Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

947 Full-Text Articles 1,763 Authors 137,812 Downloads 125 Institutions

All Articles in Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Faceted Search

947 full-text articles. Page 1 of 36.

Intraguild Predation: Interactions Between Predators, Pathogens, And Their Shared Resource, Andrew Jason Flick 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Intraguild Predation: Interactions Between Predators, Pathogens, And Their Shared Resource, Andrew Jason Flick

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Crop pest management requires an understanding of the complex interactions among pest species that potentially damage crop yield and species that may be crucial for controlling pest species outbreaks. For example, predators, parasitoids, and pathogens are constantly interacting via their shared prey or hosts. Predators may prefer infected prey, which can be easier to catch; however, infected prey may be less nutritious or even lethal for predators. These interactions then dictate the short-term dynamics of host and pathogen as well as between prey and predator. "How these dynamics change as the species in the system change either empirically or theoretically ...


A Change In Grain? Diet Induced Plasticity In The Generalist Grasshopper Melanoplus Differentialis, Austin M. Culotta 2018 University of New Orleans

A Change In Grain? Diet Induced Plasticity In The Generalist Grasshopper Melanoplus Differentialis, Austin M. Culotta

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Phenotypic plasticity is favored in heterogeneous environments in which alternative phenotypes can exploit alternative resources. However, it’s not clear whether phenotypic plasticity is useful in environments that become more homogenous over an organism’s life cycle. I studied a population of grasshopper Melanoplus differentialis that experiences high resource diversity as nymphs but low resource diversity as adults to determine if individuals can undergo diet-induced morphological plasticity in head shape to increase biting ability and ingestion of hard diets. Insects on a soft diet were larger and had greater bite force than those on a hard diet. Head structures related ...


Landscape-Level Effects Of Agricultural Intensification On The Condition And Diet Of Nestling Barn Swallows (Hirundo Rustica), Jackson W. Kusack 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Landscape-Level Effects Of Agricultural Intensification On The Condition And Diet Of Nestling Barn Swallows (Hirundo Rustica), Jackson W. Kusack

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Farmland bird populations have experienced declines with increasing agricultural intensification for which the leading hypothesis is a reduction of prey insects. This may be especially relevant for aerial insectivores whose primary diet is aerial insects. For this thesis, I examined nestling body condition and used stable isotopes (δ13C, δ15N) and fecal DNA barcoding to determine the diet of a farmland breeding aerial insectivore, the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica), within an agro-ecosystem in Southern Ontario, Canada. Nestling body condition was positively affected by agricultural intensification, but all benefits were lost by the pre-fledging stage and with no ...


Safety, Stephen M. Vantassel, Brenda K. Osthus 2018 Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC Lewistown, Montana

Safety, Stephen M. Vantassel, Brenda K. Osthus

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Wildlife damage management (WDM) is an exciting field with many opportunities to provide solutions to the complex issues involved in human-wildlife interactions. In addition, WDM wildlife control operators (WCO) face a variety of threats to their physical well-being. Injuries can result from misused (Figure 1), faulty, or poorly maintained equipment, inexperience, mishandled wildlife, harsh weather, and dangerous situations, such as electrical lines. The goals of this publication are to: * Develop an awareness of safety issues and adopt a mindset of “Safety First”, * Review the major safety threats that WCOs face, * Provide basic information for WCOs to protect themselves, and * List ...


Courtship Behavior, Communication, And Copulation In Tigrosa Annexa, Samuel White 2018 Murray State University

Courtship Behavior, Communication, And Copulation In Tigrosa Annexa, Samuel White

Scholars Week

The evolution of multimodal communication, where signalers use multiple signal components in multiple sensory modalities, has become the subject of investigation by many researchers. Signaling puts males at risk of predation, so why do males of some species evolve extra signals that may increase this risk? In some wolf spider species, males incorporate many visual and vibrational signals into a display that they use to attract a female for mating. Female spiders are often aggressive toward courting males and so the male display also functions to decrease the odds of cannibalism. Female wandering spiders deposit silk containing pheromones that communicate ...


No Evidence For Kin Protection In The Expression Of Sickness Behaviors In House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Per Block, Alice Pontiggia, Anna K. Lindholm, Barbara König 2018 Chapman University

No Evidence For Kin Protection In The Expression Of Sickness Behaviors In House Mice, Patricia C. Lopes, Per Block, Alice Pontiggia, Anna K. Lindholm, Barbara König

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

When infected, animals change their behaviors in several ways, including by decreasing their activity, their food and water intake, and their interest in social interactions. These behavioral alterations are collectively called sickness behaviors and, for several decades, the main hypotheses put forward to explain this phenomenon were that engaging in sickness behaviors facilitated the fever response and improved the likelihood of host survival. However, a new hypothesis was recently proposed suggesting that engaging in sickness behaviors may serve to protect kin. We tested this kin protection hypothesis by combining a field and a laboratory experiment in house mice. In both ...


The Paradoxical Giant Hummingbird: Comparison Of Andean And Coastal Subspecies With Respect To Blood, Migration, And Genes, Jessie L. Williamson 2018 University of New Mexico

The Paradoxical Giant Hummingbird: Comparison Of Andean And Coastal Subspecies With Respect To Blood, Migration, And Genes, Jessie L. Williamson

Shared Knowledge Conference

The Giant Hummingbird (Patagona gigas) is twice as large as the next largest hummingbird species and has long been considered paradoxical with respect to flight biomechanics. It is also an extreme outlier in other respects. For example, it is the only hummingbird species that breeds above 4,000 m elevation and also along the beaches of the Pacific Ocean. The high Andean populations of Giant Hummingbird (P. g. peruviana) that we have studied previously have a beta-hemoglobin genotype (serine at beta-hemoglobin A positions 13 and 83) that is characterized by high O2-affinity and is only shared with four unrelated hummingbird ...


27 - Effects Of Temperature During Non-Breeding Months On Size Of Three Species Of Sparrow, Harley N. Hunt, Katie J. Stumpf 2018 Georgia College and State University

27 - Effects Of Temperature During Non-Breeding Months On Size Of Three Species Of Sparrow, Harley N. Hunt, Katie J. Stumpf

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Earth’s climate has warmed at an average rate of 0.17°C (0.31°F) per decade since 1970, and many scientists question how birds might adapt to this temperature change. Vertebrate body size likely has been associated with temperature based on two prominent hypotheses. Bergmann’s rule states that body size is larger in cooler climates because larger-bodied animals are better able to maintain stable internal temperatures. Allen’s rule states that appendages are smaller in cooler climates to decrease the amount surface area to lose heat. We hypothesize that as temperatures increase, body mass will decrease and ...


Analyzing Phylogenetic Relationships Among Ranaviruses: Myristilated Membrane Protein And Other Potential Alternatives To Major Capsid Protein, Riley B. Fuller 2018 Gordon State College

Analyzing Phylogenetic Relationships Among Ranaviruses: Myristilated Membrane Protein And Other Potential Alternatives To Major Capsid Protein, Riley B. Fuller

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Ranaviruses are globally distributed emerging infections of ectothermic and poikilothermic vertebrates. They are responsible for countless morbidity and mortality events around the globe, and they are known to affect several endangered species. Therefore, understanding the evolutionary relationships among different strains of Ranavirus becomes important if we are to predict the consequences of their emergence. Past best practice for classifying different Ranavirus isolates has mainly been based on the major capsid protein (MCP), which is a highly conserved gene. However, this approach does not appear to capture the full sequence diversity of isolates. Twenty-six core genes have been identified for ranaviruses ...


Alternative Genes For Exploring Ranavirus Phylogenetics: Four Core Genes Compared To The Major Capsid Protein And The Whole Genome., Abigale Garner 2018 Gordon College - Barnesville

Alternative Genes For Exploring Ranavirus Phylogenetics: Four Core Genes Compared To The Major Capsid Protein And The Whole Genome., Abigale Garner

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

The Iridoviridae is a family of virus that infects invertebrates and poikilothermic vertebrates such as amphibians, reptiles, and fish. Ranavirus is one of the five genera within the Iridoviridae. Ranavirus infections have been seen on every continent. The ranaviruses have 26 core genes, but our study focuses on the utility of: an immediate early protein ICP-46 [open reading frame (ORF) 91R in Frog virus 3 (FV3)]; a transcription elongation factor TIIS (ORF 81R in FV3); Evrl/Air family protein (ORF 88R in FV3); and a hypothetical/putative protein of unknown function (ORF 94R in FV3) as alternative genes for phylogenetic ...


Examining Patterns In Nest Predation Using Artificial Nests, Victoria L. Simonsen 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Examining Patterns In Nest Predation Using Artificial Nests, Victoria L. Simonsen

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The use of artificial nests to study the predation of avian nests has faced disregard by ecologists due to inconsistencies found between the survival rates of real and artificial nests across studies and reviews. The negative perception of artificial nests providing an inconsistent assessment of survival has thus fostered the perception that artificial nests are a secondary option to be used to overcome logistical hurdles associated with achieving sufficient sample sizes in systems where study species are rare or elusive, or as merely a preliminary method to study predation across gradients. We argue that the greatest mistake ecologists have made ...


Theory On Thermodynamic Constraints To Biogeochemical And Metabolic Diversity, Jordan Okie, Everett Shock 2018 Arizona State University

Theory On Thermodynamic Constraints To Biogeochemical And Metabolic Diversity, Jordan Okie, Everett Shock

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Extreme Climate Events And The Ecological Dynamics Of Plant-Herbivore Interactions, David C. Elzinga, Christopher A. Klausmeier, William C. Wetzel 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Extreme Climate Events And The Ecological Dynamics Of Plant-Herbivore Interactions, David C. Elzinga, Christopher A. Klausmeier, William C. Wetzel

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Analysis Of An Agent-Based Model For Integrated Pest Management With Periodic Control Strategies, Timothy Comar, Elizabeth Rodriguez 2018 Benedictine University

Analysis Of An Agent-Based Model For Integrated Pest Management With Periodic Control Strategies, Timothy Comar, Elizabeth Rodriguez

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Stochastic Difference Model For Evolutional Dynamics Of Large Antigen Repertoires In African Trypanosomes, Fan Yu 2018 Illinois State University

Stochastic Difference Model For Evolutional Dynamics Of Large Antigen Repertoires In African Trypanosomes, Fan Yu

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Justice Served Fresh: Associations Between Food Insecurity, Community Gardening, And Property Value, Micajah Daniels, Courtney Coughenour PhD 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Justice Served Fresh: Associations Between Food Insecurity, Community Gardening, And Property Value, Micajah Daniels, Courtney Coughenour Phd

McNair Poster Presentations

Numerous stakeholders in Nevada have used a variety of efforts to combat the growth of food insecurity facing Nevadans. The purpose of this research project is to understand the association between food insecurity, community gardens, and property value. Following the wealth of scholarship on these topics and data collected from community garden agencies in Southern Nevada, the research questions for this project include: (1) Where are community gardens located in SNV? (2) What efforts community gardens agencies are doing to address food insecurity (most interested in their efforts using community gardens)? (3) What are the perceptions of supports and barriers ...


Drivers Of Tree Growth And Mortality In An Uneven-Aged, Mixed-Species Conifer Forest Of Northeastern United States, Erin Fien 2018 University of Maine

Drivers Of Tree Growth And Mortality In An Uneven-Aged, Mixed-Species Conifer Forest Of Northeastern United States, Erin Fien

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Individual tree growth and mortality drive forest stand dynamics and are important, universal metrics of tree success. Studying the factors that affect growth and mortality is particularly challenging in mixed-species, uneven-aged systems due to their defining heterogeneity and strong temporal and spatial variability. However a better understanding of the factors driving growth and mortality in mixed-species, uneven-aged forest is crucial to managing and maintaining these valuable systems for the future.

The goal of this study was to determine the relative importance of individual tree attributes (e.g., species, size, neighborhood crowding, crown position) and environmental characteristics (e.g., soil moisture ...


Differential Spring Migration In The White-Throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia Albicollis), Andrew T. Beauchamp 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Differential Spring Migration In The White-Throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia Albicollis), Andrew T. Beauchamp

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Differential migration timing between distinct classes of individuals is commonly observed in songbirds, however, the underlying behavioural mechanisms of differential timing are still uncertain for most species. My research applied a suite of advanced techniques to examine differential migration timing (by sex and morph) and its underlying behavioural mechanisms (refuelling rate, stopover duration, and wintering latitude) in spring migrating White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) at a key stopover site. Protandry was the only form of differential migration timing observed, with males arriving at stopover on average 11 days earlier than females. Males and females had similar refuelling rate, stopover duration, and ...


Delineating Metrics Of Diversity For A Snake Community In A Rare Ecosystem, Zachary John Marcou 2018 Stephen F. Austin State University

Delineating Metrics Of Diversity For A Snake Community In A Rare Ecosystem, Zachary John Marcou

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Snakes are among the least understood vertebrate groups despite their considerable diversity. A diverse community of snakes in an ecosystem can indicate a complex habitat structure that is capable of supporting a robust assemblage of other biota. I used remote photography arrays (RPA) to quantify metrics of diversity for the snake community occurring in a ~7,000–ha tract of contiguous Longleaf Pine (Pinus palustris) Savanna within the Angelina National Forest (ANF; Angelina and Jasper Cos., TX), over the course of two consecutive snake activity seasons. I quantified the snake species richness, Shannon diversity, and Shannon equitability for the snake ...


Competition Among Three Forensically Important Blow Fly Species (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Phormia Regina, Lucilia Sericata, And Chrysomya Rufifacies, Amber MacInnis 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Competition Among Three Forensically Important Blow Fly Species (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Phormia Regina, Lucilia Sericata, And Chrysomya Rufifacies, Amber Macinnis

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The aim of this study was to use interspecific competition between three species of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to determine if interspecific competition might explain the successional patterns. A replacement series model was used for three species of blowflies: Phormia regina, Lucilia sericata, and Chrysomya rufifacies. A total of 20 maggots were used for each treatment and the proportion of each species was varied. The graphic evidence and the relative crowding coefficient of P. regina versus L. sericata indicated a significant competitive advantage of P. regina. One of the life history traits of L. sericata is that it oviposits on ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress