260— Patterns Of Occupancy Of Artificial Nest Sites By Native Bees, 2020 SUNY Geneseo
260— Patterns Of Occupancy Of Artificial Nest Sites By Native Bees, Allison Menendez
Although people tend to think of honeybees when they think about pollination, many species of native bees are actually important pollinators. Declining native bee populations can be supported in several ways, including reducing pesticide use, providing native flowers as a food source, leaving natural nest sites unaltered, or even by providing artificial nests. At SUNY Geneseo, a bee barn with eleven wooden boxes filled with natural reed cavities of varying sizes is in the Spencer J Roemer Arboretum. Female bees lay brood in these cavities, and provision food for the developing young. Some native bees are overwintering in these cavities ...
333— Effectiveness Of Batesian Mimicry In The Ant Mimicking Spider Myrmarachne Formicaria, Alanna Richman, Bea Dipzinski
Myrmarachne formicaria is a non-native ant-mimicking spider that was first recorded in New York in 2006. Little is known about its natural history in its native range in Europe and Asia or in its newly colonized range in North America. Some spider species are Batesian mimics that resemble ants in order to avoid being eaten, since many potential predators will not prey on ants. To assess the effectiveness of Batesian mimicry in this species, we staged encounters with a larger salticid spider species that could be a potential predator of M. formicaria. In total, 12 predator spiders were observed with ...
136— Predation On Microbivalves By Juvenile Naticid Gastropods On San Salvador Island, The Bahamas, Eliza Merges
Predator-prey interactions, where snails eat clams, evolutionarily has been a key interaction within marine molluscan communities. There is evidence of molluscan extinctions in the fossil record that are marked by changes in predation ratios. In this study, we will investigate predation of microbivalves by juvenile naticid gastropods in a shallow marine setting on San Salvador Island in the Bahamas. We propose to test predation density within different environments (facies) of a lagoonal setting. Significantly different ratios between these facies in one time period can indicate that predator-prey interactions can change over time from one environment to another. It is more ...
135— Coral-Sponge Interactions On Rocky Point Reef, San Salvador, Bahamas, 2020 SUNY Geneseo
135— Coral-Sponge Interactions On Rocky Point Reef, San Salvador, Bahamas, Michael Harvey, Anna Meichenbaum, Brooke Stickles
We surveyed the intensity of competition for reef space between sponges and corals at the Rocky Point patch reef adjacent to San Salvador Island, The Bahamas. Our working hypothesis was that, because of a dearth of predators, fast growing, chemically unprotected sponges more likely to be involved in competitive interactions. Results indicate that competition for reef space was widespread, but contrary to our hypothesis no sponge or coral species was disproportionately more involved in these interactions. These results contradict previous studies on Rocky Point reef and in our discussion we propose an explanation for this discrepancy.
170— A Comparison Of Native And Invasive Plant Species Microhabitats In Western Ny, Emelyn Bell
Previous research concluded that the extended leaf phenology of invasive plant species Lonicera maackii (Amur Honeysuckle) reduced seed predation, possibly due to less favorable microclimates for invertebrate seed predators. In the fall of 2019, we conducted a field experiment to observe the microhabitat preferences of snails. In our study, we selected six pairs of invasive L. maackii and native Cornus racemosa (Gray Dogwood) throughout the Roemer Arboretum. Twice weekly, we recorded temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, light, soil pH, and soil moisture along with the number and size of snails found on the plant and within 0.3m of its ...
What Is The Winter Limiting Nutrient In Urban Reservoirs? A Case Study., 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln
What Is The Winter Limiting Nutrient In Urban Reservoirs? A Case Study., Precious Nyabami
UCARE Research Products
The importance of reservoirs is widely acknowledged by urban populations, yet little is understood scientifically about their ability to process nutrients deposited into them in winter. For example, when agricultural runoff is deposited in lakes in winter or any other season, eutrophication might arise in the spring. With increased eutrophication, several ecosystem services are lost and this leads to what several researchers call “the urban syndrome”. Some studies have been done on the winter limnology of lakes, yet little is understood about the above in reservoirs. The sustainability of urban reservoirs relies on understanding how the phytoplankton in urban reservoirs ...
Evolutionary Bioethics Advanced By Ernest Everett Just: Implications For Biology, Ethics, And Theology, 2020 Southern Methodist University
Evolutionary Bioethics Advanced By Ernest Everett Just: Implications For Biology, Ethics, And Theology, Theodore Walker
Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events
Ernest Everett Just (1883-1941) is an acknowledged “pioneer” in biology, being honored with a Black Heritage postage stamp in 1996. Here we discover that Just also made pioneering contributions to general evolutionary bioethics (distinct from special medical bioethics) by advancing a cell-biology-rooted theory of the origin and continuing evolution of ethical behavior influenced by the “law of environmental dependence.”
See especially “The Origin of Man’s Ethical Behavior (1941, unpublished book manuscript) by Ernest Everett Just and Hedwig Schnetzler Just, discovered in 2018 among the collected papers of E.E. Just at the Moorland-Spingarn Research Center at Howard University.
Hers And His: Silk Glands Used In Egg Sac Construction By Female Spiders Potentially Repurposed By A 'Modern' Male Spider, 2020 University of New Hampshire
Hers And His: Silk Glands Used In Egg Sac Construction By Female Spiders Potentially Repurposed By A 'Modern' Male Spider, Mark A. Townley, Danilo Harms
Biological Sciences Scholarship
Cylindrical silk gland (CY) spigots distinguish a large clade of modern spiders, the CY spigot clade, which includes all entelegyne spiders and their closest relatives. Following a widespread paradigm, CYs and their spigots are only known to occur in female spiders and they produce silk used in the construction of egg sacs. Here we report the occurrence of a CY spigot or CY nubbin on each posterior median spinneret (PMS) in males (5th stadium and later) of the spider Australomimetus maculosus. Late juvenile males had a CY spigot on each PMS, whereas adult males either had a CY spigot or ...
Checklist Of The Freshwater Sponges (Porifera: Spongillida) Of Tennessee, 2020 Lincoln Memorial University
Checklist Of The Freshwater Sponges (Porifera: Spongillida) Of Tennessee, John E. Copeland
Cumberland Mountain Naturalist
Of the ~8,500 sponge species that are known to exist, approximately 3% inhabit freshwater. Taxonomically, freshwater sponges are divided into 6 families with less than 250 identified species. Of these, 33 species of freshwater sponge can be found in the Nearctic Biogeographical realm with 13 species documented in Tennessee waters. Species of three families, Metanidae, Potamolepidae, and Spongillidae, are known to occur in the United States but only members of Potamolepidae and Spongillidae have been collected from Tennessee waters. This article presents a species checklist with currently known distribution information.
Time Specific Population Dynamics Of Diatoms In Artificial Environments, 2020 Georgia College
Time Specific Population Dynamics Of Diatoms In Artificial Environments, Sydney Brown
Georgia College Student Research Events
Algae serve as the base trophic level of aquatic systems, energetically supporting entire aquatic communities. Culturing in a laboratory setting requires significant phycological background and ecological knowledge to mimic their natural environmental conditions. The purpose of this research was to explore the effects of time on the growth of algal cultures. Gomphonema parvulum was the species investigated, falling into a class of algae known as diatoms- which are defined by cell walls composed of silica. Due to this unique morphological feature, asexual reproduction results in a diminution of cell size each generation in which restoration of natural sizes is initiated ...
Broad Host Range Of Sars-Cov-2 Predicted By Comparative And Structural Analysis Of Ace2 In Vertebrates, 2020 University of California, Davis
Broad Host Range Of Sars-Cov-2 Predicted By Comparative And Structural Analysis Of Ace2 In Vertebrates, Joana Damas, Elinor K. Karlsson, Harris A. Lewin
University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications
The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19). The main receptor of SARS-CoV-2, angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), is now undergoing extensive scrutiny to understand the routes of transmission and sensitivity in different species. Here, we utilized a unique dataset of 410 vertebrates, including 252 mammals, to study cross-species conservation of ACE2 and its likelihood to function as a SARS-CoV-2 receptor. We designed a five-category ranking score based on the conservation properties of 25 amino acids important for the binding between receptor and virus, classifying all species from very high to very low. Only mammals fell ...
Chemical Communication In Songbirds, 2020 The University of Western Ontario
Chemical Communication In Songbirds, Leanne A. Grieves
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Avian chemical communication has been understudied due to the misconception that olfaction is unimportant or even lacking in birds. Early work focused on the olfactory foraging capabilities of seabirds because of their ecology (open ocean foraging) and large olfactory bulbs. In contrast, olfaction in passerine birds, comprising over half of all extant avian taxa, was long overlooked due to their relatively small olfactory bulbs. It is now well established that passerines can smell, and their olfactory acuity is comparable to that of macrosmatic mammals such as rats. Much of our theory on communication and mate choice has involved studying visual ...
Do Eastern Gray Squirrels (Sciurus Carolinensis) Use Human-Provided Cues To Increase Foraging Success In Urban Landscapes?, 2020 University of Louisville
Do Eastern Gray Squirrels (Sciurus Carolinensis) Use Human-Provided Cues To Increase Foraging Success In Urban Landscapes?, Aditya A. Mehta, Jeeva H. Rathnaweera
Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase
The coexistence of humans with other animals in urban and suburban areas has given rise to a spectrum of agonistic and beneficial interactions. Animals thriving in urban settings are known to exhibit superior foraging and food extraction abilities compared to their wild conspecifics. This has raised the question regarding if non-human animals can form and maintain a similar “theory of mind” to humans based on the actions they observe in their environments (Schloegl et al., 2007). For this experiment, human-made click and gaze cues were used while placing food for eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) located on the University of ...
The Effects Of Gall Formation Due To Gall-Inducing Insects On Solidago Altissima’S Stem Height, 2020 Eastern Illlinois University
The Effects Of Gall Formation Due To Gall-Inducing Insects On Solidago Altissima’S Stem Height, Sarah Mummel
2020 Awards for Excellence in Student Research and Creative Activity
Gall-inducing insects are an old evolutionary member of our world, but little is known about their impact on goldenrod, Solidago altissima’s growth and development. We tested the relationship between gall diameter and stem height and the effects of gall presence on stem height. We sampled 20 random 1m2 plots along a 30 meter long transect in a goldenrod field to find rosette and ball galls growing upon goldenrod. This transect was one of five other parallel transects, totaling approximately 150 m2 of land. We measured heights of galled plants, heights of healthy nearby plants, and the diameter ...
Evolutionary Ecology Of Host-Parasite Relationships: Role Of Host Ecology, Phylogeny, And Demographics In Shaping Parasite Evolution, Erika Taylor Gendron
Host-parasite systems exist across complex and ecologically heterogeneous landscapes, and may occur across taxonomically and ecologically disparate host species. Under these conditions, mechanisms underlying microevolutionary processes (i.e. gene flow, genetic drift) are not always clear, and may be mediated by numerous co-occurring factors specific to individual hosts. Host traits such as host immunology, demographics, phylogeny and ecology may act in concert to shape host-parasite relationships, and ultimately evolutionary processes. The research described herein used phylogeographic, phylogenomic, and population genetic methods to further understanding of how host traits impact the evolutionary ecology of trematode systems, using avian schistosomes (Digenea: Schistosomatidae ...
Extreme Fire As A Management Tool To Combat Regime Shifts In The Range Of The Endangered American Burying Beetle, 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Extreme Fire As A Management Tool To Combat Regime Shifts In The Range Of The Endangered American Burying Beetle, Alison K. Ludwig, Daniel R. Uden, Dirac Twidwell
Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture
This study is focused on the population of federally-endangered American burying beetles in south-central Nebraska. It is focused on changes in land cover over time and at several levels of spatial scale, and how management efforts are impacting both the beetle and a changing landscape. Our findings are applicable to a large portion of the Great Plains, which is undergoing the same shift from grassland to woodland, and to areas where the beetle is still found.
An Ecopath With Ecosim Analysis On Offshore Petroleum Platform Influences On Gulf Of Mexico Red Snapper, 2020 Louisiana State University
An Ecopath With Ecosim Analysis On Offshore Petroleum Platform Influences On Gulf Of Mexico Red Snapper, Valentin Gomez
LSU Master's Theses
Offshore oil and gas platforms have had a significant presence in the Gulf of Mexico since the 1950s. An important secondary function of these structures is that they provide artificial habitat to fisheries, most notably Red snapper. Policy changes intended to reduce the risk associated with aging infrastructure have reduced the number of standing platforms from 4044 to 1867 from 2001 to 2018. The effect this loss of habitat has on Red snapper was tested by creating three scenarios of platform changes and modeling the perturbation from 2005 to 2050. The simulation was accomplished using the ecological model Ecopath with ...
Fungicide Sensitivity Of Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Isolates Selected From Five Different States That Use Different Fungicide Treatments, 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Fungicide Sensitivity Of Sclerotinia Sclerotiorum Isolates Selected From Five Different States That Use Different Fungicide Treatments, Cristian Wulkop Gil
UCARE Research Products
Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes a disease called white mold that can infect more than 450 plant species including soybeans, dry beans, green beans, canola, and sunflower. This pathogen is capable of up to $252M in losses every year (U.S. Canola Association, 2014). Fungicides are widely used in developed agricultural systems to control disease. However, resistance to the most effective fungicides has emerged and spread in pathogen populations and there have been multiple reports of S. sclerotiorum isolates becoming resistant to certain fungicides. Since different fields in different states use different fungicide treatments on plants ...
Ethics And Familiarity With Elephant Population Management, 2020 University of North Georgia
Ethics And Familiarity With Elephant Population Management, Katelyn Shook
Biologists study population statuses because, while many species are considered healthy, others are overpopulated or vulnerable to extinction. Assessing the extinction risk for various species on earth can be a difficult task. The International Union for Conservation of Nature(IUCN) is the global authority in charge of assessing a species’ status and putting it on the “Red List” (Blanc 2008). This IUCN Red List uses scientific studies such as population assessments and threat assessments to properly label a species as least concern, near threatened, vulnerable, endangered, critically endangered, extinct in the wild, or extinct (NRDC 2016). Within these categories, least ...
Differential Effects Of Freezing On The Drought Tolerance Of Herbaceous Plants At The Species, Community And Ecosystem Scales, 2020 The University of Western Ontario
Differential Effects Of Freezing On The Drought Tolerance Of Herbaceous Plants At The Species, Community And Ecosystem Scales, Ricky S. Kong
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Both freezing and drought cause cellular dehydration and elicit similar physiological responses in plants, where similar protective compounds are upregulated, including soluble sugars and proteins that help reduce cellular damage. Drought-freeze cross acclimation occurs when drought exposure enhances the freezing tolerance of plants. However, few studies had investigated the reciprocal effects of freezing on drought tolerance, and it was unknown if these interactions could impact plant productivity. Therefore, I examined the effects of freezing on the drought tolerance of individual species and assessed the implications of freeze-drought interactions in an old field community. Poa pratensis was exposed to fall or ...