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Individual And Population Fitness Consequences Associated With Large Carnivore Use Of Residential Development, Heather Johnson, David L. Lewis, Stewart W. Breck 2020 Alaska Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, 4210 University Drive, Anchorage, Alaska 99508 USA Colorado Parks and Wildlife

Individual And Population Fitness Consequences Associated With Large Carnivore Use Of Residential Development, Heather Johnson, David L. Lewis, Stewart W. Breck

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Large carnivores are negotiating increasingly developed landscapes, but little is known about how such behavioral plasticity influences their demographic rates and population trends. Some investigators have suggested that the ability of carnivores to behaviorally adapt to human development will enable their persistence, and yet, others have suggested that such landscapes are likely to serve as population sinks or ecological traps. To understand how plasticity in black bear (Ursus americanus) use of residential development influences their population dynamics, we conducted a 6-yr study near Durango, Colorado, USA. Using space-use data on individual bears, we examined the influence of use of residential ...


Lungworm Infection In A Central Iowa Beef Herd, Joseph S. Smith, Jeff D. Olivarez, Matthew T. Brewer, Mitch R. Hiscocks, Claire B. Andreasen 2020 Iowa State University

Lungworm Infection In A Central Iowa Beef Herd, Joseph S. Smith, Jeff D. Olivarez, Matthew T. Brewer, Mitch R. Hiscocks, Claire B. Andreasen

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

A beef herd presented four calves, aged 8–9 months, in late September for evaluation of respiratory disease of 2 months duration that was non-responsive to antimicrobial treatment. Calves were housed on a marshy pasture and similar signs occurred in calves during the same months the previous 2 years. The owner reported greater than 50% of calves were affected with a significantly decreased rate of gain. Physical examination revealed tachypnea and cough. Transtracheal wash cytology, viral respiratory PCR panel and bacterial culture were performed. The viral respiratory PCR panel was negative, and bacterial cultures identified commensal bacteria.


Effects Of Deepwater Horizon Oil On Feather Structure And Thermoregulation In Gulls: Does Rehabilitation Work?, Katherine Horak, Nicole L. Barrett, Jeremy W. Ellis, Emma M. Campbell, Nicholas G. Dannemiller, Susan A. Shriner 2020 USDA APHIS National Wildlife Research Center

Effects Of Deepwater Horizon Oil On Feather Structure And Thermoregulation In Gulls: Does Rehabilitation Work?, Katherine Horak, Nicole L. Barrett, Jeremy W. Ellis, Emma M. Campbell, Nicholas G. Dannemiller, Susan A. Shriner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Impacts of large-scale oil spills on avian species are far-reaching.While media attention often focuses on lethal impacts, sub-lethal effects and the impacts of rehabilitation receive less attention. The objective of our study was to characterize effects of moderate external oiling and subsequent rehabilitation on feather structure and thermoregulation in gulls. We captured 30 wild ring-billed gulls (Larus delawarensis) and randomly assigned each individual to an experimental group: 1) controls, 2) rehabilitated birds (externally oiled, rehabilitated by washing), or 3) oiled birds (externally oiled, not rehabilitated). We externally oiled birds with weathered MC252 Deepwater Horizon oil (water for controls) and ...


Migratory Flyways May Affect Population Structure In Double‐Crested Cormorants, Steven J.A. Kimble, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Travis L. Devault 2020 Towson University

Migratory Flyways May Affect Population Structure In Double‐Crested Cormorants, Steven J.A. Kimble, Brian S. Dorr, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Olin E. Rhodes Jr., Travis L. Devault

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Double‐crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) recovered from a demographic bottleneck so well that they are now considered a nuisance species at breeding and wintering grounds across the United States and Canada. Management of this species could be improved by refining genetic population boundaries and assigning individuals to their natal population. Further, recent radio‐telemetry data suggest the existence of Interior and Atlantic migratory flyways, which could reduce gene flow and result in substantial genetic isolation. In this study, we used 1,784 individuals collected across the eastern United States, a large panel of microsatellite markers developed for this species, and ...


Optimal Bait Density For Delivery Of Acute Toxicants To Vertebrate Pests, Kim M. Pepin, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. VerCauteren 2020 USA National Wildlife Research Center, USDA-APHIS

Optimal Bait Density For Delivery Of Acute Toxicants To Vertebrate Pests, Kim M. Pepin, Nathan P. Snow, Kurt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Oral baiting is a fundamental method for delivering toxicants to pest species. Planning baiting strategies is challenging because bait-consumption rates depend on dynamic processes including space use and demographics of the target species. To determine cost-effective strategies for optimizing baiting, we developed a spatially explicit model of population dynamics using field-based measures of wild-pig (Sus scrofa) space use, bait consumption, and mortality probabilities. The most cost-effective baiting strategy depended strongly on the population reduction objective and initial density. A wide range of baiting strategies were cost-effective when the objective was 80% population reduction. In contrast, only a narrow range of ...


Brodifacoum Residues In Fish Three Years After An Island-Wide Rat Eradication Attempt In The Tropical Pacific, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Steven F. Volker, Kristen Rex, William C. Pitt 2020 USDA, APHIS, WS, National Wildlife Research Center

Brodifacoum Residues In Fish Three Years After An Island-Wide Rat Eradication Attempt In The Tropical Pacific, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Steven F. Volker, Kristen Rex, William C. Pitt

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive rats are known to threaten natural resources and human health and safety. Island-wide rat eradication attempts have been increasing in number and scale during the past several decades, as has the frequency of eradication success. The most common method to remove all rats from an island is to broadcast anticoagulant rodenticide bait into every rat’s home range on the island. Broadcast of toxicants can put humans and other nontarget species in marine and terrestrial environments at risk of exposure. The persistence of anticoagulant residues is somewhat unknown, particularly in marine environments. Three years after ~ 18,000 kg of ...


Local Adaptation Constrains Drought Tolerance In A Tropical Foundation Tree, Kasey E. Barton, Casey Jones, Kyle F. Edwards, Aaron B. Shiels, Tiffany Knight 2020 University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Honolulu

Local Adaptation Constrains Drought Tolerance In A Tropical Foundation Tree, Kasey E. Barton, Casey Jones, Kyle F. Edwards, Aaron B. Shiels, Tiffany Knight

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

  1. Plant species with broad climatic ranges might be more vulnerable to climate change than previously appreciated due to intraspecific variation in climatic stress tolerance. In tropical forests, drought is increasingly frequent and severe, causing widespread declines and altering community dynamics. Yet, little is known about whether foundation tropical trees vary in drought tolerance throughout their distributions, and how intraspecific variation in drought tolerance might contribute to their vulnerability to climate changE.
  2. We tested for local adaptation in seedling emergence and establishment with a full-factorial reciprocal transplant experiment including 27 populations and 109,350 seeds along a 3,500 mm precipitation ...


Evaluation Of Rhodococcus Equi Susceptibility To Silver Nanoparticle Antimicrobials, Elizabeth Boudaher 2020 University of Kentucky

Evaluation Of Rhodococcus Equi Susceptibility To Silver Nanoparticle Antimicrobials, Elizabeth Boudaher

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Rhodococcus equi is a significant cause of pneumonia in foals and immunocompromised humans. Antimicrobial resistance among R. equi isolates has developed as a consequence of inappropriate stewardship and bacterial evolution, leading to an increased rate of treatment failures that typically result in foal fatality. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of antimicrobial silver nanoparticle (AgNP) complexes in controlling R. equi growth. Previous studies characterizing AgNP-induced antibacterial effects in other Gram-positive pathogens led us to hypothesize that silver nanoparticle antimicrobials impact R. equi viability and intracellular replication. We therefore investigated the effect of silver nanoparticle complexes on R. equi ...


Ultraviolet C (Uvc) Standards And Best Practices For The Swine Industry, Derald J. Holtkamp, Clayton Johnson, Jacek A. Koziel, Peiyang Li, Deb Murray, Chelsea R. Ruston, Aaron Stephan, Montse Torremorell, Katie Wedel 2020 Iowa State University

Ultraviolet C (Uvc) Standards And Best Practices For The Swine Industry, Derald J. Holtkamp, Clayton Johnson, Jacek A. Koziel, Peiyang Li, Deb Murray, Chelsea R. Ruston, Aaron Stephan, Montse Torremorell, Katie Wedel

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Technical Reports and White Papers

Ultraviolet C (UVC) light has been widely used for disinfection for a long time in many industries, including human medicine and food processing. The practical application of this technology in livestock production is a more recent development and is increasingly being used on swine farms as producers look for ways to improve biosecurity in response to endemic diseases and the threat of transboundary and foreign animal diseases, such as African swine fever virus (ASFV). However, many swine producers and veterinarians are unfamiliar with the physics/mechanisms of UVC, the doses required to inactivate swine pathogens, and practical conditions under which ...


Frecuencia De Hemoparásitos En Los Cruces Comerciales Bos Taurus Y Bos Indicus En Tres Fincas Doble Propósito En Yopal Casanare, Tatiana Bautista Castellanos, Gina Marcela Ortega Díaz 2020 Universidad de La Salle, Bogotá

Frecuencia De Hemoparásitos En Los Cruces Comerciales Bos Taurus Y Bos Indicus En Tres Fincas Doble Propósito En Yopal Casanare, Tatiana Bautista Castellanos, Gina Marcela Ortega Díaz

Medicina Veterinaria

Con esta investigación, se pretende determinar la presencia y actividad de hemoparásitos en los cruces comerciales de Bos Taurus por Bos Indicus en fincas doble propósito del municipio de El Yopal en el Departamento de Casanare; esto logrado a través de las evaluaciones del eritrograma, el análisis y relación con el color de las mucosas así como la evaluación de la condición corporal. Para ello, se seleccionaron en 3 predios diferentes, 10 animales por predio para un total de 30 animales en los cuales se ha reportado variaciones diarias en la producción de leche, decaimiento, dificultad de la ganancia de ...


New Approach To Health And The Environment To Avoid Future Pandemics, Serge Morand 2020 CNRS-CIRAD-Montpellier University & Mahidol University

New Approach To Health And The Environment To Avoid Future Pandemics, Serge Morand

Animal Sentience

This commentary expands Wiebers & Feigin’s target article by pinpointing how declining wildlife, expanding livestock and globalisation contribute to the increase in epidemics of zoonotic diseases, the COVID-19 crisis and future health crises. Epidemics and the emergence of zoonoses are manifestations of dysfunctional links with animals, both wild and domestic, requiring a new approach to health and the environment.


Remedying Anthropogenic Zoonoses, Daniela Figueroa, Ximena Duprat 2020 1Adolfo Ibañez University, Chile

Remedying Anthropogenic Zoonoses, Daniela Figueroa, Ximena Duprat

Animal Sentience

Abstract: Zoonotic diseases represent 60% of the infections suffered by the human species. in light of the latest episodes of epidemics and pandemics we have to begin to address health problems with another perspective. The “One Health” vision aims to generate a change in consciousness and a new working strategy.


China's Lack Of Animal Welfare Legislation Increases The Risk Of Further Pandemics, Amanda Whitfort 2020 Faculty of Law, The University of Hong Kong

China's Lack Of Animal Welfare Legislation Increases The Risk Of Further Pandemics, Amanda Whitfort

Animal Sentience

Legislation enforcing positive animal welfare standards provides an important buffer against the spread of disease when other safeguards to promote animal health have failed. The continuing absence of animal welfare legislation in China increases the risk of future pandemics, like COVID-19, and puts animal health, and consequently public health in danger.


What The Covid-19 Crisis Is Telling Humanity, David Wiebers, Valery Feigin 2020 Mayo Clinic

What The Covid-19 Crisis Is Telling Humanity, David Wiebers, Valery Feigin

Animal Sentience

The planet is in a global health emergency exacting enormous medical and economic tolls. It is imperative for us as asociety and species to focus and reflect deeply upon what this and other related human health crises are telling us about our role in these increasingly frequent events and about what we can do to prevent them in the future.

Cause: It is human behavior that is responsible for the vast majority of zoonotic diseases that jump the species barrier from animals to humans: (1) hunting, capture, and sale of wild animals for human consumption, particularly in live-animal markets; (2 ...


Host-Parasite Interaction In Horses: Mucosal Responses To Naturally Acquired Cyathostomin Infections And Anthelmintic Treatment, Ashley Elaine Steuer 2020 University of Kentucky

Host-Parasite Interaction In Horses: Mucosal Responses To Naturally Acquired Cyathostomin Infections And Anthelmintic Treatment, Ashley Elaine Steuer

Theses and Dissertations--Veterinary Science

Cyathostomins are ubiquitous parasites in equids. In rare cases, cyathostomins lead to a generalized typhlocolitis and death. In healthy horses, local reactions are noted to the mucosal larvae; however, the mechanisms and importance of these reactions have not been elucidated. It has been hypothesized that anthelmintics can alter these reactions. Currently, three drug classes are approved for use in horses against cyathostomins; while all products target the adults, only two products are labeled as larvicidal. Adulticidal therapy is implicated in triggering the typhlocolitis, however, current evidence is contradictory. There is also conjecture that the larvicidal drugs can increase the risk ...


Prrs: Medidas Para Minimizar O Risco De Introdução Desta Doença No Rebanho, Marcelo N. Almeida, Giovani Trevisan, Edison Magalhães, César A.A. Moura, Daniel C.L. Linhares 2020 Iowa State University

Prrs: Medidas Para Minimizar O Risco De Introdução Desta Doença No Rebanho, Marcelo N. Almeida, Giovani Trevisan, Edison Magalhães, César A.A. Moura, Daniel C.L. Linhares

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

1. Uma poderosa caixa de ferramentas incluindo estratégias, materiais e métodos eficazes foi desenvolvida para a prevenção, detecção e gerenciamento de infecções por PRRSV.

2. A maioria dessas ferramentas pode ser usada para controlar outros patógenos endêmicos atualmente em circulação no Brasil.

3. Até onde sabemos, várias dessas ferramentas não estão sendo implementadas atualmente em muitas das operações suínas brasileiras. Assim, os autores encorajam fortemente gestores e médicos veterinários a considerar a implementação dessas ferramentas. Isso permitiria o preparo para infecção pelo vírus da PRRSV e outros agentes emergentes na suinocultura global além de, ao mesmo tempo, trazer benefícios na ...


One Step Closer To A Better Starling Trap, James R. Thiele 2020 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

One Step Closer To A Better Starling Trap, James R. Thiele

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are an invasive species in the United States that damage agriculture, personal property, and threaten human health and safety. The U.S. Department of Agriculture Wildlife Services provides technical support to mitigate damage by controlling starling populations at concentrated animal feeding operations, landfills, utilities, and urban areas. Wildlife Services uses DRC-1339, a registered toxicant, to reduce starling populations. Trapping can also be an effective tool but requires more time at a higher cost than DRC-1339. Trapping starlings, however, may be needed to provide a viable alternative to mitigate damage in areas where toxicant use may be ...


Invasive Wild Pigs As Primary Nest Predators For Wild Turkeys, Heather N. Sanders, David G. Hewitt, Humberto L. perotto-Baldivieso, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Nathan P. Snow 2020 Texas A&M University Kingsville

Invasive Wild Pigs As Primary Nest Predators For Wild Turkeys, Heather N. Sanders, David G. Hewitt, Humberto L. Perotto-Baldivieso, Kurt C. Vercauteren, Nathan P. Snow

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Depredation of wild turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) nests is a leading cause of reduced recruitment for the recovering and iconic game species. invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are known to depredate nests, and have been expanding throughout the distributed range of wild turkeys in north America. We sought to gain better insight on the magnitude of wild pigs depredating wild turkey nests. We constructed simulated wild turkey nests throughout the home ranges of 20 GPS-collared wild pigs to evaluate nest depredation relative to three periods within the nesting season (i.e., early, peak, and late) and two nest densities (moderate = 12 ...


Avian Influenza A Virus Associations In Wild, Terrestrial Mammals: A Review Of Potential Synanthropic Vectors To Poultry Facilities, J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner 2020 National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins

Avian Influenza A Virus Associations In Wild, Terrestrial Mammals: A Review Of Potential Synanthropic Vectors To Poultry Facilities, J. Jeffrey Root, Susan A. Shriner

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The potential role of wild mammals in the epidemiology of influenza A viruses (IAVs) at the farm-side level has gained increasing consideration over the past two decades. In some instances, select mammals may be more likely to visit riparian areas (both close and distant to farms) as well as poultry farms, as compared to traditional reservoir hosts, such as waterfowl. Of significance, many mammalian species can successfully replicate and shed multiple avian IAVs to high titers without prior virus adaptation and often can shed virus in greater quantities than synanthropic avian species. Within this review, we summarize and discuss the ...


Historic And Contemporary Use Of Catfish Aquaculture By Piscivorous Birds In The Mississippi Delta, Paul C. Burr, Jimmy L. Avery, Garrett M. Street, Bronson K. Strickland, Brian S. Dorr 2020 Mississippi State University

Historic And Contemporary Use Of Catfish Aquaculture By Piscivorous Birds In The Mississippi Delta, Paul C. Burr, Jimmy L. Avery, Garrett M. Street, Bronson K. Strickland, Brian S. Dorr

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Piscivorous birds are the primary source of catfish (Ictalurus spp.) depredation at aquaculture facilities in northwestern Mississippi. Of particular concern is the Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus), which can cost aquaculture producers millions of dollars annually through the depredation of cultured fish. Historical research conducted in the early 2000s estimated cormorant use of aquaculture ponds in the region, but aquaculture area has decreased by more than 70% since those estimates were made. With less aquaculture available, we predicted cormorant densities on aquaculture would be greater today than historically. Applying a similar methodology as in historical studies, we used aerial surveys to ...


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