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Deep Benthic Coral Habitats Of Glacier Bay National Park And Preserve, Alaska, Elise C. Hartill 2019 University of Maine

Deep Benthic Coral Habitats Of Glacier Bay National Park And Preserve, Alaska, Elise C. Hartill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve in Southeast Alaska is a system of fjords that presents an ideal natural laboratory to study terrestrial, aquatic and marine patterns of succession due to its unique and recent history of deglaciation. The patterns of deep benthic community assemblages in the fjords of Glacier Bay were investigated by quantitative assessment of underwater photo-quadrats collected using a remotely operated vehicle. The percent cover and diversity of species were lowest near the glaciated heads of the fjords and highest in the Central Channel and at the mouths of the fjords of Glacier Bay, where oceanographic conditions ...


Species-Area Model Predicting Diversity Loss In An Artificially Flooded Cave In Brazil, Rodrigo L. Ferreira, Thais G. Pellegrini 2019 Universidade Federal de Lavras

Species-Area Model Predicting Diversity Loss In An Artificially Flooded Cave In Brazil, Rodrigo L. Ferreira, Thais G. Pellegrini

International Journal of Speleology

Subterranean environments are poorly known regarding many ecological aspects, such as community structure and its response to different disturbances. To estimate the effects of ground area lost in a limestone cave community in Southeastern Brazil, the invertebrate fauna was sampled before 76% of the cave floor was submerged by the filling of a hydroeletric power plant reservoir. Then, a 2-year monitoring was conducted. A species-area curve based on empiric data was constructed and the z-value of the species-area equation was calculated, what allowed estimating the expected cave richness after flooding comparing with data obtained during the monitoring. The results support ...


Sex-Specific Personalities In The Purple Marsh Crab, Jillian Sterman, Jessica Barton, Panagiota Delmedico, Samantha Sweeney 2019 DePaul University

Sex-Specific Personalities In The Purple Marsh Crab, Jillian Sterman, Jessica Barton, Panagiota Delmedico, Samantha Sweeney

DePaul Discoveries

Animals are considered to possess personalities when individuals differ in behavior, and these differences are consistent between situations. Several studies have identified personalities in diverse groups but less is known about personality variation between the sexes. In this study, we examined variation in two key personality traits (boldness, activity) in female and male purple marsh crabs (Sesarma reticulatum) using a semi-field approach. Specifically, we measured boldness and activity on two consecutive days using the same behavioral assays during each time point. Consistency (personality) was determined using Kendall’s coefficient of concordance based on Spearman correlation coefficients for each behavior. The ...


Phylogenetic Inference Of Multiscale Selection Pressures Using A Continuous State Birth-Death Process, Marco Hamins-Puertolas, David Rasmussen 2019 North Carolina State University at Raleigh

Phylogenetic Inference Of Multiscale Selection Pressures Using A Continuous State Birth-Death Process, Marco Hamins-Puertolas, David Rasmussen

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Recovery Of Domestic Behaviors By A Parasitic Ant (Formica Subintegra) In The Absence Of Its Host (Formica Subsericea), Amber Nichole Hunter 2019 Missouri State University

Recovery Of Domestic Behaviors By A Parasitic Ant (Formica Subintegra) In The Absence Of Its Host (Formica Subsericea), Amber Nichole Hunter

MSU Graduate Theses

Dulosis is a type of social parasitism in which a parasitic ant has become dependent on captured workers (hosts) of a closely related species. Dulosis can be either facultative or obligate depending on the degree of dependence on host workers. As parasites become more specialized over evolutionary time, their domestic abilities degenerate until they become unable to survive without the host. However, the ‘lost’ behaviors may display some degree of recovery when host workers are unavailable to do the tasks. The Formica sanguinea group consists of 12 species of parasitic ants, which are all traditionally considered to be facultative parasites ...


Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley 2019 University of Maine

Living On The Edge: Thermophysiology Of The Southern Flying Squirrel At Its Northern Range Margin, Vanessa R. Hensley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Climate change has the potential to upset entire ecological systems, making predictive models of the utmost importance. The incorporation of physiological parameters into predictive models not only bolsters their accuracy but also provides a mechanistic explanation for ecological changes already observed and those yet to come. North American flying squirrels, for example, have already experienced dramatic range shifts northward over recent decades, with climate change being the suspected driver. While other studies have focused on warming winter temperatures, I explored the hypothesis that rising summer temperatures were driving the observed range shifts. Unable to find a reliable population of the ...


American White Pelicans, Tommy King 2019 National Wildlife Research Center, Starkville, Mississippi

American White Pelicans, Tommy King

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

American white pelicans (Pelecanus erythrorhynchos, Figure 1) threaten aquaculture producers by direct predation and the spread of disease. They are also considered competition and a nuisance by some sports fishermen. Pelicans can also damage pond levees and crops, such as rice, by trampling the vegetation and depositing guano. A combination of wildlife damage management techniques is often necessary to reduce pelican damage to these resources. Aquaculture Prior to the winter of 1992, American white pelican depredations at catfish facilities in the Delta regions of Arkansas and Mississippi were limited, and birds were easily dispersed from the area. Since 1992, however ...


Invasion In The Nation: How Does Temperature During Dormancy Influence Germination Rates Of Humulus Japonicus, Anna Sapone, Briauna Bivens 2019 Carroll College

Invasion In The Nation: How Does Temperature During Dormancy Influence Germination Rates Of Humulus Japonicus, Anna Sapone, Briauna Bivens

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

Humulus japonicus is currently in the Eastern United States, but is rapidly migrating West and heading straight for Montana. The effects of climate change have already been seen in Montana, and more changes are expected to occur in the future. These shifts could produce a climate that would allow H. japonicus to thrive on our open lands. H. japonicus is an annual invasive species that can out compete native species in riparian and floodplain habitats, altering ecosystem function. Previous studies have shown that H. japonicus seeds need some kind of cold stratification in order to break seed dormancy. For our ...


Hawaiian Honeycreeper Explosion: Monophyletic Origins Of Nectivorous Honeycreeper Beak Morphologies, Carter Anderson 2019 Carroll College

Hawaiian Honeycreeper Explosion: Monophyletic Origins Of Nectivorous Honeycreeper Beak Morphologies, Carter Anderson

Carroll College Student Undergraduate Research Festival

The goal of this study was to determine if the primary nectarivorous species of Hawai’ian Honeycreepers were a monophyletic group. A well supported phylogeny, generated using cytB of the mitochondrial genome, indicates a resolved clade of nectivore honeycreepers distinct from other lineages


Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of The Forensically Significant Blow Flies Of Los Angeles County, California, United States (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Royce T. Cumming 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Spatial And Temporal Distribution Of The Forensically Significant Blow Flies Of Los Angeles County, California, United States (Diptera: Calliphoridae), Royce T. Cumming

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Forensic entomology although not a commonly used discipline in the forensic sciences, does have its niche and when used by investigators is respected in crinimolegal investigations (Greenberg and Kunich, 2005). With many species of forensically significant insects being regionally specific, it is often difficult for forensic entomologists to as confidently translate regionally specific studies across drastically differing geographic regions (Brundage, et al., 2011).

The purpose of this study is to help create a better temporal and geographic distributional understanding of the blow fly species present in Los Angeles County, California, United States. Twenty-five locations from four ecoregions (coastal mountains, urban ...


Improving Conservation Of Declining Young Forest Birds Through Adaptive Management, Anna Buckardt Thomas 2019 University of Maine

Improving Conservation Of Declining Young Forest Birds Through Adaptive Management, Anna Buckardt Thomas

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Early successional forest and shrubland habitats are collectively called young forest. Changes in disturbance regimes and land use conversion resulted in declines of young forest and associated wildlife across eastern North America. Conservation of declining young forest birds relies on the maintenance and creation of young forest habitats used for breeding. American Woodcock (AMWO; Scolopax minor) and Golden-winged Warbler (GWWA; Vermivora chrysoptera) are two declining young forest species. Conservation plans for both species use an adaptive management framework, which is an iterative process of planning, management actions, and monitoring and evaluation, in the context of species conservation goals. Adaptive management ...


Comparing Resource Allocation Of Fruiting Native And Invasive Species, Rheanna Meier, Suann Yang 2019 SUNY Geneseo

Comparing Resource Allocation Of Fruiting Native And Invasive Species, Rheanna Meier, Suann Yang

Papers, Posters, and Recordings

The ability of invasive plant species to rapidly overtake native flora has become a growing problem in the Northeast US and elsewhere. A variety of mechanisms contribute to this ability, such as different strategies of resource allocation to fruit and flowers in native compared to invasive species. Life history theory suggests that fruit and flower size should be inversely related, since the plant has a finite number of resources. We hypothesize that there is a ratio of fruit to flower size that allow invasive species to quickly outcompete native species—a larger flower would allow for better pollination, but a ...


Law, Biology, And Property: A New Theory Of The Endowment Effect, Owen D. Jones, Sarah F. Brosnan 2019 Georgia State University

Law, Biology, And Property: A New Theory Of The Endowment Effect, Owen D. Jones, Sarah F. Brosnan

Owen Jones

Recent work at the intersection of law and behavioral biology has suggested numerous contexts in which legal thinking could benefit by integrating knowledge from behavioral biology. In one of those contexts, behavioral biology may help to provide theoretical foundation for, and potentially increased predictive power concerning, various psychological traits relevant to law. This Article describes an experiment that explores that context.

The paradoxical psychological bias known as the endowment effect puzzles economists, skews market behavior, impedes efficient exchange of goods and rights, and thereby poses important problems for law. Although the effect is known to vary widely, there are at ...


Development Of A Molecular Genetic Method For Characterizing Amphibian Diets, Alexander T. Funk 2019 University of Tennessee Knoxville

Development Of A Molecular Genetic Method For Characterizing Amphibian Diets, Alexander T. Funk

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

DEVELOPMENT OF A MOLECULAR GENETIC METHOD FOR CHARACTERIZING AMPHIBIAN DIETS.Alexander Funk* and Todd W. Pierson, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Tennessee Knoxville, afunk4@vols.utk.edu

Dietary studies can provide key insights into the ecology and behavior of animals. Methods common in dietary studies of amphibians (e.g., gastric lavage, fecal analysis, dissection) often fail to identify prey beyond the level of Order, are time intensive, and can be biased against soft-bodied prey. Here, we are developing a DNA metabarcoding assay to characterize amphibian diets from non-invasive fecal samples. In DNA metabarcoding, barcoding loci from mixed ...


Index, 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Index

Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum

No abstract provided.


The Brule-Gering (Oligocene-Miocene) Contact In The Wildcat Ridge Area Of Western Nebraska, C. Bertrand Schultz, Charles H. Falkenbach, Carl F. Vondra 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Brule-Gering (Oligocene-Miocene) Contact In The Wildcat Ridge Area Of Western Nebraska, C. Bertrand Schultz, Charles H. Falkenbach, Carl F. Vondra

Bulletin of the University of Nebraska State Museum

The contact between the Brule Formation (Oligocene) and the Gering Formation (Miocene) can be readily distinguished in the Wildcat Ridge area, as elsewhere in western Nebraska. At the critical fossiliferous exposures at Castle Rock in Scotts Bluff County, the contact on the south face between the two formations is defined as 129 feet above the base of the "Upper Ash" bed, which corresponds to the upper portion of Darton's (1899, PI. C, Fig. D, following p. 754) "sandy phase" in the upper part of the Brule. Certain key beds in the Gering Formation can be traced laterally from a ...


The Piping Plover Problem: A Review Of Management Issues For A Threatened Shorebird, Andrew Lydeard, Gerry Harris 2019 Murray State University

The Piping Plover Problem: A Review Of Management Issues For A Threatened Shorebird, Andrew Lydeard, Gerry Harris

Scholars Week

Andrew Lydeard and Gerry Harris

The Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus) was federally listed in 1986. Since listing, Piping Plovers have been a focus of conservation and management efforts, particularly on their breeding grounds in the Northern Great Plains, Great Lakes, and northern Atlantic Coast. Despite management efforts that have resulted in range-wide population growth of the Piping Plover, growth in individual populations is often slow and reasons for this are poorly understood. A bias towards understanding drivers of declines on breeding sites compared to wintering and migratory stopover sites may be an underlying cause of this lack of understanding. Conducting ...


Investigating Diel Periodicity In Export Flux In The Gulf Of Mexico Using A Particulate Imaging System, Justin Edward Blancher 2019 The University of Southern Mississippi

Investigating Diel Periodicity In Export Flux In The Gulf Of Mexico Using A Particulate Imaging System, Justin Edward Blancher

Master's Theses

To estimate the diurnal periodicity in the biological pump, a floating array with a marine snow camera system at 150 m depth was used, and particles were imaged at a 40 second interval for a 24 to 30 hour period at five sites in the Gulf of Mexico in June 2017. Each image was processed to identify and size all the particles within the frame, which was then processed to determine diameter, an estimated volume, and settling speed for each particle. Using these parameters, particle mass was estimated using algebraically rearranged calculations for settling speed. Each hour during the deployment ...


Density And Mass Effect On The Development Of Phormia Regina, Brandon H. Strauss 2019 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Density And Mass Effect On The Development Of Phormia Regina, Brandon H. Strauss

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Forensic entomology is the application of the study of arthropods to the criminal justice system. This is primarily done through the development of a post mortem interval (PMI) based the insect evidence present. A practitioner must be able to determine the age of the insect through temperature data. One factor influencing the temperature dependent development is gregarious behavior. Current literature describes a faster development rate due to an increase in feeding efficiency and temperatures produced by this aggregate. However, there is very little literature defining a minimum number needed to induce this effect and little to none on it for ...


Microhabitat Comparison Of Percina Roanoka (Roanoke Darter) And Percina Nevisense (Chainback Darter) In The Roanoke River, Dakota R. Spruill, Steven L. Powers 2019 Roanoke College

Microhabitat Comparison Of Percina Roanoka (Roanoke Darter) And Percina Nevisense (Chainback Darter) In The Roanoke River, Dakota R. Spruill, Steven L. Powers

Virginia Journal of Science

Snorkel observations of Percina roanoka and P. nevisense in the Roanoke River during summer months were followed by measuring current velocity, water depth, and substrate diameter at points of occupation. A total of 89 observations of P. roanoka and 81 observations of P. nevisense were compared using two-sample T-tests. Percina roanoka inhabited faster, shallower water than P. nevisense with the former found in a mean flow of 0.318 m/s and depth of 31.53 cm and the latter in a mean flow of 0.17 m/s and depth of 55.6 cm. Mean diameter of substrate at ...


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