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Factors Affecting Outbreaks And Prevention And Control Strategies Of Wildlife Infectious Diseases, Zhibin ZHANG 2021 State Key Laboratory of Integrated Management of Pest Insects and Rodents, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China

Factors Affecting Outbreaks And Prevention And Control Strategies Of Wildlife Infectious Diseases, Zhibin Zhang

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

Recently, wildlife infectious diseases have become a more and more serious problem in the world which imposes a big threat to bio-safety and eco-safety of worldwide. Accelerated climate change and human activities are key driving forces in causing more frequent occurrences of wildlife infectious diseases. Climate change could create favorable conditions for large-scale outbreak or invasion of wildlife infectious diseases by altering range shift or habitat of wildlife infectious diseases or their host/vectors. Human disturbance increases interspecific transmission of pathogens across people, wild and domestic animals, as well as their spread velocity facilitated by the modern transportation systems, and ...


High-Precision Superconducting Gravimetric Observations And Investigations Provide National Surveying And Mapping And Earth’S Dynamics With Theoretical Fundamentals, Heping SUN, Jiangcun ZHOU, Jianqiao XU, Xiaodong CHEN, Xiang'e LEI, Xiaoming CUI, Xiaowei NIU 2021 1. State Key Laboratory of Geodesy and Earth's Dynamics, Innovation Academy for Precision Measurement Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430077, China; 2. University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China

High-Precision Superconducting Gravimetric Observations And Investigations Provide National Surveying And Mapping And Earth’S Dynamics With Theoretical Fundamentals, Heping Sun, Jiangcun Zhou, Jianqiao Xu, Xiaodong Chen, Xiang'e Lei, Xiaoming Cui, Xiaowei Niu

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

Since 1985, about 35-year high-precision gravity data have been being well accumulated and worldwide cooperation was effectively carried out. The unique international tidal gravity reference in Asia was established. The background noise model for low frequency in Chinese continent was constructed. A global experimental model and an accurate correction model in Chinese continent for gravity tides of the Earth were both constructed. The theoretical simulation of the effect of surface mass loading on gravity was improved. The signals related to the nearly diurnal resonance, Earth’s free oscillation and translational wobble of the Earth’s inner core were detected to ...


Wuhan National Geodetic Observatory, Innovation Academy for Precision Measurement Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences 2021 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Wuhan National Geodetic Observatory, Innovation Academy For Precision Measurement Science And Technology, Chinese Academy Of Sciences

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Gene-Environment Interactions On The Evolution Of Social Behaviours, Vonica J. Flear 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Effects Of Gene-Environment Interactions On The Evolution Of Social Behaviours, Vonica J. Flear

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Inclusive fitness models in sociobiology emphasize the importance of relatedness, R, and synergy, S when exploring the evolution of social behaviours. Very few models explicitly consider ‘role’, or environmental stimuli, influencing the expression of behaviours, and none consider genetic-environment interactions where genotype predisposes individuals to certain roles. I propose a third key variable for inclusive fitness models, Q, which describes the overlooked potential bias in the genetic composition of individuals exposed to an environmental stimulus – here referred to as ‘role’. I describe a model built from Price’s formula which can be presented in a ‘Hamilton’s Rule’ format. I ...


Psonic: Ploidy-Aware Syntenic Orthologous Networks Identified Via Collinearity, Justin L. Conover, Joel Sharbrough, Jonathan F. Wendel 2021 Iowa State University

Psonic: Ploidy-Aware Syntenic Orthologous Networks Identified Via Collinearity, Justin L. Conover, Joel Sharbrough, Jonathan F. Wendel

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

With the rapid rise in availability of high-quality genomes for closely related species, methods for orthology inference that incorporate synteny are increasingly useful. Polyploidy perturbs the 1:1 expected frequencies of orthologs between two species, complicating the identification of orthologs. Here we present a method of ortholog inference, Ploidy-aware Syntenic Orthologous Networks Identified via Collinearity (pSONIC). We demonstrate the utility of pSONIC using four species in the cotton tribe (Gossypieae), including one allopolyploid, and place between 75-90% of genes from each species into nearly 32,000 orthologous groups, 97% of which consist of at most singletons or tandemly duplicated genes ...


How A Low-Cost Method For Cumulative Water-Sampling Shows Need For Improvement Of Legal Public-Contact Standards In The United States, Samuel Kessler 2021 University of Louisville

How A Low-Cost Method For Cumulative Water-Sampling Shows Need For Improvement Of Legal Public-Contact Standards In The United States, Samuel Kessler

Grawemeyer Colloquium Papers

Across the world, it is estimated that 4.5 billion people live near water sources “impaired” for use or contact. Standards for human-interaction are established by international organizations such as the WHO, and legislative bodies from national to local levels with jurisdiction over the quality of our waterways to ensure public & environmental health. Standards are often assessed from “grab-samples” taken from a waterbody at a certain time, with a minimum number analyzed. Water-quality standards in the United States are enforced under the Clean Water Act (CWA) via the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), applying to “waters of the United States” (WOTUS ...


Observational Study Of Two Ex Situ North American River Otters (Lontra Canadensis), Julia Rifenberg 2021 University of Central Florida

Observational Study Of Two Ex Situ North American River Otters (Lontra Canadensis), Julia Rifenberg

The Pegasus Review: UCF Undergraduate Research Journal

Zoos enable the ability to study how captive conditions impact the behaviors of animals. In this study, I observed two North American river otters housed at the Central Florida Zoo to evaluate behavioral changes after the male had been removed from the female for a month-long medical examination. The aim of this study was to 1) determine if mating behaviors were still occurring between the two river otters following the male’s removal and 2) to assess the welfare of the male and female river otters in captivity by observing their interactions and individual behaviors. Observed behaviors were compared to ...


The Genomics Of Ecological Flexibility, Large Brains, And Long Lives In Capuchin Monkeys Revealed With Fecalfacs., Joseph D Orkin, Michael J Montague, Daniela Tejada-Martinez, Marc de Manuel, Javier Del Campo, Saul Cheves Hernandez, Anthony Di Fiore, Claudia Fontsere, Jason A Hodgson, Mareike C Janiak, Lukas F K Kuderna, Esther Lizano, Maria Pia Martin, Yoshihito Niimura, George H Perry, Carmen Soto Valverde, Jia Tang, Wesley C Warren, João Pedro de Magalhães, Shoji Kawamura, Tomàs Marquès-Bonet, Roman Krawetz, Amanda D Melin 2021 University of Calgary

The Genomics Of Ecological Flexibility, Large Brains, And Long Lives In Capuchin Monkeys Revealed With Fecalfacs., Joseph D Orkin, Michael J Montague, Daniela Tejada-Martinez, Marc De Manuel, Javier Del Campo, Saul Cheves Hernandez, Anthony Di Fiore, Claudia Fontsere, Jason A Hodgson, Mareike C Janiak, Lukas F K Kuderna, Esther Lizano, Maria Pia Martin, Yoshihito Niimura, George H Perry, Carmen Soto Valverde, Jia Tang, Wesley C Warren, João Pedro De Magalhães, Shoji Kawamura, Tomàs Marquès-Bonet, Roman Krawetz, Amanda D Melin

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Faculty Papers

Ecological flexibility, extended lifespans, and large brains have long intrigued evolutionary biologists, and comparative genomics offers an efficient and effective tool for generating new insights into the evolution of such traits. Studies of capuchin monkeys are particularly well situated to shed light on the selective pressures and genetic underpinnings of local adaptation to diverse habitats, longevity, and brain development. Distributed widely across Central and South America, they are inventive and extractive foragers, known for their sensorimotor intelligence. Capuchins have among the largest relative brain size of any monkey and a lifespan that exceeds 50 y, despite their small (3 to ...


Anthropogenic And Climatic Factors Interact To Influence Reproductive Timing And Effort, Susannah S. French, Geoffrey Smith 2021 Utah State University

Anthropogenic And Climatic Factors Interact To Influence Reproductive Timing And Effort, Susannah S. French, Geoffrey Smith

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Reproduction, although absolutely essential to a species’ persistence, is in itself challenging. As anthropogenic change increasingly affects every landscape on Earth, it is critical to understand how specific pressures impact the reproductive efforts of individuals, which directly contribute to the success or failure of populations. However, organisms rarely encounter a single burden at a time, and the interactions of environmental challenges can have compounding effects. Disentangling environmental and physiological pressures is difficult because they are often context-dependent and not generalizable, but long-term monitoring across variable landscapes and weather patterns can improve our understanding of these complex interactions. We tested the ...


Microbiome Analyses Demonstrate Specific Communities Within Five Shark Species, Rachael Storo, Cole Easson, Mahmood S. Shivji, Jose V. Lopez 2021 Nova Southeastern University; University of Georgia

Microbiome Analyses Demonstrate Specific Communities Within Five Shark Species, Rachael Storo, Cole Easson, Mahmood S. Shivji, Jose V. Lopez

Biology Faculty Articles

Profiles of symbiotic microbial communities (“microbiomes”) can provide insight into the natural history and ecology of their hosts. Using high throughput DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region, microbiomes of five shark species in South Florida (nurse, lemon, sandbar, Caribbean reef, and tiger) have been characterized for the first time. The microbiomes show species specific microbiome composition, distinct from surrounding seawater. Shark anatomical location (gills, teeth, skin, cloaca) affected the diversity of microbiomes. An in-depth analysis of teeth communities revealed species specific microbial communities. For example, the genus Haemophilus, explained 7.0% of the differences of the teeth microbiomes ...


Habitat Characteristics Of Two Scorpion Species, Liocheles Australasiae (Fabricius, 1775) And Isometrus Maculatus (De Geer, 1778) In Miyako Islands, Japan, Kazusa Kawai 2021 Marshall University

Habitat Characteristics Of Two Scorpion Species, Liocheles Australasiae (Fabricius, 1775) And Isometrus Maculatus (De Geer, 1778) In Miyako Islands, Japan, Kazusa Kawai

Euscorpius

Scorpion surveys were conducted in the five islands: Miyakojima, Ikemajima, Kurimajima, Irabujima, and Shimojishima (Miyako Islands, part of Nansei/Ryukyu Islands of Japan). Eight individuals of Liocheles australasiae (Hormuridae) and 16 individuals of Isometrus maculatus (Buthidae) were observed in a total of 10 points on four islands, except Ikemajima. The localities of both species are recorded in this survey, focusing on altitude, distance from the nearest coast, and sunlight. The lowest temperatures in the habitat are also examined, and the cold tolerance of the species is discussed.


Host Tropism Determination By Convergent Evolution Of Immunological Evasion In The Lyme Disease System [Preprint], Thomas M. Hart, Alan P. Dupuis, II, Danielle M. Tufts, Anna M. Blom, Simon Starkey, Ryan O. M. Rego, Sanjay Ram, Peter Kraiczy, Laura D. Kramer, Maria A. Diuk-Wasser, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Yi-Pin Lin 2021 SUNY Albany

Host Tropism Determination By Convergent Evolution Of Immunological Evasion In The Lyme Disease System [Preprint], Thomas M. Hart, Alan P. Dupuis, Ii, Danielle M. Tufts, Anna M. Blom, Simon Starkey, Ryan O. M. Rego, Sanjay Ram, Peter Kraiczy, Laura D. Kramer, Maria A. Diuk-Wasser, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Yi-Pin Lin

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Microparasites selectively adapt in some hosts, known as host tropism. Transmitted through ticks and carried mainly by mammals and birds, the Lyme disease (LD) bacterium is a well-suited model to study such tropism. LD bacteria species vary in host ranges through mechanisms eluding characterization. By feeding ticks infected with different LD bacteria species, utilizing feeding chambers and live mice and quail, we found species-level differences of bacterial transmission. These differences localize on the tick blood meal, and complement, a defense in vertebrate blood, and a bacterial polymorphic protein, CspA, which inactivates complement by binding to a host complement inhibitor, FH ...


Distribution, Status, And Life History Aspects Of Two Rare Logperches, Percina Burtoni And Percina Apina, Jeffrey W. Simmons 2021 Tennessee Valley Authority

Distribution, Status, And Life History Aspects Of Two Rare Logperches, Percina Burtoni And Percina Apina, Jeffrey W. Simmons

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

The Blotchside Logperch, Percina burtoni, and Tennessee Logperch, Percina apina, are Tennessee-Cumberland River drainage endemics that have experienced range reductions due to anthropogenic influences. All known collection records were gathered to fully describe the historical distribution of these species for comparison to their currently inhabited range. Discussion of major impacts to rivers that contain or contained these species is included for an understanding of factors that may have influenced contemporary distributions. Extensive field surveys were conducted during 2014 to 2017 to aid in determination of the current status and distribution of populations. New information of previously unreported or undetected populations ...


Observations On The Distribution And Status Of Selected Nebraska Mammals, Zachary P. Roehrs, Russell A. Benedict, Thomas E. Labedz, Hugh H. Genoways 2021 Laramie County Community College

Observations On The Distribution And Status Of Selected Nebraska Mammals, Zachary P. Roehrs, Russell A. Benedict, Thomas E. Labedz, Hugh H. Genoways

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Information on the distribution and current status of 25 species or subspecies of mammals occurring in Nebraska are presented. The species covered include one shrew, an armadillo, eight bats, 10 rodents (including two subspecies of one species), three carnivores, and one artiodactyl. Distributional information reported includes the first state record for one species (Sorex nanus) and new county records for 18 species. In Nebraska, we know that mammals are shifting their geographic ranges with some extending populations into the state, whereas others are expanding their geographic ranges within the state. The current status of six additional mammalian taxa in Nebraska ...


Survival Of Fishes In A Stormwater Retention Pond At The Watershed Nature Center, Edwardsville, Illinois, Manuel Gomez, Richard B. Brugam Ph.D., Sharon Locke 2021 Southern Illinois University Edwardsville

Survival Of Fishes In A Stormwater Retention Pond At The Watershed Nature Center, Edwardsville, Illinois, Manuel Gomez, Richard B. Brugam Ph.D., Sharon Locke

SIUE Faculty Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity

A study of the Upper Pond at the Edwardsville Watershed Nature Center (WNC) was conducted to discover the potential cause of fish kills in the small stormwater retention pond and to determine how the current populations of bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus), common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) can survive in the pond based on prevailing environmental conditions. Dissolved oxygen (DO) was measured from June 19 to December 5, 2019 at a site in the center of the open lake (4 m deep) and from a dock near the shore (1.1 m deep). Water ...


Impulse Vaccination Model For The Control Of Devil Facial Tumor Disease, Zachary Bobbitt, Timothy Comar, Megan O. Powell, Catherine Roberts, Nicholas Schneider, Teagen Smith 2021 University of North Carolina Asheville

Impulse Vaccination Model For The Control Of Devil Facial Tumor Disease, Zachary Bobbitt, Timothy Comar, Megan O. Powell, Catherine Roberts, Nicholas Schneider, Teagen Smith

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

Devil facial tumor disease (DFTD) is a cancer that affects Tasmanian devils and that has caused the devil population to grossly decline since 1996. We present an SEIVR model to explore if recent advances in DFTD vaccines can help the wild population recover. Considering both and bi-annual impulse of vaccinating wild devils through food drops and introducing vaccinated captive-bred devils into the population, we explore the vaccine efficacy, percent of healthy devils receiving the vaccine, and years of campaign necessary for the devil population to have a long-term recovery. Based on our initial parameter estimations, we find a stable population ...


Recovery From Discrete Wound Severities In Side-Blotched Lizards (Uta Stansburiana): Implications For Energy Budget, Locomotor Performance, And Oxidative Stress, Susannah S. French, Spencer B. Hudson 2021 Utah State University

Recovery From Discrete Wound Severities In Side-Blotched Lizards (Uta Stansburiana): Implications For Energy Budget, Locomotor Performance, And Oxidative Stress, Susannah S. French, Spencer B. Hudson

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Wounding events (predation attempts, competitive combat) result in injuries and/or infections that induce integrated immune responses for the recovery process. Despite the survival benefits of immunity in this context, the costs incurred may require investment to be diverted from traits contributing to immediate and/or future survival, such as locomotor performance and oxidative status. Yet, whether trait constraints manifest likely depends on wound severity and the implications for energy budget. For this study, food intake, body mass, sprint speed, and oxidative indices (reactive oxygen metabolites, antioxidant capacity) were monitored in male side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) healing from cutaneous wounds ...


Increasing Effects Of Chronic Nutrient Enrichment On Plant Diversity Loss And Ecosystem Productivity Over Time, Eric W. Seabloom, Lori Biederman, Philip A. Fay, et al. 2021 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

Increasing Effects Of Chronic Nutrient Enrichment On Plant Diversity Loss And Ecosystem Productivity Over Time, Eric W. Seabloom, Lori Biederman, Philip A. Fay, Et Al.

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Human activities are enriching many of Earth’s ecosystems with biologically limiting mineral nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). In grasslands, this enrichment generally reduces plant diversity and increases productivity. The widely demonstrated positive effect of diversity on productivity suggests a potential negative feedback, whereby nutrient‐induced declines in diversity reduce the initial gains in productivity arising from nutrient enrichment. In addition, plant productivity and diversity can be inhibited by accumulations of dead biomass, which may be altered by nutrient enrichment. Over longer time frames, nutrient addition may increase soil fertility by increasing soil organic matter and nutrient ...


Molecular Characterization Of A Marine Turtle Tumor Epizootic, Profiling External, Internal And Postsurgical Regrowth Tumors, Kelsey Yetsko, Jessica A. Farrell, Nicholas B. Blackburn, Liam Whitmore, Maximilian R. Stammnitz, Jenny Whilde, Catherine B. Eastman, Devon Rollinson Ramia, Ana C. Leandro 2021 The University of Texas Rio Grande Valley

Molecular Characterization Of A Marine Turtle Tumor Epizootic, Profiling External, Internal And Postsurgical Regrowth Tumors, Kelsey Yetsko, Jessica A. Farrell, Nicholas B. Blackburn, Liam Whitmore, Maximilian R. Stammnitz, Jenny Whilde, Catherine B. Eastman, Devon Rollinson Ramia, Ana C. Leandro

School of Medicine Publications and Presentations

Sea turtle populations are under threat from an epizootic tumor disease (animal epidemic) known as fibropapillomatosis. Fibropapillomatosis continues to spread geographically, with prevalence of the disease also growing at many longer-affected sites globally. However, we do not yet understand the precise environmental, mutational and viral events driving fibropapillomatosis tumor formation and progression.

Here we perform transcriptomic and immunohistochemical profiling of five fibropapillomatosis tumor types: external new, established and postsurgical regrowth tumors, and internal lung and kidney tumors. We reveal that internal tumors are molecularly distinct from the more common external tumors. However, they have a small number of conserved potentially ...


Otolith Microchemistry Reveals Low Habitat Connectivity Of California Killifish (Fundulus Parvipinnis) Across A Range Of Spatial Scales, Lisa Robison 2021 University of San Diego

Otolith Microchemistry Reveals Low Habitat Connectivity Of California Killifish (Fundulus Parvipinnis) Across A Range Of Spatial Scales, Lisa Robison

Theses

As wetlands face continued fragmentation worldwide, an understanding of habitat connectivity and how fishes that rely on these environments is imperative to conduct effective marine management. Site fidelity and habitat connectivity are vital measures of the interdependence of fish populations living in neighboring marshes (or in regions of a single marsh).

Here, we examine the habitat connectivity, site fidelity, and movement of California killifish (Fundulus parvipinnis) within and among three estuaries in Southern California through otolith microelemental analysis. Assessing the site fidelity of estuarine fishes is important to determine the level of connectivity between spatially distinct populations within a bay ...


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