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Articles 1 - 30 of 11649

Full-Text Articles in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

The Contribution Of Local And Transport Processes To Phytoplankton Biomass Variability Over Different Timescales In The Upper James River, Virginia, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen Sep 2018

The Contribution Of Local And Transport Processes To Phytoplankton Biomass Variability Over Different Timescales In The Upper James River, Virginia, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen

Articles

Although both local processes (photosynthesis, respiration, grazing, and settling), and transport processes (advective transport and diffusive transport) significantly affect local phytoplankton dynamics, it is difficult to separate their contributions and to investigate the relative importance of each process to the local variability of phytoplankton biomass over different timescales. A method of using the transport rate is introduced to quantify the contribution of transport processes. By combining the time-varying transport rate and high-frequency observed chlorophyll a data, we can explicitly examine the impact of local and transport processes on phytoplankton biomass over a range of timescales from hourly to annually. For ...


Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham Macwilliams Jan 2018

Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham Macwilliams

Pomona Senior Theses

Methane hydrates are frozen deposits of methane and water found in high pressure or low temperature sediments. When these deposits destabilize, large quantities of methane can be emitted into the atmosphere. This is significant to climate change because methane has 25 times more greenhouse gas potential than Carbon Dioxide. Worldwide, it is estimated there are between 2500 and 10000 gigatons of methane stored in hydrate deposits. This represents more carbon than all fossil fuels on Earth. It is estimated that between 200 and 2000 gigatons of methane are stored in hydrates in Arctic waters acutely vulnerable to greenhouse warming. Over ...


Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter Dec 2017

Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Climate change and habitat loss are projected to be the two greatest drivers of biodiversity loss over the coming century. While public lands have the potential to increase regional resilience of bird populations to these threats, long-term data are necessary to document species responses to changes in climate and habitat to better understand population vulnerabilities. We used generalized linear mixed models to determine the importance of stand-level characteristics, multi-scale land cover, and annual weather factors to the abundance of 61 bird species over a 20-year time frame in Chippewa National Forest, Minnesota, USA. Of the 61 species modeled, we were ...


, Bonnie Becker, Michael Behrens Nov 2017

, Bonnie Becker, Michael Behrens

Bonnie Becker

Native Olympia oysters have been the subject of widespread restoration efforts across the west coast, including in the Salish Sea. The ultimate goal of restoration is to establish populations that are self-sustaining or even exporting new offspring to other appropriate habitats. It is difficult to study the early life history of marine invertebrates, which have a microscopic and planktonic larval form and often episodic settlement pulses. However, being able to predict larval behaviors and settlement preferences can allow practitioners to design habitats, choose sites, and distribute restoration networks more effectively. The purpose of this study, a collaboration among academic and ...


Book Review Of Serendipity: An Ecologist’S Quest To Understand Nature, E. E. Ball, D. M. Adams, J. N. Dupuie Jr., M. M. Jones, P. G. Mcgovern, R. M. Ruden, S. R. Schmidt, G. J. Vaziri, J. S. Eeling, B. D. Kirk, A. L. Mccombs, A. B. Rabinowitz, K. M. Thompson, Z. J. Hudson, Robert W. Klaver Nov 2017

Book Review Of Serendipity: An Ecologist’S Quest To Understand Nature, E. E. Ball, D. M. Adams, J. N. Dupuie Jr., M. M. Jones, P. G. Mcgovern, R. M. Ruden, S. R. Schmidt, G. J. Vaziri, J. S. Eeling, B. D. Kirk, A. L. Mccombs, A. B. Rabinowitz, K. M. Thompson, Z. J. Hudson, Robert W. Klaver

Robert Klaver

A common thought among graduate students is: “how do established scientists get where they are today?” In Serendipity: An Ecologist’s Quest to Understand Nature, James Estes offers a personal reflection on research experiences spanning his 50-year career, beginning as a Ph.D. student in 1970 and concluding with recognition as a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 2014. Estes chronologically outlines the foundational trophic cascade ecology research that he and colleagues conducted in the Aleutian Islands, examining key relationships among kelp forests, sea otters, sea urchins, and killer whales through anecdotal stories of achievement and challenge. Estes ...


Response Of Anurans To Wetland Restoration On A Midwestern Agricultural Landscape, Paul E. Bartelt, Robert W. Klaver Nov 2017

Response Of Anurans To Wetland Restoration On A Midwestern Agricultural Landscape, Paul E. Bartelt, Robert W. Klaver

Robert Klaver

Since the early 1990s, >5,000 ha of historic wetlands (and adjacent prairie) have been restored on the row-crop agricultural landscape of Winnebago County, Iowa, USA. From 2008–2011, we surveyed 22 of these sites for probabilities of occupancy and colonization by Boreal Chorus Frogs (BCF; Pseudacris maculata), Northern Leopard Frogs (NLF; Lithobates pipiens), and American Toads (AT; Anaxyrus americanus). We used radio telemetry to measure patterns of movement and habitat use by 22 NLF and 54 AT and deployed biophysical models in available habitats to estimate their physiological costs. The BCF occupied 100% of restored wetlands; NLF and AT ...


Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter Nov 2017

Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter

Peter Wolter

Climate change and habitat loss are projected to be the two greatest drivers of biodiversity loss over the coming century. While public lands have the potential to increase regional resilience of bird populations to these threats, long-term data are necessary to document species responses to changes in climate and habitat to better understand population vulnerabilities. We used generalized linear mixed models to determine the importance of stand-level characteristics, multi-scale land cover, and annual weather factors to the abundance of 61 bird species over a 20-year time frame in Chippewa National Forest, Minnesota, USA. Of the 61 species modeled, we were ...


The Use Of Judgement Bias To Assess Welfare In Farm Livestock, L. Baciadonna, A. G. Mcelligott Nov 2017

The Use Of Judgement Bias To Assess Welfare In Farm Livestock, L. Baciadonna, A. G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

The development of accurate measures of animal emotions is important for improving and promoting animal welfare. Cognitive bias indicates the effect of emotional states on cognitive processes, such as memory, attention, and judgement. Cognitive bias tests complement existing behavioural and physiological measures for assessing the valence of animal emotions indirectly. The judgement bias test has been used to assess emotional states in non-human animals; mainly in laboratory settings. The aim of this review is to summarise the findings on the use of the judgement bias test approach in assessing emotions in non-human animals, focusing in particular on farm livestock. The ...


Linking Taxonomic Diversity And Trophic Function: A Graph-Based Theoretical Approach, Marcella M. Jurotich, Kaitlyn Dougherty, Barbara Hayford, Sally Clark Nov 2017

Linking Taxonomic Diversity And Trophic Function: A Graph-Based Theoretical Approach, Marcella M. Jurotich, Kaitlyn Dougherty, Barbara Hayford, Sally Clark

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

The purpose of this study is to develop a novel, visual method in analyzing complex functional trait data in freshwater ecology. We focus on macroinvertebrates in stream ecosystems under a gradient of habitat degradation and employ a combination of taxonomic and functional trait diversity analyses. Then we use graph theory to link changes in functional trait diversity to taxonomic richness and habitat degradation. We test the hypotheses that: 1) taxonomic diversity and trophic functional trait diversity both decrease with increased habitat degradation; 2) loss of taxa leads to a decrease in trophic function as visualized using a bipartite graph; and ...


Fallow Deer Polyandry Is Related To Fertilization Insurance, Elodie Briefer, Mary E. Farrell, Thomas J. Hayden, Alan G. Mcelligott Nov 2017

Fallow Deer Polyandry Is Related To Fertilization Insurance, Elodie Briefer, Mary E. Farrell, Thomas J. Hayden, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Polyandry is widespread, but its adaptive significance is not fully understood. The hypotheses used to explain its persistence have rarely been tested in the wild and particularly for large, long-lived mammals. We investigated polyandry in fallow deer, using female mating and reproduction data gathered over 10 years. Females of this species produce a single offspring (monotocous) and can live to 23 years old. Overall, polyandry was evident in 12 % of females and the long-term, consistent proportion of polyandrous females observed, suggests that monandry and polyandry represent alternative mating strategies. Females were more likely to be polyandrous when their first mate ...


Assortative Mating In Fallow Deer Reduces The Strength Of Sexual Selection, Mary E. Farrell, Elodie Briefer, Alan G. Mcelligott Nov 2017

Assortative Mating In Fallow Deer Reduces The Strength Of Sexual Selection, Mary E. Farrell, Elodie Briefer, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Background: Assortative mating can help explain how genetic variation for male quality is maintained even in highly polygynous species. Here, we present a longitudinal study examining how female and male ages, as well as male social dominance, affect assortative mating in fallow deer (Dama dama) over 10 years. Assortative mating could help explain the substantial proportion of females that do not mate with prime-aged, high ranking males, despite very high mating skew. We investigated the temporal pattern of female and male matings, and the relationship between female age and the age and dominance of their mates. Results: The peak of ...


Goats Favour Personal Over Social Information In An Experimental Foraging Task, Luigi Baciadonna, Alan G. Mcelligott, Elodie F. Briefer Nov 2017

Goats Favour Personal Over Social Information In An Experimental Foraging Task, Luigi Baciadonna, Alan G. Mcelligott, Elodie F. Briefer

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Animals can use their environments more efficiently by selecting particular sources of information (personal or social), according to specific situations. Group-living animals may benefit from gaining information based on the behaviour of other individuals. Indeed, social information is assumed to be faster and less costly to use than personal information, thus increasing foraging efficiency. However, when food sources change seasonally or are randomly distributed, individual information may become more reliable than social information. The aim of this study was to test the use of conflicting personal versus social information in goats (Capra hircus), in a foraging task.We found that ...


The Effects Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (Am) Fungal And Garlic Mustard Introductions On Native Am Fungal Diversity, Alexander M. Koch, Pedro M. Antunes, Kathryn Barto, Don Cipollini, Daniel L. Mummey, John N. Klironomos Nov 2017

The Effects Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (Am) Fungal And Garlic Mustard Introductions On Native Am Fungal Diversity, Alexander M. Koch, Pedro M. Antunes, Kathryn Barto, Don Cipollini, Daniel L. Mummey, John N. Klironomos

Don Cipollini

Introduced, non-native organisms are of global concern, because biological invasions can negatively affect local communities. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities have not been well studied in this context. AM fungi are abundant in most soils, forming symbiotic root-associations with many plant species. Commercial AM fungal inocula are increasingly spread worldwide, because of potentially beneficial effects on plant growth. In contrast, some invasive plant species, such as the non-mycorrhizal Alliaria petiolata, can negatively influence AM fungi. In a greenhouse study we examined changes in the structure of a local Canadian AM fungal community in response to inoculation by foreign AM fungi ...


The Sign And Strength Of Plant-Soil Feedback For The Invasive Shrub, Lonicera Maackii, Varies In Different Soils, Kelly Schradin, Don Cipollini Nov 2017

The Sign And Strength Of Plant-Soil Feedback For The Invasive Shrub, Lonicera Maackii, Varies In Different Soils, Kelly Schradin, Don Cipollini

Don Cipollini

Plants alter soil characteristics causing changes in their subsequent growth resulting in positive or negative feedback on both their own fitness and that of other plants. In a greenhouse study, we investigated whether the sign and strength of feedback changed across two distinct soil types, and whether effects were due to shifts in biotic or abiotic soil traits. Using soils from two different locations, we examined growth of the exotic invasive shrub, Lonicera maackii and the related native shrub, Diervilla lonicera, in unconditioned soils and in soils conditioned by previous growth of L. maackii, D. lonicera, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica. In ...


Evidence For Use Of Alliaria Petiolata In North America By The European Cabbage White Butterfly, Pieris Rapae, Sam L. Davis, Don Cipollini Nov 2017

Evidence For Use Of Alliaria Petiolata In North America By The European Cabbage White Butterfly, Pieris Rapae, Sam L. Davis, Don Cipollini

Don Cipollini

Pieris rapae L., an invasive crop pest, may have recently begun using Alliaria petiolata Bieb. (Cavara & Grande), a European invasive biennial. We investigated how P. rapae uses forest habitats for nectar and oviposition and examined larval performance on A. petiolata in the field and laboratory. Being known primarily to occupy open habitats, we found that P. rapae regularly uses forest edge habitats, most surveyed A. petiolata plants had P. rapae damage, and P. rapae successfully used both stages of A. petiolata for larval development.


Potential Benefits Of Wetland Filters For Tile Drainage Systems: Impact On Nitrate Loads To Mississippi River Subbasins, William G. Crumpton, Greg A. Stenback, Bradley Allen Miller, Matt Helmers Nov 2017

Potential Benefits Of Wetland Filters For Tile Drainage Systems: Impact On Nitrate Loads To Mississippi River Subbasins, William G. Crumpton, Greg A. Stenback, Bradley Allen Miller, Matt Helmers

Matthew J. Helmers

The primary objective of this project was to estimate the nitrate reduction that could be achieved using restored wetlands as nitrogen sinks in tile-drained regions of the upper Mississippi River (UMR) and Ohio River basins. This report provides an assessment of nitrate concentrations and loads across the UMR and Ohio River basins and the mass reduction of nitrate loading that could be achieved using wetlands to intercept nonpoint source nitrate loads. Nitrate concentration and stream discharge data were used to calculate stream nitrate loading and annual flow-weighted average (FWA) nitrate concentrations and to develop a model of FWA nitrate concentration ...


From Vulnerability To Resiliency: Iowa Agriculture In The Age Of Biorenewables, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., Matthew J. Helmers, Matthew Z. Liebman, Lisa A. Schulte Nov 2017

From Vulnerability To Resiliency: Iowa Agriculture In The Age Of Biorenewables, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., Matthew J. Helmers, Matthew Z. Liebman, Lisa A. Schulte

Matthew J. Helmers

The purpose of this white paper is to provide an overview of the most critical sources of agricultural vulnerability and to outline strategies for increasing the resiliency of Iowa agriculture. This paper delineates pathways toward that goal and provides a basis for community discussions about how we can work together to improve agriculture’s environmental, economic, and social resilience and sustainability.


Urban Bobcat (Lynx Rufus) Ecology In The Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas Metroplex, Julie M. Golla Nov 2017

Urban Bobcat (Lynx Rufus) Ecology In The Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas Metroplex, Julie M. Golla

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Urban landscapes are quickly replacing native habitat around the world. As wildlife and people increasingly overlap in their shared space and resources, so does the potential for human-wildlife conflict, especially with predators. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) are a top predator in several urban areas across the United States and a potential contributor to human-carnivore conflicts. This study evaluated the movements and habitat use of bobcats in the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW), Texas metroplex. Spatial data were collected from 10 bobcats via Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) for approximately one year. Average home range size was 4.60 km2 (n=9, SE=0 ...


Direct Effects Of Warming Increase Woody Plant Abundance In A Subarctic Wetland, Lindsay G. Carlson Nov 2017

Direct Effects Of Warming Increase Woody Plant Abundance In A Subarctic Wetland, Lindsay G. Carlson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Climate change is expected to continue to cause large increases in temperature in Arctic and sub-Arctic ecosystems which has already resulted in changes to plant communities; for example, increased shrub biomass and range. It is important to understand how warmer temperatures could affect the plant community in a wetland system because this region provides crucial high-quality forage for migratory herbivores during the breeding season. One mechanism by which warming could cause change is directly, where warming influences the vital rates of a species; these effects may be either positive or negative. Warmer temperatures may also affect a species indirectly, by ...


Using Pentosidine And Hydroxyproline To Predict Age And Sex In An Avian Species, Brian S. Dorr, Randal S. Stahl, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Carol A. Furcolow Oct 2017

Using Pentosidine And Hydroxyproline To Predict Age And Sex In An Avian Species, Brian S. Dorr, Randal S. Stahl, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Carol A. Furcolow

Brian S Dorr

All living organisms are subject to senescence accompanied by progressive and irreversiblephysiological changes. The error damage and cross-linkingtheories suggest that cellsand tissues are damaged by an accumulation of cross-linkedproteins, slowing down bodilyprocesses and resulting in aging. A major category of these cross-linkedproteins arecompounds called advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We investigated the relationshipbetween accumulation of the AGE, pentosidine (Ps), and hydroxyproline (HYP)a post-translationallymodified amino acid, with age, sex, and breeding status (breeder/nonbreeder) from skin samples of known age (i.e., banded as fledglings), free-rangingDouble-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus, Lesson 1831). We developed multivariate models and evaluated the predictive capability ...


Catalinia, A New Scorpion Genus From Southern California, Usa And Northern Baja California, Mexico (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Michael E. Soleglad, Richard F. Ayrey, Matthew R. Graham, Victor Fet Oct 2017

Catalinia, A New Scorpion Genus From Southern California, Usa And Northern Baja California, Mexico (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Michael E. Soleglad, Richard F. Ayrey, Matthew R. Graham, Victor Fet

Euscorpius

Genus Catalinia, gen. nov. (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae) is described from southern California, USA and Baja California, Mexico. The genus is composed of four species formerly placed in Pseudouroctonus: Catalinia minima (Kraepelin, 1911), comb. nov. (type species), C. andreas (Gertsch et Soleglad, 1972), comb. nov., C. castanea (Gertsch et Soleglad, 1972), comb. nov., and C. thompsoni, comb. nov. (Gertsch et Soleglad, 1972). Major diagnostic characters of Catalinia include a carapace with a very weak anterior indentation, a very stout metasoma with little or no tapering from segment I to V, and a mating plug with two partial bases. Evidence is presented suggesting ...


Descripción De Una Nueva Especie Del Genero Tetraleurodes Cockerell (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Y Clave Para Las Especies De México, Oscar Ángel Sánchez-Flores, Vicente Emilio Carapia-Ruiz, Oswaldo García-Martínez, José Angel Villarreal-Quintanilla, Antonio Castillo-Gutiérrez Oct 2017

Descripción De Una Nueva Especie Del Genero Tetraleurodes Cockerell (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Y Clave Para Las Especies De México, Oscar Ángel Sánchez-Flores, Vicente Emilio Carapia-Ruiz, Oswaldo García-Martínez, José Angel Villarreal-Quintanilla, Antonio Castillo-Gutiérrez

Insecta Mundi

Se describe con medidas, dibujos e imágenes obtenidas con microscopio compuesto, una nueva especie de mosca blanca, Tetraleurodes dorsibandas Sánchez y Carapia sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) que se encontró alimentándose de Casimiroa edulis (Rutaceae) y Ehretia tinifolia (Boraginaceae) en Morelos y Oaxaca (México), respectivamente. La especie se diferencia de Tetraleurodes perileuca (Cockerell) por tener el raquis en forma de bandas, presentar estructuras en forma de mosaico irregular en la parte media de los segmentos abdominales y la presencia de setas cefálicas. Se proporciona una clave de las especies de México y se enlistan las especies del nuevo mundo.

A ...


New State Records For Nearctic False Click Beetles (Coleoptera: Eucnemidae), Robert L. Otto, Ken D. Karns Oct 2017

New State Records For Nearctic False Click Beetles (Coleoptera: Eucnemidae), Robert L. Otto, Ken D. Karns

Insecta Mundi

New state records for 49 species of Eucnemidae (Coleoptera) are reported throughout the United States and a single species is newly reported from Utah. Diagnostic remarks are offered for Xylophilus crassicornis Muona and distributional observations are discussed for Dirrhagofarsus lewisi. The importance of retaining by-catch from statewide, regional, and national surveys for future studies is also discussed.

Over the last five years, opportunities were presented on many occasions to identify more than 1500 Eucnemidae from four private collections and eight institutional collections. Most of the specimens recently studied and identifi ed came from the Carnegie Museum of Natural History as ...


A New Subspecies Of Eupatorus Gracillicornis Arrow, 1908 From Southern Vietnam (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae), Sergey Moskalenko Oct 2017

A New Subspecies Of Eupatorus Gracillicornis Arrow, 1908 From Southern Vietnam (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae), Sergey Moskalenko

Insecta Mundi

A new subspecies, Eupatorus gracillicornis prandii ssp. nov. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae), from Southern Vietnam, is described and illustrated.

Eupatorus gracillicornis was described by G. J. Arrow (1908), the holotype was collected in Dong Van in North Vietnam (Dechambre 1975). This species is also distributed in India (Assam), Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, China, Cambodia and Malaysia. Until recently, only one aberration and three subspecies had been described, in addition to the nominative subspecies. The aberration is E. gracillicornis ab. cinctus Endrödi (Endrödi 1985). The subspecies E. gracillicornis edai Hirasawa was described from the Dawna range, near the central border of Myanmar and ...


Nemonychidae And Anthribidae Of Wisconsin (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea), Julia Janicki, Daniel K. Young Oct 2017

Nemonychidae And Anthribidae Of Wisconsin (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea), Julia Janicki, Daniel K. Young

Insecta Mundi

A statewide survey of Wisconsin’s Nemonychidae and Anthribidae (Coleoptera: Curculionoidea) was conducted over one full (2012) and two partial (2011, 2013) fi eld seasons. Specimens were collected using a variety of techniques. Two species of the nemonychid genus Cimberis and 22 species of Anthribidae in 13 genera are now confi rmed. Generic and species-level keys for Wisconsin species are provided along with generic and species diagnoses. Species treatments also include a synonymy, a description, and information on natural history, phenology, distribution and collecting methods. Dorsal and lateral habitus images are also provided for most of the species.

(Download = low-res ...


Amphibians, Pesticides, And The Amphibian Chytrid Fungus In Restored Wetlands In Agricultural Landscapes, Rebecca A. Reeves, Clay L. Pierce, Mark W. Vandever, Erin Muths, Kelly L. Smalling Oct 2017

Amphibians, Pesticides, And The Amphibian Chytrid Fungus In Restored Wetlands In Agricultural Landscapes, Rebecca A. Reeves, Clay L. Pierce, Mark W. Vandever, Erin Muths, Kelly L. Smalling

Clay L. Pierce

Information on interactions between pesticide exposure and disease prevalence in amphibian populations is limited, especially from field data. Exposure to certain herbicides and insecticides has the potential to decrease the immune response in frogs, which can potentially lead to increased abundance of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) zoospores on individuals and in the wetlands. In contrast, exposure to certain fungicides can decrease Bd abundance on frog skin. We examined the relationships between the abundance of Bd on the skin of individual Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris maculata) and the concentrations of pesticides in the water and in frog tissue at six agriculturally dominated ...


Boone River Watershed Stream Fish And Habitat Monitoring, Ia, Nicholas T. Simpson, Clay L. Pierce, Kevin J. Roe, Michael J. Weber Oct 2017

Boone River Watershed Stream Fish And Habitat Monitoring, Ia, Nicholas T. Simpson, Clay L. Pierce, Kevin J. Roe, Michael J. Weber

Clay L. Pierce

Historically, Iowa’s landscape consisted of prairies, forests, and wetlands with meandering streams integrated throughout (Hewes 1950). The arrival and subsequent settlement of European immigrants began a long process of altering the landscape to help meet human needs. Cultivating row crops in Iowa became a popular and successful venture for many as the flat, fertile ground of the Midwestern United States provided a great opportunity for farmers (Easterlin 1976). Early Iowa farmers began to drain wetlands, cut down forests, remove prairies, and replace them with crop fields (Gallant et al. 2011). As the technology of farming practices improved and operations ...


Intra-Annual Variability Of Silver Carp Populations In The Des Moines River, Usa, Christopher J. Sullivan, Carlos A. Comacho, Michael J. Weber, Clay L. Pierce Oct 2017

Intra-Annual Variability Of Silver Carp Populations In The Des Moines River, Usa, Christopher J. Sullivan, Carlos A. Comacho, Michael J. Weber, Clay L. Pierce

Clay L. Pierce

Since their introduction in the 1970s, Silver Carp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix have spread throughout the Mississippi River basin. Management of any species relies on an accurate understanding of population characteristics and dynamics. However, Silver Carp seasonal sampling variation is unknown. Sampling during periods of peak catch rates would facilitate Silver Carp assessment and management, improving monitoring and removal techniques. The objective of this study was to evaluate adult Silver Carp seasonal sampling variation with boat electroshocking and trammel nets. Silver Carp were collected monthly (April–October) during 2014 and 2015 from four locations in the Des Moines River, Iowa. Trammel nets ...


Assessment Of Intra And Interregional Genetic Variation In The Eastern Red-Backed Salamander, Plethodon Cinereus, Via Analysis Of Novel Microsatellite Markers, Alexander C. Cameron Oct 2017

Assessment Of Intra And Interregional Genetic Variation In The Eastern Red-Backed Salamander, Plethodon Cinereus, Via Analysis Of Novel Microsatellite Markers, Alexander C. Cameron

Biology

The red-backed salamander (Plethodon cinereus) has long-served as a model system in ecology, evolution, and behavior, and studies surveying molecular variation in this species have become increasingly common over the past decade. However, difficulties are commonly encountered when extending microsatellite markers to populations that are unstudied from a genetic perspective due to high levels of genetic differentiation across this species’ range. To ameliorate this issue, we used 454 pyrosequencing to identify hundreds of microsatellite loci. We then screened 40 of our top candidate loci in populations in Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Ohio—including an isolated island population ~ 4.5 km off ...


Introgression Makes Waves In Inferred Histories Of Effective Population Size, John Hawks Oct 2017

Introgression Makes Waves In Inferred Histories Of Effective Population Size, John Hawks

Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints

Human populations have a complex history of introgression and of changing population size. Human genetic variation has been affected by both these processes, so that inference of past population size depends upon the pattern of gene flow and introgression among past populations. One remarkable aspect of human population history as inferred from genetics is a consistent “wave” of larger effective population size, found in both African and non-African populations, that appears to reflect events prior to the last 100,000 years. Here I carry out a series of simulations to investigate how introgression and gene flow from genetically divergent ancestral ...