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Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham MacWilliams 2018 Pomona College

Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham Macwilliams

Pomona Senior Theses

Methane hydrates are frozen deposits of methane and water found in high pressure or low temperature sediments. When these deposits destabilize, large quantities of methane can be emitted into the atmosphere. This is significant to climate change because methane has 25 times more greenhouse gas potential than Carbon Dioxide. Worldwide, it is estimated there are between 2500 and 10000 gigatons of methane stored in hydrate deposits. This represents more carbon than all fossil fuels on Earth. It is estimated that between 200 and 2000 gigatons of methane are stored in hydrates in Arctic waters acutely vulnerable to greenhouse warming. Over ...


Ecology, Evolution, And Sexual Selection In The Invasive, Globally Distributed Small Indian Mongoose (Urva Auropunctata), M. Aaron Owen 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Ecology, Evolution, And Sexual Selection In The Invasive, Globally Distributed Small Indian Mongoose (Urva Auropunctata), M. Aaron Owen

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Introduced species provide rare opportunities to test evolutionary hypotheses in situ by creating so-called natural experiments. Natural experiments are situations in nature that resemble laboratory studies by allowing for comparisons of a “control” group (i.e., a species’ native range) with “experimental” groups (i.e., a species’ introduced range). In particular, introduced animals allow us to investigate evolutionary dynamics in complex, long-lived organisms in ways that would otherwise be impossible in a laboratory setting. One such introduced animal is the small Indian mongoose (Urva auropunctata, formerly Herpestes auropunctatus). Native to South Asia, the small Indian mongoose’s introduction to more ...


The Impact Of Anthropocentrism On Christian Environmentalism, Alexis Grasse 2017 Abilene Christian University

The Impact Of Anthropocentrism On Christian Environmentalism, Alexis Grasse

Dialogue & Nexus

This paper will discuss the effects of anthropocentrism in Christian theology, doctrine, and environmentalism. The development and history of Christian environmentalism will be examined, with emphasis on the time since the 1960s, when environmentalism came to the forefront in the Western world. Alternative interpretations and worldviews, mainly ecocentrism and biocentrism, will be considered and compared to the prevalent anthropocentric view. I will close with a presentation of two possible means for developing a Christian ecological theology without anthropocentrism. An environmental position most coherent with Christian principles will be left open to the reader; my purpose is to examine the impact ...


Race Relations: A Dialogue Between Science And Theology On The Basis Of Race, Shanice Latham 2017 Abilene Christian University

Race Relations: A Dialogue Between Science And Theology On The Basis Of Race, Shanice Latham

Dialogue & Nexus

When the topic of race is breached the emotions expressed can range from extreme feelings of guilt to extreme feelings of anger. Why is a word that is, today, commonly associated with a person’s skin color and other physical characteristics responsible for such strong emotional reactions? Much of the violence, poverty, injustice, and hurt in the world has been and is caused by racial division. With the continued use of such an arbitrary system as race these issues will continue to persist and deteriorate. This paper will explore the origin, as well as scientific and theological perspectives of race ...


“Bone Of My Bones And Flesh Of My Flesh”: A Feminist Analysis Of Christianity, Evolutionary Theory, And The Provenance Of Patriarchy, Heather Bishop 2017 Abilene Christian University

“Bone Of My Bones And Flesh Of My Flesh”: A Feminist Analysis Of Christianity, Evolutionary Theory, And The Provenance Of Patriarchy, Heather Bishop

Dialogue & Nexus

While perceived by many as conflicting in nearly every sphere, science and religion both play an important role in the promotion of patriarchal ideologies. My research has found that neither Christianity nor evolutionary theory are inherently patriarchal, neither do they justify patriarchy. Instead, it is the misinterpretation and misuse of these subjects that contribute to the justification of patriarchy for the deep-seated goal of reproductive power. I will show this by analyzing theological themes present throughout the Christian scriptures, as well as investigating findings of evolutionary psychology and hominid ancestry. The implication of this study is that there is no ...


The Biogeographic Origins And Trophic Ecology Of Maine’S Island Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus), Nikko-Ideen Shaidani 2017 University of Maine

The Biogeographic Origins And Trophic Ecology Of Maine’S Island Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus), Nikko-Ideen Shaidani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Island populations of terrestrial species have an increased potential, compared to mainland populations, to adapt and diverge, as these populations often are isolated with respect to gene flow from other populations and may be subjected to novel pressures. Indeed, extended isolation of individuals can elicit dramatic changes within populations and is recognized as a common driver of speciation. It is for these reasons that island populations are often a priority for conservation. Plethodontid salamanders are among the most terrestrial of Maine’s amphibians and are not tolerant of prolonged exposure to seawater, and yet, they are found on a number ...


The Relationship Between Sex And Territorial Behavior In The San Cristóbal Lava Lizard (Microlophus Bivittatus), Meghan N. Koenig 2017 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University

The Relationship Between Sex And Territorial Behavior In The San Cristóbal Lava Lizard (Microlophus Bivittatus), Meghan N. Koenig

All College Thesis Program

The purpose of this study is to learn more about the territorial behavior of the San Cristóbal lava lizard (Microlophus bivittatus). It was hypothesized that, due to competition for mates, competition would be higher amid individuals of the same sex than between individuals that were opposite sexes. This hypothesis was not supported by the data collected, as females were observed interacting more with other females than other males but males were observed interacting more with females than other males. This is likely a result of a sex ratio of two females to one male and the territory structure of the ...


Restoration Of Native Baboon-Plant Mutualisms Following Biocontrol Of The Invasive Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia Stricta) In Kenya, Marissa A. Dyck 2017 University of Wyoming

Restoration Of Native Baboon-Plant Mutualisms Following Biocontrol Of The Invasive Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia Stricta) In Kenya, Marissa A. Dyck

Honors Theses AY 16/17

When mammals select for fleshy fruits of introduced species, subsequent seed dispersal may increase a potential invader’s rate of establishment and spread. We assessed whether olive baboons (Papio anubis) select for the fruits of an invasive prickly pear cactus (Opuntia stricta) on the Laikipia Plateau in Kenya. Baboons function as seed dispersers for native flora across many regions of Africa. By eating the fleshy fruits of O. stricta, they also facilitate the establishment and spread of the cactus. We collected scats from eight baboon roosts; the seeds in the scats were identified to species and then counted and weighed ...


The Effect Of Boat Type On Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Trucatus) Behavior In The Mississippi Sound, Maria Zapetis 2017 University of Southern Mississippi

The Effect Of Boat Type On Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Trucatus) Behavior In The Mississippi Sound, Maria Zapetis

Master's Theses

Increases in oceanic shipping are a global phenomenon, and a leading cause of concern for marine animal welfare. While it may be difficult to assess the effect of boat traffic on all species in all contexts, it is vital to report anthropogenic impacts where longitudinal data is available, and doubly so where a dearth of information exists. The purpose of this study is to describe how dolphin behavior changed in the presence of boats in the Mississippi Sound between 2006 and 2012, and more specifically, to detail how different boat types impacted dolphins’ behavioral states. This study is unique in ...


Dung Beetle Diversity And Species Richness Across Three Habitats In South African Savannah, Meghan Hollis, Abigail Soeder 2017 Kent State University

Dung Beetle Diversity And Species Richness Across Three Habitats In South African Savannah, Meghan Hollis, Abigail Soeder

Undergraduate Research Symposium

We examined dung beetle diversity and richness at the Wits Rural Facility in Limpopo Province, South Africa. The dung beetle community was assessed in three separate habitats: grassland, woodland, and the ecotone. For our experiment one kilogram of cow dung was placed at each of 10 locations in each habitat, with samples located 25 meters apart. This was done on two different occasions, once to measure species diversity and the other to measure species richness of the dung beetles that came to each pile. Diversity was measured by collecting one individual of each morphotype at each site. The collection of ...


Effects Of Elephants On Vegetation Along A Fenceline Contrast In South Africa, Sydney Gilmer, Daniel Krieger 2017 Kent State University

Effects Of Elephants On Vegetation Along A Fenceline Contrast In South Africa, Sydney Gilmer, Daniel Krieger

Undergraduate Research Symposium

We assessed the degree of damage of two common plant species, marula Sclerocarya birrea and the mountain aloe or flat-flowered aloe Aloe marlothii in two neighboring game reserves along a fenceline with respect to the presence of African elephants Loxodonta africana. One of these reserves, Thornybush, had 40-50 elephants while the other reserve, the Wits Rural facility, contained no elephants, although elephants had broken into a select region briefly during a recent drought. We measured the browse height of S. birrea relative to overall tree height and trunk circumference to establish the differences among the three different areas. We also ...


Living High And Healthy: Why Coloradans And Others Who Live At High Altitude Live Longer, And What Flatlanders Can Learn From Them, Todd Becker 2017 Getting Stronger blog

Living High And Healthy: Why Coloradans And Others Who Live At High Altitude Live Longer, And What Flatlanders Can Learn From Them, Todd Becker

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


The Case For The Long Body, Frank Forencich 2017 Exuberant Animal

The Case For The Long Body, Frank Forencich

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


P24. The Birds And The Beats: Perception Of A Beat In An Avian Model, Brendon Samuels 2017 Western University

P24. The Birds And The Beats: Perception Of A Beat In An Avian Model, Brendon Samuels

Western Research Forum

Background: Beat perception is a complex cognitive skill that enables humans to “feel” the beat in music, and is an essential component of synchronization of behavior and dance. The mechanisms in the human brain that facilitate beat perception are not entirely understood, and have only been studied thus far using non-invasive techniques. Some animals, such as songbirds, also seem to be able to detect a beat in rhythms, though this has never been formally tested independent of motor synchronization.

Methods: An operant experiment is used to assess if European starlings, a type of songbird, are capable of categorizing auditory rhythms ...


Beavers, Jimmy D. Taylor, Greg K. Yarrow, James E. Miller 2017 National Wildlife Research Center

Beavers, Jimmy D. Taylor, Greg K. Yarrow, James E. Miller

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

The American beaver (Castor canadensis) (Figure 1) is known as an “ecosystem engineer” because of the benefits their dams provide to biological diversity and ecosystem function. It also is considered a “keystone species” because of its ability to transform its environment, creating new habitats upon which other species depend. Despite the many positive benefits beavers provide through foraging and dam building, beavers also create conflict with people when their activities cause damage. The authors of this publication acknowledge and appreciate the many positive benefits that beavers provide; however, the focus of this publication is to provide basic information on beaver ...


The Effects Of Sex, Energy, And Environmental Conditions On The Movement Ecology Of Migratory Bats, Kristin A. Jonasson 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Effects Of Sex, Energy, And Environmental Conditions On The Movement Ecology Of Migratory Bats, Kristin A. Jonasson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lack of knowledge about the behaviour of migratory species during the migratory period is a major barrier to conservation efforts. In this thesis I focus primarily on differences between the sexes of the bat Lasionycteris noctivagans, during spring migration. Females are pregnant during spring migration and this overlap between migration and reproduction may affect the time and energy management of females as compared to males. In Chapter 2 I examine spring migration phenology of bats at a stopover site. Females arrived earlier than males, likely to give their pups a long growing season. Fat stores appeared to reflect a strategy ...


A Sonic Net Excludes Birds From An Airfield: Implications For Reducing Bird Strike And Crop Losses, John P. Swaddle, Dana L. Moseley, Mark H. Hinders, Elizabeth P. Smith 2017 College of William and Mary

A Sonic Net Excludes Birds From An Airfield: Implications For Reducing Bird Strike And Crop Losses, John P. Swaddle, Dana L. Moseley, Mark H. Hinders, Elizabeth P. Smith

John Swaddle

Collisions between birds and aircraft cause billions of dollars of damages annually to civil, commercial, and military aviation. Yet technology to reduce bird strike is not generally effective, especially over longer time periods. Previous information from our lab indicated that filling an area with acoustic noise, which masks important communication channels for birds, can displace European Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) from food sources. Here we deployed a spatially controlled noise (termed a “sonic net”), designed to overlap with the frequency range of bird vocalizations, at an airfield. By conducting point counts, we monitored the presence of birds for four weeks before ...


Mhc Class Iiβ Diversity As A Correlate Of Neutral-Locus Similarity And Diversity, And A Predictor Of Overwinter Return, In Song Sparrows (Melospiza Melodia), Matthew J. Watson 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Mhc Class Iiβ Diversity As A Correlate Of Neutral-Locus Similarity And Diversity, And A Predictor Of Overwinter Return, In Song Sparrows (Melospiza Melodia), Matthew J. Watson

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Abstract

The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is a family of genes involved with recognizing pathogens and mounting an immune response. Parasite-mediated selection often favours heterozygosity at MHC because MHC-diverse individuals recognize a wider range of pathogens. Because migratory birds encounter many pathogens, I hypothesized that MHC diversity predicts overwinter and juvenile survivorship in song sparrows (Melospiza melodia). I found no correlation between MHC diversity and neutral-locus (microsatellite) heterozygosity, suggesting that measures of neutral and adaptive genetic diversity provide complementary rather than redundant information. However, pairwise similarity at MHC predicted pairwise similarity at microsatellite loci. In contrast to my hypothesis, MHC ...


Effects Of Elephants On Vegetation Along A Fenceline Contrast In South Africa, Daniel Krieger, Sydney D. Gilmer 2017 Kent State University

Effects Of Elephants On Vegetation Along A Fenceline Contrast In South Africa, Daniel Krieger, Sydney D. Gilmer

Sydney Gilmer

Sydney Gilmer
Daniel Krieger
01/29/2017
Poster Abstract
 
Effects of elephants on vegetation along a fenceline contrast in South Africa
 
We assessed the degree of damage of two common plant species, marula Sclerocarya birrea and
the mountain aloe or flat-flowered aloe Aloe marlothii in two neighboring game reserves along a
fenceline with respect to the presence of African elephants Loxodonta africana. One of these
reserves, Thornybush, had 40-50 elephants while the other reserve, the Wits Rural facility,
contained no elephants, although elephants had broken into a select region briefly during a recent
drought. We measured the browse height of ...


Do Elephants Eat More Trees When Less Grass Is Available? A Field Study In Kruger National Park, South Africa., Emily Goldberg 2017 Yale

Do Elephants Eat More Trees When Less Grass Is Available? A Field Study In Kruger National Park, South Africa., Emily Goldberg

Yale Day of Data

Although African bush elephants are often responsible for the majority of herbivore-driven savanna tree mortality, confusion remains regarding the factors that influence their diet. Some elephants either browse or graze almost exclusively, while others balance the two, and the determinants of this variation remain poorly understood. I seek to determine whether grass availability controls the proportion of woody plants in elephant diet and, therefore, the amount of damage elephants do to trees while foraging. Preliminary analysis using already-available data on grass biomass, elephant density, and elephant damage to trees suggest that tree damage is in fact negatively correlated with grass ...


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