Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

568 Full-Text Articles 1205 Authors 84572 Downloads 88 Institutions

All Articles in Other Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Faceted Search

568 full-text articles. Page 1 of 21.

Decolonizing The Ya North: Environmental Injustice In Sherri L. Smith’S Orleans, Micah-Jade M. Coleman 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

Decolonizing The Ya North: Environmental Injustice In Sherri L. Smith’S Orleans, Micah-Jade M. Coleman

Master's Theses

Young Adult (YA) dystopias, in recent years, have imagined a future world fueled by the overuse and misuse of technology, the advancement of science for human gain, as well as societies ruled by governments that govern based on their own self-interests and economic gain. Such novels have opened the door for discussion about how the present-day actions of societies can impact the future of the environment; yet many only focus their attention on societies in the North— regions considered “developed” by the western world. In her YA novel, Orleans (2014), Sherri L. Smith focuses attention on the aftermath of Hurricane ...


Telomere Length Shortens With Body Length In Alligator Mississippiensis, Nicole M. Scott, Mark F. Haussmann, Ruth M. Elsey, Phillip L. Trosclair III, Carol M. Vleck 2016 Iowa State University

Telomere Length Shortens With Body Length In Alligator Mississippiensis, Nicole M. Scott, Mark F. Haussmann, Ruth M. Elsey, Phillip L. Trosclair Iii, Carol M. Vleck

Carol Vleck

In Alligator mississippiensis (American Alligator), body length increases with age, but body length can be used as an accurate estimator of age only up to about 6–7 years, when growth rates slow considerably. Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences that cap the ends of each chromosome. Telomeres shorten with age in most animals, but telomere shortening has not been examined in reptiles. We measured telomere length in erythrocytes of A. mississippiensis varying between ≈ 5 and 240 cm in body length and found a negative relationship between telomere length and body length (P < 0.01). Assuming that erythrocyte telomeres continue to shorten with time, even after growth rate declines, those individuals with the shortest telomeres should be the oldest members of the population. This method of estimating age, even in animals of similar body size, should allow questions about age structure and senescence to be addressed.


Macropattern Of Styloid And Druse Crystals In Quillaja (Quillajaceae) Bark And Leaves, Nels R. Lersten, Harry T. Horner 2016 Iowa State University

Macropattern Of Styloid And Druse Crystals In Quillaja (Quillajaceae) Bark And Leaves, Nels R. Lersten, Harry T. Horner

Harry Horner

Quillaja has been shuffled among tribes and subfamilies of Rosaceae, segregated from it as a separate family, and, most recently, transferred to the Fabales as a separate family. Many anomalous characters have kept it from being settled anywhere permanently. One character never mentioned by systematists, but long known, is the anomalous (for Rosaceae) occurrence of prominent styloid calcium oxalate crystals, reported from the inner bark of stems. We describe in more detail the macropattern of crystal distribution in stem and leaf, using vibratome sections, sodium hypochlorite clearings of leaves, and polarizing and scanning electron microscopy. Styloids are extremely numerous in ...


Finding The Missing Link Between Landscape Structure And Population Dynamics: A Spatially Explicit Perspective, Thorsten Wiegand, Kirk A. Moloney, Javier Naves, Felix Knauer 2016 UFZ-Centre for Environmental Research

Finding The Missing Link Between Landscape Structure And Population Dynamics: A Spatially Explicit Perspective, Thorsten Wiegand, Kirk A. Moloney, Javier Naves, Felix Knauer

Kirk Moloney

We construct and explore a general modeling framework that allows for a systematic investigation of the impact of changes in landscape structure on population dynamics. The essential parts of the framework are a landscape generator with independent control over landscape composition and physiognomy, an individual-based spatially explicit population model that simulates population dynamics within heterogeneous landscapes, and scale-dependent landscape indices that depict the essential aspects of landscape that interact with dispersal and demographic processes. Landscape maps are represented by a grid of 50#50 cells and consist of good-quality, poorquality, or uninhabitable matrix habitat cells. The population model was shaped ...


The Karoo: Ecological Patterns And Processes, Kirk A. Moloney 2016 Iowa State University

The Karoo: Ecological Patterns And Processes, Kirk A. Moloney

Kirk Moloney

This book consists of chapters that examine a wide range of topics concerning the ecology of the little known, arid karoo of South Arica: "a vast region of rugged landscapes and low treeless vegetation" (p xxi). The karoo has a very high level of species diver sity and endemism, particularly the flora that "probably exceeds 7000 species of which up to 50% are endemic" (p 44). This fact alone makes the karoo an extremely interesting ecological system suitable of book-length treatment, particularly if it is well done, as in this case.


Population Dynamics, Disturbance, And Pattern Evolution: Identifying The Fundamental Scales Of Organization In A Model Ecosystem, Thorsten Wiegand, Kirk A. Moloney, Suzanne J. Milton 2016 UFZ-Centre for Environmental Research

Population Dynamics, Disturbance, And Pattern Evolution: Identifying The Fundamental Scales Of Organization In A Model Ecosystem, Thorsten Wiegand, Kirk A. Moloney, Suzanne J. Milton

Kirk Moloney

We used auto- and cross-correlation analysis and Ripley’s K-function analysis to analyze spatiotemporal pattern evolution in a spatially explicit simulation model of a semiarid shrubland (Karoo, South Africa) and to determine the impact of small-scale disturbances on system dynamics. Without disturbance, local dynamics were driven by a pattern of cyclic succession, where ‘‘colonizer’’ and ‘‘successor’’ species alternately replaced each other. This results in a strong pattern of negative correlation in the temporal distribution of colonizer and successor species. As disturbance rates were increased, the relationship shifted from being negatively correlated in time to being positively correlated—the dynamics became ...


Disposition Of Atrazine Metabolites Following Uptake And Degradation Of Atrazine In Switchgrass., Vurtice C. Albright III, Joel R. Coats 2016 Iowa State University

Disposition Of Atrazine Metabolites Following Uptake And Degradation Of Atrazine In Switchgrass., Vurtice C. Albright Iii, Joel R. Coats

Joel R. Coats

Extensive use of the agricultural herbicide atrazine has led to contamination of numerous ground and surface water bodies. Research has shown that it can have a variety of negative impacts on numerous non-target organisms in the environment. Phytoremediation is one strategy that has been studied to remove atrazine contamination. This paper investigates the hypothesis that switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) can exude metabolites of atrazine after uptake and degradation, which has been suggested by prior research. Pots planted with switchgrass were treated with a 4 ppm solution of atrazine spiked with [14C]atrazine. After 4 days, switchgrass plants were transplanted to new ...


The Shellfish Corner: Aquaculture Of Exotic Shellfish Species, Michael A. Rice 2016 University of Rhode Island

The Shellfish Corner: Aquaculture Of Exotic Shellfish Species, Michael A. Rice

Michael A Rice

Successful commercial aquaculture operations have grown in the Pacific Northwest and the Canadian West Coast on two exotic species Crassostrea gigas and Tapes philippinarum introduced from Japan during the 20th Century. Introduction of the Asian oyster C. ariakensis was proposed as a means for recovering distressed oyster fisheries in Chesapeake Bay, but it was not pursued after extensive public review deemed the practice too risky. However due to increased global shipping, exotic bivalves are being transferred worldwide. The recent introduction of a Western Hemisphere mussel Mytella charruana into the Philippines provides a good case study of shellfish aquaculture industry opportunities ...


Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information From A Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods For Brain Tissue Preservation Validated By Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, And X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography, Daniel F. Hughes, Ellen M. Walker, Paul M. Gignac, Anais Martinez, Kenichiro Negishi, Carl S. Lieb, Eli Greenbaum, Arshad M. Khan 2016 University of Texas at El Paso

Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information From A Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods For Brain Tissue Preservation Validated By Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, And X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography, Daniel F. Hughes, Ellen M. Walker, Paul M. Gignac, Anais Martinez, Kenichiro Negishi, Carl S. Lieb, Eli Greenbaum, Arshad M. Khan

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

Biodiversity hotspots, which harbor more endemic species than elsewhere on Earth, are
increasingly threatened. There is a need to accelerate collection efforts in these regions
before threatened or endangered species become extinct. The diverse geographical, ecological,
genetic, morphological, and behavioral data generated from the on-site collection of
an individual specimen are useful for many scientific purposes. However, traditional methods
for specimen preparation in the field do not permit researchers to retrieve neuroanatomical
data, disregarding potentially useful data for increasing our understanding of brain
diversity. These data have helped clarify brain evolution, deciphered relationships between
structure and function, and revealed constraints ...


Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information From A Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods For Brain Tissue Preservation Validated By Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, And X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography, Daniel F. Hughes, Ellen M. Walker, Paul M. Gignac, Anais Martinez, Kenichiro Negishi, Carl S. Lieb, Eli Greenbaum, Arshad M. Khan 2016 University of Texas at El Paso

Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information From A Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods For Brain Tissue Preservation Validated By Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, And X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography, Daniel F. Hughes, Ellen M. Walker, Paul M. Gignac, Anais Martinez, Kenichiro Negishi, Carl S. Lieb, Eli Greenbaum, Arshad M. Khan

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

Biodiversity hotspots, which harbor more endemic species than elsewhere on Earth, are
increasingly threatened. There is a need to accelerate collection efforts in these regions
before threatened or endangered species become extinct. The diverse geographical, ecological,
genetic, morphological, and behavioral data generated from the on-site collection of
an individual specimen are useful for many scientific purposes. However, traditional methods
for specimen preparation in the field do not permit researchers to retrieve neuroanatomical
data, disregarding potentially useful data for increasing our understanding of brain
diversity. These data have helped clarify brain evolution, deciphered relationships between
structure and function, and revealed constraints ...


The Gowanus Canal: Delving Into The Murky And Mysterious Waters Of Brooklyn’S Toxic Canal, Victoria L. Von Ancken 2016 Fordham University

The Gowanus Canal: Delving Into The Murky And Mysterious Waters Of Brooklyn’S Toxic Canal, Victoria L. Von Ancken

Student Theses 2015-Present

Like many environmental issues we face today, the Gowanus Canal began as a hopeful tale. It was envisioned as a promising cargo transportation waterway in Brooklyn, New York. However, due to reckless planning with little thought for the future, the canal slowly began to have a negative effect on its surrounding landscape and community, as well as abandoning its initial purpose, and ultimately sitting stagnant in the neighborhood. Today, the canal is a large environmental problem we face and is in great need of cleanup. The canal is a prime example of a lack of planning and consequential detrimental effects ...


Ocean Acidification And Predator-Prey Relations: Correlating Disruption Of Predator Avoidance With Chemosensory Deficits, Alexandra FW Sidun 2016 Chapman University

Ocean Acidification And Predator-Prey Relations: Correlating Disruption Of Predator Avoidance With Chemosensory Deficits, Alexandra Fw Sidun

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

One of the most destructive effects of global climate change is the increased carbon sequestering and consequential acidification of our world’s oceans. The impacts of ocean acidification on marine organisms are still relatively unknown, especially effects on behavioral ecology. Avoiding predation has emerged from recent behavioral ecology literature as a critical feature in the life history of a wide array of animal species; experiments on marine fishes suggest acidic water compromises their predator-avoidance abilities. Recent assays in our lab suggest predator-induced behavior is reduced by weakly acidic water. These experiments do not address the potential factor of generalized malaise ...


Disease-Causing Fungi In Homes And Yards In The Midwestern United States, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Disease-Causing Fungi In Homes And Yards In The Midwestern United States, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Dennis J. Baumgardner. MD

A number of fungal pathogens that may result in a variety of human diseases are found in residential homes and yards. The growth of these microscopic fungi is often favored by particular characteristics of the dwelling and nearby outdoor environment. Evolved virulence factors or increased ability of specific fungi to grow in diverse, and sometimes harsh, microenvironments presented by the domestic environment may promote growth and pathogenesis. Infection may occur by inhalation or direct inoculation and include endemic fungi in addition to opportunistic or emerging species. Systemic or locally aggressive fungal infections are particularly likely and may be life-threatening in ...


Blastomyces: Why Be Dimorphic?, Dennis J. Baumgardner 2016 Aurora UW Medical Group, Aurora Health Care

Blastomyces: Why Be Dimorphic?, Dennis J. Baumgardner

Dennis J. Baumgardner. MD

In introducing the infectious disease focus for this edition of the Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews, the author describes the unsolved mysteries surrounding the dimorphic fungus Blastomyces and the related pathogenesis of pulmonary blastomycosis.


Gaur (Bos Gaurus) Abundance, Distribution, And Habitat Use Patterns In Kuiburi National Park, Southwestern Thailand, Supatcharee Tanasarnpaiboon 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Gaur (Bos Gaurus) Abundance, Distribution, And Habitat Use Patterns In Kuiburi National Park, Southwestern Thailand, Supatcharee Tanasarnpaiboon

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Population status of gaur (Bos gaurus), a wild cattle, in most habitats where they are present, is still unknown. As the use of camera traps in wildlife studies are widespread, I developed photographic individual identification procedures and utilized encounter histories of gaur individuals from camera trap data to estimate gaur abundance and density using the spatially explicit capture-recapture analysis. The study was conducted at Kuiburi National Park, southwestern Thailand, comprised of dry evergreen forest, moist evergreen forest, and man-modified secondary forest during November 2013- January 2015. I conducted 71 direct observations in a savannah-like habitat area to observe the numbers ...


Estimating The Frequency Of Sexual Reproduction In The Diatom Stephanodiscus Niagarae, Ann W. Dickens 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Estimating The Frequency Of Sexual Reproduction In The Diatom Stephanodiscus Niagarae, Ann W. Dickens

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Diatoms are single-celled micro-algae with cell walls composed of silica, that reproduce in a way that results in a decrease in cell size after each round of mitotic (asexual) division. A cell cannot continue to shrink indefinitely, so when the average size of the population reaches a critical threshold, diatoms reproduce sexually and restore their maximal size. It is unclear, however, how frequently diatoms undergo sexual reproduction in nature. As a proxy for sexual reproduction, I monitored changes in cell size of a population of the diatom Stephanodiscus niagarae from the plankton community of Lake Fayetteville (Arkansas, USA). Weekly sampling ...


Plant-Microbe Interactions Influence Ecosystem Processes: The Role Of Roots And Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphae On Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics, Jessica Andrea Moore 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Plant-Microbe Interactions Influence Ecosystem Processes: The Role Of Roots And Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphae On Terrestrial Carbon Dynamics, Jessica Andrea Moore

Doctoral Dissertations

Plant-microbe interactions shape ecosystem processes such as productivity and decomposition of organic matter. Plants interact with mycorrhizal fungal hyphae to acquire nutrients from soil in exchange for plant-assimilated carbon. The mycorrhizal interaction is therefore a key influence on ecosystem carbon dynamics. Mycorrhizal fungi are key players in soil carbon cycling as they stimulate plants to allocate carbon belowground, and mycorrhizal fungal hyphae interact with microbial decomposers of soil carbon. However, there are few studies on mycorrhizal fungal hyphal interactions with roots and soil organisms in light of soil carbon accrual and release, important ecosystem processes. In my doctoral research, I ...


Factors Affecting Tree Swallow (Tachycineta Bicolor) Nestling Resting Metabolic Rate, Brooke M. Piepenburg 2016 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

Factors Affecting Tree Swallow (Tachycineta Bicolor) Nestling Resting Metabolic Rate, Brooke M. Piepenburg

All College Thesis Program

Metabolism is the major force that maintains the most rudimentary of functions, and, therefore, maintains life in every organism. Because of the immense effect metabolism can have on an individual’s life history, it is key that the factors influencing metabolic rate are investigated. This study was designed to investigate the influential factors affecting Tree swallow, Tachycineta bicolor, nestling resting metabolic rates by observing maternal effects, early developmental conditions, age, and body mass in Tree swallow nestlings within collection sites at the Saint John’s Abbey Arboretum and Kraemer Lake-Wildwood County Park in Stearns County, Minnesota. Due to the fact ...


Mass Extinctions Increase Evenness Of Genus Diversity Across Ecological Modes, Catherine Lau 2016 University of San Francisco

Mass Extinctions Increase Evenness Of Genus Diversity Across Ecological Modes, Catherine Lau

Creative Activity and Research Day - CARD

In the Big Five mass extinctions, species were eliminated from ecological modes (groups of species in the same habitat with the same motility method and feeding strategy) with greater species diversity preceding these events. Using Knope et al.'s (2015) data set of 18,621 marine animal genera, I asked: When diversity rebounds, does it recover to a similar distribution of genus diversity across modes or to a more even distribution spanning different modes? With each event, the difference in diversity among modes decreases, so evenness increases over time. Mass extinctions contribute to the broad range of diversity we see ...


Natural Skeletal Pathologies In A Population Of Gray Squirrels, Sciurus Carolinensis, From Putnam County, Georgia, Anna M. Bosch, Katelyn J. Benson, Alfred J. Mead 2016 Georgia College and State University

Natural Skeletal Pathologies In A Population Of Gray Squirrels, Sciurus Carolinensis, From Putnam County, Georgia, Anna M. Bosch, Katelyn J. Benson, Alfred J. Mead

Georgia Journal of Science

Antemortem bone remodeling following severe trauma leads to bone disfigurement that serves as a skeletal record of the injury resulting from events such as nonfatal predator attacks, aggressive intraspecific interactions, or accidental injuries related to lifestyle hazards. In the current study, pathologic bone regrowth was analyzed in a sample of 91 eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) skeletons from Putnam County, Georgia. The occurrence, frequency, and position of bridging fracture calluses, bone misalignments, bone-surface perforations, and localized superficial calluses were recorded and compared to other terrestrial, semiarboreal, and arboreal mammalian species. Evidence of healed bone fractures was observed in 41% of ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress