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Genomics Of Response To Prrsv In Purebred And Crossbred Sows: Antibody Response And Performance Following Natural Infection Versus Vaccination, Leticia P. Sanglard, Felipe M. W. Hickmann, Yijian Huang, Kent A. Gray, Daniel C. L. Linhares, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Megan C. Niederwerder, Rohan L. Fernando, Joseph Braccini Neto, Nick V. L. Serão 2021 Iowa State University

Genomics Of Response To Prrsv In Purebred And Crossbred Sows: Antibody Response And Performance Following Natural Infection Versus Vaccination, Leticia P. Sanglard, Felipe M. W. Hickmann, Yijian Huang, Kent A. Gray, Daniel C. L. Linhares, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Megan C. Niederwerder, Rohan L. Fernando, Joseph Braccini Neto, Nick V. L. Serão

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Antibody response, measured as sample-to-positive (S/P) ratio, to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) following a PRRSV-outbreak (S/POutbreak) in a purebred nucleus and following a PRRSV-vaccination (S/PVx) in commercial crossbred herds have been proposed as genetic indicator traits for improved reproductive performance in PRRSV-infected purebred and PRRSV-vaccinated crossbred sows, respectively. In this study, we investigated the genetic relationships of S/POutbreak and S/PVx with performance at the commercial (vaccinated crossbred sows) and nucleus level (non-infected and PRRSV-infected purebred sows), respectively, and tested the effect of previously identified SNP for these indicator traits. Antibody response was ...


Data Standardization Implementation And Applications Within And Among Diagnostic Laboratories: Integrating And Monitoring Enteric Coronaviruses, Giovani Trevisan, Leticia C. M. Linhares, Kent J. Schwartz, Eric R. Burrough, Edison de S. Magalhães, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Rodger G. Main, Phillip C. Gauger, Mary Thurn, Paulo T. F. Lages, Cesar A. Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Jamie Henningson, Eric Herrman, Rob McGaughey, Giselle Cino, Jon Greseth, Travis Clement, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Daniel C. L. Linhares 2021 Iowa State University

Data Standardization Implementation And Applications Within And Among Diagnostic Laboratories: Integrating And Monitoring Enteric Coronaviruses, Giovani Trevisan, Leticia C. M. Linhares, Kent J. Schwartz, Eric R. Burrough, Edison De S. Magalhães, Bret Crim, Poonam Dubey, Rodger G. Main, Phillip C. Gauger, Mary Thurn, Paulo T. F. Lages, Cesar A. Corzo, Jerry Torrison, Jamie Henningson, Eric Herrman, Rob Mcgaughey, Giselle Cino, Jon Greseth, Travis Clement, Jane Christopher-Hennings, Daniel C. L. Linhares

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Every day, thousands of samples from diverse populations of animals are submitted to veterinary diagnostic laboratories (VDLs) for testing. Each VDL has its own laboratory information management system (LIMS), with processes and procedures to capture submission information, perform laboratory tests, define the boundaries of test results (i.e., positive or negative), and report results, in addition to internal business and accounting applications. Enormous quantities of data are accumulated and stored within VDL LIMSs. There is a need for platforms that allow VDLs to exchange and share portions of laboratory data using standardized, reliable, and sustainable information technology processes. Here we ...


Mitigation Of Airborne Prrsv Transmission With Uv Light Treatment: Proof-Of-Concept, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, William S. Jenks, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, Steven J. Hoff 2021 Iowa State University

Mitigation Of Airborne Prrsv Transmission With Uv Light Treatment: Proof-Of-Concept, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, William S. Jenks, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, Steven J. Hoff

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Proper treatment of infectious air could potentially mitigate the spread of airborne viruses such as porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The objective of this research is to test the effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) in inactivating aerosolized PRRSV, specifically, four UV lamps, UV-A (365 nm, both fluorescent and LED-based), “excimer” UV-C (222 nm), and germicidal UV-C (254 nm), were tested. The two UV-C lamps effectively irradiated fast-moving PRRSV aerosols with short treatment times (<2 s). One-stage and two-stage UV inactivation models estimated the UV doses needed for target percentage (%) reductions on PRRSV titer. UV-C (254 nm) dose needed for 3-log (99.9%) reduction was 0.521 and 0.0943 mJ/cm2, respectively, based on one-stage and two-stage models. An order of magnitude lower UV-C (222 nm) doses were needed for a 3-log reduction, i.e., 0 ...


Distribution Of Crispr Types In Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Campylobacter Jejuni Isolates, Mehmet Cemal Adiguzel, Debora Brito Goulart, Zuowei Wu, Jinji Pang, Seyda Cengiz, Qijing Zhang, Orhan Sahin 2021 Ataturk University

Distribution Of Crispr Types In Fluoroquinolone-Resistant Campylobacter Jejuni Isolates, Mehmet Cemal Adiguzel, Debora Brito Goulart, Zuowei Wu, Jinji Pang, Seyda Cengiz, Qijing Zhang, Orhan Sahin

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

To aid development of phage therapy against Campylobacter, we investigated the distribution of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) systems in fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant Campylobacter jejuni. A total of 100 FQ-resistant C. jejuni strains from different sources were analyzed by PCR and DNA sequencing to determine resistance-conferring mutation in the gyrA gene and the presence of various CRISPR systems. All but one isolate harbored 1–5 point mutations in gyrA, and the most common mutation was the Thr86Ile change. Ninety-five isolates were positive with the CRISPR PCR, and spacer sequences were found in 86 of them. Among the ...


Pioneer Science And The Great Plagues: How Microbes, War, And Public Health Shaped Animal Health, Norman F. Cheville, Purdue University Press 2021 Iowa State University

Pioneer Science And The Great Plagues: How Microbes, War, And Public Health Shaped Animal Health, Norman F. Cheville, Purdue University Press

Purdue University Press Books

Pioneer Science and the Great Plagues covers the century when infectious plagues—anthrax, tuberculosis, tetanus, plague, smallpox, and polio—were conquered, and details the important role that veterinary scientists played. The narrative is driven by astonishing events that centered on animal disease: the influenza pandemic of 1872, discovery of the causes of anthrax and tuberculosis in the 1880s, conquest of Texas cattle fever and then yellow fever, German anthrax attacks on the United States during World War I, the tuberculin war of 1931, Japanese biological warfare in the 1940s, and today’s bioterror dangers.

Veterinary science in the rural Midwest ...


Sars-Cov-2 Exposure In Escaped Mink, Utah, Usa, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, J. Jeffrey Root, Annette Roug, Scott R. Stopak, Gerald W. Wiscomb, Jared R. Zierenberg, Hon S. Ip, Mia Kim Torchetti, Thomas J. DeLiberto 2021 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Sars-Cov-2 Exposure In Escaped Mink, Utah, Usa, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, J. Jeffrey Root, Annette Roug, Scott R. Stopak, Gerald W. Wiscomb, Jared R. Zierenberg, Hon S. Ip, Mia Kim Torchetti, Thomas J. Deliberto

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

In August 2020, outbreaks of coronavirus disease were confirmed on mink farms in Utah, USA. We surveyed mammals captured on and around farms for evidence of infection or exposure. Free-ranging mink, presumed domestic escapees, exhibited high antibody titers, suggesting a potential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission pathway to native wildlife.

We report a wildlife epidemiologic investigation of mammals captured on or near properties in Utah, USA, where outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection occurred in farmed mink. Mink farms are relatively common in the United States, and most are small family farms. The US ...


Great Expectations: Deconstructing The Process Pathways Underlying Beaver-Related Restoration, Caroline S. Nash, Gordon E. Grant, Susan Charnley, Jason B. Dunham, Hannah Gosnell, Mark B. Hausner, David S. Pilliod, Jimmy Taylor 2021 Boise State University

Great Expectations: Deconstructing The Process Pathways Underlying Beaver-Related Restoration, Caroline S. Nash, Gordon E. Grant, Susan Charnley, Jason B. Dunham, Hannah Gosnell, Mark B. Hausner, David S. Pilliod, Jimmy Taylor

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Beaver-related restoration is a process-based strategy that seeks to address wide-ranging ecological objectives by reestablishing dam building in degraded stream systems. Although the beaver-related restoration has broad appeal, especially in water-limited systems, its effectiveness is not yet well documented. In this article, we present a process-expectation framework that links beaver-related restoration tactics to commonly expected outcomes by identifying the set of process pathways that must occur to achieve those expected outcomes. We explore the contingency implicit within this framework using social and biophysical data from project and research sites. This analysis reveals that outcomes are often predicated on complex process ...


Toxicity Of Sodium Nitrite-Based Vertebrate Pesticides For European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris), Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. DeLiberto, Hailey E. McLean, Katherine E. Horak, Kirt C. VerCauteren 2021 USDA APHIS NWRC

Toxicity Of Sodium Nitrite-Based Vertebrate Pesticides For European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris), Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. Deliberto, Hailey E. Mclean, Katherine E. Horak, Kirt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

In the 21st century, invasive animals rank second only to habitat destruction as the greatest threat to global biodiversity. Socially-acceptable and cost-effective strategies are needed to reduce the negative economic and environmental impacts of invasive animals. We investigated the potential for sodium nitrite (SN; CAS 7632-00-0) to serve as an avian toxicant for European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris L.). We also assessed the non-target hazard of an experimental formulation of SN that is being developed as a toxicant for invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa L.). In gavage experiments with European starlings, we identified a lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) for ...


Effect Of Prrsv Stability On Productive Parameters In Breeding Herds Of A Swine Large Integrated Group In Spain, D. Torrents, J. Miranda, Phillip C. Gauger, Alejandro Ramirez, Daniel C. L. Linhares 2021 Laboratorios Hipra S.A. and Iowa State University

Effect Of Prrsv Stability On Productive Parameters In Breeding Herds Of A Swine Large Integrated Group In Spain, D. Torrents, J. Miranda, Phillip C. Gauger, Alejandro Ramirez, Daniel C. L. Linhares

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Background In breeding herds, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) clinically manifests as increased abortions, number of stillbirths, and pre-weaning mortality, and as a direct consequence, results in a decrease of the number of piglets weaned per sow per year. Breeding farm classification according the PRRS virus (PRRSV) status (unstable or stable) is a key control strategy for this disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the production improvement related to achieving a PRRSV stable status in breeding herds in Spain. For this purpose, epidemiological and productivity data were collected from a systematic PRRSV monitoring program in 35 ...


Complete Genome Sequence Of Campylobacter Hepaticus Usa52, Associated With Chicken Spotty Liver Disease, Zuowei Wu, Orhan Sahin, Qijing Zhang 2021 Iowa State University

Complete Genome Sequence Of Campylobacter Hepaticus Usa52, Associated With Chicken Spotty Liver Disease, Zuowei Wu, Orhan Sahin, Qijing Zhang

Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive Medicine Publications

Campylobacter hepaticus was recently identified as the etiological agent of chicken spotty liver disease. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of C. hepaticus strain USA52 from the United States. The genome comprises a chromosome of 1,509,100 bp with an average GC content of 28.02%.


Designing And Testing Of A System For Aerosolization And Recovery Of Viable Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv): Theoretical And Engineering Considerations, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Steven J. Hoff, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, William S. Jenks 2021 Iowa State University

Designing And Testing Of A System For Aerosolization And Recovery Of Viable Porcine Reproductive And Respiratory Syndrome Virus (Prrsv): Theoretical And Engineering Considerations, Peiyang Li, Jacek A. Koziel, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman, Steven J. Hoff, Jianqiang Zhang, Ting-Yu Cheng, Wannarat Yim-Im, Myeongseong Lee, Baitong Chen, William S. Jenks

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infections cause significant economic losses to swine producers every year. Aerosols containing infectious PRRSV are an important route of transmission, and proper treatment of air could mitigate the airborne spread of the virus within and between barns. Previous bioaerosol studies focused on the microbiology of PRRSV aerosols; thus, the current study addressed the engineering aspects of virus aerosolization and collection. Specific objectives were to (1) build and test a virus aerosolization system, (2) achieve a uniform and repeatable aerosol generation and collection throughout all replicates, (3) identify and minimize sources of variation, (4 ...


Altered Corneal Innervation And Ocular Surface Homeostasis In Fhv-1-Exposed Cats: A Preliminary Study Suggesting Metaherpetic Disease, Lionel Sebbag, Sara M. Thomasy, Adriana Leland, Madison Mukai, Soohyun Kim, David J. Maggs 2021 Hebrew University of Jerusalem, University of California-Davis, and Iowa State University

Altered Corneal Innervation And Ocular Surface Homeostasis In Fhv-1-Exposed Cats: A Preliminary Study Suggesting Metaherpetic Disease, Lionel Sebbag, Sara M. Thomasy, Adriana Leland, Madison Mukai, Soohyun Kim, David J. Maggs

Veterinary Clinical Sciences Publications

Metaherpetic disease is recognized in humans affected by herpes simplex virus-1 but is not reported in cats affected by feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1) despite the high prevalence of herpetic disease in this species and strong similarities in viral biology between alphaherpesviruses of humans and cats. This preliminary work evaluated cats naïve to FHV-1 (n = 9 cats, 18 eyes; control population) and cats naturally exposed to FHV-1 (n = 4 cats, 7 eyes), as confirmed by serologic testing and review of medical records. Antemortem assessment included clinical scoring, blink rate, corneal aesthesiometry, tear film breakup time (TFBUT), and Schirmer tear test-1 (STT-1) with ...


Modeling Mongoose Rabies In The Caribbean: A Model-Guided Fieldwork Approach To Identify Research Priorities, Caroline C. Sauvé, Erin E. Rees, Amy T. Gilbert, Are R. Berentsen, Agathe Allibert, Patrick A. Leighton 2021 Université de Montréal

Modeling Mongoose Rabies In The Caribbean: A Model-Guided Fieldwork Approach To Identify Research Priorities, Caroline C. Sauvé, Erin E. Rees, Amy T. Gilbert, Are R. Berentsen, Agathe Allibert, Patrick A. Leighton

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

We applied the model-guided fieldwork framework to the Caribbean mongoose rabies system by parametrizing a spatially-explicit, individual-based model, and by performing an uncertainty analysis designed to identify parameters for which additional empirical data are most needed. Our analysis revealed important variation in output variables characterizing rabies dynamics, namely rabies persistence, exposure level, spatiotemporal distribution, and prevalence. Among epidemiological parameters, rabies transmission rate was the most influential, followed by rabies mortality and location, and size of the initial infection. The most influential landscape parameters included habitat-specific carrying capacities, landscape heterogeneity, and the level of resistance to dispersal associated with topography. Movement ...


A Framework For Surveillance Of Emerging Pathogens At The Human-Animal Interface: Pigs And Coronaviruses As A Case Study, Kim M. Pepin, Ryan S. Miller, Mark Q. Wilber 2021 USA National Wildlife Research Center, USDA-APHIS

A Framework For Surveillance Of Emerging Pathogens At The Human-Animal Interface: Pigs And Coronaviruses As A Case Study, Kim M. Pepin, Ryan S. Miller, Mark Q. Wilber

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Pigs (Sus scrofa) may be important surveillance targets for risk assessment and risk-based control planning against emerging zoonoses. Pigs have high contact rates with humans and other animals, transmit similar pathogens as humans including CoVs, and serve as reservoirs and intermediate hosts for notable human pandemics. Wild and domestic pigs both interface with humans and each other but have unique ecologies that demand different surveillance strategies. Three fundamental questions shape any surveillance program: where, when, and how can surveillance be conducted to optimize the surveillance objective? Using theory of mechanisms of zoonotic spillover and data on risk factors, we propose ...


Spatial Transferability Of Expert Opinion Models For American Beaver Habitat, Isidro Barela, Leslie M. Burger, Guiming Wang, Kristine O. Evans, Qingmin Meng, Jimmy D. Taylor 2021 Mississippi State University, Mississippi State & Siskiyou County Department of Agriculture

Spatial Transferability Of Expert Opinion Models For American Beaver Habitat, Isidro Barela, Leslie M. Burger, Guiming Wang, Kristine O. Evans, Qingmin Meng, Jimmy D. Taylor

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Species distribution models and habitat suitability models (HSMs) have become a popular tool in the conservation of biodiversity. However, the ability to predict species spatial distributions at sites beyond the data source sites (i.e., spatial transferability) is critical for the applications of HSMs in the management and conservation of rare or endangered species. The main objective of our study was to assess the predictive performance and spatial transferability of expert opinion models (EOMs). To build EOMs, we identified through extensive literature reviews 17 key landscape variables to characterize habitat use by American beaver (Castor canadensis). We developed 31 pairwise ...


Multi-Level Movement Response Of Invasive Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) To Removal, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Peter E. Schlichting, David A. Keiter, Joshua B. Smith, John C. Kilgo, George Wittemyer, Kurt C. Vercauteren, James C. Beasley, Kim M. Pepin 2021 USDA APHIS, Fort Collins, CO

Multi-Level Movement Response Of Invasive Wild Pigs (Sus Scrofa) To Removal, Guillaume Bastille-Rousseau, Peter E. Schlichting, David A. Keiter, Joshua B. Smith, John C. Kilgo, George Wittemyer, Kurt C. Vercauteren, James C. Beasley, Kim M. Pepin

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

BACKGROUND: Lethal removal of invasive species, such as wild pigs (Sus scrofa), is often the most efficient approach for reducing their negative impacts. Wild pigs are one of the most widespread and destructive invasive mammals in the USA. Lethal management techniques are a key approach for wild pigs and can alter wild pig spatial behavior, but it is unclear how wild pigs respond to the most common removal technique, trapping.We investigated the spatial behavior of wild pigs following intensive removal of conspecifics via trapping at three sites within the Savannah River Site, SC, USA. We evaluated changes in wild ...


Food Habits Of Wintering Double-Crested Cormorants In The Mississippi Delta, Terrel W. Christie, Brian S. Dorr, J. Brian Davis, Luke A. Roy, Carole R. Engle, Katie Hanson-Dorr, Anita M. Kelly 2021 Mississippi State University

Food Habits Of Wintering Double-Crested Cormorants In The Mississippi Delta, Terrel W. Christie, Brian S. Dorr, J. Brian Davis, Luke A. Roy, Carole R. Engle, Katie Hanson-Dorr, Anita M. Kelly

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Given its ubiquity, it is not surprising that agriculture, including fin fish aquaculture, contributes to food webs worldwide and is used by numerous wildlife for foraging and meeting other needs. Double-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) impact United States commercial aquaculture and are considered the primary avian predator in catfish (Ictalurus spp.) aquaculture facilities in the Mississippi Delta. Recent changes in aquaculture practices, regulatory policies, and decreased overall hectares in production prompted this study that assessed cormorant consumption of catfish in relation to their night roosts through surveys and diet analysis. Cormorants were collected from night roosts from October through April 2016 ...


Principal Economic Effects Of Cormorant Predation On Catfish Farms, Carole R. Engle, Terrel W. Christie, Brian S. Dorr, Ganesh Kumar, Luke A. Roy, Anita M. Kelly 2021 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

Principal Economic Effects Of Cormorant Predation On Catfish Farms, Carole R. Engle, Terrel W. Christie, Brian S. Dorr, Ganesh Kumar, Luke A. Roy, Anita M. Kelly

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Substantial economic losses of farmed catfish to fish-eating birds such as the double-crested cormorant, Phalacrocorax auritus, continue to be reported on U.S. catfish farms. An economic analysis was conducted of the on-farm effects of both the increased expenditures to scare fish-eating birds from catfish farms and of the value of the catfish that were consumed by cormorants. A survey was conducted of U.S. catfish farmers in the Delta region of Mississippi and Arkansas, to obtain farm-level data on expenditures to scare birds. Estimations of the lost revenue from catfish consumed by cormorants were developed from a concurrent study ...


Embracing Dynamic Models For Gene Drive Management, Andrew J. Golnar, Emily W. Ruell, Alun L. Lloyd, Kim M. Pepin 2021 NWRC, USDA APHIS

Embracing Dynamic Models For Gene Drive Management, Andrew J. Golnar, Emily W. Ruell, Alun L. Lloyd, Kim M. Pepin

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Robust methods of predicting how gene drive systems will interact with ecosystems is essential for safe deployment of gene drive technology. We describe how quantitative tools can reduce risk uncertainty, streamline empirical research, guide risk management, and promote cross-sector collaboration throughout the process of gene drive technology development and implementation.

Gene drive technologies, although diverse in design and mode of action, are molecular architectures that promote the transmission of genetic information between generations. In theory, the release of one gene-drive-modified organism (GDMO) has the potential to irreversibly alter species, ecosystems, and environmental processes at a global scale (although in practice ...


Population Genomic Transformations Induced By Isolation Of Wild Bird Avian Influenza Viruses (Orthomyxoviridae) In Embryonated Chicken Eggs, Matthew W. Hopken, Antoinette J. Piaggio, K. L. Pabilonia, James Pierce, Theodore Anderson, Courtney Pierce, Zaid Abdo 2021 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center, Fort Collins, CO

Population Genomic Transformations Induced By Isolation Of Wild Bird Avian Influenza Viruses (Orthomyxoviridae) In Embryonated Chicken Eggs, Matthew W. Hopken, Antoinette J. Piaggio, K. L. Pabilonia, James Pierce, Theodore Anderson, Courtney Pierce, Zaid Abdo

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Isolation and cultivation of wild-type viruses in model organism cells or tissues is standard practice in virology. Oftentimes, the virus host species is distantly related to the species from which the culture system was developed. Thus, virus culture in these tissues and cells basically constitutes a host jump, which can lead to genomic changes through genetic drift and/or adaptation to the culture system. We directly sequenced 70 avian influenza virus (Orthomyxoviridae) genomes from oropharyngeal/cloacal swabs collected from wild bird species and paired virus isolates propagated from the same samples following isolation in specific-pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs. The data ...


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