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Transcriptomic Responses To Environmental Temperature By Turtles With Temperature-Dependent And Genotypic Sex Determination Assessed By Rnaseq Inform The Genetic Architecture Of Embryonic Gonadal Development, Srihari Radhakrishnan, Robert A. Literman, Jennifer L. Neuwald, Andrew Severin, Nicole Valenzuela 2017 Iowa State University

Transcriptomic Responses To Environmental Temperature By Turtles With Temperature-Dependent And Genotypic Sex Determination Assessed By Rnaseq Inform The Genetic Architecture Of Embryonic Gonadal Development, Srihari Radhakrishnan, Robert A. Literman, Jennifer L. Neuwald, Andrew Severin, Nicole Valenzuela

Andrew Severin

Vertebrate sexual fate is decided primarily by the individual’s genotype (GSD), by the environmental temperature during development (TSD), or both. Turtles exhibit TSD and GSD, making them ideal to study the evolution of sex determination. Here we analyze temperature-specific gonadal transcriptomes (RNA-sequencing validated by qPCR) of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta TSD) before and during the thermosensitive period, and at equivalent stages in soft-shell turtles (Apalone spinifera—GSD), to test whether TSD’s and GSD’s transcriptional circuitry is identical but deployed differently between mechanisms. Our data show that most elements of the mammalian urogenital network are active during turtle ...


Nitrogen And Carbon Isotopic Dynamics Of Subarctic Soils And Plants In Southern Yukon Territory And Its Implications For Paleoecological And Paleodietary Studies, Farnoush Tahmesabi, Fred J. Longstaffe, Grant Zazula, Bruce Bennett 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Nitrogen And Carbon Isotopic Dynamics Of Subarctic Soils And Plants In Southern Yukon Territory And Its Implications For Paleoecological And Paleodietary Studies, Farnoush Tahmesabi, Fred J. Longstaffe, Grant Zazula, Bruce Bennett

Earth Sciences Publications

We examine here the carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions of bulk soils (8 topsoil and 7 subsoils, including two soil profiles) and five different plant parts of 79 C3 plants from two main functional groups: herbs and shrubs/subshrubs, from 18 different locations in grasslands of southern Yukon Territory, Canada (eastern shoreline of Kluane Lake and Whitehorse area). The Kluane Lake region in particular has been identified previously as an analogue for Late Pleistocene eastern Beringia. All topsoils have higher average total nitrogen δ15N and organic carbon δ13C than plants from the same sites with ...


Behavioural Mechanisms Of Protandrous Spring Migration In A Nearctic-Neotropical Songbird, Jessica E. Deakin 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Behavioural Mechanisms Of Protandrous Spring Migration In A Nearctic-Neotropical Songbird, Jessica E. Deakin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Most seasonally migrating songbirds have a protandrous migration pattern, meaning that males arrive to the breeding grounds before females. The proximate mechanisms that underlie this pattern are largely unknown for most species. In this thesis, I evaluate the behavioural mechanisms of protandry in the black-throated blue warbler (Setophaga caerulescens) using onset of migratory restlessness as a proxy for departure from the wintering grounds, migratory restlessness intensity as a proxy for motivation to fly, and stopover duration of radio-tagged birds. The onset of migratory restlessness and stopover duration was similar in both sexes. Males displayed higher intensity wing whirring than females ...


The Influence Of Phylogeny And Niche Differentiation On The Diets Of Malagasy Primates, Rebekka S. Hughes 2017 CUNY Hunter College

The Influence Of Phylogeny And Niche Differentiation On The Diets Of Malagasy Primates, Rebekka S. Hughes

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Previous studies have shown that haplorhine diet is affected by phylogeny; however, until now studies in Malagasy strepsirrhines were lacking. The evolution of differences in Malagasy primates’ diets appears to differ from the pattern shown in haplorhines. My results indicate that niche differentiation may be a stronger predictor of diet.


Unravelling Organelle Genome Transcription Using Publicly Available Rna-Sequencing Data, Matheus Sanita Lima 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Unravelling Organelle Genome Transcription Using Publicly Available Rna-Sequencing Data, Matheus Sanita Lima

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The study of organelles helped forge theories of genome evolution because of their unconventional genomes and gene expression regimes. The organelle genomics field (~35 years old) has seen the development of next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques and the consequent skyrocketing of genomic and transcriptomic data. However, these data are being underused in the studies of organelle genome transcription. My thesis investigates how NGS has affected the field of organelle genomics at both the DNA and RNA levels. First, I demonstrate that although organelle genomes are being sequenced as never before, they are un-characterized as they are published mostly as “organelle ...


Natural And Anthropogenic Effects On Life History Characteristics In The Side-Blotched Lizard (Uta Stansburiana), Geoffrey David Stuart Smith 2017 Utah State University

Natural And Anthropogenic Effects On Life History Characteristics In The Side-Blotched Lizard (Uta Stansburiana), Geoffrey David Stuart Smith

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Survival is a prerequisite for successful reproduction, and is thus intertwined with fitness. Some physiological systems can improve survival, like the immune system, but compete with other processes for resources. Because animals evolved with resource limitation, it is important to understand how these resource-allocation decisions are made. To meet this end, I performed four investigations addressing how life-history characteristics shift in side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) using laboratory studies and multi-year field sampling. First, I measured metabolic rates in response to different immune challenges and different energy states in male lizards. I found that, surprisingly, cutaneous biopsies were associated with a ...


On Honey Bee Colony Dynamics And Disease Transmission, Matthew I. Betti 2017 The University of Western Ontario

On Honey Bee Colony Dynamics And Disease Transmission, Matthew I. Betti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The work herein falls under the umbrella of mathematical modeling of disease transmission. The majority of this document focuses on the extent to which infection undermines the strength of a honey bee colony. These studies extend from simple mass-action ordinary differential equations models, to continuous age-structured partial differential equation models and finally a detailed agent-based model which accounts for vector transmission of infection between bees as well as a host of other influences and stressors on honey bee colony dynamics. These models offer a series of predictions relevant to the fate of honey bee colonies in the presence of disease ...


Examining The Relationship Between Mesohabitats And Freshwater Mussels In An East Texas River, Andrew R. Glen 2017 University of Texas at Tyler

Examining The Relationship Between Mesohabitats And Freshwater Mussels In An East Texas River, Andrew R. Glen

Biology Theses

North America is home to 302 unionoid species, with approximately 53 occurring in Texas, and are considered one of the most imperiled group of organisms in North America. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the spatial distribution of mussels within a stream reach, but only certain hydraulic characteristics appear to be correlated with their distribution. Emerging evidence indicates that freshwater mussels may use flow refugia to remain embedded during high flow events. As the use of hydraulic variables to characterize mussel habitat becomes more widespread, it may be useful to implement sampling that captures these measures. One option may ...


Hemiscorpius Shahii Sp. N. From Iran (Scorpiones: Hemiscorpiidae), František Kovařík, Shahrokh Navidpour, Michael E. Soleglad 2017 Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute,

Hemiscorpius Shahii Sp. N. From Iran (Scorpiones: Hemiscorpiidae), František Kovařík, Shahrokh Navidpour, Michael E. Soleglad

Euscorpius

Hemiscorpius shahii sp. n. from Iran, Hormozgan Province, is described and compared with other species of Hemiscorpius genus. The new species is characterized mainly by total length of 84 (female) to 110.7 (male) mm and unique trichobothrial pattern of pedipalp patella. The number of external trichobothria on patella is 17–18 (5 eb, 4 esb, 2–3 em, 3 est, 3 et); the number of ventral trichobothria on patella is 14–16. This distinguishes H. shahii sp. n. from all other species of genus Hemiscorpius, which have 3 or 10–12 ventral trichobothria on patella, one or two trichobothria ...


The Once And Future Great Lakes Country: An Ecological History By John L. Riley, Deborah C. Bowen 2017 Redeemer University College

The Once And Future Great Lakes Country: An Ecological History By John L. Riley, Deborah C. Bowen

The Goose

Review of John L. Riley's The Once and Future Great Lakes Country: An Ecological History.


Assessing The Influence Of Socials Calls On Bat Mist-Netting Success In North America, Karly A. Rushmore, Laura E. D'Acunto, Cheyenne L. Gerdes, Patrick A. Zollner, Joy M. O'Keefe 2017 Purdue University

Assessing The Influence Of Socials Calls On Bat Mist-Netting Success In North America, Karly A. Rushmore, Laura E. D'Acunto, Cheyenne L. Gerdes, Patrick A. Zollner, Joy M. O'Keefe

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Since the introduction of the fungal disease White-Nose Syndrome in 2006, millions of North American bats have perished. For many species, the disease has caused over a 90 percent decline in abundance. With populations fluctuating as the pathogen spreads, biologists require improved methods of estimating bat demographics and abundance. Previous research indicates that mist netting success may be improved with the use of acoustic lures at mist-netting locations. Our research investigates which type of social calls improve the capture rates of North American bats, including the big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus). Social call types used include antagonistic buzzes, distress calls ...


Ecological Responses Of Midwestern Snakes To Prescribed Fire, Zachary T. Truelock, Chelsea E. Clyde-Brockway, Elizabeth A. Flaherty 2017 Purdue University

Ecological Responses Of Midwestern Snakes To Prescribed Fire, Zachary T. Truelock, Chelsea E. Clyde-Brockway, Elizabeth A. Flaherty

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Prescribed burning is a commonly used land management tool to reduce the risk of hazardous wildfires and improve wildlife habitat, especially for grassland ecosystems. However, prescribed fire has widely varying effects on differing wildlife taxa. The effects of prescribed fire on herpetofaunal biodiversity have been examined, but the responses of a common and wide-ranging species, the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis), to fire and subsequent effects on its ecology have not been closely studied. The primary goal of this research was to evaluate differing resource use or movement patterns of common garter snakes in burned and unburned habitats. Our objectives ...


Acoustic Signatures Of Habitat Types In The Miombo Woodlands Of Western Tanzania, Sheryl Vanessa Amorocho, Dante Francomano, Kristen M. Bellisario, Ben Gottesman, Bryan C. Pijanowski 2017 Universidad de Los Andes - Colombia

Acoustic Signatures Of Habitat Types In The Miombo Woodlands Of Western Tanzania, Sheryl Vanessa Amorocho, Dante Francomano, Kristen M. Bellisario, Ben Gottesman, Bryan C. Pijanowski

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The Miombo Woodlands of Tanzania comprise several habitat types that are home to a great number of flora and fauna. Understanding their responses to increasing human disturbance is important for conservation, especially in places where people depend so directly on their local ecosystem services to survive. Soundscapes are a powerful approach to study complex biomes undergoing change. The sounds emitted by soniferous fauna characterize the acoustic profile of the landscapes they inhabit such that habitats with the highest acoustic abundance are considered as the most diverse and possibly more ecologically resilient. However, acoustic variability within similar habitat types may pose ...


Ecological Niche Modeling Of The Genus Papio, Amanda J. Fuchs 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Ecological Niche Modeling Of The Genus Papio, Amanda J. Fuchs

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Ecological niche modeling investigates how climatic variables have influenced taxonomic diversity in Papio. Models performed well suggesting climatic variables influence the distribution of baboon species. Niche overlap among all possible pairs of taxa determined that species exhibited significantly different niches. The results of these models support a parapatric speciation scenario.


Responses Of Agroecosystems To Climate Change: Specifics Of Resilience In The Mid-Latitude Region, Menas Kafatos, Seung Hee Kim, Chul-Hee Lim, Jinwon Kim, Woo-Kyun Lee 2017 Chapman University

Responses Of Agroecosystems To Climate Change: Specifics Of Resilience In The Mid-Latitude Region, Menas Kafatos, Seung Hee Kim, Chul-Hee Lim, Jinwon Kim, Woo-Kyun Lee

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This study examines the productivity and resilience of agroecosystems in the Korean Peninsula. Having learned valuable lessons from a Chapman University project funded by the United States Department of Agriculture which concentrated on the semi-arid region of southwestern United States, our joint Korea—Chapman University team has applied similar methodologies to the Korean Peninsula, which is itself an interesting study case in the mid-latitude region. In particular, the Korean Peninsula has unique agricultural environments due to differences in political and socioeconomic systems between South Korea and North Korea. Specifically, North Korea has been suffering from food shortages due to natural ...


Mapping The Ecology Of Information: Hierarchical Habitat Selection By Nebraska Pheasant Hunters, Lyndsie Wszola 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mapping The Ecology Of Information: Hierarchical Habitat Selection By Nebraska Pheasant Hunters, Lyndsie Wszola

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Hunting regulations are assumed to moderate the effects of hunting consistently across a game population. A growing body of evidence suggests that hunter effort varies temporally and spatially, and that variation in effort at multiple spatial scales can affect game populations in unexpected ways. We set out to determine the causes of variation in hunting effort among ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) hunters at four spatial scales: among regions within the state of Nebraska, among sites within a given region, among access points at a given site, and among habitat patches within a site. At each scale, pheasant hunters used direct ...


Ecology Of The Young-Of-The-Year Emerald Shiner (Notropis Atherinoides) In The Upper Niagara River, New York: Growth, Diversity, And Importance As A Forage Species, Jacob L. Cochran 2017 State University of New York College at Buffalo

Ecology Of The Young-Of-The-Year Emerald Shiner (Notropis Atherinoides) In The Upper Niagara River, New York: Growth, Diversity, And Importance As A Forage Species, Jacob L. Cochran

Great Lakes Center Masters Theses

The emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) is a relatively understudied Cyprinid that fills a major keystone role in the Niagara River. Little is known about the emerald shiner’s early life history, such as the ecology of their larval and juvenile stages, which is the focus of this study. In the upper Niagara River, larvae first recruited into sampling gear in early July at a mean water temperature of 23oC, with larvae appearing into August. Young-of-the-year (YOY) emerald shiners grew an average of 1.5 mm and 31.5 mg a week throughout the growing season with condition peaking ...


An Evaluation Of The Emerald Shiner (Notropis Atherinoides) As A Bioindicator Of Urban Water Pollution In The Upper Niagara River, Rebecca J. Johnson 2017 State University of New York College at Buffalo

An Evaluation Of The Emerald Shiner (Notropis Atherinoides) As A Bioindicator Of Urban Water Pollution In The Upper Niagara River, Rebecca J. Johnson

Great Lakes Center Masters Theses

Using fishes as bioindicator species can be an effective method for detecting poor water quality in aquatic ecosystems. In the Niagara River, the emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) is a keystone species that is sensitive to ecosystem degradation and, therefore, fills the bioindicator role. Like other model bioindicators, emerald shiners are abundant and, when exposed to a persistent disturbance, exhibit individual signs of stress before the onset of population decline. This research evaluated the health of emerald shiners captured from the upper Niagara River, which is at times inundated with untreated sewage from combined sewer overflows (CSOs). Water samples were taken ...


Environmentally-Driven Variation In The Population Dynamics Of Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia Patronus), Grant D. Adams 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Environmentally-Driven Variation In The Population Dynamics Of Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia Patronus), Grant D. Adams

Master's Theses

Gulf Menhaden (Brevoortia patronus) is an abundant forage fish distributed throughout the Northern Gulf of Mexico (NGOM). Gulf Menhaden support the second largest fishery, by weight, in the United States and represent a key linkage between upper and lower trophic levels. Variation in the population dynamics can, therefore, pose consequences for the ecology and economy in the NGOM. Here we aim to understand variation in the individual and population dynamics of Gulf Menhaden throughout ontogeny and how such variation relates to environmental processes. We utilized a suite of fishery-dependent and –independent, remote sensing, modeled, and in situ data to explicitly ...


Evidence Of Multidecadal Recruitment In The Ocean Quahog, Arctica Islandica In The Western Atlantic Ocean, Sara M. Pace 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

Evidence Of Multidecadal Recruitment In The Ocean Quahog, Arctica Islandica In The Western Atlantic Ocean, Sara M. Pace

Master's Theses

Ocean quahogs (Arctica islandica) are the longest-lived, non-colonial animals known today, with a maximum life span exceeding 500 years. Limited information is available regarding recruitment, making the sustainable management of this valuable fishery a challenge. The objective of this research was to describe the age structure and growth rates for four populations of ocean quahogs from the mid-Atlantic stock to evaluate long-term recruitment trends. Clams were sectioned for age estimation to develop population age frequencies. Initial colonization began approximately 175-250 years ago depending upon site. All sites experienced an increase in recruitment beginning in the late 1800’s to early ...


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