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Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham MacWilliams 2018 Pomona College

Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham Macwilliams

Pomona Senior Theses

Methane hydrates are frozen deposits of methane and water found in high pressure or low temperature sediments. When these deposits destabilize, large quantities of methane can be emitted into the atmosphere. This is significant to climate change because methane has 25 times more greenhouse gas potential than Carbon Dioxide. Worldwide, it is estimated there are between 2500 and 10000 gigatons of methane stored in hydrate deposits. This represents more carbon than all fossil fuels on Earth. It is estimated that between 200 and 2000 gigatons of methane are stored in hydrates in Arctic waters acutely vulnerable to greenhouse warming. Over ...


Ecology Of The Young-Of-The-Year Emerald Shiner (Notropis Atherinoides) In The Upper Niagara River, New York: Growth, Diversity, And Importance As A Forage Species, Jacob L. Cochran 2017 State University of New York College at Buffalo

Ecology Of The Young-Of-The-Year Emerald Shiner (Notropis Atherinoides) In The Upper Niagara River, New York: Growth, Diversity, And Importance As A Forage Species, Jacob L. Cochran

Great Lakes Center Masters Theses

The emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) is a relatively understudied Cyprinid that fills a major keystone role in the Niagara River. Little is known about the emerald shiner’s early life history, such as the ecology of their larval and juvenile stages, which is the focus of this study. In the upper Niagara River, larvae first recruited into sampling gear in early July at a mean water temperature of 23oC, with larvae appearing into August. Young-of-the-year (YOY) emerald shiners grew an average of 1.5 mm and 31.5 mg a week throughout the growing season with condition peaking ...


A Simulation Model Of The Devils Hole Pupfish Population Using Monthly Length-Frequency Distributions, Maria Dzul, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Michael C. Quist, D. Bailey Gaines, Kevin Patrick Wilson, Michael Roy Bower, Philip M. Dixon 2017 Iowa State University

A Simulation Model Of The Devils Hole Pupfish Population Using Monthly Length-Frequency Distributions, Maria Dzul, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Michael C. Quist, D. Bailey Gaines, Kevin Patrick Wilson, Michael Roy Bower, Philip M. Dixon

Stephen J Dinsmore

The Devils Hole pupfish, Cyprinodon diabolis, is a federally-endangered fish that is endemic to Devils Hole, a discontiguous part of Death Valley National Park in Nye County, Nevada. Due to its status, Devils Hole pupfish monitoring must be non-obtrusive and thereby exclude techniques that require handling fish. Due to a recent decline in pupfish abundance, Devils Hole pupfish managers have expressed a need for a model that describes population dynamics. This population model would be used to identify vulnerable life history stage(s) and inform management actions. We constructed a set of individualbased simulation models designed to explore effects of ...


Family Living Sets The Stage For Cooperative Breeding And Ecological Resilience In Birds, Michael Griesser, Szymon M. Drobniak, Shinichi Nakagawa, Carlos A. Botero 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Family Living Sets The Stage For Cooperative Breeding And Ecological Resilience In Birds, Michael Griesser, Szymon M. Drobniak, Shinichi Nakagawa, Carlos A. Botero

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Cooperative breeding is an extreme form of cooperation that evolved in a range of lineages, including arthropods, fish, birds, and mammals. Although cooperative breeding in birds is widespread and well-studied, the conditions that favored its evolution are still unclear. Based on phylogenetic comparative analyses on 3,005 bird species, we demonstrate here that family living acted as an essential stepping stone in the evolution of cooperative breeding in the vast majority of species. First, families formed by prolonging parent–offspring associations beyond nutritional independency, and second, retained offspring began helping at the nest. These findings suggest that assessment of the ...


Genetic Analysis Of The Federally Endangered Winged Mapleleaf Mussel To Aid Proposed Re-Introduction Efforts, Kevin J. Roe 2017 Iowa State University

Genetic Analysis Of The Federally Endangered Winged Mapleleaf Mussel To Aid Proposed Re-Introduction Efforts, Kevin J. Roe

Kevin J. Roe

The winged mapleleaf, Quadrula fragosa, historically occurred in the Mississippi, Tennessee, Ohio, and Cumberland river drainages, but has suffered severe population and range reductions. At the time that the species was federally listed as endangered, its range was thought to have been reduced to a stretch of the St. Croix River between northwestern Wisconsin and east-central Minnesota. Recently, morphologically “Q. fragosa-like” specimens were discovered at sites in Arkansas (Ouachita River and Saline River), Missouri (Bourbeuse River), and Oklahoma (Little River). Subsequently, a plan was proposed to re-introduce Q. fragosa into portions of its historic range where its been extirpated from ...


Population Genetic Diversity In A Maize Reciprocal Recurrent Selection Program, Lori L. Hinze, Stephen Kresovich, John D. Nason, Kendall R. Lamkey 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Population Genetic Diversity In A Maize Reciprocal Recurrent Selection Program, Lori L. Hinze, Stephen Kresovich, John D. Nason, Kendall R. Lamkey

Kendall R Lamkey

The genetic structures of the Iowa Corn Borer Synthetic #1 (CB) and Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic (SS) maize (Zea mays L.) populations are important because these populations serve as the model for development of modern commercial hybrids. In 1949, CB and SS were used to start a reciprocal recurrent selection (RRS) breeding program at Iowa State University. This study was conducted to analyze more thoroughly the genetic diversity within this RRS program and illustrate how the RRS program has changed over time at the molecular level. The progress of this program was measured by analyzing the variation at 86 SSR ...


Costs Of Group Locomotion: How Infant-Carrying And Group Members Mediate Walking Speed Decisions In North American And East African Populations, Leah M. Bouterse 2017 Seattle Pacific University

Costs Of Group Locomotion: How Infant-Carrying And Group Members Mediate Walking Speed Decisions In North American And East African Populations, Leah M. Bouterse

Honors Projects

A major portion of humans’ activity-based energy expenditure is taken up by locomotion, particularly walking. Humans can offset the energetic expenditure of walking in numerous ways, both evolutionary (such as changes in body shape) and culturally. Behaviorally, people can choose to walk in a variety of ways, including alone or with a group, carrying loads, and walking quickly or more slowly. All of these behaviors have energetic outcomes and as such can be important windows into how populations and groups adjust to different constraints. While sex differences in speed of paired walkers have been established by others, the dynamics of ...


The Santa Ana Speckled Dace (Rhinichthys Osculus): Phylogeography And Molecular Evolution Of The Mitochondrial Dna Control Region, James Jay VanMeter 2017 California State University San Bernardino

The Santa Ana Speckled Dace (Rhinichthys Osculus): Phylogeography And Molecular Evolution Of The Mitochondrial Dna Control Region, James Jay Vanmeter

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

The purpose of this genetic study of the Santa Ana Speckled Dace Rhinichthys osculus was three-fold. The first goal was to characterize the molecular structure of the mtDNA control region of R. osculus. An 1143 base-pair region of the mitochondrial DNA genome, which included the complete control region was sequenced for all individuals. Analysis of the sequence data revealed that the molecular structure of the speckled dace control region was similar to the molecular structure described for other vertebrate taxa. The speckled dace control region contains three major domains, which vary in base frequency as well as in the frequency ...


Adaptive Therapy: Modeling Evolutionary Principles In Anticancer Therapy, Jeffrey B. West 2017 University of Southern California

Adaptive Therapy: Modeling Evolutionary Principles In Anticancer Therapy, Jeffrey B. West

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Evolutionary Genetic Aspects Of Host Association In Generalist Ectoparasites, Benoit Talbot 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Evolutionary Genetic Aspects Of Host Association In Generalist Ectoparasites, Benoit Talbot

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Despite the use of the host for dispersal by most parasite species, the extremely loose relationship typical between highly mobile hosts and generalist ectoparasites may lead to very different gene flow patterns between the two, leading in turn to different spatial genetic structure, and potentially different demographic history. I examined how similar gene flow patterns are between Cimex adjunctus, a generalist ectoparasite of bats present throughout North America, and two of its key bat hosts. I first analyzed the continent-scale genetic structure and demographic history of C. adjunctus and compared it to that of two of its hosts, the little ...


The Biogeographic Origins And Trophic Ecology Of Maine’S Island Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus), Nikko-Ideen Shaidani 2017 University of Maine

The Biogeographic Origins And Trophic Ecology Of Maine’S Island Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus), Nikko-Ideen Shaidani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Island populations of terrestrial species have an increased potential, compared to mainland populations, to adapt and diverge, as these populations often are isolated with respect to gene flow from other populations and may be subjected to novel pressures. Indeed, extended isolation of individuals can elicit dramatic changes within populations and is recognized as a common driver of speciation. It is for these reasons that island populations are often a priority for conservation. Plethodontid salamanders are among the most terrestrial of Maine’s amphibians and are not tolerant of prolonged exposure to seawater, and yet, they are found on a number ...


Breeding Ecology And Habitat Use Of Unisexual Salamanders And Their Sperm-Hosts, Blue-Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Laterale), Kristine Hoffmann 2017 UMaine

Breeding Ecology And Habitat Use Of Unisexual Salamanders And Their Sperm-Hosts, Blue-Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Laterale), Kristine Hoffmann

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Unsexual Salamanders within the Blue-Spotted Salamander Complex carry combinations of ambystomatid genomes (those of Blue-Spotted Salamanders, Ambystoma laterale, and Jefferson Salamanders, A. jeffersonianum in Maine). They are nearly all female, breed in wetlands, and use sperm of related species to reproduce. Little is known about their ecology to guide the conservation of this unique lineage. I examined breeding site occupancy, demographics, orientation, and terrestrial habitat selection of Unisexual Salamanders in comparison to Blue-Spotted Salamanders and other amphibians. I compared statistical tests of orientation to determine which was most appropriate for pitfall data.

Unisexual Salamander occupancy at breeding sites was positively ...


Population Ecology Of Colonially Breeding Seabirds: How Intrinsic Processes, Mediating Influences, And Individual Heterogeneity Affect Population Vital Rates, Aly McKnight 2017 University of Maine - Main

Population Ecology Of Colonially Breeding Seabirds: How Intrinsic Processes, Mediating Influences, And Individual Heterogeneity Affect Population Vital Rates, Aly Mcknight

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Seabirds have great potential to serve as marine indicators. However, before we can interpret seabird trends with confidence, we need a better understanding of the role of intrinsic processes, mediating influences, and lifetime experience in modulating relationships between prey availability and seabird population dynamics.

Intrinsic processes, mediating influences, and seabird productivity. I assessed productivity (chicks per breeding attempt) at Black-legged Kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla) colonies in Prince William Sound, AK and managed Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) colonies in the Gulf of Maine. Both systems showed evidence of intrinsic control; factors mediating access to prey were also important.

Mediating influences, individual heterogeneity ...


Measuring Fertilization In Populations Of Sea Scallop (Placopecten Magellanicus): Developing And Testing Methods In The Laboratory And Field, Skylar Bayer 2017 University of Maine

Measuring Fertilization In Populations Of Sea Scallop (Placopecten Magellanicus): Developing And Testing Methods In The Laboratory And Field, Skylar Bayer

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Most marine organisms are broadcast spawners, releasing their sperm and eggs into the water column. Methods of measuring in situ fertilization have proven successful with a few model species, which are reviewed in my introductory chapter. However, many commercially exploited species, such as the sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus, have been neglected. Sea scallop populations have greatly increased from fishing closures, but the mechanism behind this response is uncertain, particularly in regard to fertilization. In this dissertation I developed a methodology of measuring fertilization success and spawning events of P. magellanicus, tested it in laboratory and field settings, and developed a ...


Breeding Stage And Parentage Affect Tameness In Common Loons, Mina Ibrahim 2017 Chapman University

Breeding Stage And Parentage Affect Tameness In Common Loons, Mina Ibrahim

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Tameness is a measure of tolerance towards human disturbance. As human disturbance and recreational activity are increasing, it is becoming more and more important to understand responses of species to this disturbance. Tameness has been shown to be influenced by an individuals characteristics and life history. Two possible determinants of tameness are breeding stage and parentage. We studied tameness in common loons (Gavia immer) specifically looking at the effects of breeding stage and parentage. Tameness was measured by flight initiation distance (FID), the distance at which a loon dove from an approaching human observer in a canoe. Loons with chicks ...


Assessing The Effects Of Chemical Mixtures Using A Bayesian Network-Relative Risk Model (Bn-Rrm) Integrating Adverse Outcome Pathways (Aops), Valerie Chu, Meagan J. Harris, Scarlett Graham, Lindsay K. Wallis, Chelsea Mitchell, John D. Stark, Katherine von Stackelberg 2017 Western Washington University

Assessing The Effects Of Chemical Mixtures Using A Bayesian Network-Relative Risk Model (Bn-Rrm) Integrating Adverse Outcome Pathways (Aops), Valerie Chu, Meagan J. Harris, Scarlett Graham, Lindsay K. Wallis, Chelsea Mitchell, John D. Stark, Katherine Von Stackelberg

Graduate Student Conference

There are long-standing uncertainties about toxicity of chemical mixtures to populations. Laboratory toxicity tests have confirmed synergistic and antagonistic effects to individuals, but not to populations.We will conduct a regional scale ecological risk assessment by evaluating the effects chemical mixtures to populations with a new Bayesian Network- Relative Risk Model (BN-RRM) incorporating an Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP). We started applying this new BN-RRM framework in a case study with organophosphate pesticide mixtures (diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and malathion). Acetylcholinesterase inhibition (AChE) was chosen the molecular initiating event and the Puget Sound Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Evolutionary ...


Demography Of A Collapsing Aerial Insectivore Population, Liam Taylor 2017 Bowdoin College

Demography Of A Collapsing Aerial Insectivore Population, Liam Taylor

Honors Projects

Aerial insectivores have been declining across northeastern North America since the end of the 20th century. The mechanisms and demographic patterns of this decline are unclear. On Kent Island, New Brunswick, Canada, an isolated population of Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) collapsed between 1987 and 2010. To explore how demographic rates (i.e., survival, reproduction, and immigration) drove the population dynamics of these northeastern aerial insectivores, we combined productivity, population survey, and capture-recapture data in an integrated population model analysis. Neither consistently low juvenile survival rates, adult survival rates, nor clutch size were correlated with population growth rate across years. Alternatively ...


Ecological Importance Of Invader Source Population And Disturbance In Aquatic Invasions, Nicole Elizabeth Graham 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Ecological Importance Of Invader Source Population And Disturbance In Aquatic Invasions, Nicole Elizabeth Graham

Theses and Dissertations

Invasive species are a global problem and their effects on recipient ecosystems may be mediated by disturbance and intraspecific variation. Crayfish can substantially influence stream structure and function, and invasive crayfish often have differential impacts than native crayfish in aquatic ecosystems. Since species traits often vary across a distribution, it is possible that invasive crayfish from different source populations may have distinct impacts on recipient ecosystem structure and function. In the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri, USA, invasive O. neglectus (the Ringed Crayfish) may be leading to the displacement of native O. eupunctus (the Coldwater Crayfish). The objective of ...


Hemichordates As A Model System For Investigating Intertidal Zonation In Soft Sediments, Kharis R. Schrage 2017 College of William and Mary

Hemichordates As A Model System For Investigating Intertidal Zonation In Soft Sediments, Kharis R. Schrage

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Intertidal zonation of organisms is well studied on rocky shores but less so in soft sediment communities. On rocky shores, biotic factors such as predation often set the lower bound of a zone, while abiotic factors set the upper bound. Here I describe the zonation of hemichordate worms at two field sites in Maine and Virginia. In Virginia, Saccoglossus kowalevskii occurs in the mid-intertidal zone at densities up to 500 m-2. In Maine, two hemichordate species, Saccoglossus bromophenolosus and Protoglossus graveolens, co-occur at densities approaching 100 m-2. Hemichordates have chemical defenses that appear to deter fish, but ...


Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers : 2016 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Rob Latour, Patrick McGrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee 2017 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers : 2016 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Rob Latour, Patrick Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee

Reports

This report describes the results of the nineteenth year of a continuing study to estimate the relative abundance and assess the status of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) stocks in Virginia by monitoring the spawning runs in the James, York and Rappahannock rivers in spring 2016, evaluating hatchery programs, and contributing to coast-wide assessments (ASMFC 2007). We also report on a new fishery-independent monitoring program using staked gillnets to determine relative abundance and stock structure for the adult spawning run of river herring (A. pseudoharengus, and A. aestivalis) in the Rappahannock River. Data are also reported from two separate fishery-independent monitoring ...


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