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Farming For The Future; Managing Lowland Grassland For Biodiversity, Sally Griffin 2022 Department of Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Munster Technological University, Kerry, Ireland

Farming For The Future; Managing Lowland Grassland For Biodiversity, Sally Griffin

ORBioM (Open Research BioSciences Meeting)

Grassland is Ireland’s most expansive terrestrial habitat type covering >58% of the land cover but its biodiversity is under serious threat of agricultural intensification or land abandonment. While the decline in Irish grassland biodiversity has been recognised, there is a paucity of research into the restoration of lowland mesotrophic grassland. Most of Ireland’s grasslands are privately farmed mainly for pasture, therefore, appropriate agricultural management techniques for biodiversity restoration are vital. The purpose of this research was to first classify the lowland grassland vegetation in Killarney National Park, Co. Kerry in the west of Ireland (Approx. 244ha). Then to ...


Validation Of Pilot Protocol: Damage Scoring Of Puget Sound Mollusk Shells, Lauren Doffing 2022 University of Washington Tacoma

Validation Of Pilot Protocol: Damage Scoring Of Puget Sound Mollusk Shells, Lauren Doffing

Environmental Science Undergraduate Theses

The Marine Sediment Monitoring Team at the Washington State Department of Ecology observed damage to mollusk shells while studying the benthic communities of Puget Sound. A pilot protocol was written to allow researchers to quantify the damage. Two researchers independently followed the protocol, including reference photos, for a set of samples collected in 2019 from an urban bay, East Possession Sound. Two scores were given to each specimen: highest-level damage and extent of highest-level damage. An additional score was given to bivalve species: rust/stain. The sets of scores were compared to determine if the protocol yielded similar values between ...


The Effects Of Short-Term Sea Level Rise On Vegetation Communities In Coastal Mississippi, Brianna Michelle Andrews 2022 Mississippi State University

The Effects Of Short-Term Sea Level Rise On Vegetation Communities In Coastal Mississippi, Brianna Michelle Andrews

Theses and Dissertations

Salt marshes are important habitats that provide many ecosystem services, but they are susceptible to the impacts of sea level rise (SLR), often resulting in emergent vegetation loss. In areas with enough sediment input, marshes can keep pace with SLR by gaining elevation or through upland migration. However, salt marshes in areas with limited sediment input, such as the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, often cannot keep pace with sea level rise. Additionally, the rate of SLR is increasing making it more difficult for marshes to keep pace. To assess the short-term response of marsh vegetation to sea level ...


Assessing Priority Bird Response To Open Pine Management In Eastern Mississippi, Holly Marie Todaro 2022 Mississippi State University

Assessing Priority Bird Response To Open Pine Management In Eastern Mississippi, Holly Marie Todaro

Theses and Dissertations

Fire suppression, combined with lack of forest thinning and short-rotation, monodominant management, has drastically altered the landscape in the southeastern U.S., leading to the loss of open pine ecosystems and associated avian species. Management of open pine ecosystems is a common practice; yet, there remains uncertainty regarding how vegetation structure impacts priority species. Using empirical data, I assessed changes in species abundance and associated vegetation characteristics before and after management. I also sought to identify vegetation characteristics that influence home range establishment and microhabitat selection of Bachman’s Sparrows. Priority species were negatively associated with hardwood midstory and abundance ...


Reconstructing The Ecological Relationships Of Late Cretaceous Antarctic Dinosaurs And How Functional Tooth Morphology Influenced These Relationships, Ian D. Broxson 2022 Eastern Washington University

Reconstructing The Ecological Relationships Of Late Cretaceous Antarctic Dinosaurs And How Functional Tooth Morphology Influenced These Relationships, Ian D. Broxson

2022 Symposium

The Sandwich Bluff Formation of the James Ross Basin of Antarctica has recently yielded a group of five late Cretaceous dinosaurs that lived contemporaneously with each other, a first for Antarctica. These five dinosaurs include fragmentary remains of two differently sized elasmarian ornithopods, a possible megaraptor, a hadrosaur, and a nodosaur. In this study we will construct a model of the ecological relationships of late Cretaceous Antarctica. Additionally, we will look at what specific factors allowed this group of four herbivores and a carnivore to coexist in a restricted locality and what niches were filled by each species. Methods to ...


A Comprehensive Bison Management And Research Plan For The Crane Trust, Joshua D. Wiese 2022 The Platte River Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust, Inc.

A Comprehensive Bison Management And Research Plan For The Crane Trust, Joshua D. Wiese

Other Publications in Wildlife Management

The Great Plains were once a vast grassland ecosystem, but, due to agricultural and human development, are one of the most endangered ecosystems in North America. What remains is generally fragmented, threatened by invasive species, and lacks the natural ecosystem processes that shaped these grasslands such as periodic wildfire and bison grazing. Since 1978, the Platte River Whooping Crane Maintenance Trust, Inc. (dba “Crane Trust”) has worked to maintain the function of grassland and riparian habitats to benefit endangered Whooping Cranes, Sandhill Cranes, and other migratory bird species. They protect ~8,100 acres, including the largest contiguous portion of lowland ...


Life After Death – Does Carcass Biodiversity Scale With Carcass Body Size?, Troy Warfield 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Life After Death – Does Carcass Biodiversity Scale With Carcass Body Size?, Troy Warfield

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Mammals play a large role in the ecosystems where some, especially large-bodied mammals, act as ecosystem engineers. Mammal carcasses, particularly those of large body mass act as a temporary island of dense nutrients that support other organisms, including other mammal species, for an extended period. Research in this field currently focuses on the link between mammal carcass size and nutrient availably or on non-mammalian size and biodiversity, but little is available on the correlation between mammal carcass size and its influence on ecosystem biodiversity. Here we ask, does the available biomass (i.e., body size) of the carcass affect its ...


Seasonality Of Orthohantavirus Seroprevalence In Northwest Arkansas Rodents, Amy Schexnayder 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Seasonality Of Orthohantavirus Seroprevalence In Northwest Arkansas Rodents, Amy Schexnayder

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Zoonotic viruses are viruses that can be transmitted from animals to humans. Rodent species are likely to be reservoirs for zoonotic viruses, and particular rodent-borne viruses, such as orthohantaviruses, may greatly threaten human health. Orthohantaviruses are a group of rodent-borne viruses that are at risk for spillover to human populations. Many aspects of orthohantaviruses have been well-researched, yet the seasonality of orthohantaviruses has not yet been thoroughly examined, especially in the southern United States. In this study, we captured 616 rodents trapped over 5953 trap nights across 13 grassland sites in Northwest Arkansas. Rodents were trapped for two consecutive nights ...


Assessing The Long-Term Effects Of Natural Disturbance-Based Silvicultural On The Avian Assemblage At The Acadian Forest Ecosystem Research Program, Carl Pohlman 2022 University of Maine

Assessing The Long-Term Effects Of Natural Disturbance-Based Silvicultural On The Avian Assemblage At The Acadian Forest Ecosystem Research Program, Carl Pohlman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Active forest management alters the resources available to forest-obligate species. Large-scale intensive management practices where timber production is the primary objective can lead to notable ecological changes in forest ecosystems. A key concept of ecological forestry is to design forest management activities to emulate natural disturbance regimes as a way to maintain the ecological integrity of forests. The Acadian Forest Ecosystem Research Program (AFERP) was undertaken as an experimental demonstration of management reflective of the region’s disturbance regime, which typically produces small canopy gaps. AFERP includes nine research areas assigned to three silvicultural treatments: unharvested control, small gap (expanding-group ...


Fish Community Assembly At Multiple Spatial Scales In East Texas Streams, Jake R. Swanson 2022 Stephen F Austin State University

Fish Community Assembly At Multiple Spatial Scales In East Texas Streams, Jake R. Swanson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Stream communities are structured by environmental processes that vary in strength across different spatiotemporal scales. Therefore, revealing how stream fish communities are influenced by environmental gradients may clarify how communities respond to disturbance associated with anthropogenic change. I investigated the relative role environmental variables play in the processes that structure the taxonomic and functional diversity of stream fish communities, as well as historical trends in occurrence and local habitat associated with a species of greatest conservation need within east Texas. The results of this study indicate that stream sites with more habitat complexity and stability support a more taxonomically and ...


Plant Community Responses To Interactive Anthropogenic Disturbances Along A Natural-Wildland-Urban Gradient And Undergraduate Students’ Attitudes Toward Disturbances, Mali M. Hubert 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Plant Community Responses To Interactive Anthropogenic Disturbances Along A Natural-Wildland-Urban Gradient And Undergraduate Students’ Attitudes Toward Disturbances, Mali M. Hubert

Doctoral Dissertations

Anthropogenic disturbances are defined as any change caused by human activity that alters biodiversity. Wildfire and urbanization disturbances are among the most influential on the landscape because of their individual and interactive properties. Areas deemed wildland-urban interfaces (WUI; area where environment intermingles with human-built structures) are increasing near protected lands because of human population growth and movement, which often facilitates fire ignitions by humans. Houses that are adjacent to or overlap with wildland vegetation can complicate protection of urban development and wildlands from fires. The expansion of the WUI due to population growth will exacerbate fire risk, which can ultimately ...


Making Sense Of Soil Microbiome Complexity For Plant And Ecosystem Function In A Changing World, Kendall K. Beals 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Making Sense Of Soil Microbiome Complexity For Plant And Ecosystem Function In A Changing World, Kendall K. Beals

Doctoral Dissertations

Soils contain the highest biodiversity on Earth. While the importance of the soil microbiome for larger-scale ecological phenomena such as nutrient and carbon cycling, plant growth and plant community dynamics is well-established, the fundamental question of the ecological and evolutionary function of this immense belowground microbial diversity for plant and ecosystem function still remains a great challenge in microbial ecology research. The objective of this dissertation is to understand how the importance of soil microbial community composition for plant and ecosystem function and how changes to soil microbial community composition from climate change-induced disturbance events, specifically fire, influence plant and ...


Climate-Driven Selection Results In Powerful Geographic Framework For Predicting Phenotype, Alexandra Neild 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Climate-Driven Selection Results In Powerful Geographic Framework For Predicting Phenotype, Alexandra Neild

Masters Theses

Our ability to prepare for and mitigate the likely ecological and evolutionary impacts of climate change largely depends upon our ability to predict the phenotypic responses of organisms that allow them to persist, adapt, and migrate along environmental stress gradients. Using fifteen populations of cottonwoods, a dominant riparian forest tree, that are distributed along elevation gradients and represent three genetic provenances, we hypothesized and show that: 1) populations within a provenance demonstrate parallel evolutionary responses to climatic gradients associated with elevation; and 2) the evolutionary effects of elevation on bud-break phenology varied by provenance. Across all populations, we find strong ...


Understanding The Natural History Of Juvenile Amblyomma Maculatum In Southeastern Virginia, Christina Espada, Holly Gaff 2022 Old Dominion University

Understanding The Natural History Of Juvenile Amblyomma Maculatum In Southeastern Virginia, Christina Espada, Holly Gaff

College of Sciences Posters

Amblyomma maculatum, the Gulf Coast tick, is a species of increasing public health concern. Adult A. maculatum is a known vector of several pathogens including Rickettsia parkeri, the causative agent of Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis. Amblyomma maculatum has expanded northward from its historic range along the Gulf Coast, with populations reportedly establishing in southeastern Virginia in 2010. Recently established populations of A. maculatum tend to have higher R. parkeri infection prevalence compared to longer established populations. This pattern holds for all populations found so far in southeastern Virginia, with a prevalence of R. parkeri in about 60% of A. maculatum compared ...


Alleviating Human-Elephant Conflict Through Deterrent Fences And Environmental Monitoring In Southern Kenya, Sophia Carmen Corde 2022 Western Kentucky University

Alleviating Human-Elephant Conflict Through Deterrent Fences And Environmental Monitoring In Southern Kenya, Sophia Carmen Corde

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Human-wildlife conflict is present across the world. In areas where human settlements overlap with elephant habitats, human-elephant conflict can result from crop raiding events, compromising farmers’ food and economic security, and putting humans and elephants in danger through farmer retaliation. Elephants raid crops primarily at night, when detection by humans is lowest, and during the dry season, as crops are developing towards harvest and natural forage quality drops. People living in these areas facing HEC have developed mitigation strategies to lessen the impacts and move towards coexistence. As a team member on the Elephants and Sustainable Agriculture in Kenya project ...


Constructing The Eastern Coyote: A Temporal Analysis Of The Scientific And Social Production Of A Controversial Northeastern Canid, Kayleigh Moses 2022 Trinity College

Constructing The Eastern Coyote: A Temporal Analysis Of The Scientific And Social Production Of A Controversial Northeastern Canid, Kayleigh Moses

Senior Theses and Projects

Eastern coyotes (Canis latrans var) have confounded the scientific and social boundaries established by postcolonial United States. The first eastern coyote specimen on record comes from Otis, Massachusetts in 1957. At the time, this unknown and unnamed wolf-like creature sparked fear amongst human residents of the Northeastern United States. Threatened by the presence of this predator, Northeasterners launched coyote killing efforts similar to the eradication campaigns that had previously failed in the Western United States. Today, Massachusetts officials estimate that 11,500 eastern coyotes occupy the state, living amongst people and pets in every county. This abundance of eastern coyotes ...


Mammals Adjust Diel Activity Across Gradients Of Urbanization, Travis Gallo, Mason Fidino, Brian Gerber, Adam A. Ahlers, Julia L. Angstmann, Max Amaya, Amy L. Concilio, David Drake, Danielle Gray, Elizabeth W. Lehrer, Maureen H. Murray, Travis J. Ryan, Colleen Cassady St. Clair, Carmen M. Salsbury, Heather A. Sanders, Theodore Stankowich, Jacque Williamson, J. Amy Belaire, Kelly Simon, Seth B. Mangle 2022 George Mason University

Mammals Adjust Diel Activity Across Gradients Of Urbanization, Travis Gallo, Mason Fidino, Brian Gerber, Adam A. Ahlers, Julia L. Angstmann, Max Amaya, Amy L. Concilio, David Drake, Danielle Gray, Elizabeth W. Lehrer, Maureen H. Murray, Travis J. Ryan, Colleen Cassady St. Clair, Carmen M. Salsbury, Heather A. Sanders, Theodore Stankowich, Jacque Williamson, J. Amy Belaire, Kelly Simon, Seth B. Mangle

Scholarship and Professional Work - LAS

Time is a fundamental component of ecological processes. How animal behavior changes over time has been explored through well-known ecological theories like niche partitioning and predator–prey dynamics. Yet, changes in animal behavior within the shorter 24-hr light–dark cycle have largely gone unstudied. Understanding if an animal can adjust their temporal activity to mitigate or adapt to environmental change has become a recent topic of discussion and is important for effective wildlife management and conservation. While spatial habitat is a fundamental consideration in wildlife management and conservation, temporal habitat is often ignored. We formulated a temporal resource selection model ...


Behavioral And Physiological Effects Of Heavy Metals On Fish: A Review And Preliminary Results, Diana V. Morales 2022 CUNY Hunter College

Behavioral And Physiological Effects Of Heavy Metals On Fish: A Review And Preliminary Results, Diana V. Morales

Theses and Dissertations

Pollution, specifically heavy metal pollution, in various bodies of water has been a significant issue for decades. Research has been conducted on heavy metals and their effects on the environment, larger fish species, and humans since the 1970s (Skidmore, 1964; Adeniyi et al., 2007; Adeosun et al., 2015; Bawuro et al., 2018). It is known that zinc is a neurotoxin in some species and causes harm to the environment. It is also known that it causes harm to people if it is ingested or if they are exposed to it for long periods of time (Mahurpawar, 2015; Mizuno and Kawahara ...


Characterization Of Streptomyces Nymphaeiformis Sp. Nov., And Its Taxonomic Relatedness To Other Polyhydroxybutyrate-Degrading Streptomycetes, Gary R. Hix, Muhammad S. Khan, Mikayla T. Miller, Elisha C. Napier, Allison L. O'Brien, Roger P. White, Stephen F. Baron Ph.D. 2022 Bridgewater College

Characterization Of Streptomyces Nymphaeiformis Sp. Nov., And Its Taxonomic Relatedness To Other Polyhydroxybutyrate-Degrading Streptomycetes, Gary R. Hix, Muhammad S. Khan, Mikayla T. Miller, Elisha C. Napier, Allison L. O'Brien, Roger P. White, Stephen F. Baron Ph.D.

Biology Faculty Scholarship

A polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB)-degrading actinomycete, strain SFB5AT, was identified as a species of Streptomyces based on its membrane fatty acid profile and the presence of LL-diaminopimelic acid in the cell wall. It formed sporulating mycelia on most agar media, but flat or wrinkled, moist colonies on trypticase soy agar. Spores were smooth, cylindrical, and borne on long, straight to flexuous chains. It produced a light brown diffusible pigment, but not melanin. Comparison of genomic digital DNA–DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values indicated that strain SFB5AT was related to Streptomyces litmocidini JCM 4394T , Streptomyces ...


The Role Of Leaf Decomposition In Macroinvertebrate Colonization, Bethany Mabel Lian Schorr, Kevin Geedey 2022 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

The Role Of Leaf Decomposition In Macroinvertebrate Colonization, Bethany Mabel Lian Schorr, Kevin Geedey

Independent Research Projects

Decomposition plays an important ecological role in carbon and nutrient cycling that supply food and energy resources to food webs. This study investigates the potential role that leaf decomposition of different leaf species may play in macroinvertebrate assemblages in upper Midwest streams. We hypothesized that the different decomposition rates experienced with different leaf species and in different streams would have an effect on invertebrate colonization due to the variance in nutrient availability. Due to altered fire regimes and other influences, forests are experiencing declines in fire-adapted, heliophytic species such as oaks and compositional shifts toward shade-tolerant, mesophytic species such as ...


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