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Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck 2020 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Medium and large carnivores coexist with people in urban areas globally, occasionally resulting in

negative interactions that prompt questions about how to reduce human-wildlife conflict. Hazing,

i.e., scaring wildlife, is frequently promoted as an important non-lethal means for urbanites to reduce

conflict but there is limited scientific evidence for its efficacy. We used a population of captive coyotes (Canis latrans) to simulate urban human-coyote interactions and subsequent effects of hazing on coyote behavior. Past experiences with humans significantly affected the number of times a coyoteapproached a human to necessitate hazing. coyotes that had been hand fed by adults had ...


Hawaii As A Microcosm: Advancing The Science And Practice Of Managing Introduced And Invasive Species, Liba Pejchar, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Jean E. Fantle-Lepczyk, Steven C. Hess, M. Tracy Johnson, Christina R. Leopold, Michael Marchetti, Katherine M. Mcclure, Aaron B. Shiels 2020 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Hawaii As A Microcosm: Advancing The Science And Practice Of Managing Introduced And Invasive Species, Liba Pejchar, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Jean E. Fantle-Lepczyk, Steven C. Hess, M. Tracy Johnson, Christina R. Leopold, Michael Marchetti, Katherine M. Mcclure, Aaron B. Shiels

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive species are a leading driver of global change, with consequences for biodiversity and society. Because of extraordinary rates of endemism, introduction, and extinction, Hawaii offers a rich platform for exploring the cross-disciplinary challenges of managing invasive species in a dynamic world. We highlight key successes and shortcomings to share lessons learned and inspire innovation and action in and beyond the archipelago. We then discuss thematic challenges and opportunities of broad relevance to invaded ecosystems and human communities. Important research needs and possible actions include eradicating mammals from mainland island sanctuaries, assessing hidden threats from poorly known introduced species, harnessing ...


Deciphering Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer And Approaching Vehicle, Morgan Pfeiffer, Raymond B. Iglay, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault 2020 USDA National Wildlife Research Center & Nelson Mandela University

Deciphering Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer And Approaching Vehicle, Morgan Pfeiffer, Raymond B. Iglay, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. Devault

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Deer-vehicle collisions are a major transportation hazard, but factors affecting deer escape decision-making in response to vehicle approach remain poorly characterized. We made opportunistic observations of deer response to vehicle approach during daylight hours on a restricted- access facility in Ohio, USA (vehicle speeds were ≤64 km/h). We hypothesized that animal proximity to the road, group size, vehicle approach, and ambient conditions would affect perceived risk by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach, as measured by flight-initiation distance (FID). We constructed a priori models for FID, as well as road-crossing behavior. Deer responses were variable and did not ...


Bull Kelp (Nereocystic Lutkeana) Restoration And Management In Northern California, Olivia Johnson 2020 The University of San Francisco

Bull Kelp (Nereocystic Lutkeana) Restoration And Management In Northern California, Olivia Johnson

Master's Projects and Capstones

Northern California’s coastal marine ecosystems support one of the most productive and biodiverse habitats on the planet. Bull kelp forests (Nereocystic lutkeana) form habitats for an abundance of marine mammals, sea bird, fish, and invertebrates. In recent years, compounding ecological and climatic factors have disrupted the balance of the bull kelp forests and led to an unprecedented loss of bull kelp biomass and canopy cover. These areas that are typically teeming with marine life have shifted into a stable state of sea urchin barrens due to over grazing of bull kelp by purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus pupuratus). These sea ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xxiv. Leiurus (Buthidae), With Description Of Leiurus Gubanensis Sp. N., František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe 2020 Marshall University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xxiv. Leiurus (Buthidae), With Description Of Leiurus Gubanensis Sp. N., František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe

Euscorpius

New data are presented on the distribution of the genus Leiurus Ehrenberg, 1828 in the Horn of Africa, Somaliland, acquired during expeditions in 2011–2019. Leiurus gubanensis sp. n. is described from the Guban area, an extremely warm and dry place. The description is fully complemented with color photographs of live and preserved specimens, as well as of their habitats. This increases the known diversity of the genus to 14 species.


Random Encounter And Staying Time Model Testing With Human Volunteers, Laura Garland, Eric Neilson, Tal Avgar, Erin Bayne, Stan Boutin 2020 University of Alberta

Random Encounter And Staying Time Model Testing With Human Volunteers, Laura Garland, Eric Neilson, Tal Avgar, Erin Bayne, Stan Boutin

Ecology Center Publications

Ecology and management programs designed to track population trends over time increasingly are using passive monitoring methods to estimate terrestrial mammal densities. Researchers use motion‐sensing cameras in mammal studies because they are cost‐effective and advances in statistical methods incorporate motion‐sensing camera data to estimate mammal densities. Density estimation involving unmarked individuals, however, remains challenging and empirical tests of statistical models are relatively rare. We tested the random encounter and staying time model (REST), a new means of estimating the density of an unmarked population, using human volunteers and simulated camera surveys. The REST method produced unbiased estimates ...


Influences Of Anti-Bd Bacteria On Amphibians And Their Microbiomes, Emme L. Schmidt 2020 University of South Dakota

Influences Of Anti-Bd Bacteria On Amphibians And Their Microbiomes, Emme L. Schmidt

Honors Thesis

The fungal pathogen Batrochochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been threatening amphibian populations across the globe. Recent work has discovered that bacteria isolated from certain populations of amphibians protect hosts from this pathogen. This project focuses on the anti-fungal mechanisms of Serratia marcescens, a species of bacteria isolated from a Costa Rican frog that dramatically inhibited Bd in culture. Wild-type and recombinant S. marcescens was introduced to the microbiomes of a live amphibian host, Acris blanchardi (Blanchard’s Cricket Frog) and then challenged with Bd to examine the protective effects of this bacteria. The experiment includes recombinant S. marcescens with the genetic ...


Population Genetics Of A Recent Range Expansion By The Southern Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus Frontalis, Into The Northeastern United States, Megan Stubbs 2020 University of Mississippi

Population Genetics Of A Recent Range Expansion By The Southern Pine Beetle, Dendroctonus Frontalis, Into The Northeastern United States, Megan Stubbs

Honors Theses

Population genetics as a field of study aims to determine the genetic variation among individuals in a population, and differences among populations. Certain population genetic analyses can provide such information and be used to better understand the biological aspects to a species’ expansion beyond its native range. The southern pine beetle (SPB), Dendroctonus frontalis, has become an invasive pest to pine forests in northeastern United States with its recent range expansion. Nine microsatellite loci were first developed and then used in analyses. To determine what the genetic variation is among individuals in SPB populations across its entire range, including ones ...


Sourcing And Evaluating The Use Of Detritus As A Supplementary Diet For Bivalve Aquaculture Using Stable Isotopes And Fatty Acid Biomarkers, Adrianus C. Both 2020 University of Maine

Sourcing And Evaluating The Use Of Detritus As A Supplementary Diet For Bivalve Aquaculture Using Stable Isotopes And Fatty Acid Biomarkers, Adrianus C. Both

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Detritus is a ubiquitous component of ecosystems and an important fuel for secondary production. Due to the extractive nature of bivalve aquaculture, detritus is often incorporated into carrying capacity and growth models for cultured bivalves. However, despite the complexity and difficulty in obtaining direct measurements, detritus is often treated as a homogeneous food source in models. Further understanding the role detritus plays in the diet of cultured bivalves could lead to more comprehensive and accurate models as well as more informed site selection for growers. The purpose of this study was to assess the abundance, bioavailability, and contribution of detritus ...


Behavioral Ecology Of Territorial Aggression In Uca Pugilator And Uca Pugnax, Abbey N. Thomas 2020 Coastal Carolina University

Behavioral Ecology Of Territorial Aggression In Uca Pugilator And Uca Pugnax, Abbey N. Thomas

Honors Theses

The nature of animal aggression has long been a research interest in many different scientific fields. Resources, including food, shelter, and mates are all common assets for which animals compete. Two species of fiddler crabs, the Atlantic Sand Fiddler Crab (Uca pugilator) and the Atlantic Marsh Fiddler Crab (U. pugnax) were studied in regards to their aggression shown when competing for shelter. One crab was placed in a contained shelter for two days, and then a second of the same species was introduced. Aggressive interactions were scored and compared with claw and carapace size to ascertain if aggression correlated with ...


Iron-Mediated Organic Matter Decomposition In Humid Soils Can Counteract Protection, Chunmei Chen, Steven J. Hall, Elizabeth Coward, Aaron Thompson 2020 Tianjin University

Iron-Mediated Organic Matter Decomposition In Humid Soils Can Counteract Protection, Chunmei Chen, Steven J. Hall, Elizabeth Coward, Aaron Thompson

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Soil organic matter (SOM) is correlated with reactive iron (Fe) in humid soils, but Fe also promotes SOM decomposition when oxygen (O2) becomes limited. Here we quantify Fe-mediated OM protection vs. decomposition by adding 13C dissolved organic matter (DOM) and 57FeII to soil slurries incubated under static or fluctuating O2. We find Fe uniformly protects OM only under static oxic conditions, and only when Fe and DOM are added together: de novo reactive FeIII phases suppress DOM and SOM mineralization by 35 and 47%, respectively. Conversely, adding 57FeII alone increases SOM mineralization by 8% following oxidation to 57FeIII. Under O2 ...


Shifting Public Perception: Climate Change Means Living With Fire And Smoke, Robert Froembling 2020 Seattle University School of Law

Shifting Public Perception: Climate Change Means Living With Fire And Smoke, Robert Froembling

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

The urgency to prepare for the climate crisis has never been greater. We are currently living in the sixth mass extinction and the effects are only going to accelerate. We will inherit more wildfires, larger wildfires, and more frequent wildfires.

This piece is not meant to stoke fear in its readers or be depressing, but to shift public perception on what our future holds by evaluating the laws and science presented to us. This piece will look at regional and federal regulations and assess the increased rate of forest fires and the grave public health concerns from stagnant smoke specifically ...


Linking Population Dynamics To Ecosystems: Identifying The Drivers Of Plant Productivity To Improve Rangeland Management., Robert Shriver 2020 Utah State University

Linking Population Dynamics To Ecosystems: Identifying The Drivers Of Plant Productivity To Improve Rangeland Management., Robert Shriver

Funded Research Records

No abstract provided.


Reclamation, Thomas R. Starkey-Owens 2020 Humboldt State University

Reclamation, Thomas R. Starkey-Owens

Toyon Literary Magazine

No abstract provided.


Another New Species Of Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 From The Caves Of Croatia And Bosnia-Herzegovina (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae), With Notes On Biogeography And Cave Ecology, Gioele Tropea, Roman Ozimec 2020 Marshall University

Another New Species Of Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 From The Caves Of Croatia And Bosnia-Herzegovina (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae), With Notes On Biogeography And Cave Ecology, Gioele Tropea, Roman Ozimec

Euscorpius

Another new, subtroglophile scorpion species is described from Croatia, Euscorpius biokovensis sp. n. It is morphologically and ecologically similar to E. feti Tropea, 2013 but can be distinguished from the latter by a lower number of trichobothria (Pv = 8–9, with mostly 8, and usually et = 6) and pectinal teeth (usually Dp = 7 in males and 6 in females). The new species also has a more northern distribution although in some areas the two species overlap. E. biokovensis sp. n. has been found in more than 20 caves in Croatia, which makes it the most common Euscorpius species found in ...


Ragweed And Sagebrush Pollen Can Distinguish Between Vegetation Types At Broad Spatial Scales, Hannah M. Carroll, Alan D. Wanamaker, Lynn G. Clark, Brian J. Wilsey 2020 Iowa State University

Ragweed And Sagebrush Pollen Can Distinguish Between Vegetation Types At Broad Spatial Scales, Hannah M. Carroll, Alan D. Wanamaker, Lynn G. Clark, Brian J. Wilsey

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Patterns of vegetation distribution at regional to subcontinental scales can inform understanding of climate. Delineating ecoregion boundaries over geologic time is complicated by the difficulty of distinguishing between prairie types at broad spatial scales using the pollen record. Pollen ratios are sometimes employed to distinguish between vegetation types, although their applicability is often limited to a geographic range. The Neotoma Paleoecology Database offers an unparalleled opportunity to synthesize a large number of pollen datasets. Ambrosia (ragweed) is a genus of mesic‐adapted species sensitive to summer moisture. Artemisia (sagebrush, wormwood, mugwort) is a genus of dry‐mesic‐adapted species resilient ...


Soybean Aphid Biotype 1 Genome: Insights Into The Invasive Biology And Adaptive Evolution Of A Major Agricultural Pest, Rosanna Giordano, Ravi Kiran Donthu, Jonathan H. Badger, Glen L. Hartman, Arian Avalos, Brad S. Coates, Doris Lagos-Kutz, Matthew E. O'Neal, Sijun Liu, et al. 2020 Puerto Rico Science

Soybean Aphid Biotype 1 Genome: Insights Into The Invasive Biology And Adaptive Evolution Of A Major Agricultural Pest, Rosanna Giordano, Ravi Kiran Donthu, Jonathan H. Badger, Glen L. Hartman, Arian Avalos, Brad S. Coates, Doris Lagos-Kutz, Matthew E. O'Neal, Sijun Liu, Et Al.

Entomology Publications

The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a serious pest of the soybean plant, Glycine max, a major world-wide agricultural crop. We assembled a de novo genome sequence of Ap. glycines Biotype 1, from a culture established shortly after this species invaded North America. 20.4% of the Ap. glycines proteome is duplicated. These in-paralogs are enriched with Gene Ontology (GO) categories mostly related to apoptosis, a possible adaptation to plant chemistry and other environmental stressors. Approximately one-third of these genes show parallel duplication in other aphids. But Ap. gossypii, its closest related species, has the lowest number ...


Ecological Analyses Of Macroinvertebrates And Fish Species In Six Streams On A Louisiana Military Base From 2001 To 2019, Danielle Joerger 2020 University of Texas at Tyler

Ecological Analyses Of Macroinvertebrates And Fish Species In Six Streams On A Louisiana Military Base From 2001 To 2019, Danielle Joerger

Biology Theses

An in-depth ecological analysis of how and why the aquatic community changes over time was conducted for 6 streams on the Fort Polk military base in Louisiana using data collected from 2001 to 2019. Fort Polk is a unique location as nineteen first-order streams are located on the premises belonging to three separate drainages. The primary goal was to determine whether temporal or between-drainage variation has a larger effect on community structure. To accomplish this the effects of disturbance on fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages was determined temporally and between drainages. Several hypotheses were drawn from this: 1) temporally, assemblages exhibit ...


Year Long Water Quality Analysis Of White Horn Brook, Kevin Dyer 2020 University of Arizona

Year Long Water Quality Analysis Of White Horn Brook, Kevin Dyer

Senior Honors Projects

KEVIN DYER (Marine Biology)

Year-long Analysis of the Water Quality of White Horn Brook

Sponsor: Thomas Boving (Geological Sciences)

Water is the foundation for all life on earth and is the most vital resource on this planet. Despite this, oceans and waterways all over the world are being polluted and exploited in ways detrimental to their fundamental hydrologic functions. For instance, excess nitrate levels can lead to eutrophication which gives rise to harmful algae blooms. Low pH can cause the breakdown of CaCO3 exoskeletons of organisms, such mollusks. High temperature variations are major stressors to living things and can cause ...


Human-Wildlife Interactions In Bryce Canyon National Park, Chad H. Wildermuth 2020 Utah State University

Human-Wildlife Interactions In Bryce Canyon National Park, Chad H. Wildermuth

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Public lands such as National Parks protect some of America’s most spectacular and iconic natural, cultural, and historic landscapes. These lands are managed with a goal of preserving their unique features for the recreational use of the public. Therefore, it is important to understand the effects, if any, that public visitation has on these natural systems. This study investigated human-wildlife interactions in Bryce Canyon National Park (BRCA), Utah in order to better understand factors that lead to human-wildlife conflicts and how the attitudes and perceptions of visitors affect their actions towards wildlife.

Observations of human-wildlife interactions were observed and ...


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