bradford, Walter H. Hsu, Chong Wang, Johann F. Coetzee

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Transportation stress can result in significant economic losses to producers due to decreased animal productivity and increased medication costs associated with sickness such as bovine respiratory disease (BRD). Meloxicam (MEL) provides pain relief and anti-inflammatory effects in cattle for several days after a single oral treatment. Our hypothesis was that MEL administration before shipping would reduce the impact of long-distance transportation on circulating physiological biomarkers of stress and inflammation in beef steers. Ninety-seven beef steers were blood sampled for baseline biomarker determination and then randomly assigned to receive either 1 mg/kg MEL (n = 49) or a placebo (CONT; n ...


Evaluation Of A Combinatorial Approach To Prion Inactivation Using An Oxidizing Agent, Sds, And Proteinase K, Jodi D. Smith, Eric M. Nicholson, Justin J. Greenlee 2013 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of A Combinatorial Approach To Prion Inactivation Using An Oxidizing Agent, Sds, And Proteinase K, Jodi D. Smith, Eric M. Nicholson, Justin J. Greenlee

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

Background

Prions demonstrate an unusual resistance to methods effective at inactivating conventional microorganisms. This has resulted in a very tangible and difficult infection control challenge to the medical and veterinary communities, as well as animal agriculture and related industries. Currently accepted practices of harsh chemical treatments such as prolonged exposure to sodium hydroxide or sodium hypochlorite, or autoclaving are not suitable in many situations. Less caustic and more readily applicable treatments to contaminated environments are therefore desirable. We recently demonstrated that exposure of the RML scrapie agent to a commercial product containing sodium percarbonate (SPC-P) with or without sodium dodecyl ...


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