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The Interaction Of Phylogeny And Community Structure: Linking The Community Composition And Trait Evolution Of Clades, William D. Pearse, Pierre Legendre, Pedro R. Peres-Neto, T. Jonathan Davies 2019 Utah State University

The Interaction Of Phylogeny And Community Structure: Linking The Community Composition And Trait Evolution Of Clades, William D. Pearse, Pierre Legendre, Pedro R. Peres-Neto, T. Jonathan Davies

Ecology Center Publications

Aim

Community phylogenetic studies use information about the evolutionary relationships of species to understand the ecological processes of community assembly. A central premise of the field is that the evolution of species maps onto ecological patterns, and phylogeny reveals something more than species traits alone about the ecological mechanisms structuring communities, such as environmental filtering, competition, and facilitation. We argue, therefore, that there is a need for better understanding and modelling of the interaction of phylogeny with species traits and community composition.

Innovation

We outline a new approach that identifies clades that are ecophylogenetically clustered or overdispersed and assesses whether ...


Species-Area Model Predicting Diversity Loss In An Artificially Flooded Cave In Brazil, Rodrigo L. Ferreira, Thais G. Pellegrini 2019 Universidade Federal de Lavras

Species-Area Model Predicting Diversity Loss In An Artificially Flooded Cave In Brazil, Rodrigo L. Ferreira, Thais G. Pellegrini

International Journal of Speleology

Subterranean environments are poorly known regarding many ecological aspects, such as community structure and its response to different disturbances. To estimate the effects of ground area lost in a limestone cave community in Southeastern Brazil, the invertebrate fauna was sampled before 76% of the cave floor was submerged by the filling of a hydroeletric power plant reservoir. Then, a 2-year monitoring was conducted. A species-area curve based on empiric data was constructed and the z-value of the species-area equation was calculated, what allowed estimating the expected cave richness after flooding comparing with data obtained during the monitoring. The results support ...


The Fruitless Gene Influences Female Mate Preference In Drosophila, Tabashir A. Chowdhury 2019 The University of Western Ontario

The Fruitless Gene Influences Female Mate Preference In Drosophila, Tabashir A. Chowdhury

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Species can arise as a result of reproductive barriers that prevent gene flow between diverging populations that force them to remain isolated from one another. Behavioural isolation is one of the earliest acting reproductive barriers determined by the evolution of mating preferences that prevent inter-specific matings. Several traits have been identified that contribute to behavioural isolation, but the genetic basis of interspecific female preference is yet to be determined. I used genetic mapping techniques to identify and confirm that the fruitless gene is affecting species-specific female rejection of interspecies males, contributing to the behavioural isolation between Drosophila melanogaster and D ...


Analyzing Avian Incubation With A Computer Algorithm, Tanya T. Shoot 2019 The University of Western Ontario

Analyzing Avian Incubation With A Computer Algorithm, Tanya T. Shoot

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A stable nest environment is necessary for incubation and development of offspring. Birds vary behaviour to regulate temperature for successful hatchlings. I used a hidden Markov model (HMM) to test how environmental conditions affect incubation behaviour. I examined nest temperatures and behaviours collected from Zebra finches that incubated at 30 °C or 14 °C, then incubated in the same or opposite condition for a second clutch. Data loggers and cameras recorded nest temperature and number of parents on nest. The HMM inferred behaviour from recorded behaviours and temperatures. Temperature and offspring success affected incubation duration. Birds that had successful offspring ...


Factors Affecting Nest Success Of Colonial Nesting Waterbirds In Southwest Louisiana, Karis A. Ritenour 2019 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Factors Affecting Nest Success Of Colonial Nesting Waterbirds In Southwest Louisiana, Karis A. Ritenour

LSU Master's Theses

As the coastline of Louisiana shifts with global climate change, subsidence, and accelerated sea level rise, important breeding islands for colonial nesting waterbirds are disappearing. In many recent studies flooding has been a leading cause of nest failure for a variety of species, especially those that nest on the ground. I examined the nest success of four species of colonial nesting waterbirds with various nesting strategies on Rabbit Island in southwestern Louisiana during 2017 and2018 by determining nest and fledging success. I monitored 855 nests, including 457 Brown Pelicans nests with an estimated hatch probability of 70%, 270 Forster’s ...


The Ecology And Evolution Of The Freshwater Turtles Of Southern Mississippi, Gabrielle Berry 2019 The University of Southern Mississippi

The Ecology And Evolution Of The Freshwater Turtles Of Southern Mississippi, Gabrielle Berry

Master's Theses

Turtles are one of the most threatened group of animals in existence today. The Southeastern United States is one of two global biodiversity hotspots for turtle species, including the state of Mississippi, where over 30 species can be found. However, very few studies have occurred within the state. This lack of research is even more startling given the ongoing decline, or even extirpation, of numerous turtle species across the world, due to a number of factors, including habitat degradation, and harvest for food or the pet trade.

The overarching goal of this project was to perform a species inclusive freshwater ...


Pollinator Visitation Frequency Associated With Native And Non-Native Plants In A Mid-Atlantic Piedmont (Usa) Urban Garden, Nicholas J. Ruppel, Saunders M. Riley, Ellis D. Mumford, Barbara L. Swedo 2019 Randolph-Macon College

Pollinator Visitation Frequency Associated With Native And Non-Native Plants In A Mid-Atlantic Piedmont (Usa) Urban Garden, Nicholas J. Ruppel, Saunders M. Riley, Ellis D. Mumford, Barbara L. Swedo

Virginia Journal of Science

The recent focus on the importance of native plants and their pollinators has highlighted the critical role of local species in their natural environment. As urban encroachment, climate change, and invasive species continues to threaten native habitats, it is increasingly important to promote the use of local green spaces as refugia for native plants and their pollinators. The aim of this project, therefore, was to identify and assess the visitation frequency of insect pollinators associated with an urban setting within the Piedmont region of Virginia, and compare their association with native versus closely-related but non-native summer-flowering plants. Several modes of ...


Tourism And African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Behavior In Zambezi National Park, Zimbabwe, Brigit Rooney 2019 Western Kentucky University

Tourism And African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Behavior In Zambezi National Park, Zimbabwe, Brigit Rooney

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

As charismatic megafauna and a flagship species, African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are vital to the African tourist economy. Conversely, high levels of wildlife tourism can induce behavioral shifts that push desired animals into less frequented areas and disrupt natural behaviors. In order to examine this trade-off, tourism levels and African elephant behaviors were studied in Zambezi National Park (ZNP) near Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe. Over the course of 14 weeks, in-person observations and camera traps in ZNP were used to collect geographic, demographic, and behavioral data from elephant sightings. As a proxy for human presence, geo-locational data were collected for each ...


Documenting Marine Mammal Behavior And Evaluating The Benefits And Consequences Of Viewing Marine Mammals In Southcentral Alaska, Lauren E. McCaslin 2019 Western Kentucky University

Documenting Marine Mammal Behavior And Evaluating The Benefits And Consequences Of Viewing Marine Mammals In Southcentral Alaska, Lauren E. Mccaslin

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Marine mammals are in a precarious conservation position because of anthropogenic impacts and historic perceptions that they are a consumable commodity. In light of changing abiotic conditions, further evaluation is needed on the habitat use, behavior, and interactions among marine mammals. Conservation legislation has helped protect species, but the greatest ground swelling may be the advent of the commercial whale watching industry. The feeding grounds in Alaskan waters have made this area a prime tourism location, and these nutrient-rich waters have resulted in a confluence of marine mammal species, including the appealing and abundant humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) that may ...


Effect Of Sleep Loss On Executive Function And Baseline Corticosterone Levels In An Arctic-Breeding Songbird, The Lapland Longspur (Calcarius Lapponicus), Brett Hodinka 2019 Western Kentucky University

Effect Of Sleep Loss On Executive Function And Baseline Corticosterone Levels In An Arctic-Breeding Songbird, The Lapland Longspur (Calcarius Lapponicus), Brett Hodinka

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Sleep is a fundamental and essential component of vertebrate life, although its exact function remains unknown. Animals that are deprived of sleep typically show reduced neurobiological performance, health, and in some cases, survival. However, a number of animals exhibit adaptations that permit them to carry out normal activities even when sleep is restricted or deprived. Lapland longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus), arctic-breeding passerine birds, exhibit around-the-clock activity during their short breeding season, with an inactive period of only 3–4 h/day (71°N). Whether these birds suffer behavioral and physiological costs associated with acute sleep loss (SL) is unknown. To assess ...


Short Term Shifts In Soil Nematode Food Feb Structure And Nutrient Cycling Following Sustainable Soil Management In A California Vineyard, Holly M. Deniston-sheets 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Short Term Shifts In Soil Nematode Food Feb Structure And Nutrient Cycling Following Sustainable Soil Management In A California Vineyard, Holly M. Deniston-Sheets

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Evaluating soil health using bioindicator organisms has been suggested as a method of analyzing the long-term sustainability of agricultural management practices. The main objective of this study was to determine the effects of vineyard management strategies on soil food web structure and function, using nematodes as bioindicators by calculating established nematode ecological indices. Three field trials were conducted in a commercial Pinot Noir vineyard in San Luis Obispo, California; the effects of (i) fertilizer type (organic and inorganic), (ii) weed management (herbicide and tillage), and (iii) cover crops (high or low water requirements) on nematode community structure, soil nutrient content ...


Beyond The Black Box: Promoting Mathematical Collaborations For Elucidating Interactions In Soil Ecology, Alison E. Bennett, Lori Biederman, Matthew Warren, et al. 2019 The Ohio State University

Beyond The Black Box: Promoting Mathematical Collaborations For Elucidating Interactions In Soil Ecology, Alison E. Bennett, Lori Biederman, Matthew Warren, Et Al.

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Understanding soil systems is critical because they form the structural and nutritional foundation for plants and thus every terrestrial habitat and agricultural system. In this paper, we encourage increased use of mathematical models to drive forward understanding of interactions in soil ecological systems. We discuss several distinctive features of soil ecosystems and empirical studies of them. We explore some perceptions that have previously deterred more extensive use of models in soil ecology and some advances that have already been made using models to elucidate soil ecological interactions. We provide examples where mathematical models have been used to test the plausibility ...


Coral Reef Change Detection In Remote Pacific Islands Using Support Vector Machine Classifiers, Justin J. Gapper, Hesham el-Askary, Erik Linstead, Thomas Piechota 2019 Chapman University

Coral Reef Change Detection In Remote Pacific Islands Using Support Vector Machine Classifiers, Justin J. Gapper, Hesham El-Askary, Erik Linstead, Thomas Piechota

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Despite the abundance of research on coral reef change detection, few studies have been conducted to assess the spatial generalization principles of a live coral cover classifier trained using remote sensing data from multiple locations. The aim of this study is to develop a machine learning classifier for coral dominated benthic cover-type class (CDBCTC) based on ground truth observations and Landsat images, evaluate the performance of this classifier when tested against new data, then deploy the classifier to perform CDBCTC change analysis of multiple locations. The proposed framework includes image calibration, support vector machine (SVM) training and tuning, statistical assessment ...


Arts Of Living On A Damaged Planet: Ghosts And Monsters Of The Anthropocene By Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing, Heather Anne Swanson, Elaine Gan, And Nils Bubandt, Randy Lee Cutler 2019 Emily Carr Institute of Art & Design

Arts Of Living On A Damaged Planet: Ghosts And Monsters Of The Anthropocene By Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing, Heather Anne Swanson, Elaine Gan, And Nils Bubandt, Randy Lee Cutler

The Goose

Review of Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing, Heather Anne Swanson, Elaine Gan, and Nils Bubandt's Arts of Living on a Damaged Planet: Ghosts and Monsters of the Anthropocene.


Eocene Terrestrial Mammals From Central Georgia, Parker D. Rhinehart, Alfred J. Mead, Dennis Parmley 2019 Georgia College and State University

Eocene Terrestrial Mammals From Central Georgia, Parker D. Rhinehart, Alfred J. Mead, Dennis Parmley

Georgia Journal of Science

Descriptions of fossils of Eocene terrestrial mammals from the southeastern United States are rare, and particularly so in the Eocene sediments of Georgia. Here we describe a small collection of fossilized teeth and tooth fragments representing four mammalian taxa. The fossils were recovered by surface collecting overburden sediments and screen washing in situ Clinchfield Formation sediments exposed in an inactive kaolin mine, Hardie Mine, in Wilkinson County, Georgia. The Clinchfield Formation has been described as a Late Eocene coastal unit with abundant gastropods, bivalves, sharks, and rays. This is the first detailed description of terrestrial mammals from this unit. Although ...


Sex-Specific Personalities In The Purple Marsh Crab, Jillian Sterman, Jessica Barton, Panagiota Delmedico, Samantha Sweeney 2019 DePaul University

Sex-Specific Personalities In The Purple Marsh Crab, Jillian Sterman, Jessica Barton, Panagiota Delmedico, Samantha Sweeney

DePaul Discoveries

Animals are considered to possess personalities when individuals differ in behavior, and these differences are consistent between situations. Several studies have identified personalities in diverse groups but less is known about personality variation between the sexes. In this study, we examined variation in two key personality traits (boldness, activity) in female and male purple marsh crabs (Sesarma reticulatum) using a semi-field approach. Specifically, we measured boldness and activity on two consecutive days using the same behavioral assays during each time point. Consistency (personality) was determined using Kendall’s coefficient of concordance based on Spearman correlation coefficients for each behavior. The ...


Effects Of Reduced Ph On Health Biomarkers Of The Seagrass Cymodocea Nodosa, Regan A. McEnaney 2019 DePaul University

Effects Of Reduced Ph On Health Biomarkers Of The Seagrass Cymodocea Nodosa, Regan A. Mcenaney

DePaul Discoveries

Ocean acidification is a growing problem that may affect many marine organisms in the future. Within 100 years the pH of the ocean is predicted to decrease to 7.8, from the current ocean pH of around 8.1. Using phenolic acid levels as a stress indicator as well as respiration and chlorophyll content as a measure of health, the effect of lowering pH was tested on the seagrass, Cymodocea nodosa, in a controlled environment. Plant samples, water, and soil were taken from the Bay of Cádiz, Spain, and placed in aquaria in a temperature-controlled room. One control group was ...


Relating Spatial Patterns Of Stream Metabolism To Distributions Of Juveniles Salmonids At The River Network Scale, Matthew J. Kaylor, Seth M. White, W. Carl Saunders, Dana R. Warren 2019 Oregon State University

Relating Spatial Patterns Of Stream Metabolism To Distributions Of Juveniles Salmonids At The River Network Scale, Matthew J. Kaylor, Seth M. White, W. Carl Saunders, Dana R. Warren

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Understanding the factors that drive spatial patterns in stream ecosystem processes and the distribution of aquatic biota is important to effective management of these systems and the conservation of biota at the network scale. In this study, we conducted field surveys throughout an extensive river network in NE Oregon that supports diminishing populations of wild salmonids. We collected data on physical habitat, nutrient concentrations, biofilm standing stocks, stream metabolism (gross primary production [GPP] and ecosystem respiration [ER]), and ESA‐listed juvenile salmonid density from approximately 50 sites across two sub‐basins. Our goals were to (1) to evaluate network patterns ...


Adaptive Evolution Targets A Pirna Precursor Transcription Network, Swapnil S. Parhad, Tianxiong Yu, Gen Zhang, Nicholas P. Rice, Zhiping Weng, William E. Theurkauf 2019 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Adaptive Evolution Targets A Pirna Precursor Transcription Network, Swapnil S. Parhad, Tianxiong Yu, Gen Zhang, Nicholas P. Rice, Zhiping Weng, William E. Theurkauf

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

In Drosophila, transposon-silencing piRNAs are derived from heterochromatic clusters and a subset of euchromatic transposon insertions, which are transcribed from internal non-canonical initiation sites and flanking canonical promoters. Rhino binds to Deadlock, which recruits TRF2 to promote non-canonical transcription of these loci. Cuff co-localizes with Rhino and Del. The role of Cuff is less well understood, but the cuff gene shows hallmarks of adaptive evolution, which frequently targets functional interactions within host defense systems. We show that Drosophila simulans cuff is a dominant negative allele when expressed in Drosophila melanogaster, where it traps Deadlock, TRF2 and the transcriptional co-repressor CtBP ...


Automated Bioacoustics: Methods In Ecology And Conservation And Their Potential For Animal Welfare Monitoring, Michael P. McLoughlin, Rebecca Stewart, Alan G. McElligott 2019 Queen Mary University of London

Automated Bioacoustics: Methods In Ecology And Conservation And Their Potential For Animal Welfare Monitoring, Michael P. Mcloughlin, Rebecca Stewart, Alan G. Mcelligott

Conservation Biology and Animal Welfare Collection

Vocalizations carry emotional, physiological and individual information. This suggests that they may serve as potentially useful indicators for inferring animal welfare. At the same time, automated methods for analysing and classifying sound have developed rapidly, particularly in the fields of ecology, conservation and sound scene classification. These methods are already used to automatically classify animal vocalizations, for example, in identifying animal species and estimating numbers of individuals. Despite this potential, they have not yet found widespread application in animal welfare monitoring. In this review, we first discuss current trends in sound analysis for ecology, conservation and sound classification. Following this ...


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