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Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham MacWilliams 2018 Pomona College

Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham Macwilliams

Pomona Senior Theses

Methane hydrates are frozen deposits of methane and water found in high pressure or low temperature sediments. When these deposits destabilize, large quantities of methane can be emitted into the atmosphere. This is significant to climate change because methane has 25 times more greenhouse gas potential than Carbon Dioxide. Worldwide, it is estimated there are between 2500 and 10000 gigatons of methane stored in hydrate deposits. This represents more carbon than all fossil fuels on Earth. It is estimated that between 200 and 2000 gigatons of methane are stored in hydrates in Arctic waters acutely vulnerable to greenhouse warming. Over ...


Urban Bobcat (Lynx Rufus) Ecology In The Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas Metroplex, Julie M. Golla 2017 Utah State University

Urban Bobcat (Lynx Rufus) Ecology In The Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas Metroplex, Julie M. Golla

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Urban landscapes are quickly replacing native habitat around the world. As wildlife and people increasingly overlap in their shared space and resources, so does the potential for human-wildlife conflict, especially with predators. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) are a top predator in several urban areas across the United States and a potential contributor to human-carnivore conflicts. This study evaluated the movements and habitat use of bobcats in the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW), Texas metroplex. Spatial data were collected from 10 bobcats via Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) for approximately one year. Average home range size was 4.60 km2 (n=9, SE=0 ...


Resin Monoterpene Defenses Decline Within Three Widespread Species Of Pine (Pinus) Along A 1530-M Elevational Gradient, Scott Ferrenberg, Joseph M. Langenhan, Jeffry B. Mitton 2017 New Mexico State University - Main Campus

Resin Monoterpene Defenses Decline Within Three Widespread Species Of Pine (Pinus) Along A 1530-M Elevational Gradient, Scott Ferrenberg, Joseph M. Langenhan, Jeffry B. Mitton

University Libraries Open Access Fund Supported Publications

The elevational gradient in plant defense (EGPD) hypothesis posits that natural enemy pressures increase alongside temperature across elevational climatic gradients, thereby selecting for enhanced defenses at lower elevations while leaving plants less defended at higher elevations. Phylogenetically constrained tests of this hypothesis are uncommon, with tests focused on defenses of mature trees in natural settings being exceedingly rare. In the absence of this information, predicting the spatiotemporal dynamics of forest pests that preferentially attack mature trees is rendered more difficult. Tree properties such as age, growth rate, and size have all been correlated with levels of tree defenses against insect ...


The North American Quails, Partridges, And Pheasants, Paul A. Johnsgard 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The North American Quails, Partridges, And Pheasants, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This book documents the biology of six species of New World quails that are native to North America north of Mexico (mountain, scaled, Gambel’s, California, and Montezuma quails, and the northern bobwhite), three introduced Old World partridges (chukar, Himalayan snowcock, and gray partridge), and the introduced common (ring-necked) pheasant. Collectively, quails, partridges, and pheasants range throughout all of the continental United States and the Canadian provinces. Two of the species, the northern bobwhite and ring-necked pheasant, are the most economically important of all North American upland game birds. All of the species are hunted extensively for sport and are ...


The Effects Of Evolution On Food Web Diversity And Abundance, Rosalyn Rael 2017 Tulane University of Louisiana

The Effects Of Evolution On Food Web Diversity And Abundance, Rosalyn Rael

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Hierarchy Establishment From Nonlinear Social Interactions And Metabolic Costs: An Application To The Harpegnathos Saltator, Armando Salinas III 2017 Arizona State University at the Tempe Campus

Hierarchy Establishment From Nonlinear Social Interactions And Metabolic Costs: An Application To The Harpegnathos Saltator, Armando Salinas Iii

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Use Of Soil Chemical Analysis To Detect Commercial Wildlife Game Baits, Aaron Haines, Angela Fetterolf, Meta Griffin, Tristan Conrad, Steven Kennedy 2017 Millersville University of Pennsylvania

Use Of Soil Chemical Analysis To Detect Commercial Wildlife Game Baits, Aaron Haines, Angela Fetterolf, Meta Griffin, Tristan Conrad, Steven Kennedy

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Hunters and poachers often use commercially-available, nutrient-rich baits to attract wildlife game animals. We used atomic absorption spectroscopy and ion selective electrochemical analysis techniques to determine whether two common proprietary baits (Deer Cane and Acorn Rage) would leave detectable chemical signatures in soil (i.e., Na+, Cl-, and Ca+2). Our goal was to evaluate low cost tests which could be replicated by wildlife conservation officers in the field. To complete the evaluation we randomly placed two commercial baits on 3 sites in The Millersville University Biological Preserve in Millersville, PA. We collected soils samples from each site over the ...


Humans As Prey: Coping With Large Carnivore Attacks Using A Predator-Prey Interaction Perspective, Vincenzo Penteriani, Giulia Bombieri, José María Fedriani, José Vicente López-Bao, Pedro José Garrote, Luca Francesco Russo, María del Mar Delgado 2017 CSIC, Spain

Humans As Prey: Coping With Large Carnivore Attacks Using A Predator-Prey Interaction Perspective, Vincenzo Penteriani, Giulia Bombieri, José María Fedriani, José Vicente López-Bao, Pedro José Garrote, Luca Francesco Russo, María Del Mar Delgado

Human–Wildlife Interactions

The number of attacks on humans by large carnivores in North America is increasing. A better understanding the factors triggering such attacks is critical to mitigating the risk of future encounters in landscape where humans and large carnivore co-exist. Since 1955, of the 632 attacks on humans by large carnivores, 106 (17%) involved predation. We draw on concepts and empirical evidence from the Predator-Prey Interaction Theory to provide insights into how to reduce predatory attacks and, thus, improve human-large carnivore co-existence. Because large carnivore-caused mortality risks for humans are comparable to those shown by other mammal species in response to ...


Effects Of A Prescribed Burn On The Adult Butterfly Assemblage Of A Coastal Grassland, J. Nicole DeSha, Joseph Colbert, Kimberly M. Andrews, Scott Coleman, C. Tate Holbrook 2017 College of Coastal Georgia

Effects Of A Prescribed Burn On The Adult Butterfly Assemblage Of A Coastal Grassland, J. Nicole Desha, Joseph Colbert, Kimberly M. Andrews, Scott Coleman, C. Tate Holbrook

Georgia Journal of Science

Coastal grasslands are globally threatened by development and natural succession. In the southeastern United States, these increasingly rare ecosystems are being managed using prescribed fire, but ecological responses to fire management are largely unknown, particularly among nontargeted species. We tested for short-term effects of controlled burning on the abundance and species richness of adult butterflies, which utilize coastal grasslands for nectaring resources and as migratory stopover sites. In February 2015, four plots of coastal grassland on Little St. Simons Island, GA were burned and paired with unburned (control) plots of equal size. Throughout the following summer-fall flight season, we conducted ...


Spatial And Temporal Heterogeneity Of Microbial Life In Artificial Landscapes, Roopkamal Kaur, Aditi Sengupta, Peter A. Troch 2017 University of Southern California

Spatial And Temporal Heterogeneity Of Microbial Life In Artificial Landscapes, Roopkamal Kaur, Aditi Sengupta, Peter A. Troch

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The Landscape Evolution Observatory (LEO) project at Biosphere 2 consists of three replicated artificial landscapes which are sealed within a climate-controlled glass house. LEO is composed of basaltic soil material with low organic matter, nutrients, and microbes. The landscapes are built to resemble zero-order basins and enables researchers to observe hydrological, biological, and geochemical evolution of landscapes in a controlled environment. This study is focused on capturing microbial community dynamics in LEO soil, pre- and post-controlled rainfall episodes. Soil samples were collected from six different positions and at five depths in each of the three slopes followed by DNA extraction ...


European Starlings, H. Jeffrey Homan, Ron J. Johnson, James R. Thiele, George M. Linz 2017 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

European Starlings, H. Jeffrey Homan, Ron J. Johnson, James R. Thiele, George M. Linz

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris, Figure 1) are an invasive species in the United States. The first recorded release of the birds was in 1890 in New York City’s Central Park. Because starlings easily adapt to a variety of habitats, nest sites and food sources, the birds spread quickly across the country. Today, there are about 150 million starlings in North America. Conflicts between people and starlings occur mostly in agricultural settings. Conflicts can occur during winter in urban and suburban environments, especially in business districts.

Starlings damage apples, blueberries, cherries, figs, grapes, peaches, and strawberries. Besides causing direct losses ...


Modelling The Future Spread Of Native And Alien Congeneric Species In Subterranean Habitats — The Case Of Meta Cave-Dwelling Spiders In Great Britain, Stefano Mammola 2017 University of Torino

Modelling The Future Spread Of Native And Alien Congeneric Species In Subterranean Habitats — The Case Of Meta Cave-Dwelling Spiders In Great Britain, Stefano Mammola

International Journal of Speleology

The threshold zones between the epigean and hypogean environments are generally characterized by less harsh ecological conditions than deep subterranean habitats, and usually support a greater abundance of organisms. Transitional habitats such as these should be more easily colonised by alien species, especially by those possessing exaptations suitable for subterranean life. In spite of this, few studies have been conducted to unravel the ecological dynamics between native and alien species in the habitats situated at the epigean/hypogean interface. A unique test case is offered by cave-dwelling Meta orb-weaver spiders in Great Britain (Araneae: Tetragnathidae). One species, M. menardi, is ...


The Influence Of Phylogeny And Niche Differentiation On The Diets Of Malagasy Primates, Rebekka S. Hughes 2017 CUNY Hunter College

The Influence Of Phylogeny And Niche Differentiation On The Diets Of Malagasy Primates, Rebekka S. Hughes

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Previous studies have shown that haplorhine diet is affected by phylogeny; however, until now studies in Malagasy strepsirrhines were lacking. The evolution of differences in Malagasy primates’ diets appears to differ from the pattern shown in haplorhines. My results indicate that niche differentiation may be a stronger predictor of diet.


On Honey Bee Colony Dynamics And Disease Transmission, Matthew I. Betti 2017 The University of Western Ontario

On Honey Bee Colony Dynamics And Disease Transmission, Matthew I. Betti

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The work herein falls under the umbrella of mathematical modeling of disease transmission. The majority of this document focuses on the extent to which infection undermines the strength of a honey bee colony. These studies extend from simple mass-action ordinary differential equations models, to continuous age-structured partial differential equation models and finally a detailed agent-based model which accounts for vector transmission of infection between bees as well as a host of other influences and stressors on honey bee colony dynamics. These models offer a series of predictions relevant to the fate of honey bee colonies in the presence of disease ...


Acoustic Signatures Of Habitat Types In The Miombo Woodlands Of Western Tanzania, Sheryl Vanessa Amorocho, Dante Francomano, Kristen M. Bellisario, Ben Gottesman, Bryan C. Pijanowski 2017 Universidad de Los Andes - Colombia

Acoustic Signatures Of Habitat Types In The Miombo Woodlands Of Western Tanzania, Sheryl Vanessa Amorocho, Dante Francomano, Kristen M. Bellisario, Ben Gottesman, Bryan C. Pijanowski

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The Miombo Woodlands of Tanzania comprise several habitat types that are home to a great number of flora and fauna. Understanding their responses to increasing human disturbance is important for conservation, especially in places where people depend so directly on their local ecosystem services to survive. Soundscapes are a powerful approach to study complex biomes undergoing change. The sounds emitted by soniferous fauna characterize the acoustic profile of the landscapes they inhabit such that habitats with the highest acoustic abundance are considered as the most diverse and possibly more ecologically resilient. However, acoustic variability within similar habitat types may pose ...


Responses Of Agroecosystems To Climate Change: Specifics Of Resilience In The Mid-Latitude Region, Menas Kafatos, Seung Hee Kim, Chul-Hee Lim, Jinwon Kim, Woo-Kyun Lee 2017 Chapman University

Responses Of Agroecosystems To Climate Change: Specifics Of Resilience In The Mid-Latitude Region, Menas Kafatos, Seung Hee Kim, Chul-Hee Lim, Jinwon Kim, Woo-Kyun Lee

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

This study examines the productivity and resilience of agroecosystems in the Korean Peninsula. Having learned valuable lessons from a Chapman University project funded by the United States Department of Agriculture which concentrated on the semi-arid region of southwestern United States, our joint Korea—Chapman University team has applied similar methodologies to the Korean Peninsula, which is itself an interesting study case in the mid-latitude region. In particular, the Korean Peninsula has unique agricultural environments due to differences in political and socioeconomic systems between South Korea and North Korea. Specifically, North Korea has been suffering from food shortages due to natural ...


Ecological Niche Modeling Of The Genus Papio, Amanda J. Fuchs 2017 CUNY Hunter College

Ecological Niche Modeling Of The Genus Papio, Amanda J. Fuchs

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Ecological niche modeling investigates how climatic variables have influenced taxonomic diversity in Papio. Models performed well suggesting climatic variables influence the distribution of baboon species. Niche overlap among all possible pairs of taxa determined that species exhibited significantly different niches. The results of these models support a parapatric speciation scenario.


Ecology Of The Young-Of-The-Year Emerald Shiner (Notropis Atherinoides) In The Upper Niagara River, New York: Growth, Diversity, And Importance As A Forage Species, Jacob L. Cochran 2017 State University of New York College at Buffalo

Ecology Of The Young-Of-The-Year Emerald Shiner (Notropis Atherinoides) In The Upper Niagara River, New York: Growth, Diversity, And Importance As A Forage Species, Jacob L. Cochran

Great Lakes Center Masters Theses

The emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) is a relatively understudied Cyprinid that fills a major keystone role in the Niagara River. Little is known about the emerald shiner’s early life history, such as the ecology of their larval and juvenile stages, which is the focus of this study. In the upper Niagara River, larvae first recruited into sampling gear in early July at a mean water temperature of 23oC, with larvae appearing into August. Young-of-the-year (YOY) emerald shiners grew an average of 1.5 mm and 31.5 mg a week throughout the growing season with condition peaking ...


Herons And Egrets, Michael D. Hoy 2017 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Herons And Egrets, Michael D. Hoy

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Human-Wildlife Conflicts

Landscapes -- Herons and egrets commonly cause damage at aquaculture facilities and recreational fishing waters where fish are held at high densities. In one study, on average wading birds consumed from 4 to 24 golden shiners per day at minnow production facilities in Arkansas. Great blue herons and great egrets commonly feed at catfish production facilities in Mississippi. The tendency for herons and egrets to congregate in large feeding flocks often leads to extensive loss of fish at aquaculture facilities. Fish-eating birds also can have an impact on intensively managed sport fisheries. Damage occurs when herons and egrets feed ...


Synergistic Use Of Remote Sensing And Modeling To Assess An Anomalously High Chlorophyll-A Event During Summer 2015 In The South Central Red Sea, Wenzhao Li, Hesham el-Askary, K. P. ManiKandan, Mohamed A. Qurban, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova 2017 Chapman University

Synergistic Use Of Remote Sensing And Modeling To Assess An Anomalously High Chlorophyll-A Event During Summer 2015 In The South Central Red Sea, Wenzhao Li, Hesham El-Askary, K. P. Manikandan, Mohamed A. Qurban, Michael J. Garay, Olga V. Kalishnikova

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

An anomalously high chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) event (>2 mg/m3) during June 2015 in the South Central Red Sea (17.5° to 22°N, 37° to 42°E) was observed using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data from the Terra and Aqua satellite platforms. This differs from the low Chl-a values (<0.5 mg/m3) usually encountered over the same region during summertime. To assess this anomaly and possible causes, we used a wide range of oceanographical and meteorological datasets, including Chl-a concentrations, sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), mixed layer depth (MLD), ocean current velocity and aerosol optical depth (AOD) obtained from different sensors and models. Findings confirmed this anomalous behavior in the spatial domain using Hovmöller data analysis techniques, while a time series analysis addressed monthly and daily variability. Our analysis suggests that a combination of factors controlling nutrient supply contributed to the anomalous phytoplankton growth. These factors include horizontal transfer of upwelling water through eddy circulation and possible mineral fertilization from atmospheric dust deposition. Coral reefs might have provided extra nutrient supply, yet this is out of the scope of our analysis. We thought that dust deposition from a coastal dust jet event in late June, coinciding with the phytoplankton blooms in the area under investigation, might have also contributed as shown by our AOD findings. However, a lag cross correlation showed a two- month lag between strong dust outbreak and the high Chl-a anomaly. The high Chl-a concentration at the edge of the eddy emphasizes the importance of horizontal advection in fertilizing oligotrophic (nutrient poor) Red Sea waters.


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