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Raising The Moral Consciousness Of Science, Bernard Rollin 2019 Selected Works

Raising The Moral Consciousness Of Science, Bernard Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

Precaution on behalf of sentient animals should not be tempered by the questionable principle of the amorality of science.


Unity Of Consciousness In Animals, Bernard E. Rollin 2019 Selected Works

Unity Of Consciousness In Animals, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

Both Descartes the rationalist and Hume the empiricist, polar opposites philosophically, denied the unity and continuity of animal mind. Kant pointed out that the presence of retrievable memories entails unity of consciousness. Rowlands now argues that animals too have unity of consciousness.


Human Superiority?, Bernard Rollin 2019 Colorado State University

Human Superiority?, Bernard Rollin

Bernard Rollin, PhD

Like Charles Darwin and George Romanes, I am quite willing to use anecdotal information as a source of knowledge about animal behavior. There are many more people observing nonhuman animals than there are people conducting controlled experiments, and we can thereby learn that behaviors we think are unique to humans are shared by other animals. From a strictly biological point of view, it makes no sense to speak of “human superiority.” One species of animal can be superior to another only in terms of survival and niche occupation. As moral concern for animals increases across the world, claims of human ...


A Food Web Modeling Assessment Of Asian Carp Impacts In The Middle And Upper Mississippi River, Usa, Nicholas W. Kramer, Quinton E. Phelps, Clay L. Pierce, Michael E. Colvin 2019 Southeast Missouri State University

A Food Web Modeling Assessment Of Asian Carp Impacts In The Middle And Upper Mississippi River, Usa, Nicholas W. Kramer, Quinton E. Phelps, Clay L. Pierce, Michael E. Colvin

Clay L. Pierce

The invasion of non-native fishes has caused a great detriment to many of our native fishes. Since the introduction of invasive carps, such as Silver, Bighead, Common and Grass Carp, managers and researcher have been struggling to remove these species while also hypothesizing the detriment of further invasion. This study developed a food web model of four locations on the Mississippi River and used those models to assess the impacts of two scenarios: carp removal and carp invasion. In the Middle Mississippi River where these invasive carps are already present, the models found that it would take a sustained exploitation ...


Joint Estimation Of Growth And Survival From Mark‐Recapture Data To Improve Estimates Of Senescence In Wild Populations, Beth A. Reinke, Luke Hoekstra, Anne M. Bronikowski, Fredric J. Janzen, David Miller 2019 Pennsylvania State University

Joint Estimation Of Growth And Survival From Mark‐Recapture Data To Improve Estimates Of Senescence In Wild Populations, Beth A. Reinke, Luke Hoekstra, Anne M. Bronikowski, Fredric J. Janzen, David Miller

Fredric Janzen

Understanding age‐dependent patterns of survival is fundamental to predicting population dynamics, understanding selective pressures, and estimating rates of senescence. However, quantifying age‐specific survival in wild populations poses significant logistical and statistical challenges. Recent work has helped to alleviate these constraints by demonstrating that age‐specific survival can be estimated using mark‐recapture data even when age is unknown for all or some individuals. However, previous approaches do not incorporate auxiliary information that can improve age estimates of individuals. We introduce a survival estimator that combines a von Bertalanffy growth model, age‐specific hazard functions, and a Cormack‐Jolly ...


Joint Estimation Of Growth And Survival From Mark‐Recapture Data To Improve Estimates Of Senescence In Wild Populations, Beth A. Reinke, Luke Hoekstra, Anne M. Bronikowski, Fredric J. Janzen, David Miller 2019 Pennsylvania State University

Joint Estimation Of Growth And Survival From Mark‐Recapture Data To Improve Estimates Of Senescence In Wild Populations, Beth A. Reinke, Luke Hoekstra, Anne M. Bronikowski, Fredric J. Janzen, David Miller

Anne Bronikowski

Understanding age‐dependent patterns of survival is fundamental to predicting population dynamics, understanding selective pressures, and estimating rates of senescence. However, quantifying age‐specific survival in wild populations poses significant logistical and statistical challenges. Recent work has helped to alleviate these constraints by demonstrating that age‐specific survival can be estimated using mark‐recapture data even when age is unknown for all or some individuals. However, previous approaches do not incorporate auxiliary information that can improve age estimates of individuals. We introduce a survival estimator that combines a von Bertalanffy growth model, age‐specific hazard functions, and a Cormack‐Jolly ...


Thinking About Thinking Chickens, Lori Marino 2019 Animal Studies Repository

Thinking About Thinking Chickens, Lori Marino

Lori Marino, PhD

This response focuses on three major conceptual threads that run through the peer commentary on my target article: (1) how the use of chickens influences our views of them, (2) whether education is effective, and (3) what components of chicken psychology are most relevant to understanding who chickens are.



“I Am Not An Animal”, Lori Marino 2019 Animal Studies Repository

“I Am Not An Animal”, Lori Marino

Lori Marino, PhD

The answer to Chapman & Huffman’s question — “Why do we want to think humans are different?” — lies in the work of Ernest Becker and the social psychology literature known as Terror Management Theory, according to which our deep anxiety about animality and death can drive our need to feel superior to the other animals.


Deepening Our Understanding Of Sheep, Lori Marino, Debra Merskin 2019 University of Oregon

Deepening Our Understanding Of Sheep, Lori Marino, Debra Merskin

Lori Marino, PhD

Our Response is centered on five major themes: (1) our presentation of human mythologies about sheep; (2) the relevance of cognitive complexity (“intelligence”) as a dimension underlying the way people perceive and treat sheep; (3) whether our review is too anthropocentric or anthropomorphic; (4) animal welfare versus animal rights (abolitionism); and (5) whether knowledge and education are enough to change human attitudes and behavior.


Octopus Minds Must Lead To Octopus Ethics, Barbara J. King, Lori Marino 2019 College of William and Mary

Octopus Minds Must Lead To Octopus Ethics, Barbara J. King, Lori Marino

Lori Marino, PhD

Mather argues convincingly for the existence of minds in octopuses based largely on laboratory experiments. Many of these experiments are highly invasive and involve mutilation and death. Moreover, octopuses are now being hailed as a “new model” for biological research and are being enthusiastically bred in captivity, both for research and for food. We argue that the compelling evidence for mind in octopuses must be accompanied by intense scrutiny of the ethics that shape how we treat them and that the intrinsic value of their individual lives must be recognized.


The Inconvenient Truth About Thinking Chickens, Lori Marino 2019 Animal Studies Repository

The Inconvenient Truth About Thinking Chickens, Lori Marino

Lori Marino, PhD

Original Abstract: Domestic chickens are members of an order, Aves, which has been the focus of a revolution in our understanding of neuroanatomical, cognitive, and social complexity. Some birds are now known to be on a par with many mammals in their intelligence, emotional sophistication, and social interaction. Yet views of chickens have largely remained unrevised in light of this new evidence. In this paper, I examine the data on cognition, emotions, personality, and sociality in chickens, exploring such areas as self-awareness, cognitive bias, social learning and self-control, and comparing their abilities with other birds and other vertebrates, particularly mammals ...


Intelligence, Complexity, And Individuality In Sheep, Lori Marino, Debra Merskin 2019 Kimmela Center

Intelligence, Complexity, And Individuality In Sheep, Lori Marino, Debra Merskin

Lori Marino, PhD

Domestic sheep (Ovis aries) are among the earliest animals domesticated for human use. They are consumed worldwide as mutton, hogget, and lamb, kept as wool and milk producers, and used extensively in scientific research. The popular stereotype is that sheep are docile, passive, unintelligent, and timid, but a review of the research on their behavior, affect, cognition, and personality reveals that they are complex, individualistic, and social.


Recent Advances In Cucurbit Downy Mildew Research And Their Contribution To The Development Of Integrated Protection Of Cucurbits, Aleš Lebeda, Eva Křístková, Božena Sedláková, Mark P. Widrlechner 2019 Palacký University

Recent Advances In Cucurbit Downy Mildew Research And Their Contribution To The Development Of Integrated Protection Of Cucurbits, Aleš Lebeda, Eva Křístková, Božena Sedláková, Mark P. Widrlechner

Mark P. Widrlechner

Knowledge of the recent distribution, host range, virulence, DNA profiles, and resistance to fungicides of Pseudoperonospora cubensis (Berk. & M. A. Curtis) Rostovzev, and sources of host resistance to this pathogen are reviewed (Lebeda and Cohen, 2011; 2012; Cohen et al., 2015). P. cubensis is widely distributed in all continents, with a high capacity to adapt to changing environmental conditions and new regions. Its host-plant range includes more than 60 species and 20 genera of Cucurbitaceae (Lebeda and Schwinn, 1994; Lebeda and Cohen, 2011). P. cubensis exhibits clear host specialization, with shifts in host range and an increasing spectrum of new host species (Lebeda et al., 2011).


Debunking Human Prejudice And Blindness, Peter J. Li 2019 University of Houston-Downtown

Debunking Human Prejudice And Blindness, Peter J. Li

Peter J. Li, PhD

Human prejudice and blindness to animal suffering are shocking. Despite their differences in culture, politics, and religious beliefs, humans have one thing in common. They see nonhuman animals as inferior and have since time immemorial assumed a dominant position in an asymmetrical human-animal relationship. When it comes to human-animal relations, there is no “clash of civilizations.” Human prejudice and blindness are predicated on “common sense assumptions” about the natural world and nonhuman animals in particular. Marino & Merskin’s review is part of the growing effort to debunk the assumptions that have shaped human actions so as to end the injustice ...


Particle Association Of Enterococcus And Total Bacteria In The Lower Hudson River Estuary, Usa, Elizabeth A. Suter, Andrew R. Juhl, Gegory D. O'Mullan 2019 Molloy College

Particle Association Of Enterococcus And Total Bacteria In The Lower Hudson River Estuary, Usa, Elizabeth A. Suter, Andrew R. Juhl, Gegory D. O'Mullan

Elizabeth Suter

Bacterial particle association has important consequences for water-quality monitoring and modeling. Parti-cle association can change vertical and horizontal transport of bacterial cells, as well as patterns of persis-tence and production. In this study, the abundance and particle association of total bacteria and the fe-cal-indicator, Enterococcus, were quantified between June and October 2008 in the lower Hudson River Es-tuary (HRE). Twelve sites were sampled, including mid-channel, near shore, and tributary habitats, plus a sewage outfall. Total bacterial cell counts averaged 9.2 × 109 ± 6.4 × 109 cell·l–1 (1 standard deviation), com-parable to previous sampling in the HRE. Unlike earlier ...


Single-Cell Growth Rates In Photoautotrophic Populations Measured By Stable Isotope Probing And Resonance Raman Microspectrometry, Gordon T. Taylor, Elizabeth A. Suter, Zhuo Q. Li, Stephanie Chow, Dallyce Stinton, Tatiana Zaliznyak, Steven R. Beaupre 2019 Molloy College

Single-Cell Growth Rates In Photoautotrophic Populations Measured By Stable Isotope Probing And Resonance Raman Microspectrometry, Gordon T. Taylor, Elizabeth A. Suter, Zhuo Q. Li, Stephanie Chow, Dallyce Stinton, Tatiana Zaliznyak, Steven R. Beaupre

Elizabeth Suter

A newmethod tomeasure growth rates of individual photoautotrophic cells by combining stable isotope probing (SIP) and single-cell resonance Raman microspectrometry is introduced. This report explores optimal experimental design and the theoretical underpinnings for quantitative responses of Raman spectra to cellular isotopic composition. Resonance Raman spectra of isogenic cultures of the cyanobacterium, Synechococcus sp., grown in 13C-bicarbonate revealed linear covariance between wavenumber (cm−1) shifts in dominant carotenoid Raman peaks and a broad range of cellular 13C fractional isotopic abundance. Single-cell growth rates were calculated from spectra-derived isotopic content and empirical relationships. Growth rates among any 25 cells in a sample ...


Hidden In Plain Sight: The Importance Of Cryptic Interactions In Marine Plankton, Nicole C. Millette, Julia Grosse, Winifred M. Johnson, Michelle J. Jungbluth, Elizabeth A. Suter 2019 Molloy College

Hidden In Plain Sight: The Importance Of Cryptic Interactions In Marine Plankton, Nicole C. Millette, Julia Grosse, Winifred M. Johnson, Michelle J. Jungbluth, Elizabeth A. Suter

Elizabeth Suter

Here, we present a range of interactions, which we term “cryptic interactions.” These are interactions that occur throughout the marine planktonic foodweb but are currently largely overlooked by established methods, which mean large-scale data collection for these interactions is limited. Despite this, current evidence suggests some of these interactions may have perceptible impacts on foodweb dynamics and model results. Incorporation of cryptic interactions into models is especially important for those interactions involving the transport of nutrients or energy. Our aim is to highlight a range of cryptic interactions across the plankton foodweb, where they exist, and models that have taken ...


Fish Sentience Denial: Muddy Moral Water, Robert C. Jones 2019 California State University - Chico

Fish Sentience Denial: Muddy Moral Water, Robert C. Jones

Robert C. Jones, PhD

Sneddon et al. (2018) authoritatively summarize the compelling and overwhelming evidence for fish sentience, while methodically dismantling one rather emblematic research paper (Diggles et al. 2017) intended to discount solid evidence of fish sentience (Lopez-Luna et al. 2017a, 2017b, 2017c, & 2017d). I explore the larger practical moral contexts within which these debates take place and argue that denials of animal sentience are really moral canards.


The Precautionary Principle: A Cautionary Note, Robert C. Jones 2019 California State University - Chico

The Precautionary Principle: A Cautionary Note, Robert C. Jones

Robert C. Jones, PhD

The precautionary principle regarding animal sentience is often used in decision-making about human actions that may cause harm to nonhuman animals. Birch (2017) develops an account of the precautionary principle requiring two pragmatic rules for its implementation. I support Birch's proposal but offer a cautionary note about relying on precautionary principles if one's ultimate goal is to emancipate animals from human domination.


Animal Pain And The Social Role Of Science, Leslie Irvine 2019 University of Colorado at Boulder

Animal Pain And The Social Role Of Science, Leslie Irvine

Leslie Irvine, PhD

Assuming that all animals are sentient would mean ending their use in most scientific research. This does not necessarily imply an unscientific or anti-scientific stance. Examining the social role of science reveals its considerable investment in preserving the status quo, including the continued use of animal subjects. From this perspective, the use of animal subjects is a custom that science could move beyond, rather than a methodological requirement that it must defend.


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