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Legacies Of War: How The Commercialization Of Plastics In The United States Contribute To Cycles Of Violence, Karis Johnston 2018 SIT Graduate Institute

Legacies Of War: How The Commercialization Of Plastics In The United States Contribute To Cycles Of Violence, Karis Johnston

Capstone Collection

Plastic manufacturing practices developed and justified during World War II transitioned into the commercial space, entered our homes, and became part of everyday life. This proliferation was due in large part to the consolidation of manufacturing processes organized and subsidized by government contracts and the plastics industry leaders’ marketing dynamism. Plastics are in the cars we drive, the way we package our food, and are invaluable throughout the medical field. Moreover, the use of plastics has tangible environmental and health ramifications. The plastics industry and consumption patterns in the United States contribute significantly to hydrocarbon emissions, ecological violence, and the ...


The Impact Of Invasive Lionfish On The Feeding Performance Of Endemic Spotted Scorpionfish, Nathaniel Zbasnik 2018 Western Kentucky University

The Impact Of Invasive Lionfish On The Feeding Performance Of Endemic Spotted Scorpionfish, Nathaniel Zbasnik

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Invasive species, such as the red lionfish, Pterois volitans, are damaging many ecosystems around the world by out-competing native species. However, little work has been done to determine if P. volitans have a direct influence on the feeding performance of native species with which they compete. This study examines the feeding performance in terms of suction pressure, kinematic timing, and excursion distances of spotted scorpionfish, Scorpaena plumieri. Through multiple trials it was examined how S. plumieri modulate their kinematic behavior in response to P. volitans and a conspecific. The creation of a smaller buccal cavity and a decrease in time ...


Assessing Trade-Offs In Large Marine Protected Areas, Tammy E. Davies, Graham Epstein, Stacy E. Aguilera, Cassandra M. Brooks, Michael Cox, Louisa S. Evans, Sara M. Maxwell, Mateja Nenadovic, Natalie C. Ban 2018 Old Dominion University

Assessing Trade-Offs In Large Marine Protected Areas, Tammy E. Davies, Graham Epstein, Stacy E. Aguilera, Cassandra M. Brooks, Michael Cox, Louisa S. Evans, Sara M. Maxwell, Mateja Nenadovic, Natalie C. Ban

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Large marine protected areas (LMPAs) are increasingly being established and have a high profile in marine conservation. LMPAs are expected to achieve multiple objectives, and because of their size are postulated to avoid trade-offs that are common in smaller MPAs. However, evaluations across multiple outcomes are lacking. We used a systematic approach to code several social and ecological outcomes of 12 LMPAs. We found evidence of three types of trade-offs: trade-offs between different ecological resources (supply trade-offs); trade-offs between ecological resource conditions and the well-being of resource users (supply-demand trade-offs); and trade-offs between the well-being outcomes of different resource users ...


The Mechanism Of Biotremor Production In The Veiled Chameleon (Chameleon Calyptratus), Samuel Tegge 2018 Western Kentucky University

The Mechanism Of Biotremor Production In The Veiled Chameleon (Chameleon Calyptratus), Samuel Tegge

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Vibratory communication has evolved in numerous animal groups, including insects, spiders, fishes, mammals, and was recently discovered in veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus). I examined the mechanism by which C. calyptratus produce these biotremors. Muscle activity data were gathered during simulated anti-predator responses via electromyography (EMG) with simultaneous recordings of biotremor production using an accelerometer. I correlated EMG data with the accelerometer data to implicate the muscles responsible for the production of the biotremors. Mixed-effect linear regression models described the mechanism, and a model selection framework determined which model fit the data best. I then used an analysis of variance to ...


Herbivory And Eutrophication Mediate Grassland Plant Nutrient Responses Across A Global Climatic Gradient, T. Michael Anderson, Daniel M. Griffith, James B. Grace, Eric M. Lind, Peter B. Adler, Lori A. Biederman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Pedro Daleo, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Andrew S. MacDougall, Rebecca L. McCulley, Suzanne M. Prober, Anita C. Risch, Mahesh Sankaran, Martin Schütz, Eric W. Seabloom, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Peter D. Wragg, Elizabeth T. Borer 2018 Wake Forest University

Herbivory And Eutrophication Mediate Grassland Plant Nutrient Responses Across A Global Climatic Gradient, T. Michael Anderson, Daniel M. Griffith, James B. Grace, Eric M. Lind, Peter B. Adler, Lori A. Biederman, Dana M. Blumenthal, Pedro Daleo, Jennifer Firn, Nicole Hagenah, W. Stanley Harpole, Andrew S. Macdougall, Rebecca L. Mcculley, Suzanne M. Prober, Anita C. Risch, Mahesh Sankaran, Martin Schütz, Eric W. Seabloom, Carly J. Stevens, Lauren L. Sullivan, Peter D. Wragg, Elizabeth T. Borer

Ecology Center Publications

Plant stoichiometry, the relative concentration of elements, is a key regulator of ecosystem functioning and is also being altered by human activities. In this paper we sought to understand the global drivers of plant stoichiometry and compare the relative contribution of climatic vs. anthropogenic effects. We addressed this goal by measuring plant elemental (C, N, P and K) responses to eutrophication and vertebrate herbivore exclusion at eighteen sites on six continents. Across sites, climate and atmospheric N deposition emerged as strong predictors of plot‐level tissue nutrients, mediated by biomass and plant chemistry. Within sites, fertilization increased total plant nutrient ...


Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Technology To Enhance Conservation Biology Research, Ann Briggs 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Technology To Enhance Conservation Biology Research, Ann Briggs

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

This study examined the most effective ways to utilize unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for wildlife conservation. More specifically, a UAV platform was created that can perform multiple data collection tasks by utilizing interchangeable modules. The prototype produced in this study has the capability to perform many tasks through the use of interchangeable modules. These tasks include, but are not limited to aerial surveys and collection of biological samples. This innovative technology will provide invaluable assistance to conservation efforts by reducing research and subject injury or death while maximizing efficiency. The modular design of the prototype was developed for retail to ...


The Effect Of Physical Stress Signals On Conspecific Interactions In Green-And-Black Poison Frogs (Dendrobates Auratus), Gabriella E. Chan, Maxwell A. Kenyon, Summer Ngo, Lee B. Kats 2018 Pepperdine University

The Effect Of Physical Stress Signals On Conspecific Interactions In Green-And-Black Poison Frogs (Dendrobates Auratus), Gabriella E. Chan, Maxwell A. Kenyon, Summer Ngo, Lee B. Kats

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Amphibian declines have been a major focus of the scientific community for nearly three decades. Many studies describe the leading causes of amphibian decline related to disease, with chytridiomycosis as the most notable example. However, little is known about behavioral conspecific interactions among ill or stressed amphibians, particularly neotropical species. Previous observational research on poison frogs determined that stressed Dendrobates auratus flip onto their backs in a reaction that is similar to fainting in other species. In this study, we examine conspecific interactions of green-and-black poison frogs (D. auratus) with “healthy” and “sick” model frogs, in order to determine a ...


Evolution Of Alu Elements In The Saimiri And Papio Lineages Of Primates, Jasmine Nicole Brown Baker 2018 LOUISIANA STATE UNIVERSITY

Evolution Of Alu Elements In The Saimiri And Papio Lineages Of Primates, Jasmine Nicole Brown Baker

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Alu elements are approximately 300 base pair (bp) primate specific non- autonomous retrotransposons. Alu elements, a short interspersed element (SINE), account for high copy numbers in all primate genomes. Numerous Alu element subfamilies have undergone varying degrees of activity and amplification within primates. Identification of these subfamilies has proved to be very informative in elucidating phylogenies and as phylogenomic markers. Squirrel monkeys, genus Saimiri, are one of the most well-known neotropical primates and the second most commonly used laboratory monkey. Squirrel monkey species diverged approximately 1.5 million years ago and are native to South America. Despite being well-known, there ...


Revision Of The Mesobuthus Caucasicus Complex From Central Asia, With Descriptions Of Six New Species (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Victor Fet, František Kovařík, Benjamin Gantenbein, Ronald C. Kaiser, Alexander K. Stewart, Matthew R. Graham 2018 Marshall University

Revision Of The Mesobuthus Caucasicus Complex From Central Asia, With Descriptions Of Six New Species (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Victor Fet, František Kovařík, Benjamin Gantenbein, Ronald C. Kaiser, Alexander K. Stewart, Matthew R. Graham

Victor Fet

A widespread Mesobuthus caucasicus complex, which includes some of the most common scorpions found from the Caucasus to China, is revised for the first time based on new extensive collections from Central Asia, using both morphological and DNA marker data. Mesobuthus caucasicus (Nordmann, 1840), s.str. is restricted to the Caucasus Mts. Four taxa are elevated to species rank: M. fuscus (Birula, 1897) (Tajikistan), M. intermedius (Birula, 1897) (Tajikistan), M. kaznakovi (Birula, 1904) (Tajikistan, Uzbekistan), and M. parthorum (Pocock, 1889) (Afghanistan, Iran, Turkmenistan). Six new species are described: M. brutus sp. n. (Iran), M. elenae sp. n. (Tajikistan, Uzbekistan), M ...


Killi-Data News (Winter), Tyrone Genade 2018 Northwestern College, Iowa

Killi-Data News (Winter), Tyrone Genade

Killifish Research Review

Valued readers, it is with a heavy heart that I inform you that this is the last issue of Killi-Data News. The good news is that we will be back as Killifish Research Review. The dissolution of Killi-Data International created a prob- lem: how can the newsletter of a defunct organization live on without that organization? But other additional problems were building in the background. The first issue numbered 15 pages. The previous issue was 28 pages. The number of killifish related papers is increasing while time on our end (the editorial team) is running out. It takes a lot ...


Killi-Data News (Fall), Tyrone Genade 2018 Northwestern College, Iowa

Killi-Data News (Fall), Tyrone Genade

Killifish Research Review

Many interesting papers have been published over the last three months. The large volume of papers coupled with the start of the new college semester (and the workload it brings) delayed this issue of Killi-Data News. But better late than never—or so I hope! In this issue Richard van der Laan provides an insightful review of the recent Aphanius papers as to their taxonomic implications and questions. The systematic issues he raises show the importance of the Molecular project: we need to get more samples of the various cyprinodontiforme families to resolve unsettled systematic and taxonomic issues. In the ...


Killi-Data News (Summer), Tyrone Genade 2018 Northwestern College, Iowa

Killi-Data News (Summer), Tyrone Genade

Killifish Research Review

Over the last three months several interesting and exciting pa- pers have been published. By now most of you have heard the Nothobranchius fish poo news emanating from the Valenzano lab. That paper is reviewed and certainly has repercussions for the health of our captive fish. Polaçik et al have published interesting data with ramifications as to how we breed and incubate annual killifish. The big news in this issue is the paper from the Reznick lab which Jean Huber reviews. The contents of that paper goes to the heart of the question of just what a killifish is. The ...


Killi-Data News (Spring), Tyrone Genade 2018 Northwestern College, Iowa

Killi-Data News (Spring), Tyrone Genade

Killifish Research Review

This is the start of Killi-Data News’ second year. In this first issue of the year we have the usual review of research pub- lications as well as input from Martin Reichard on his lab’s Nothobranchius research. Martin is responding to my reviews of his lab’s work in the previous edition. I am serious about making sure the content in this newsletter is reliable but I erred in the previous edition and Martin has written extensively to correct my mistake in the section “Erratum”. This reply is welcomed and owed to readers. I must confess that I don ...


Killi-Data News (Winter), Tyrone Genade 2018 Northwestern College, Iowa

Killi-Data News (Winter), Tyrone Genade

Killifish Research Review

This is the fourth edition, and concluding issue of the first volume, of Killi-Data News and I am happy that it has been well received by readers. At 25 pages this issue is a bit thin- ner than the last but this is because we agreed to make the cut-off for submissions the 1 st of December so we could get this edition out by the New Year. This is an exciting edition full of new species descrip- tions and analyses that will keep taxonomists busy for years to come. Costa has given us two molecular phylogenies on Melanorivulus as ...


Killi-Data News (Spring), Tyrone Genade 2018 Northwestern College, Iowa

Killi-Data News (Spring), Tyrone Genade

Killifish Research Review

This is the start of Killi-Data News’ second year. In this first issue of the year we have the usual review of research pub- lications as well as input from Martin Reichard on his lab’s Nothobranchius research. Martin is responding to my reviews of his lab’s work in the previous edition. I am serious about making sure the content in this newsletter is reliable but I erred in the previous edition and Martin has written extensively to correct my mistake in the section “Erratum”. This reply is welcomed and owed to readers. I must confess that I don ...


Alluvial Substrate Mapping By Automated Texture Segmentation Of Recreational-Grade Side Scan Sonar Imagery, Daniel Hamill, Daniel Buscombe, Joseph M. Wheaton 2018 Utah State University

Alluvial Substrate Mapping By Automated Texture Segmentation Of Recreational-Grade Side Scan Sonar Imagery, Daniel Hamill, Daniel Buscombe, Joseph M. Wheaton

Watershed Sciences Faculty Publications

Side scan sonar in low-cost ‘fishfinder’ systems has become popular in aquatic ecology and sedimentology for imaging submerged riverbed sediment at coverages and resolutions sufficient to relate bed texture to grain-size. Traditional methods to map bed texture (i.e. physical samples) are relatively high-cost and low spatial coverage compared to sonar, which can continuously image several kilometers of channel in a few hours. Towards a goal of automating the classification of bed habitat features, we investigate relationships between substrates and statistical descriptors of bed textures in side scan sonar echograms of alluvial deposits. We develop a method for automated segmentation ...


Taxonomy Based On Science Is Necessary For Global Conservation [Formal Comment], Scott A. Thomson, Richard L. Pyle, Scott Monks, Neal L. Evenhuis, Ronald H. Pine, Luis A. Ruedas, Jorge A. Salazar-Bravo, Robert M. Timm, Douglas Yanega, 163 other co-authors 2018 Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo

Taxonomy Based On Science Is Necessary For Global Conservation [Formal Comment], Scott A. Thomson, Richard L. Pyle, Scott Monks, Neal L. Evenhuis, Ronald H. Pine, Luis A. Ruedas, Jorge A. Salazar-Bravo, Robert M. Timm, Douglas Yanega, 163 Other Co-Authors

Faculty Publications from the Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology

Taxonomy is a scientific discipline that has provided the universal naming and classification system of biodiversity for centuries and continues effectively to accommodate new knowledge. A recent publication by Garnett and Christidis expressed concerns regarding the difficulty that taxonomic changes represent for conservation efforts and proposed the establishment of a system to govern taxonomic changes. Their proposal to “restrict the freedom of taxonomic action” through governing subcommittees that would “review taxonomic papers for compliance” and their assertion that “the scientific community's failure to govern taxonomy threatens the effectiveness of global efforts to halt biodiversity loss, damages the credibility of ...


Bats Of Sint Eustatius, Caribbean Netherlands, Scott C. Pedersen, Peter A. Larsen, Sil A. Westra, Ellen van Norren, Wesley Overman, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Hugh H. Genoways 2018 South Dakota State University

Bats Of Sint Eustatius, Caribbean Netherlands, Scott C. Pedersen, Peter A. Larsen, Sil A. Westra, Ellen Van Norren, Wesley Overman, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Hugh H. Genoways

Mammalogy Papers: University of Nebraska State Museum

The bat fauna of the Caribbean island of Sint Eustatius consists of five documented species—Monophyllus plethodon, Brachyphylla cavernarum, Artibeus jamaicensis, Ardops nichollsi, and Molossus molossus—and one provisional species—Tadarida brasiliensis. The Insular Single-leaf Bat, M. plethodon, is reported in the scientific literature for the first time from Sint Eustatius based on material presented herein. The bat fauna of the island is considered to be unbalanced because only three species, which are the environmental generalists, are abundant, whereas the more specialized species are rare or absent from the fauna. It is our hypothesis that the unbalanced bat fauna on ...


Ecosystem Functional Response Across Precipitation Extremes In A Sagebrush Steppe, Andrew T. Tredennick, Andrew R. Kleinhesselink, J. Bret Taylor, Peter B. Adler 2018 Utah State University

Ecosystem Functional Response Across Precipitation Extremes In A Sagebrush Steppe, Andrew T. Tredennick, Andrew R. Kleinhesselink, J. Bret Taylor, Peter B. Adler

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Background

Precipitation is predicted to become more variable in the western United States, meaning years of above and below average precipitation will become more common. Periods of extreme precipitation are major drivers of interannual variability in ecosystem functioning in water limited communities, but how ecosystems respond to these extremes over the long-term may shift with precipitation means and variances. Long-term changes in ecosystem functional response could reflect compensatory changes in species composition or species reaching physiological thresholds at extreme precipitation levels.

Methods

We conducted a five year precipitation manipulation experiment in a sagebrush steppe ecosystem in Idaho, United States. We ...


A Naturalist’S Guide To The Great Plains, Paul A. Johnsgard 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

A Naturalist’S Guide To The Great Plains, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This book documents nearly 500 US and Canadian locations where wildlife refuges, nature preserves, and similar properties protect natural sites that lie within the North American Great Plains, from Canada’s Prairie Provinces to the Texas-Mexico border. Information on site location, size, biological diversity, and the presence of especially rare or interesting flora and fauna are mentioned, as well as driving directions, mailing addresses, and phone numbers or internet addresses, as available. US federal sites include 11 national grasslands, 13 national parks, 16 national monuments, and more than 70 national wildlife refuges. State properties include nearly 100 state parks and ...


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