Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

12268 Full-Text Articles 18986 Authors 1964419 Downloads 234 Institutions

All Articles in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Faceted Search

12268 full-text articles. Page 2 of 372.

Investigating The Spatial Distribution And Effects Of Nearshore Topography On Acropora Cervicornis Abundance In Southeast Florida, Nicole D'Antonio, David S. Gilliam, Brian K. Walker 2017 Nova Southeastern University

Investigating The Spatial Distribution And Effects Of Nearshore Topography On Acropora Cervicornis Abundance In Southeast Florida, Nicole D'Antonio, David S. Gilliam, Brian K. Walker

Brian K. Walker

Dense Acropora cervicornis aggregations, or patches, have been documented within nearshore habitats in Southeast Florida (SE FL) despite close proximity to numerous anthropogenic stressors and subjection to frequent natural disturbance events. Limited information has been published concerning the distribution and abundance of A. cervicornis outside of these known dense patches. The first goal of this study was to conduct a spatially extensive and inclusive survey (9.78 km2) to determine whether A. cervicornis distribution in the nearshore habitat of SE FL was spatially uniform or clustered. The second goal was to investigate potential relationships between broad-scale seafloor topography and A ...


Population-Level Plasticity In Foraging Behavior Of Western Gulls (Larus Occidentalis), Scott A. Shaffer, Sue Cockerham, Pete Warzybok, Russell W. Bradley, Jaime Jahncke, Corey A. Clatterbuck, Magali Lucia, Jennifer A. Jelincic, Anne L. Cassell, Emma C. Kelsey, Josh Adams 2017 San Jose State University

Population-Level Plasticity In Foraging Behavior Of Western Gulls (Larus Occidentalis), Scott A. Shaffer, Sue Cockerham, Pete Warzybok, Russell W. Bradley, Jaime Jahncke, Corey A. Clatterbuck, Magali Lucia, Jennifer A. Jelincic, Anne L. Cassell, Emma C. Kelsey, Josh Adams

Scott A. Shaffer

Background
Plasticity in foraging behavior among individuals, or across populations may reduce competition. As a generalist carnivore, western gulls (Larus occidentalis) consume a wide range of marine and terrestrial foods. However, the foraging patterns and habitat selection (ocean or land) of western gulls is not well understood, despite their ubiquity in coastal California. Here, we used GPS loggers to compare the foraging behavior and habitat use of western gulls breeding at two island colonies in central California.
Results
Gulls from offshore Southeast Farallon Island (SFI; n = 41 gulls) conducted more oceanic trips (n = 90) of shorter duration (3.8 ± 3 ...


Science And Sentiment: Affecting Change In Environmental Awareness, Attitudes, And Actions Through The Daily Nature Project, Elizabeth D. Haynes Poronsky 2017 The Overfield School

Science And Sentiment: Affecting Change In Environmental Awareness, Attitudes, And Actions Through The Daily Nature Project, Elizabeth D. Haynes Poronsky

The STEAM Journal

Knowledge about what motivates pro-environmental behavior is important to organizations that seek to encourage environmental stewardship. Research suggests that targeting emotions and beliefs about nature can be more effective in changing environmental actions than increasing knowledge. Daily Nature, a site on the social media platform Facebook, features a daily nature photograph, a quote from a notable historical person and a related lyrical written passage. The popularity of this site lends credence to the appeal of interdisciplinary formats, and underscores the benefits of encouraging emotional and aesthetic ties to nature.


Cooperation And Competition Shape Ecological Resistance During Periodic Spatial Disturbance Of Engineered Bacteria, Cortney E. Wilson, Allison J. Lopatkin, Travis J. A. Craddock, William W. Driscoll, Omar T. Eldakar, Jose V. Lopez, Robert P. Smith 2017 Nova Southeastern University

Cooperation And Competition Shape Ecological Resistance During Periodic Spatial Disturbance Of Engineered Bacteria, Cortney E. Wilson, Allison J. Lopatkin, Travis J. A. Craddock, William W. Driscoll, Omar T. Eldakar, Jose V. Lopez, Robert P. Smith

Jose V. Lopez

Cooperation is fundamental to the survival of many bacterial species. Previous studies have shown that spatial structure can both promote and suppress cooperation. Most environments where bacteria are found are periodically disturbed, which can affect the spatial structure of the population. Despite the important role that spatial disturbances play in maintaining ecological relationships, it remains unclear as to how periodic spatial disturbances affect bacteria dependent on cooperation for survival. Here, we use bacteria engineered with a strong Allee effect to investigate how the frequency of periodic spatial disturbances affects cooperation. We show that at intermediate frequencies of spatial disturbance, the ...


Investigating The Spatial Distribution And Effects Of Nearshore Topography On Acropora Cervicornis Abundance In Southeast Florida, Nicole D'Antonio, David S. Gilliam, Brian K. Walker 2017 Nova Southeastern University

Investigating The Spatial Distribution And Effects Of Nearshore Topography On Acropora Cervicornis Abundance In Southeast Florida, Nicole D'Antonio, David S. Gilliam, Brian K. Walker

David Gilliam

Dense Acropora cervicornis aggregations, or patches, have been documented within nearshore habitats in Southeast Florida (SE FL) despite close proximity to numerous anthropogenic stressors and subjection to frequent natural disturbance events. Limited information has been published concerning the distribution and abundance of A. cervicornis outside of these known dense patches. The first goal of this study was to conduct a spatially extensive and inclusive survey (9.78 km2) to determine whether A. cervicornis distribution in the nearshore habitat of SE FL was spatially uniform or clustered. The second goal was to investigate potential relationships between broad-scale seafloor topography and ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xiii. Review Of Pandinops Hawkeri, P. Peeli, P. Platycheles, And P. Pugilator (Scorpionidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Hassan Sh Abdirahman Elmi 2017 Charles University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xiii. Review Of Pandinops Hawkeri, P. Peeli, P. Platycheles, And P. Pugilator (Scorpionidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Hassan Sh Abdirahman Elmi

Euscorpius

Pandinops platycheles (Werner, 1916) is diagnosed and fully complemented with color photos of types, and Pandinops pugilator (Pocock, 1900) is diagnosed and fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens, as well as its habitat. The hemispermatophore of P. pugilator is illustrated and described for the first time. Pandinus hawkeri Pocock, 1900 and Pandinus peeli Pocock, 1900 are synonymized with Pandinops pugilator (Pocock, 1900).


Quantatative Analysis Of Microbial Abundance Within Arctic Fjord Sediments Assessed Through Direct Counting, Alex Taylor Swystun 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Quantatative Analysis Of Microbial Abundance Within Arctic Fjord Sediments Assessed Through Direct Counting, Alex Taylor Swystun

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Microbes found in the marine sediments are responsible for the production of nearly half of the carbon dioxide found in the atmosphere (Arrigo, 2005). The fjords of Svalbard (79°N) are not considered typical marine sediments because high iron content influences unique subsurface redox chemistry. Radiotracer studies have shown that these sediments contain active bacterial sulfate-reducing communities (Finke et al., 2016). In addition to bacteria, archaeal cells within these sediments have been in aggregates encompassed by sulfate-reducing bacteria (Ravenschlag et al., 2001). These anaerobic organisms participate in mediating environmental biogeochemical cycles, including the oxidation of methane (Ravenschlag et al., 2001 ...


Effects Of Trophic Relationships On Oyster Reef Restoration Success In The Mississippi Sound, Virginia Robin Fleer 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Trophic Relationships On Oyster Reef Restoration Success In The Mississippi Sound, Virginia Robin Fleer

Dissertations

Natural and anthropogenic changes resulting from altered hydrology, hurricanes, variable precipitation, and the BP oil spill have all taken their toll on oyster reefs in Mississippi. In response, oyster reef restoration efforts are currently underway within the Northern Gulf of Mexico. In order to understand why these efforts succeed or fail, it is crucial to consider predator-prey relationships within the context of the trophic dynamics of oyster reefs. Thus, for this dissertation study I integrated a multidisciplinary approach to understanding key trophic interactions affecting oyster recruitment, growth and survival, comprising field sampling, manipulative lab experiments, and individual-based modeling. Spat settlement ...


A Place-Based Learning Community: Klamath Connection At Humboldt State University, Matt Johnson, Amy Sprowles, Katlin Overeem, Angela Rich 2017 Humboldt State University

A Place-Based Learning Community: Klamath Connection At Humboldt State University, Matt Johnson, Amy Sprowles, Katlin Overeem, Angela Rich

Learning Communities Research and Practice

A place-based learning community called Klamath Connection was designed to improve the academic performance of freshman in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math (STEM) majors at Humboldt State University, a midsize public institution in a location geographically and culturally unfamiliar to the majority of its students. The program interweaves four high impact practices demonstrated to improve the success of students in STEM: a summer immersion, freshman year seminar, modified gateway courses, and peer mentoring. Each component is linked by an interdisciplinary theme unique to our geographic location and central to the communities that live within it, the Klamath River basin. This ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xii. Pandinurus Hangarale Sp. N. (Scorpionidae) From Somaliland And A Review Of Type Locality And True Distribution Of Pandinurus Smithi (Pocock, 1897), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Tomáš Mazuch, Ahmed Ibrahim Awale, Jana Štundlová, František Šťáhlavský 2017 Charles University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xii. Pandinurus Hangarale Sp. N. (Scorpionidae) From Somaliland And A Review Of Type Locality And True Distribution Of Pandinurus Smithi (Pocock, 1897), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Tomáš Mazuch, Ahmed Ibrahim Awale, Jana Štundlová, František Šťáhlavský

Euscorpius

Pandinurus hangarale sp. n. from Somaliland is described and fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens, as well as its habitat. Hemispermatophore of P. hangarale sp. n. is illustrated and described. In addition to the analyses of external morphology and hemispermatophores, we also describe the karyotype of P. hangarale sp. n. (2n=120). Known localities of Pandinurus smithi (Pocock, 1897) are compiled; the type locality is not in Somaliland but in Ethiopia (Turfa) and in reality it is probably an endemic of Ethiopia.


Comparative Genomics Of An Unusual Biogeographic Disjunction In The Cotton Tribe (Gossypieae) Yields Insights Into Genome Downsizing, Corrinne E. Grover, Mark A. Arick II, Justin L. Conover, Adam Thrash, Guanjing Hu, William S. Sanders, Chuan-Yu Hsu, Rubab Zahra Naqvi, Muhammad Farooq, Xiaochong Li, Lei Gong, Joann Mudge, Thiru Ramaraj, Joshua A. Udall, Daniel G. Peterson, Jonathan F. Wendel 2017 Iowa State University

Comparative Genomics Of An Unusual Biogeographic Disjunction In The Cotton Tribe (Gossypieae) Yields Insights Into Genome Downsizing, Corrinne E. Grover, Mark A. Arick Ii, Justin L. Conover, Adam Thrash, Guanjing Hu, William S. Sanders, Chuan-Yu Hsu, Rubab Zahra Naqvi, Muhammad Farooq, Xiaochong Li, Lei Gong, Joann Mudge, Thiru Ramaraj, Joshua A. Udall, Daniel G. Peterson, Jonathan F. Wendel

Jonathan F. Wendel

Long-distance insular dispersal is associated with divergence and speciation because of founder effects and strong genetic drift. The cotton tribe (Gossypieae) has experienced multiple trans-oceanic dispersals, generating an aggregate geographic range that encompasses much of the tropics and subtropics worldwide. Two genera in the Gossypieae, Kokia and Gossypioides, exhibit a remarkable geographic disjunction, being restricted to the Hawaiian Islands and Madagascar/East Africa, respectively. We assembled and use de novo genome sequences to address questions regarding the divergence of these two genera from each other and from their sister-group, Gossypium. In addition, we explore processes underlying the genome downsizing that ...


A New Island Species Of Centruroides Marx, 1890 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From The Southwestern Caribbean, Rolando Teruel, Brandon Myers 2017 Museo de Historia Natural “Tomás Romay”

A New Island Species Of Centruroides Marx, 1890 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From The Southwestern Caribbean, Rolando Teruel, Brandon Myers

Euscorpius

Herein we describe a new species of the Buthidae scorpion genus Centruroides Marx, 1890. It occurs at least in two small offshore islands of the southwestern Caribbean: Cozumel in Mexico and Guanaja in Honduras, based upon type specimens from the former and photographic evidence from the latter. It belongs in the "gracilis" species-group and is most closely related to both Centruroides gracilis (Latreille, 1805) and Centruroides nigrescens (Pocock, 1898).


Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser Fulvescens) Trophic Position And Movement Patterns In The Lower Niagara River, Ny, Eric Bruestle 2017 Buffalo State College

Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser Fulvescens) Trophic Position And Movement Patterns In The Lower Niagara River, Ny, Eric Bruestle

Great Lakes Center Masters Theses

Lake sturgeon Acipenser fulvescens were once widely distributed throughout the Laurentian Great Lakes. However, widespread overharvest and habitat degradation has diminished their numbers. The lower Niagara River, NY contains one of the few remaining recovering populations of lake sturgeon in New York State. The goal of this study was to characterize the trophic position of lake sturgeon in the context of an invasive species dominated food web and to describe their movement patterns and residency within the lower Niagara River. Stomach content analysis and stable nitrogen (δ15N) and carbon (δ13C) isotope analysis of tissue was used ...


Historical Change Of Seagrasses In The Mississippi And Chandeleur Sounds, Linh Thuy Pham 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Historical Change Of Seagrasses In The Mississippi And Chandeleur Sounds, Linh Thuy Pham

Dissertations

Seagrasses are important coastal resources facing numerous stressors, and losses have been documented from local to global assessments. Under the broad theme of habitat loss and fragmentation, a study of historical change in total area and landscape configuration of seagrasses in the Mississippi and Chandeleur Sounds was conducted. Mapping data was collated from a multitude of previous projects from 1940 to 2011.

Comparisons of seagrass area among various studies that used different mapping methods can result in overestimation of area change and misleading conclusions of change over time. The vegetated seagrass area (VSA) data were generalized to a common resolution ...


Ecological And Oceanographic Influences On Leatherback Turtle Behavior And Scyphozoan Jellyfish Distributions In The Gulf Of Mexico, Katrina Aleksa 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Ecological And Oceanographic Influences On Leatherback Turtle Behavior And Scyphozoan Jellyfish Distributions In The Gulf Of Mexico, Katrina Aleksa

Dissertations

Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are a wide-ranging, oceanic species that feed exclusively on gelatinous zooplankton. Leatherback have been spotted in the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) for several decades and consistently had a high level of interactions with longline fisheries. However, no quantitative studies have been performed to address the spatiotemporal distribution of these turtles in the GoM. This research determines 1) leatherback movements and high-use areas in the GoM, 2) their association with oceanographic features, 3) the distribution and density of two abundant medusae in the northern GoM and any association with biophysical parameters, and 4) the body composition and ...


Effects Of Temperature On Growth And Molting In Blue Crabs (Callinectes Sapidus) And Lesser Blue Crabs (Callinectes Similis), Abigail Ann Kuhn 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Temperature On Growth And Molting In Blue Crabs (Callinectes Sapidus) And Lesser Blue Crabs (Callinectes Similis), Abigail Ann Kuhn

Master's Theses

Temperature can exert impacts on many processes in ectotherms. With global temperatures rising due to climate change, many ectothermic species may exhibit changes in growth rates and size at maturity, and these changes can have population-level effects. Predicting responses of species to climate change will require not only knowledge of thermal tolerance limits, but also effects of temperature change on growth rates and other life history parameters. For arthropods that exhibit discontinuous growth (i.e., molting), this includes both intermolt period and growth per molt. Previous laboratory and field experiments suggest that temperature affects both intermolt period (IMP) and growth ...


A Novel Three-Way Interaction Among A Fish, Algae, And A Parasitic Copepod, John Waldman 2017 CUNY Queens College

A Novel Three-Way Interaction Among A Fish, Algae, And A Parasitic Copepod, John Waldman

Publications and Research

No abstract provided.


Habitat Ecology, Trophic Interactions, And Distribution Of Endangered Himalayan Musk Deer In The Nepal Himalaya, Kapil Kishor Khadka 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Habitat Ecology, Trophic Interactions, And Distribution Of Endangered Himalayan Musk Deer In The Nepal Himalaya, Kapil Kishor Khadka

Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation seeks to explore and assess the habitat selection, trophic interactions and distribution of Himalayan musk deer. Chapter one deals with seasonal diet analysis of musk deer along with the overlap in consumption with livestock during summer. Microhistological technique was employed to assess dietary consumption. Results showed that Abies spectabilis, Pinus wallichiana, and Berberis species constituted the major portion of musk deer’s diet. Dietary breadth measured by the Shannon index was found higher in winter compared to summer. Although musk deer and livestock shared a considerable number of plant species in their diets, the consumption however was significantly ...


Resource Allocation For Acorn Production: A Comparison Across Species Pairs Of Oaks With Contrasting Acorn Production Patterns And Water Use Strategies, Kyle A. Funk 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Resource Allocation For Acorn Production: A Comparison Across Species Pairs Of Oaks With Contrasting Acorn Production Patterns And Water Use Strategies, Kyle A. Funk

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Mast seeding, or masting, is a phenomenon where inter-annual seed production by individuals is synchronized across a population of plants. Masting is hypothesized to confer a selective advantage to plants by increasing rates of pollination or by decreasing rates of seed predation. Masting can also play a crucial role in ecosystem functioning as fluctuations in annual seed crops correspond with fluctuations in seed predator populations, which in turn have consequences that ripple throughout food webs. The mechanism(s) that causes masting is unresolved, but the high variability in seed production of masting plants is hypothesized to be caused, in part ...


Oystershell Scale Impacts And Mitigation Options On The Kaibab And Coconino Nf’S, Amanda M. Grady 2017 Utah State University

Oystershell Scale Impacts And Mitigation Options On The Kaibab And Coconino Nf’S, Amanda M. Grady

Aspen Bibliography

This report documents a site visit to evaluate aspen stands experiencing oystershell scale damage on the Kaibab and Coconino National Forest’s. The site visit was requested by Kaibab NF, foresters including; Josh Giles, Jessi Outzs, Michael Sedgeman, Woody Rokala and Coconino Silviculturist, Mark Nabel. On November 19, 2016, Amanda Grady accompanied the individuals listed above, to evaluate stand conditions within three aspen exclosures. Two were located on the Williams Ranger District, Kaibab NF in the vicinity of Spring Valley. The third exclosure was located on the Flagstaff RD, Coconino NF and accessed from HWY 89-A via the Pump House ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress