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Hawaii As A Microcosm: Advancing The Science And Practice Of Managing Introduced And Invasive Species, Liba Pejchar, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Jean E. Fantle-Lepczyk, Steven C. Hess, M. Tracy Johnson, Christina R. Leopold, Michael Marchetti, Katherine M. Mcclure, Aaron B. Shiels 2020 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Hawaii As A Microcosm: Advancing The Science And Practice Of Managing Introduced And Invasive Species, Liba Pejchar, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Jean E. Fantle-Lepczyk, Steven C. Hess, M. Tracy Johnson, Christina R. Leopold, Michael Marchetti, Katherine M. Mcclure, Aaron B. Shiels

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive species are a leading driver of global change, with consequences for biodiversity and society. Because of extraordinary rates of endemism, introduction, and extinction, Hawaii offers a rich platform for exploring the cross-disciplinary challenges of managing invasive species in a dynamic world. We highlight key successes and shortcomings to share lessons learned and inspire innovation and action in and beyond the archipelago. We then discuss thematic challenges and opportunities of broad relevance to invaded ecosystems and human communities. Important research needs and possible actions include eradicating mammals from mainland island sanctuaries, assessing hidden threats from poorly known introduced species, harnessing ...


Deciphering Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer And Approaching Vehicle, Morgan Pfeiffer, Raymond B. Iglay, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault 2020 USDA National Wildlife Research Center & Nelson Mandela University

Deciphering Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer And Approaching Vehicle, Morgan Pfeiffer, Raymond B. Iglay, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. Devault

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Deer-vehicle collisions are a major transportation hazard, but factors affecting deer escape decision-making in response to vehicle approach remain poorly characterized. We made opportunistic observations of deer response to vehicle approach during daylight hours on a restricted- access facility in Ohio, USA (vehicle speeds were ≤64 km/h). We hypothesized that animal proximity to the road, group size, vehicle approach, and ambient conditions would affect perceived risk by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach, as measured by flight-initiation distance (FID). We constructed a priori models for FID, as well as road-crossing behavior. Deer responses were variable and did not ...


Evaluating Moose Alces Alces Population Response To Infestation Level Of Winter Ticks Dermacentor Albipictus, Daniel D. Ellingwood, Peter J. Pekins, Henry Jones, Anthony R. Musante 2020 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Evaluating Moose Alces Alces Population Response To Infestation Level Of Winter Ticks Dermacentor Albipictus, Daniel D. Ellingwood, Peter J. Pekins, Henry Jones, Anthony R. Musante

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Many wildlife populations are experiencing a variety of environmental pressures due to the direct and indirect consequences of a changing climate. In the northeast, USA, moose Alces alces are declining in large part because of the increasing parasitism by winter tick Dermacentor albipictus, facilitated by high host density and optimal environmental conditions. To test this hypothesis, and better understand the influence of this interaction on the stability of the regional population, we constructed a population viability model using data collected through comprehensive survival and productivity studies in 2002–2005 and 2014–2018 in northern New Hampshire. Years of heavy tick ...


Spillover Of Sars-Cov-2 Into Novel Wild Hosts In North America: A Conceptual Model For Perpetuation Of The Pathogen, Alan B. Franklin, Sarah N. Bevins 2020 USDA National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins

Spillover Of Sars-Cov-2 Into Novel Wild Hosts In North America: A Conceptual Model For Perpetuation Of The Pathogen, Alan B. Franklin, Sarah N. Bevins

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

There is evidence that the current outbreak of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, which causes COVID-19, is of animal origin. As with a number of zoonotic pathogens, there is a risk of spillover into novel hosts. Here, we propose a hypothesized conceptual model that illustrates the mechanism whereby the SARS-CoV-2 could spillover from infected humans to naive wildlife hosts in North America. This proposed model is premised on transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from human feces through municipal wastewater treatment plants into the natural aquatic environment where potential wildlife hosts become infected. We use the existing literature on human coronaviruses, including SARS CoV ...


Public Perspectives And Media Reporting Of Wolf Reintroduction In Colorado, Rebecca Niemiec, Richard E.W. Berl, Mireille Gonzalez, Tara Teel, Cassiopeia Camara, Matthew Collins, Jonathan Salerno, Kevin Crooks, Courtney Schultz, Stewart Breck, Dana Hoag 2020 Colorado State University, Fort Collins

Public Perspectives And Media Reporting Of Wolf Reintroduction In Colorado, Rebecca Niemiec, Richard E.W. Berl, Mireille Gonzalez, Tara Teel, Cassiopeia Camara, Matthew Collins, Jonathan Salerno, Kevin Crooks, Courtney Schultz, Stewart Breck, Dana Hoag

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

In the state of Colorado, a citizen ballot initiative to reintroduce gray wolves (Canis lupus) is eliciting polarization and conflict among multiple stakeholder and interest groups. Given this complex social landscape, we examined the social context surrounding wolf reintroduction in Colorado as of 2019. We used an online survey of 734 Coloradans representative in terms of age and gender, and we sampled from different regions across the state, to examine public beliefs and attitudes related to wolf reintroduction and various wolf management options. We also conducted a content analysis of media coverage on potential wolf reintroduction in 10 major daily ...


Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Use Of Diatomaceous Earth And Copper Oxide Wire Particles To Control Gastrointestinal Nematodes In Lambs, Olivia Jones

Animal Science Undergraduate Honors Theses

Abstract

Anthelmintic resistance (AR) urges alternatives to control gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN). Copper oxide wire particles (COWP) are more efficacious when used with other dewormers and little is known on efficacy of diatomaceous earth (DE) to control gastrointestinal parasites. The objective was to examine the effects of DE and COWP on GIN control. Katahdin lambs (n = 32; ~150 d of age; 25.0 ± 1.8 kg) were randomly assigned to receive: 1) DE fed at an estimated 2% dry matter intake (with the assumption of moderate consumption of bermudagrass forage and provided supplement), 2) 1g COWP, 3) both 2% DE and ...


Evaluation Of Locally Injected Mycobacterium Cell Wall Fraction In Horses With Sarcoids, Stephanie S. Caston, Brett A. Sponseller, Katarzyna A. Dembek, Jesse M. Hostetter 2020 Iowa State University

Evaluation Of Locally Injected Mycobacterium Cell Wall Fraction In Horses With Sarcoids, Stephanie S. Caston, Brett A. Sponseller, Katarzyna A. Dembek, Jesse M. Hostetter

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

A reformulation of Mycobacterium cell wall fraction immunotherapeutic can be used to successfully treat sarcoids in horses. Sarcoids are reported to be the most common equine skin tumors with tumor type and location influencing the choice of treatment. Wide surgical excision is curative for many tumors, but may not always be feasible. Previous studies have reported sarcoid regression after injection with mycobacterial cell wall immunotherapeutics. A new formulation of the Mycobacterium phlei cell wall fraction immunostimulant (Immunocidin® Equine) was utilized to treat cutaneous tumors in horses. Equids with skin tumors diagnosed as sarcoids were enrolled in the study. Sarcoids were ...


Development And Diagnostic Application Of Monoclonal Antibodies Against Swine Acute Diarrhea Syndrome Coronavirus (Sads-Cov), Molly Kroeger 2020 South Dakota State University

Development And Diagnostic Application Of Monoclonal Antibodies Against Swine Acute Diarrhea Syndrome Coronavirus (Sads-Cov), Molly Kroeger

Schultz-Werth Award Papers

Swine Acute Diarrhea Syndrome Coronavirus (SADS-CoV) is a member of the Coronaviridae family. The virus is associated with severe small intestine inflammation and diarrhea in suckling piglets. In 2017, SADS-CoV was first detected and identified as the causative agent of a devasting swine disease outbreak in southern China. Routine monitoring and early detection of the source of infection is therefore integral to the prevention and control of a SADS-CoV outbreak in the United States. However, the United States does not currently have any diagnostic or surveillance tests to identify this emerging disease. To address these industry needs, we developed monoclonal ...


Collective Effect Of Landfills And Landscape Composition On Bird–Aircraft Collisions, Morgan Pfeiffer, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault 2020 USDA, APHIS, Wildlife Services, National Wildlife Research Center

Collective Effect Of Landfills And Landscape Composition On Bird–Aircraft Collisions, Morgan Pfeiffer, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. Devault

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Ninety-three percent of all reported bird strikes occur below 1,067 m, which based on the typical approach and departure angles of aircraft is within 8–13 km of an airport. Concomitantly, the Federal Aviation Administration and the International Civil Aviation Organization recommend that any feature that would attract hazardous wildlife to the approach and departure airspace be restricted. Thus, preventing the establishment of wildlife attractants, such as municipal solid waste landfills (MSWLFs) within 8 km or 13 km extents (U.S. and international recommendations, respectively) of airports, has been recommended to mitigate the risk of bird–aircraft collisions (strikes ...


Talking Trash In The Big Apple: Mitigating Bird Strikes Near The North Shore Marine Transfer Station, Stephan J. Beffre, Brian E. Washburn 2020 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services

Talking Trash In The Big Apple: Mitigating Bird Strikes Near The North Shore Marine Transfer Station, Stephan J. Beffre, Brian E. Washburn

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Anthropogenic activities that concentrate wildlife near airports increases the risk of wildlife–aircraft collisions. Placing waste management facilities, natural areas, golf courses, and other landscape features near airports have the potential to attract wildlife hazardous to aviation. We conducted a 3-year study (March 2013–February 2016) to determine if the implementation of a Wildlife Hazard Mitigation Program (WHMP) would influence the bird use of a waste transfer station located near LaGuardia Airport, New York City, New York, USA. We conducted wildlife surveys during 3 phases: (1) no mitigation program and no waste transfer station, (2) active mitigation and no waste ...


Testing A Key Assumption Of Using Drones As Frightening Devices: Do Birds Perceive Drones As Risky?, Conor C. Egan, Bradley Blackwell, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Page E. Klug 2020 North Dakota State University--Fargo

Testing A Key Assumption Of Using Drones As Frightening Devices: Do Birds Perceive Drones As Risky?, Conor C. Egan, Bradley Blackwell, Esteban Fernández-Juricic, Page E. Klug

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Wildlife managers have recently suggested the use of unmanned aircraft systems or drones as nonlethal hazing tools to deter birds from areas of human-wildlife conflict. However, it remains unclear if birds perceive common drone platforms as threatening. Based on field studies assessing behavioral and physiological responses, it is generally assumed that birds perceive less risk from drones than from predators. However, studies controlling for multiple confounding effects have not been conducted. Our goal was to establish the degree to which the perception of risk by birds would vary between common drone platforms relative to a predator model when flown at ...


Aqueous Tear Assessment In Dogs: Impact Of Cephalic Conformation, Inter‐Test Correlations, And Test‐Retest Repeatability, Hellen Bolzani, Arianne P. Oriá, Ana Claudia S. Raposo, Lionel Sebbag 2020 Federal University of Bahia

Aqueous Tear Assessment In Dogs: Impact Of Cephalic Conformation, Inter‐Test Correlations, And Test‐Retest Repeatability, Hellen Bolzani, Arianne P. Oriá, Ana Claudia S. Raposo, Lionel Sebbag

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Objective - To characterize diagnostic findings, test‐retest repeatability, and correlations among lacrimal tests in dogs of diverse cephalic conformations.

Animal studied - Fifty healthy dogs (25 brachycephalic, 25 nonbrachycephalic).

Procedures - A series of diagnostics were performed in each dog, allowing for a 10‐minute interval between tests and repeating each test 24 hours later under similar conditions: corneal tactile sensation (CTS), strip meniscometry test (SMT), phenol red thread test (PRTT), endodontic absorbent paper point tear test (EAPPTT), Schirmer tear test‐1 without (STT‐1) or with nasolacrimal stimulation (NL‐STT1), and Schirmer tear test‐2 (STT‐2).

Results - Mean ± SD test ...


Factors Affecting Bait Site Visitation: Area Of Influence Of Baits, Jacquelyn E. McRae, Peter E. Schlichting, Nathan P. Snow, Amy J. Davis, Kurt C. VerCautern, John C. Kilgo, David A. Keiter, James C. Beasley, Kim M. Pepin 2020 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Factors Affecting Bait Site Visitation: Area Of Influence Of Baits, Jacquelyn E. Mcrae, Peter E. Schlichting, Nathan P. Snow, Amy J. Davis, Kurt C. Vercautern, John C. Kilgo, David A. Keiter, James C. Beasley, Kim M. Pepin

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

ABSTRACT Baiting is a fundamental strategy for the global management of wild pigs (Sus scrofa); however, little information exists on how anthropogenic bait affects wild pig movements on a landscape. We investigated factors that are important in determining the spatial area of attraction for wild pigs to bait (‘area of influence’ of a bait site) using data from Global Positioning System (GPS) collars and locations of bait sites. We monitored movements of wild pigs in 2 distinct study areas in the United States from February to September 2016 and used locational data using GPS collars to analyze the influence of ...


A Rapid Population Assessment Method For Wild Pigs Using Baited Cameras At 3 Study Site, Peter E. Schlichting, James C. Beasley, Raoul K. Boughton, Amy J. Davis, Kim M. Pepin, Michael P. Glow, Ryan S. Miller, Kurt C. VerCautern, Jesse S. Lewis 2020 Arizona State University

A Rapid Population Assessment Method For Wild Pigs Using Baited Cameras At 3 Study Site, Peter E. Schlichting, James C. Beasley, Raoul K. Boughton, Amy J. Davis, Kim M. Pepin, Michael P. Glow, Ryan S. Miller, Kurt C. Vercautern, Jesse S. Lewis

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Reliable and efficient population estimates are a critical need for effective management of invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa). We evaluated the use of 10‐day camera grids for rapid population assessment (RPA) of wild pigs at 3 study sites that varied in vegetation communities and wild pig densities. Study areas included Buck Island Ranch, Florida; Tejon Ranch, California; and the Savannah River Site, South Carolina, USA, during 2016–2018. Rapid population assessments grids were composed of baited camera traps spaced approximately 500 or 750 m apart. Two RPA grids were deployed per study site and each grid was deployed twice ...


Relationships Between Survival And Habitat Suitability Of Semi- Aquatic Mammals, Isidro Barela, Leslie M. Burger, Jimmy Taylor, Kristine O. Evans, Ryo Ogawa, Lance McClintic, Guiming Wang 2020 Mississippi State University, Mississippi State & Siskiyou County Department of Agriculture

Relationships Between Survival And Habitat Suitability Of Semi- Aquatic Mammals, Isidro Barela, Leslie M. Burger, Jimmy Taylor, Kristine O. Evans, Ryo Ogawa, Lance Mcclintic, Guiming Wang

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Spatial distribution and habitat selection are integral to the study of animal ecology. Habitat selection may optimize the fitness of individuals. Hutchinsonian niche theory posits the fundamental niche of species would support the persistence or growth of populations. Although niche-based species distribution models (SDMs) and habitat suitability models (HSMs) such as maximum entropy (Maxent) have demonstrated fair to excellent predictive power, few studies have linked the prediction of HSMs to demographic rates. We aimed to test the prediction of Hutchinsonian niche theory that habitat suitability (i.e., likelihood of occurrence) would be positively related to survival of American beaver (Castor ...


Evaluation Of The Response To Prrsgard® Administration In Weaned Pigs, C. Smith, F. Chamba, J. Pittman, Gaurav Rawal, Jianqiang Zhang, C. Francisco 2020 Pharmgate Animal Health

Evaluation Of The Response To Prrsgard® Administration In Weaned Pigs, C. Smith, F. Chamba, J. Pittman, Gaurav Rawal, Jianqiang Zhang, C. Francisco

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Conference Proceedings and Presentations

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) continues to cause significant economic and performance losses in swine production in the United States. Multiple practices have been employed in attempts to control the disease, including modified-live virus (MLV) vaccines to reduce clinical signs, viremia and lung lesions, which improve health and performance in pigs. There are several different PRRSV MLV products commercially available to producers. The choice between products may be influenced by cost, efficacy, decreased performance or setback directly following vaccination (drag), and the ability of the vaccine to spread to non-target or non-vaccinated pig populations.

PRRSGard® is a unique ...


Effects Of Inactivated Mycobacterium Bovis Vaccination On Molokai-Origin Wild Pigs Experimentally Infected With Virulent M. Bovis, Pauline Nol, Morgan Wehte, Richard A. Bowen, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Tyler Thacker, Kristina Lantz, Jack Rhyan, Laurie A. Baeten, Ramón A. Juste, Iker A. Sevilla, Christian Gortazar, Joaquín Vicente 2020 US Department of Agriculture , Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, National Wildlife Research Center

Effects Of Inactivated Mycobacterium Bovis Vaccination On Molokai-Origin Wild Pigs Experimentally Infected With Virulent M. Bovis, Pauline Nol, Morgan Wehte, Richard A. Bowen, Suelee Robbe-Austerman, Tyler Thacker, Kristina Lantz, Jack Rhyan, Laurie A. Baeten, Ramón A. Juste, Iker A. Sevilla, Christian Gortazar, Joaquín Vicente

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

The wild pig population on Molokai, Hawaii, USA is a possible reservoir for bovine tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium bovis, and has been implicated in decades past as the source of disease for the island’s domestic cattle. Heat-inactivated vaccines have been effective for reducing disease prevalence in wild boar in Spain and could prove useful for managing M. bovis in Molokai wild pigs. We designed an experiment to test this vaccine in wild pigs of Molokai genetics. Fifteen 3–4-month-old pigs were orally administered 106–107 colony forming units (cfu) of heat-inactivated M. bovis (Vaccinates; n = 8; 0 ...


A Retrospective Investigation Of Risk Factors Associated With Loads Of Pigs Positive For Senecavirus A At A Midwestern Us Packing Plant During The Summer Of 2017, Gustavo S. Silva, Katyann Graham, Victoria Novak, Derald J. Holtkamp, Daniel C. L. Linhares 2020 Iowa State University

A Retrospective Investigation Of Risk Factors Associated With Loads Of Pigs Positive For Senecavirus A At A Midwestern Us Packing Plant During The Summer Of 2017, Gustavo S. Silva, Katyann Graham, Victoria Novak, Derald J. Holtkamp, Daniel C. L. Linhares

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

This study describes a spatio-temporal cluster of Senecavirus A (SVA) outbreaks reported in a midwestern US slaughter plant during the summer of 2017. Data was collected on multiple site characteristics to conduct risk factor analysis. On June 8, 2017, 6 of 10 finishing pig lots delivered to the plant tested positive by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for SVA RNA. Subsequently, 88 lots presented vesicular lesions at the plant, and 74 lots tested positive between June 8 and July 10, 2017, which was a significant temporal cluster.


Economic Estimates Of Invasive Wild Pig Damage To Crops In 12 Us States, Sophie McKee, Aaron Anderson, Keith Carlisle, Stephanie A. Shwiff 2020 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center & Colorado State University

Economic Estimates Of Invasive Wild Pig Damage To Crops In 12 Us States, Sophie Mckee, Aaron Anderson, Keith Carlisle, Stephanie A. Shwiff

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We report the results of a survey on invasive wild pig (Sus scrofa L.) damage and control in 12 US states (Alabama, Arkansas, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Texas). The crops chosen for this study represent the “second-tier” in terms of economic importance after the six crops that were the subject of Anderson et al. (2016). The survey was distributed by the USDA National Agricultural Statistical Service (NASS) in the summer of 2019 to a sample of producers in each of the states (except California) of the following six crops: hay, pecans (Carya ...


Rabies Management Implications Based On Raccoon Population Density Indexes, Dennis Slate, Brandi D. Saidy, Ashlee Simmons, Kathleen M. Nelson, Amy Davis, Timothy P. Algeo, Stacey A. Elmore, Richard B. Chipman 2020 USDA, APHIS & Chippewa Bay Wildlife Art and Science LLC

Rabies Management Implications Based On Raccoon Population Density Indexes, Dennis Slate, Brandi D. Saidy, Ashlee Simmons, Kathleen M. Nelson, Amy Davis, Timothy P. Algeo, Stacey A. Elmore, Richard B. Chipman

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

An estimate or index of target species density is important in determining oral rabies vaccination (ORV) bait densities to control and eliminate specific rabies variants. From 1997–2011, we indexed raccoon (Procyon lotor) densities 253 times based on cumulative captures on 163 sites from Maine to Alabama, USA, near ORV zones created to prevent raccoon rabies from spreading to new areas. We conducted indexing under a common cage trapping protocol near the time of annual ORV to aid in bait density decisions. Unique raccoons (n = 8,415) accounted for 68.0% of captures (n = 12,367). We recaptured raccoons 2 ...


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