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First Major Appearance Of Brachiopod-Dominated Benthic Shelly Communities In The Reef Ecosystem During The Early Silurian, Cale A.C. Gushulak 2016 The University of Western Ontario

First Major Appearance Of Brachiopod-Dominated Benthic Shelly Communities In The Reef Ecosystem During The Early Silurian, Cale A.C. Gushulak

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The early Silurian reefs of the Attawapiskat Formation in the Hudson Bay Basin preserved the oldest record of major invasion of the coral-stromatoporoid skeletal reefs by brachiopods and other marine shelly benthos, providing an excellent opportunity for studying the early evolution, functional morphology, and community organization of the rich and diverse reef-dwelling brachiopods. Biometric and multivariate analysis demonstrate that the reef-dwelling Pentameroides septentrionalis evolved from the level-bottom-dwelling Pentameroides subrectus to develop a larger and more globular shell. The reef-dwelling brachiopods in the paleoequatorial Hudson Bay Basin were more diverse than contemporaneous higher latitude reef-dwelling brachiopod faunas, with ten distinct community ...


The Effect Of Prescribed Fires On Vernal Herbs, Janis Lemaster 2016 Western Kentucky University

The Effect Of Prescribed Fires On Vernal Herbs, Janis Lemaster

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The effects of fire on vernal herbs are little known. David Kem attempted to assess the influences of spring and winter prescribed fires on vernal herbs by collecting abundance data on three sets of research plots located at the WKU Green River Preserve in Hart County, KY, on April 9-10, 2010. On April 10 he conducted spring burns, and on February 22, 2011, he conducted winter burns. He then collected post-fire data on the abundance of the herbs on the 12-19 of March, 2011. He found little influence of fire on overall species richness and the density of common species ...


Effect Of Dung Beetles On Dung Decomposition And Nuntrient Cycling In A Nebraska Rangeland, Kenneth Shay Evans 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effect Of Dung Beetles On Dung Decomposition And Nuntrient Cycling In A Nebraska Rangeland, Kenneth Shay Evans

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Management practice can have impacts on the abundance and frequency of dung beetle populations and nutrient cycling in grazing systems. Also, agriculture and livestock production land use is a considerable source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which are known to be one of the causes of global climate change. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dung beetle presence on the fluxes of greenhouse gasses (GHG’s) from dung pats in the semi-arid Sandhills region of Nebraska, by using closed chambers to measure the fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2 ...


Decolonizing The Ya North: Environmental Injustice In Sherri L. Smith’S Orleans, Micah-Jade M. Coleman 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

Decolonizing The Ya North: Environmental Injustice In Sherri L. Smith’S Orleans, Micah-Jade M. Coleman

Master's Theses

Young Adult (YA) dystopias, in recent years, have imagined a future world fueled by the overuse and misuse of technology, the advancement of science for human gain, as well as societies ruled by governments that govern based on their own self-interests and economic gain. Such novels have opened the door for discussion about how the present-day actions of societies can impact the future of the environment; yet many only focus their attention on societies in the North— regions considered “developed” by the western world. In her YA novel, Orleans (2014), Sherri L. Smith focuses attention on the aftermath of Hurricane ...


Forest Islands In A Sea Of Urban Habitat, Michael J. Olejniczak 2016 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

Forest Islands In A Sea Of Urban Habitat, Michael J. Olejniczak

Biology Theses

Urban forests are poorly defined as ecological communities. Substantive links between anthropogenic landscape features and forest ecology are lacking. ‘Urbaness’ is commonly defined by human population density or land use classifications, but their use is inconsistent throughout the literature, and rarely is linked with ecological processes. Furthermore, it is unknown whether urban forests are functioning parts of a patchy urban woodland system or isolated islands amidst an ocean of unsuitable habitat. I first used digital satellite imagery and publicly available U.S. National Park data to link urban land use with forest processes. I then linked those land use classifications ...


Phenotypic And Fitness Consequences Of Maternal Nest-Site Choice Across Multiple Early Life Stages, Timothy S. Mitchell, Daniel A. Warner, Fredric J. Janzen 2016 Iowa State University

Phenotypic And Fitness Consequences Of Maternal Nest-Site Choice Across Multiple Early Life Stages, Timothy S. Mitchell, Daniel A. Warner, Fredric J. Janzen

Fredric Janzen

Identifying the relative contributions of genetic, maternal, and environmental factors to phenotypic variation is critical for evaluating the evolutionary potential of fitness-related traits. We employed a novel two-step cross-fostering experiment to quantify the relative contributions of clutch (i.e., maternal identity) and maternally chosen nest sites to phenotypic variation during three early life stages (incubation, hibernation, dispersal) of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). By translocating eggs between nests in the field, we demonstrated that both clutch and nest site contribute to phenotypic variation at hatching. Because hatchling C. pictahibernate inside nests, we performed a second cross-foster to decouple the ...


Evolutionary Genetics: From Molecules To Morphology, Fredric J. Janzen 2016 Iowa State University

Evolutionary Genetics: From Molecules To Morphology, Fredric J. Janzen

Fredric Janzen

The past 35 years have witnessed a revolution in evolutionary genetics that, like the proverbial The Little Engine that Could going over the mountain pass, shows no signs of slowing, much less stopping. To a considerable extent, we owe much to one per­ son, Richard Lewontin, for getting this little train over the hump and conducting it while the masses have shoveled coal into the boiler. Indeed, few have had such a substantive and pervasive impact on evolutionary biology in general, and so this edited volume is a welcome and well-deserved tribute to the powerful and varied influence of Lewontin ...


Hydric Conditions During Incubation Influence Phenotypes Of Neonatal Reptiles In The Field, Brooke L. Bodensteiner, Timothy S. Mitchell, Jeramie T. Strickland, Fredric J. Janzen 2016 Iowa State University

Hydric Conditions During Incubation Influence Phenotypes Of Neonatal Reptiles In The Field, Brooke L. Bodensteiner, Timothy S. Mitchell, Jeramie T. Strickland, Fredric J. Janzen

Fredric Janzen

  1. Phenotypic variation is strongly impacted by environmental conditions experienced during development. Substantial laboratory research has shown that reptiles with flexible-shelled eggs are particularly sensitive to hydric conditions, yet research on nests in the wild is sparse.
  2. In this 2-year field experiment, we explore the influence of hydric conditions during incubation on phenotypic traits of hatchling painted turtles (Chrysemys picta). Using a split-clutch design, we created two artificial nests adjacent to each maternally selected nest site. Half the eggs incubated in a nest that received regular supplemental watering, while the control nest was exposed to natural precipitation only.
  3. Our results suggest ...


Climate Change And Temperature‐Dependent Sex Determination: Can Individual Plasticity In Nesting Phenology Prevent Extreme Sex Ratios?, Lisa E. Schwanz, Fredric J. Janzen 2016 Iowa State University

Climate Change And Temperature‐Dependent Sex Determination: Can Individual Plasticity In Nesting Phenology Prevent Extreme Sex Ratios?, Lisa E. Schwanz, Fredric J. Janzen

Fredric Janzen

Under temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), temperatures experienced by embryos during development determine the sex of the offspring. Consequently, populations of organisms with TSD have the potential to be strongly impacted by climatic warming that could bias offspring sex ratio, a fundamental demographic parameter involved in population dynamics. Moreover, many taxa with TSD are imperiled, so research on this phenomenon, particularly long-term field study, has assumed great urgency. Recently, turtles with TSD have joined the diverse list of taxa that have demonstrated population- level changes in breeding phenology in response to recent climate change. This raises the possibility that any adverse ...


Does Life History Affect Molecular Evolutionary Rates?, Gerardo A. Cordero, Fredric Janzen 2016 Iowa State University

Does Life History Affect Molecular Evolutionary Rates?, Gerardo A. Cordero, Fredric Janzen

Fredric Janzen

The molecular evolutionary rate measures the frequency with which DNA or protein sequence mutations are fixed (i.e., shared by most individuals) in a population. On the other hand, the mutation rate refers to the amount of change in a DNA or protein sequence for a given unit of time. These two intrinsically related processes have been key to our basic understanding of molecular evolution. For example, the molecular clock theory (Zuckerkandl & Pauling 1962) predicts an increase in fixed amino acid mutations of protein sequences as a function of time. The molecular evolutionary rate is then expected to be constant ...


Habitat Temperature And Precipitation Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Ecotypes Determine The Response Of Foliar Vasculature, Photosynthesis, And Transpiration To Growth Temperature, William W. Adams III, Jared J. Stewart, Christopher M. Cohu, Onno Muller, Barbara Demmig-Adams 2016 University of Colorado Boulder

Habitat Temperature And Precipitation Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Ecotypes Determine The Response Of Foliar Vasculature, Photosynthesis, And Transpiration To Growth Temperature, William W. Adams Iii, Jared J. Stewart, Christopher M. Cohu, Onno Muller, Barbara Demmig-Adams

Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Faculty Contributions

Acclimatory adjustments of foliar vascular architecture, photosynthetic capacity, and transpiration rate in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes (Italian, Polish [Col-0], Swedish) were characterized in the context of habitat of origin. Temperatures of the habitat of origin decreased linearly with increasing habitat latitude, but habitat precipitation was greatest in Italy, lowest in Poland, and intermediate in Sweden. Plants of the three ecotypes raised under three different growth temperature regimes (low, moderate, and high) exhibited highest photosynthetic capacities, greatest leaf thickness, highest chlorophyll a/b ratio and levels of β-carotene, and greatest levels of wall ingrowths in phloem transfer cells, and, in the Col-0 ...


The North American Geese: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The North American Geese: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

The eight currently recognized species of North American geese are part of a familiar group of birds collectively called waterfowl, all of which are smaller than swans and generally larger than ducks. They include the most popular of our aquatic gamebirds, with several million shot each year by sport hunters. Our two most abundant waterfowl, the Canada goose and snow goose, have populations collectively totaling about 15 million individuals. Like swans, the lifelong pairbonding of geese, their familial care, and prolonged social attachment to their offspring are legendary. Their seasonal migratory flights sometimes span thousands of miles, and the sight ...


Telomere Length Shortens With Body Length In Alligator Mississippiensis, Nicole M. Scott, Mark F. Haussmann, Ruth M. Elsey, Phillip L. Trosclair III, Carol M. Vleck 2016 Iowa State University

Telomere Length Shortens With Body Length In Alligator Mississippiensis, Nicole M. Scott, Mark F. Haussmann, Ruth M. Elsey, Phillip L. Trosclair Iii, Carol M. Vleck

Carol Vleck

In Alligator mississippiensis (American Alligator), body length increases with age, but body length can be used as an accurate estimator of age only up to about 6–7 years, when growth rates slow considerably. Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences that cap the ends of each chromosome. Telomeres shorten with age in most animals, but telomere shortening has not been examined in reptiles. We measured telomere length in erythrocytes of A. mississippiensis varying between ≈ 5 and 240 cm in body length and found a negative relationship between telomere length and body length (P < 0.01). Assuming that erythrocyte telomeres continue to shorten with time, even after growth rate declines, those individuals with the shortest telomeres should be the oldest members of the population. This method of estimating age, even in animals of similar body size, should allow questions about age structure and senescence to be addressed.


Macropattern Of Styloid And Druse Crystals In Quillaja (Quillajaceae) Bark And Leaves, Nels R. Lersten, Harry T. Horner 2016 Iowa State University

Macropattern Of Styloid And Druse Crystals In Quillaja (Quillajaceae) Bark And Leaves, Nels R. Lersten, Harry T. Horner

Harry Horner

Quillaja has been shuffled among tribes and subfamilies of Rosaceae, segregated from it as a separate family, and, most recently, transferred to the Fabales as a separate family. Many anomalous characters have kept it from being settled anywhere permanently. One character never mentioned by systematists, but long known, is the anomalous (for Rosaceae) occurrence of prominent styloid calcium oxalate crystals, reported from the inner bark of stems. We describe in more detail the macropattern of crystal distribution in stem and leaf, using vibratome sections, sodium hypochlorite clearings of leaves, and polarizing and scanning electron microscopy. Styloids are extremely numerous in ...


The State Of Biological Resources In Mountain Regions In Relation To Climate Change, Vyacheslav Dushenkov 2016 CUNY Hostos Community College

The State Of Biological Resources In Mountain Regions In Relation To Climate Change, Vyacheslav Dushenkov

Publications and Research

In this book were published materials of Republic Scientific Conference «The state of biological resources in mountain regions in relation to climate change» dedicated to the 75th anniversary of the founding of the Pamir Botanical Garden named after A.V.Gurskii and 100th anniversary of the expedition Academician N.I.Vavilov in Pamir The main objective of the Conference was to discuss actual problems of biological diversity and the sustainable use of biological resources in mountain regions in relation to climate change, with a special emphasis on the Pamirs. Presented in the book materials were dedicated to researches of plant ...


Disposition Of Atrazine Metabolites Following Uptake And Degradation Of Atrazine In Switchgrass., Vurtice C. Albright III, Joel R. Coats 2016 Iowa State University

Disposition Of Atrazine Metabolites Following Uptake And Degradation Of Atrazine In Switchgrass., Vurtice C. Albright Iii, Joel R. Coats

Joel R. Coats

Extensive use of the agricultural herbicide atrazine has led to contamination of numerous ground and surface water bodies. Research has shown that it can have a variety of negative impacts on numerous non-target organisms in the environment. Phytoremediation is one strategy that has been studied to remove atrazine contamination. This paper investigates the hypothesis that switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) can exude metabolites of atrazine after uptake and degradation, which has been suggested by prior research. Pots planted with switchgrass were treated with a 4 ppm solution of atrazine spiked with [14C]atrazine. After 4 days, switchgrass plants were transplanted to new ...


The Shellfish Corner: Aquaculture Of Exotic Shellfish Species, Michael A. Rice 2016 University of Rhode Island

The Shellfish Corner: Aquaculture Of Exotic Shellfish Species, Michael A. Rice

Michael A Rice

Successful commercial aquaculture operations have grown in the Pacific Northwest and the Canadian West Coast on two exotic species Crassostrea gigas and Tapes philippinarum introduced from Japan during the 20th Century. Introduction of the Asian oyster C. ariakensis was proposed as a means for recovering distressed oyster fisheries in Chesapeake Bay, but it was not pursued after extensive public review deemed the practice too risky. However due to increased global shipping, exotic bivalves are being transferred worldwide. The recent introduction of a Western Hemisphere mussel Mytella charruana into the Philippines provides a good case study of shellfish aquaculture industry opportunities ...


Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information From A Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods For Brain Tissue Preservation Validated By Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, And X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography, Daniel F. Hughes, Ellen M. Walker, Paul M. Gignac, Anais Martinez, Kenichiro Negishi, Carl S. Lieb, Eli Greenbaum, Arshad M. Khan 2016 University of Texas at El Paso

Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information From A Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods For Brain Tissue Preservation Validated By Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, And X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography, Daniel F. Hughes, Ellen M. Walker, Paul M. Gignac, Anais Martinez, Kenichiro Negishi, Carl S. Lieb, Eli Greenbaum, Arshad M. Khan

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

Biodiversity hotspots, which harbor more endemic species than elsewhere on Earth, are
increasingly threatened. There is a need to accelerate collection efforts in these regions
before threatened or endangered species become extinct. The diverse geographical, ecological,
genetic, morphological, and behavioral data generated from the on-site collection of
an individual specimen are useful for many scientific purposes. However, traditional methods
for specimen preparation in the field do not permit researchers to retrieve neuroanatomical
data, disregarding potentially useful data for increasing our understanding of brain
diversity. These data have helped clarify brain evolution, deciphered relationships between
structure and function, and revealed constraints ...


Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information From A Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods For Brain Tissue Preservation Validated By Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, And X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography, Daniel F. Hughes, Ellen M. Walker, Paul M. Gignac, Anais Martinez, Kenichiro Negishi, Carl S. Lieb, Eli Greenbaum, Arshad M. Khan 2016 University of Texas at El Paso

Rescuing Perishable Neuroanatomical Information From A Threatened Biodiversity Hotspot: Remote Field Methods For Brain Tissue Preservation Validated By Cytoarchitectonic Analysis, Immunohistochemistry, And X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography, Daniel F. Hughes, Ellen M. Walker, Paul M. Gignac, Anais Martinez, Kenichiro Negishi, Carl S. Lieb, Eli Greenbaum, Arshad M. Khan

Arshad M. Khan, Ph.D.

Biodiversity hotspots, which harbor more endemic species than elsewhere on Earth, are
increasingly threatened. There is a need to accelerate collection efforts in these regions
before threatened or endangered species become extinct. The diverse geographical, ecological,
genetic, morphological, and behavioral data generated from the on-site collection of
an individual specimen are useful for many scientific purposes. However, traditional methods
for specimen preparation in the field do not permit researchers to retrieve neuroanatomical
data, disregarding potentially useful data for increasing our understanding of brain
diversity. These data have helped clarify brain evolution, deciphered relationships between
structure and function, and revealed constraints ...


The Gowanus Canal: Delving Into The Murky And Mysterious Waters Of Brooklyn’S Toxic Canal, Victoria L. Von Ancken 2016 Fordham University

The Gowanus Canal: Delving Into The Murky And Mysterious Waters Of Brooklyn’S Toxic Canal, Victoria L. Von Ancken

Student Theses 2015-Present

Like many environmental issues we face today, the Gowanus Canal began as a hopeful tale. It was envisioned as a promising cargo transportation waterway in Brooklyn, New York. However, due to reckless planning with little thought for the future, the canal slowly began to have a negative effect on its surrounding landscape and community, as well as abandoning its initial purpose, and ultimately sitting stagnant in the neighborhood. Today, the canal is a large environmental problem we face and is in great need of cleanup. The canal is a prime example of a lack of planning and consequential detrimental effects ...


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