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Autonomous Recording Units As An Alternative Method For Monitoring Songbirds, Lindsay Clough 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Autonomous Recording Units As An Alternative Method For Monitoring Songbirds, Lindsay Clough

Masters Theses

There is an increasing interest in the use of autonomous recording units as an alternative survey method to point count surveys conducted by human observers; however, questions remain about whether or not these recording units perform similarly to point count surveys and produce valid, comparable results. The use of individual listeners to transcribe the acoustic data collected by autonomous recording units is a common method for the analysis of recorded acoustic data, but potential variability among transcribers raises questions about the standardization of listening protocols to decrease inconsistencies in transcription results.

Autonomous recording units have been used to monitor birds ...


The Ecological Value Of Spruce Plantations In Massachusetts, Calvin Ritter 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Ecological Value Of Spruce Plantations In Massachusetts, Calvin Ritter

Masters Theses

The establishment of monoculture plantations of exotic tree species is common practice for supplementing native timber stocks. Such plantations typically provide inferior habitat for wildlife compared to native forest, which may result in a net reduction in biodiversity. However, some studies report that plantations may increase net biodiversity at the landscape scale by introducing novel habitats or supplementing existing natural forests. Using point count surveys, I examined six mature Norway spruce (Picea abies) plantations in western Massachusetts in 2016 and 2017 to evaluate bird use of these habitats relative to native forest stands. Count data were analyzed using N-mixture models ...


Reconsidering The Obstetrical Dilemma: Correlations Between Head And Pelvic Size, Kelsey Catrice Fox 2020 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Reconsidering The Obstetrical Dilemma: Correlations Between Head And Pelvic Size, Kelsey Catrice Fox

LSU Master's Theses

The Obstetrical Dilemma (OD) theory has become canon in biological anthropology. The OD posits that i] dystocia results from bipedal mothers and encephalized infants, ii] contrasting selection for bipedality and obstetrics hinders locomotive efficiency, and iii] the contradicting requirement of the fetus being small enough to pass through the birth canal yet being cognitively advanced enough to cling to its mother after birth. Females, theoretically, exhibit deficient gait efficiency for the sake of successful childbirth. An obstetric advantage theory has been posited where taller individuals with a larger head size have larger pelves. If the distance between the acetabulae increases ...


Beaver Moderated Fire Resistance In The North Cascades, Wa, Usa, Joseph Weirich, Rebecca Brown PhD. 2020 Eastern Washington University

Beaver Moderated Fire Resistance In The North Cascades, Wa, Usa, Joseph Weirich, Rebecca Brown Phd.

2020 Symposium Posters

Climate change and fire suppression have altered historic fire regimes creating conditions for larger, high severity fires. Intense burns denude vegetation, alter hydrology, and cause channel incision, impairing riparian function. Burn severity varies based on topography and increases with distance from water sources like lakes, streams, and wetlands. Beaver introduction is a passive technique to restore incised and degraded streams using their unique abilities to build dams, store water and create wetland environments. The objective of this study was to assess whether beaver impoundments increase landscape resistance to wildfire by increasing riparian soil and vegetation moisture levels. We hypothesize that ...


Density-Dependent Development Impacts The Success Of Wolbachia-Based Mosquito Control Programs, Alyssa Petroski, Lauren M. Childs, Michael Andrew Robert 2020 University of the Sciences in Philadelphia

Density-Dependent Development Impacts The Success Of Wolbachia-Based Mosquito Control Programs, Alyssa Petroski, Lauren M. Childs, Michael Andrew Robert

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Predicting And Managing Risk To Bats At Commercial Wind Farms Using Acoustics, Trevor Peterson 2020 University of Maine

Predicting And Managing Risk To Bats At Commercial Wind Farms Using Acoustics, Trevor Peterson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bat populations in North America face novel threats from white-nose syndrome and widespread turbine-related mortality related to the rapidly expanding wind power industry in addition to long-standing pressures from habitat loss and degradation. Bats, unlike most small mammals, are long-lived and slow to reproduce, highlighting the importance of understanding and managing anthropogenic sources of mortality. My dissertation research used acoustic bat detectors to measure bat activity at commercial wind projects, predict patterns in risk, and design strategic measures to reduce fatality rates by curtailing turbine operation during periods when bats are most active. Bats collide with wind turbines only when ...


Genetic Analysis Of Invasive Populations Of Ventenata Dubia (Poaceae): An Assessment Of Propagule Pressure And Pattern Of Range Expansion In The Western United States, Inna Pervukhina-Smith 2020 Boise State University

Genetic Analysis Of Invasive Populations Of Ventenata Dubia (Poaceae): An Assessment Of Propagule Pressure And Pattern Of Range Expansion In The Western United States, Inna Pervukhina-Smith

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Molecular markers prove to be an invaluable tool in assessing the introduction dynamics, pattern of range expansion, and population genetics of an invasive species. Ventenata dubia (Leers) Coss. (Aveneae; ventenata) is a diploid, primarily self-pollinating, annual grass native to Eurasia and Northern Africa. The grass has a detailed herbarium collection history in the western United States since its discovery in eastern Washington in 1952. Genetic analysis of 51 invasive populations (1636 individuals) of V. dubia, coupled with historical records, suggests moderate propagule pressure from multiple introductions, followed by local or regional range expansion. Enzyme electrophoresis detected nine multilocus genotypes (MLGs ...


Chemosensory And Temperature-Based Prey Discrimination In Ball Pythons, Brianne Yarger 2020 Susquehanna University

Chemosensory And Temperature-Based Prey Discrimination In Ball Pythons, Brianne Yarger

Senior Scholars Day

Ball pythons (Python regius), like other snakes in the Boidae family, use heat-sensitive pit organs and odor-sensitive Jacobson’s organ (vomernasal organ) to detect prey. The discrimination sensitivity and interaction of these organs to influence prey detection and choice however have been poorly tested. We performed a series of two-choice experiments to determine ball python preference for specific odors and/or biologically-relevant thermal stimuli. We tested the following pairs of stimuli: 1) rat odor vs. water, 2) anterior vs posterior odors of a rat, 3) rat (familiar) vs rabbit (unfamiliar) odor, 4) rat vs orange peel odor, 5) odor from ...


A Basic Ddradseq Two‐Enzyme Protocol Performs Well With Herbarium And Silica‐Dried Tissues Across Four Genera, Ingrid E. Jordon-Thaden, James B. Beck, Catherine A. Rushworth, Michael D. Windham, Nicolas Diaz, Jason T. Cantley, Christopher T. Martine, Carl J. Rothfels 2020 University of Wisconsin-Madison

A Basic Ddradseq Two‐Enzyme Protocol Performs Well With Herbarium And Silica‐Dried Tissues Across Four Genera, Ingrid E. Jordon-Thaden, James B. Beck, Catherine A. Rushworth, Michael D. Windham, Nicolas Diaz, Jason T. Cantley, Christopher T. Martine, Carl J. Rothfels

Faculty Journal Articles

Premise

The ability to sequence genome‐scale data from herbarium specimens would allow for the economical development of data sets with broad taxonomic and geographic sampling that would otherwise not be possible. Here, we evaluate the utility of a basic double‐digest restriction site–associated DNA sequencing (ddRADseq) protocol using DNAs from four genera extracted from both silica‐dried and herbarium tissue.

Methods

DNAs from Draba, Boechera, Solidago, and Ilex were processed with a ddRADseq protocol. The effects of DNA degradation, taxon, and specimen age were assessed.

Results

Although taxon, preservation method, and specimen age affected data recovery, large phylogenetically ...


Checklist Of The Freshwater Sponges (Porifera: Spongillida) Of Tennessee, John E. Copeland 2020 Lincoln Memorial University

Checklist Of The Freshwater Sponges (Porifera: Spongillida) Of Tennessee, John E. Copeland

Cumberland Mountain Naturalist

Of the ~8,500 sponge species that are known to exist, approximately 3% inhabit freshwater. Taxonomically, freshwater sponges are divided into 6 families with less than 250 identified species. Of these, 33 species of freshwater sponge can be found in the Nearctic Biogeographical realm with 13 species documented in Tennessee waters. Species of three families, Metanidae, Potamolepidae, and Spongillidae, are known to occur in the United States but only members of Potamolepidae and Spongillidae have been collected from Tennessee waters. This article presents a species checklist with currently known distribution information.


Evolutionary Ecology Of Host-Parasite Relationships: Role Of Host Ecology, Phylogeny, And Demographics In Shaping Parasite Evolution, Erika Taylor Gendron 2020 University of New Mexico

Evolutionary Ecology Of Host-Parasite Relationships: Role Of Host Ecology, Phylogeny, And Demographics In Shaping Parasite Evolution, Erika Taylor Gendron

Biology ETDs

Host-parasite systems exist across complex and ecologically heterogeneous landscapes, and may occur across taxonomically and ecologically disparate host species. Under these conditions, mechanisms underlying microevolutionary processes (i.e. gene flow, genetic drift) are not always clear, and may be mediated by numerous co-occurring factors specific to individual hosts. Host traits such as host immunology, demographics, phylogeny and ecology may act in concert to shape host-parasite relationships, and ultimately evolutionary processes. The research described herein used phylogeographic, phylogenomic, and population genetic methods to further understanding of how host traits impact the evolutionary ecology of trematode systems, using avian schistosomes (Digenea: Schistosomatidae ...


An Analysis Of Social Dominance In The Feeding Of Ex Situ Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus Humboldti), Robert Gabel 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

An Analysis Of Social Dominance In The Feeding Of Ex Situ Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus Humboldti), Robert Gabel

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

In the field of ecology, complex social structures, including dominance hierarchies, have been demonstrated in a variety of fauna, including bird species. While wild Humboldt Penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) do not exhibit a feeding hierarchy, captive penguins are under very different conditions. Humboldt penguins feed on schooling fish in the wild, but in captivity are hand fed from a zookeeper. I investigated whether there is a nonrandom pattern of dominance in the feeding order of the penguins at the Lincoln Children’s Zoo, in Lincoln, NE, USA. Using a camera and tripod, with assistance from four of the zookeepers, I recorded ...


Grackles, Michael J. Bodenchuk, David L. Bergman 2020 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services

Grackles, Michael J. Bodenchuk, David L. Bergman

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Numbering in the tens of millions of birds, grackle populations in North America can cause a variety of conflicts with people. Grackles eat agricultural crops and livestock feed, damage property, spread pathogens, and collide with aircraft. Their large roosts can be a nuisance in urban and suburban areas. A combination of dispersal techniques, exclusion, and lethal removal may help to reduce grackle damage.

Grackles adapt easily to human-dominated environments, and exploit human food and other features of human landscapes. Thus, an integrated damage management approach to grackle damage focuses on reducing and eliminating the damage, rather than simply controlling grackle ...


Diversity And Ethnobotanical Importance Of Pine Species From Sub-Tropical Forests, Azad Jammu And Kashmir, Kishwar Sultana, Sher Wali Khan, Safdar Ali Shah 2020 PMAS-Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan

Diversity And Ethnobotanical Importance Of Pine Species From Sub-Tropical Forests, Azad Jammu And Kashmir, Kishwar Sultana, Sher Wali Khan, Safdar Ali Shah

Journal of Bioresource Management

A general investigation of sub-tropical forests, from Pir Chinasi National Park, Tolipir National Park, Dhirkot Nature Reserve and Banjosa Game Reserve was carried out during different months from February 2008 to May 2010. The relative abundance of species was calculated using line transects of 50m. A total of five different species (Abies pindrow. Cedrus deodara, Pinus wallichiana, Pinus roxburgii and Picea smithiana) from the Pinaceae family were recorded. The main reported use of Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana by the local people was for furniture and construction purposes. Pinus wallichiana was observed as the dominant species from all the selected ...


Molecular Differentiation Of Astragalus Species And Varieties From The Western United States: The Chloroplast Dna Bridge Between Evolution And Molecular Systematics, Marwa Neyaz, Daniel Cook, Rebecca Creamer 2020 New Mexico State University

Molecular Differentiation Of Astragalus Species And Varieties From The Western United States: The Chloroplast Dna Bridge Between Evolution And Molecular Systematics, Marwa Neyaz, Daniel Cook, Rebecca Creamer

Poisonous Plant Research (PPR)

Locoweeds are the most widespread poisonous plant problem in the world and have been reported in the Western United States since the 1800s, causing tremendous losses in livestock. Consumption of locoweeds by grazing animals stimulates the neurological disease, locoism, characterized by weight loss, ataxia, and lack of muscular coordination. The name locoweed is used for Astragalus and Oxytropis species known to contain swainsonine, the toxic principle produced by the plant endophytic fungus Undifilum. Astragalus includes 2,500-3,000 species and many varieties that have almost identical morphological characteristics that overlap among species, leading to improper identification. Therefore, the aim of ...


Eelgrass Health Survey And Results, Nicholas B. Anderson, Catherine M. Ashcraft, Dante D. Torio, Frederick T. Short 2020 University of New Hampshire

Eelgrass Health Survey And Results, Nicholas B. Anderson, Catherine M. Ashcraft, Dante D. Torio, Frederick T. Short

Natural Resources and the Environment Scholarship

Researchers at the University of New Hampshire designed, tested, and conducted an eelgrass health survey. The primary goal of the survey was to collect health ratings from respondents who had viewed pre-selected images of eelgrass representing a wide range of health conditions. Survey results were used as a calibration and validation to a novel eelgrass health index developed using video-monitoring. Two secondary goals of this this survey were the identification of plant-specific and environmental characteristics important to respondents and the introduction of the new eelgrass health index. This published dataset includes de-identified survey respondent background and demographic data, the survey ...


Common Ravens, Luke W. Peebles, Jack O. Spencer Jr. 2020 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services, Crawford, Nebraska

Common Ravens, Luke W. Peebles, Jack O. Spencer Jr.

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Damage Management Methods for Common Ravens

Type of Control -- Available Management Options

Exclusion -- Often ineffective or impractical

Fertility Control -- None available

Frightening Devices -- Effigies • Pyrotechnics and propane cannons • Lasers and flashing lights

Habitat Modification -- Bale and bury garbage • Install dumpsters with secure lids • Remove or bury dead livestock • Remove abandoned houses, sheds, and barns to eliminate nesting structures

Nest Treatment -- Allowed with proper Federal and State permits; Egg oiling or addling and nest destruction

Repellents -- Methiocarb (EPA Reg. No. 56228-33) • Methyl anthranilate (food-grade grape flavoring agent)

Shooting -- Allowed with proper Federal and State permits; Requires use of non-toxic/non-lead ammunition ...


Niche Segregation Among Three Sympatric Species Of Swallows In Southern Ontario, Kaelyn H. Bumelis 2020 The University of Western Ontario

Niche Segregation Among Three Sympatric Species Of Swallows In Southern Ontario, Kaelyn H. Bumelis

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Barn Swallows (Hirundo rustica), Cliff Swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) and Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breed sympatrically in southern Ontario but it is unclear how these species differ ecologically, and their coexistence implies niche segregation. I investigated potential interspecific differences in nestling diet and post-fledging movements. Using DNA barcoding of nestling feces and stable isotope analysis (δ13C, δ15N, δ2H) of nestling feathers, I found evidence of differences in dietary sources of provisioned young. Barn Swallows showed evidence of provisioning more terrestrial-based prey, Cliff Swallows provisioned an intermediate diet, and Tree Swallows the most aquatic-based diet. To ...


Martin Luther King Jr. And Ernest Everett Just - On Evolution Of Ethical Behavior, Theodore Walker 2020 Southern Methodist University

Martin Luther King Jr. And Ernest Everett Just - On Evolution Of Ethical Behavior, Theodore Walker

Perkins Faculty Research and Special Events

Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. prescribed an evolutionary advance in ethical behavior: the total “abolition of poverty” and the abolition of war throughout “the world house.” Cell biologist Ernest Everett Just advanced the idea that human ethical behavior evolved from cellular origins.

Also, astrobiologists Chandra Wickramasinghe and Sir Fred Hoyle advanced the idea of cosmic biology, including stellar evolution and cosmic evolution. From cells to humans to stars and cosmology, evolutionary natural science converges with natural theology.


The Bioethical Significance Of “The Origin Of Man’S Ethical Behavior” (October 1941, Unpublished) By Ernest Everett Just And Hedwig Anna Schnetzler Just, Theodore Walker Jr. 2020 Southern Methodist University

The Bioethical Significance Of “The Origin Of Man’S Ethical Behavior” (October 1941, Unpublished) By Ernest Everett Just And Hedwig Anna Schnetzler Just, Theodore Walker Jr.

Journal of the South Carolina Academy of Science

Abstract –

E. E. Just (1883-1941) is an acknowledged “pioneer” in cell biology, and he is perhaps the pioneer in study of egg cell fertilization. Here we discover that Just also made pioneering contributions to general biology and evolutionary bioethics.

Within Just’s published contributions to observational cell biology, there are substantial fragments of his theory of ethical behavior, a theory with roots in cell biology. In addition to such previously available fragments, Just’s fully developed theory is now available. This recently discovered unpublished book-length manuscript argues for the biological origins of ethical behavior (evolving from cells to humans, within ...


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