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Characterizing The Permanence And Stationary Distribution For A Family Of Malaria Stochastic Models, Divine Wanduku 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Characterizing The Permanence And Stationary Distribution For A Family Of Malaria Stochastic Models, Divine Wanduku

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Predator Diversity On Optimal Communities For Prey Suppression, Amanda N. Laubmeier 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Effects Of Predator Diversity On Optimal Communities For Prey Suppression, Amanda N. Laubmeier

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers - 2018 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Robert Latour, Patrick E. McGrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee 2019 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers - 2018 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Robert Latour, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee

Reports

This report describes the results of the twenty-first year of a continuing study to estimate the relative abundance and assess the status of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) stocks in Virginia by monitoring the spawning runs in the James, York and Rappahannock rivers in spring 2018, evaluating hatchery programs, and contributing to coast-wide assessments (ASMFC 2007). We also report on two fishery-independent monitoring programs using anchor gillnets in the Rappahannock River (year 1) and the Chickahominy River (year 4; a major tributary of the James River), to determine relative abundance and stock structure for the adult spawning run of river herring ...


The Piping Plover Problem: A Review Of Management Issues For A Threatened Shorebird, Andrew Lydeard, Gerry Harris 2019 Murray State University

The Piping Plover Problem: A Review Of Management Issues For A Threatened Shorebird, Andrew Lydeard, Gerry Harris

Scholars Week

Andrew Lydeard and Gerry Harris

The Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) was federally listed in 1986. Since listing, Piping Plovers have been a focus of conservation and management efforts, particularly on their breeding grounds in the Northern Great Plains, Great Lakes, and northern Atlantic Coast. Despite management efforts that have resulted in range-wide population growth of the Piping Plover, growth in individual populations is often slow and reasons for this are poorly understood. A bias towards understanding drivers of declines on breeding sites compared to wintering and migratory stopover sites may be an underlying cause of this lack of understanding. Conducting ...


Population Characteristics Of Co-Managed White Bass And Hybrid Striped Bass In Lake Mcconaughy, Nebraska, Benjamin J. Schall, Casey W. Schoenebeck, Keith D. Koupal 2019 University of Nebraska at Kearney

Population Characteristics Of Co-Managed White Bass And Hybrid Striped Bass In Lake Mcconaughy, Nebraska, Benjamin J. Schall, Casey W. Schoenebeck, Keith D. Koupal

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

White Bass (Morone chrysops) and Hybrid Striped Bass (M. saxatillis × M. chrysops) populations often coexist in the same waterbody and are known to achieve different lengths, have differing reproductive success, and provide different opportunities for anglers. However, comparative population dynamics from systems where Moronids are managed with the same regulation is often lacking. This study aimed to assess the recruitment, mortality, and growth of these species from seasonal samples collected at Lake McConaughy in 2015 and fall 2016. White Bass demonstrated highly variable recruitment in Lake McConaughy despite stocking efforts (mean recruitment variability index = 0.157). Hybrid Striped Bass year ...


Substrate Influences Turtle Nest Temperature, Incubation Period, And Offspring Sex Ratio In The Field, Timothy S. Mitchell, Fredric J. Janzen 2019 Iowa State University

Substrate Influences Turtle Nest Temperature, Incubation Period, And Offspring Sex Ratio In The Field, Timothy S. Mitchell, Fredric J. Janzen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Temperature-dependent sex determination, where egg incubation temperature irreversibly determines offspring sex, is a common sex-determining mechanism in reptiles. Weather is the primary determinant of temperature in reptile nests, yet the effects of weather are mediated through the nest microhabitat selected by the mother (e.g., overstory canopy cover). One potentially important aspect of the nest microhabitat is the physical substrate used for nesting. However, the influence of substrate type on nest temperature and offspring sex determination has never been experimentally assessed in the field. We incubated eggs of Painted Turtles (Chrysemys picta) in three substrate types similar to those commonly ...


Reproductive Success Of Eastern Bluebirds (Siala Sialis) On Suburban Golf Courses, Kerri L. Cornell, Caitlin R. Kight, Ryan B. Burdge, Alex R. Gunderson, Joanna K. Hubbard, Allyson K. Jackson, Joshua E. LeClerc, Marie L. Pitts, John P. Swaddle, Daniel A. Cristol 2019 Westminster College - New Wilmington

Reproductive Success Of Eastern Bluebirds (Siala Sialis) On Suburban Golf Courses, Kerri L. Cornell, Caitlin R. Kight, Ryan B. Burdge, Alex R. Gunderson, Joanna K. Hubbard, Allyson K. Jackson, Joshua E. Leclerc, Marie L. Pitts, John P. Swaddle, Daniel A. Cristol

Daniel Cristol

Understanding the role of green space in urban—suburban landscapes is becoming critical for bird conservation because of rampant habitat loss and conversion. Although not natural habitat, golf courses could play a role in bird conservation if they support breeding populations of some native species, yet scientists remain skeptical. In 2003–2009, we measured reproduction of Eastern Bluebirds (Siala sialis) in Virginia on golf courses and surrounding reference habitats, of the type that would have been present had golf courses not been developed on these sites (e.g., recreational parks, cemeteries, agriculture land, and college campus). We monitored >650 nest ...


Effects Of Larval Density On Dispersal And Fecundity Of Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Leconte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Eric Yu Yu, Aaron J. Gassmann, Thomas W. Sappington 2019 Iowa State University

Effects Of Larval Density On Dispersal And Fecundity Of Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Leconte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Eric Yu Yu, Aaron J. Gassmann, Thomas W. Sappington

Entomology Publications

The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of corn in the northern United States. Some populations have developed resistance to management strategies including transgenic corn that produces insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Knowledge of insect dispersal is of critical importance for models of resistance evolution. Larval density affects survival in the field, and stress from crowding often affects facultative long-distance dispersal of adult insects. In this study, we used laboratory flight mills to characterize western corn rootworm flight performance as a function of larval rearing density. Larvae were ...


Hawaiian Picture‐Winged Drosophila Exhibit Adaptive Population Divergence Along A Narrow Climatic Gradient On Hawaii Island, Jon Eldon, M. Renee Bellinger, Donald K. Price 2019 University of Hawaii, Hilo

Hawaiian Picture‐Winged Drosophila Exhibit Adaptive Population Divergence Along A Narrow Climatic Gradient On Hawaii Island, Jon Eldon, M. Renee Bellinger, Donald K. Price

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

1. Anthropogenic influences on global processes and climatic conditions are increasingly affecting ecosystems throughout the world. 2. Hawaii Island’s native ecosystems are well studied and local long‐term climatic trends well documented, making these ecosystems ideal for evaluating how native taxa may respond to a warming environment. 3.This study documents adaptive divergence of populations of a Hawaiian picture‐winged Drosophila, D. sproati, that are separated by only 7 km and 365 m in elevation. 4.Representative laboratory populations show divergent behavioral and physiological responses to an experimental low‐intensity increase in ambient temperature during maturation. The significant interaction ...


The Diversity Of Population Responses To Environmental Change, Fernando Colchero, Anne M. Bronikowski, et al. 2019 University of Southern Denmark

The Diversity Of Population Responses To Environmental Change, Fernando Colchero, Anne M. Bronikowski, Et Al.

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

The current extinction and climate change crises pressure us to predict population dynamics with ever‐greater accuracy. Although predictions rest on the well‐advanced theory of age‐structured populations, two key issues remain poorly explored. Specifically, how the age‐dependency in demographic rates and the year‐to‐year interactions between survival and fecundity affect stochastic population growth rates. We use inference, simulations and mathematical derivations to explore how environmental perturbations determine population growth rates for populations with different age‐specific demographic rates and when ages are reduced to stages. We find that stage‐ vs. age‐based models can produce markedly ...


The International Whaling Commission—Beyond Whaling, Andrew J. Wright, Mark P. Simmonds, Barbara Galletti Vernazzani 2019 George Mason University

The International Whaling Commission—Beyond Whaling, Andrew J. Wright, Mark P. Simmonds, Barbara Galletti Vernazzani

Mark P. Simmonds, O.B.E.

Since its establishment in 1946 as the international body intended to manage whaling, the International Whaling Commission (IWC) has expanded its areas of interest to ensure the wider conservation of whales. Several key conservation topics have been taken forward under its auspices including climate change, chemical and noise pollution, marine debris and whale watching. Work on each of these topics at the IWC has grown substantially since the 1990s and remains ongoing. Important developments were the establishment of the Standing Working Group on Environmental Concerns in 1996 and the IWC’s Conservation Committee in 2003. Trying to address this diverse ...


Brave Spaces: Augmenting Interdisciplinary Stem Education By Using Quantitative Data Explorations To Engage Conversations On Equity And Social Justice, John R. Jungck, Jon Manon 2019 University of Delaware

Brave Spaces: Augmenting Interdisciplinary Stem Education By Using Quantitative Data Explorations To Engage Conversations On Equity And Social Justice, John R. Jungck, Jon Manon

Numeracy

In workshops and courses involving in-service teachers, participating teachers can engage in problem posing and exploration of difficult issues when they are asked to quantitatively model alternative scenarios, statistically analyze complex data, and visualize these data in multiple formats. Subsequent to these activities, discussions of sensitive issues, some even considered taboo in classrooms, can open up “brave spaces” in these teachers’ classrooms. Without coaching through elaborate facilitation strategies, the in-service teachers grappled openly with the nuances of such difficult issues and raised many alternatives involving quantitative reasoning as well as considering biological, cultural, economic, social, and political factors influencing social ...


Editorial: Advances In The Biology And Conservation Of Marine Turtles, Sara M. Maxwell, Annette C. Broderick, Peter H. Dutton, Sabrina Fossette-Halot, Mariana M.P.B. Fuentes, Richard D. Reina 2019 Old Dominion University

Editorial: Advances In The Biology And Conservation Of Marine Turtles, Sara M. Maxwell, Annette C. Broderick, Peter H. Dutton, Sabrina Fossette-Halot, Mariana M.P.B. Fuentes, Richard D. Reina

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

(First Paragraph) Marine turtles have been the subject of research over many decades, inspired by their unique life history and necessitated by their declining populations from a suite of human impacts including direct harvest, bycatch in marine fisheries, pollution, and climate change. Despite this, much about marine turtle biology has remained a mystery (Godley et al., 2008; Rees et al., 2016; Wildermann et al., 2018), but the rate of scientific discovery is increasing rapidly. As research techniques and conservation practices expand, the marine turtle research community has kept abreast of these developments and their application to marine turtles. In this ...


Why Did The Turtle Cross The Street? An Examination Of Herpetofauna Habitat Road Fragmentation, Carlos J.L. Balsas 2019 University of Albany

Why Did The Turtle Cross The Street? An Examination Of Herpetofauna Habitat Road Fragmentation, Carlos J.L. Balsas

Proceedings of the Fábos Conference on Landscape and Greenway Planning

Roads and urban development cause severe herpetofauna habitat fragmentation. The objective of this study is to analyze the road ecology problem of herpetofauna habitat fragmentation. It is argued that most wetland systems have high biodiversity conservation value and that their herpetofauna habitat fragmentation requires the implementation of adequate road crossing mitigation strategies. The research methods comprised mostly literature reviews on road ecology, habitat road fragmentation and mitigation, and roadway redesign measures. The key finding discovered was the urgent need for more continuous habitats, uniform underground crossings, and the elimination of reptile and amphibian road crossing deaths in (sub)urban settings ...


Range Expansion Or Range Shift? Population Genetics And Historic Range Data Analyses Of The Predatory Benthic Sea Slug Phidiana Hiltoni (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia), Clara Jo King, Ryan Ellingson, Jeffrey H. R. Goddard, Rebecca F. Johnson, Angel A. Valdes 2019 California State Polytechnic University, Pomona

Range Expansion Or Range Shift? Population Genetics And Historic Range Data Analyses Of The Predatory Benthic Sea Slug Phidiana Hiltoni (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia), Clara Jo King, Ryan Ellingson, Jeffrey H. R. Goddard, Rebecca F. Johnson, Angel A. Valdes

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Phidiana hiltoni is a conspicuous nudibranch sea slug native to the northeastern Pacific Ocean. Over the past thirty years the range of P. hiltoni has expanded about 200 km northward, but the mechanism that facilitated this expansion is poorly understood. In this study, we use mtDNA and microsatellite data to investigate the population structure of P. hiltoni in its historical range as well as in recently colonized localities. Microsatellite analyses reveal little to no genetic structure and thus high gene flow throughout the range of P. hiltoni. This is consistent with mtDNA analysis results, which revealed shared haplotypes between Southern ...


Geographic Variation In Thermal Sensitivity Of Early Life Traits In A Widespread Reptile, Brooke L. Bodensteiner, Daniel A. Warner, John B. Iverson, Carrie L. Milne-Zelman, Timothy S. Mitchell, Jeanine M. Refsnider, Fredric Janzen 2019 Iowa State University

Geographic Variation In Thermal Sensitivity Of Early Life Traits In A Widespread Reptile, Brooke L. Bodensteiner, Daniel A. Warner, John B. Iverson, Carrie L. Milne-Zelman, Timothy S. Mitchell, Jeanine M. Refsnider, Fredric Janzen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Taxa with large geographic distributions generally encompass diverse macroclimatic conditions, potentially requiring local adaptation and/or phenotypic plasticity to match their phenotypes to differing environments. These eco‐evolutionary processes are of particular interest in organisms with traits that are directly affected by temperature, such as embryonic development in oviparous ectotherms. Here we examine the spatial distribution of fitness‐related early life phenotypes across the range of a widespread vertebrate, the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). We quantified embryonic and hatchling traits from seven locations (in Idaho, Minnesota, Oregon, Illinois, Nebraska, Kansas, and New Mexico) after incubating eggs under constant conditions across ...


Multi-Tactic Ecological Weed Management In A Changing Climate, Sonja K. Birthisel 2018 University of Maine

Multi-Tactic Ecological Weed Management In A Changing Climate, Sonja K. Birthisel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Climate change is expected to impact weed communities in Maine, and the efficacy of tools and tactics farmers use to manage them. Through seedbank sampling and surveys of Maine organic farms, we identified currently rare weeds that are known to be especially abundant or problematic in warmer areas of the USA and might therefore represent an emerging agronomic risk. Many ecological weed management strategies that focus on depleting the weed seedbank are expected to remain effective in a changing climate, and become increasingly important as efficacy of cultivation and some herbicide applications diminish or become more variable. Through field experiments ...


Understanding The Impacts Of Current And Future Environmental Variation On Central African Amphibian Biodiversity, Courtney A. Miller 2018 University of New Orleans

Understanding The Impacts Of Current And Future Environmental Variation On Central African Amphibian Biodiversity, Courtney A. Miller

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Global climate change is projected to impact multiple levels of biodiversity by imposing strong selection pressures on existing populations, triggering shifts in species distributions, and reorganizing entire communities. The Lower Guineo-Congolian region in central Africa, a reservoir for amphibian diversity, is predicted to be severely affected by future climate change through rising temperatures and greater variability in rainfall. Geospatial modelling can be used to assess how environmental variation shapes patterns of biological variation – from the genomic to the community level – and use these associations to predict patterns of biological change across space and time. The overall goal of this dissertation ...


A Change In Grain? Diet Induced Plasticity In The Generalist Grasshopper Melanoplus Differentialis, Austin M. Culotta 2018 University of New Orleans

A Change In Grain? Diet Induced Plasticity In The Generalist Grasshopper Melanoplus Differentialis, Austin M. Culotta

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Phenotypic plasticity is favored in heterogeneous environments in which alternative phenotypes can exploit alternative resources. However, it’s not clear whether phenotypic plasticity is useful in environments that become more homogenous over an organism’s life cycle. I studied a population of grasshopper Melanoplus differentialis that experiences high resource diversity as nymphs but low resource diversity as adults to determine if individuals can undergo diet-induced morphological plasticity in head shape to increase biting ability and ingestion of hard diets. Insects on a soft diet were larger and had greater bite force than those on a hard diet. Head structures related ...


Legacy Habitat Suitability Of Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea Virginica) In Louisiana: A Prelude To Mississippi River Delta Freshwater Diversions, Tasia MV Denapolis 2018 University of New Orleans

Legacy Habitat Suitability Of Eastern Oysters (Crassostrea Virginica) In Louisiana: A Prelude To Mississippi River Delta Freshwater Diversions, Tasia Mv Denapolis

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

The Louisiana oyster industry is greatly impacted by freshwater and sediment diversions that are part of the effort to restore the state’s coastline. A habitat suitability index (HSI) proposes species-habitat relationships that can be instrumental in creating impact assessments and suitability predictions for management as new diversions are implemented. An oyster (Crassostrea virginica) HSI was developed using three variables crucial to oyster sustainability: average annual salinity, minimum monthly salinity, and average salinity during the spawning season. These Legacy HSI visualizations show annual fluctuations in the distribution of zones suitable for oyster cultivation prior to proposed diversions in Pontchartrain and ...


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