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An Analysis Of Morphometric Differentiation In Lake And River Populations Of The Emerald Shiner, Notropis Atherinoides, John J.V. Lang 2016 Buffalo State College

An Analysis Of Morphometric Differentiation In Lake And River Populations Of The Emerald Shiner, Notropis Atherinoides, John J.V. Lang

Biology Theses

Understanding mechanisms that account for phenotypic variation has been of interest to biologists since the advent of Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. It is now understood that adaptive divergence is a key driving force of intraspecific differentiation. Further, differences in habitat (e.g., flow regime, prey regime) have been shown to drive adaptive divergence in fish. For instance, fish inhabiting faster flowing water generally exhibit more fusiform bodies than their lake counterparts. Similarly, the partitioning of benthic and pelagic morphs generally results in smaller heads with the latter. This study used geometric shape analysis to assess morphological ...


Using Cellular Automata To Model The Gun Violence Epidemic In Chicago, Il, Shelby Scott 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Using Cellular Automata To Model The Gun Violence Epidemic In Chicago, Il, Shelby Scott

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Vultures, Michael L. Avery, Martin S. Lowney 2016 USDA APHIS National Wildlife Research Center, Gainesville, FL

Vultures, Michael L. Avery, Martin S. Lowney

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Black and turkey vultures cause problems in several ways. The most common problems associated with vultures are structural damage, loss of aesthetic value and property use related to offensive odors and appearance, depredation to livestock and pets, and air traffic safety. Management of these diverse problems often can be addressed by targeting the source of the birds causing the problem, namely the roost where the birds spend the night. Often the roost itself is the problem, such as when birds roost on a communication tower and foul the equipment with their feces or when they roost in a residential area ...


A Test Of The Effects Of Androgens On Immunity: No Relationship Between 11-Keto Testosterone And Immune Performance In Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis Macrochirus), John W. Loggie 2016 The University of Western Ontario

A Test Of The Effects Of Androgens On Immunity: No Relationship Between 11-Keto Testosterone And Immune Performance In Bluegill Sunfish (Lepomis Macrochirus), John W. Loggie

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The posited immunosuppressive effects of androgens are a key component of the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis (ICHH). My thesis uses bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to test two predictions arising from this hypothesis: (1) natural concentrations of the androgen 11-keto testosterone (11-KT) will be negatively related with immunity, and (2) an immunochallenge will lower 11-KT concentration. I found no evidence for a relationship between natural 11-KT concentration and measures of immunity (leukocyte counts, respiratory burst, cytokine gene expression), and an immunochallenge with Vibrio vaccine did not affect 11-KT concentration. I performed a meta-analysis of immunochallenge studies to help interpret my results, and ...


Impacts Of Fog Drip On Survivorship And Growth Of Native Herb And Shrub Seedlings On Santa Rosa Island, Julianne Bradbury, Ken Niessen, Kathryn McEachern 2016 CSU Channel Islands

Impacts Of Fog Drip On Survivorship And Growth Of Native Herb And Shrub Seedlings On Santa Rosa Island, Julianne Bradbury, Ken Niessen, Kathryn Mceachern

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Overgrazing on Santa Rosa Island led to loss of topsoil in ridgeline groves of endemic island oaks (Quercus tomentella). Restoration specialists attempting to mitigate the impacts of wind and water erosion must determine efficient methods of reestablishing native vegetation. Planting pillows, burlap sacks filled with planting mix and attached to the bedrock substrate, may nurture seedlings long enough for their roots to penetrate the underlying sandstone. Since the island’s ridgeline habitat is often inaccessible during the rainy season, restoration efforts are largely confined to the dry summer months, during which condensed fog is an important source of moisture for ...


First Major Appearance Of Brachiopod-Dominated Benthic Shelly Communities In The Reef Ecosystem During The Early Silurian, Cale A.C. Gushulak 2016 The University of Western Ontario

First Major Appearance Of Brachiopod-Dominated Benthic Shelly Communities In The Reef Ecosystem During The Early Silurian, Cale A.C. Gushulak

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The early Silurian reefs of the Attawapiskat Formation in the Hudson Bay Basin preserved the oldest record of major invasion of the coral-stromatoporoid skeletal reefs by brachiopods and other marine shelly benthos, providing an excellent opportunity for studying the early evolution, functional morphology, and community organization of the rich and diverse reef-dwelling brachiopods. Biometric and multivariate analysis demonstrate that the reef-dwelling Pentameroides septentrionalis evolved from the level-bottom-dwelling Pentameroides subrectus to develop a larger and more globular shell. The reef-dwelling brachiopods in the paleoequatorial Hudson Bay Basin were more diverse than contemporaneous higher latitude reef-dwelling brachiopod faunas, with ten distinct community ...


The Effect Of Prescribed Fires On Vernal Herbs, Janis Lemaster 2016 Western Kentucky University

The Effect Of Prescribed Fires On Vernal Herbs, Janis Lemaster

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

The effects of fire on vernal herbs are little known. David Kem attempted to assess the influences of spring and winter prescribed fires on vernal herbs by collecting abundance data on three sets of research plots located at the WKU Green River Preserve in Hart County, KY, on April 9-10, 2010. On April 10 he conducted spring burns, and on February 22, 2011, he conducted winter burns. He then collected post-fire data on the abundance of the herbs on the 12-19 of March, 2011. He found little influence of fire on overall species richness and the density of common species ...


The Role Of Habitat Shaping Motion Detection In Two Songbirds, Elena A. Ritschard, Luke P. Tyrrell, Esteban Fernández-Juricic 2016 Universidad de Los Andes - Colombia

The Role Of Habitat Shaping Motion Detection In Two Songbirds, Elena A. Ritschard, Luke P. Tyrrell, Esteban Fernández-Juricic

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Double cones of birds are photoreceptors associated with motion perception, and perceiving motion is highly important to detect predators. Predation risks varies between habitats and may impose selective pressures that could affect organisms’ traits. There is evidence that birds show interspecific variations in visual system properties, such as the photoreceptor densities (single and double cones) and distribution across the retina. However, little is known about the relationship between the distribution of double cones and predator scanning strategies in birds living in different habitats. The goal of this study was to compare double cones distributions of birds that live in open ...


Blackbirds, Richard A. Dolbeer, George M. Linz 2016 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services, Sandusky, OH

Blackbirds, Richard A. Dolbeer, George M. Linz

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

The term blackbird loosely refers to a diverse group of about 10 species of North American birds that belong to the avian family Icteridae. The most common species include: Red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) Common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula) Great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus) Brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) Yellow-headed blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) Brewer’s blackbird (Euphagus cyanocephalus) Rusty blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) In addition to blackbirds, this family includes orioles, meadowlarks, and bobolinks.

Human-Wildlife Conflicts 1 Damage Identification 3 Management Methods 4 Economics 7 Species Overview 8 Legal Status 11 Glossary & Key Words 12 Resources 13 Appendices

Damage Prevention and Control Methods for Blackbirds ...


Bird Dispersal Techniques, Thomas W. Seamans, Allen L. Gosser 2016 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Bird Dispersal Techniques, Thomas W. Seamans, Allen L. Gosser

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Conflicts between humans and birds likely have existed since agricultural practices began. Paintings from ancient Greek, Egyptian, and Roman civilizations depict birds attacking crops. In Great Britain, recording of efforts at reducing bird damage began in the 1400s, with books on bird control written in the 1600s. Even so, the problem persists. Avian damage to crops remains an issue today, but we also are concerned with damage to homes, businesses, and aircraft, and the possibility of disease transmission from birds to humans or livestock. Successful dispersal techniques should capitalize on bird sensory capabilities. If birds cannot perceive the dispersal technique ...


Gyrfalcon Diet During The Brood Rearing Period On The Seward Peninsula, Alaska, In The Context Of A Changing World, Bryce W. Robinson 2016 Boise State University

Gyrfalcon Diet During The Brood Rearing Period On The Seward Peninsula, Alaska, In The Context Of A Changing World, Bryce W. Robinson

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

As climate change impacts increase so does our need to understand their effects on ecosystem dynamics. I studied Gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) diet during the brood rearing period to improve our knowledge on dietary habits during nesting, and provide necessary information for understanding climate change impacts to Arctic ecosystems. I studied diet over two breeding seasons on the Seward Peninsula, Alaska, using two methods: motion-activated cameras and the collection of prey remains. I observed three important dietary shifts: the proportion of ptarmigan in the diet declined significantly throughout the season, the proportion of large prey items declined significantly throughout the season ...


Effects Of Soil Erosion Barriers On Percent Cover And Sediment Size, Michael Perez 2016 University of California, Santa Barbara

Effects Of Soil Erosion Barriers On Percent Cover And Sediment Size, Michael Perez

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

Ranching began on Santa Rosa Island in the 1840’s, introducing nonnative megafauna that put selective grazing pressures on endemic species. Dense groves of island oak (Q. tomentella) are aid in sediment deposition and retention. A current restoration effort, involved installing soil erosion barriers, known as wattles, to prevent sediment from being lost upslope and recruit plant growth whose root systems could further stabilize the slope. This experiment was designed to compare percent cover of vegetation growth in areas with and without soil erosion barriers. This was done using the line intercept method (n=42) on three meter transects, measuring ...


Effect Of Migration, Carrying Capacity, And Fecundity On The Formation Of Clinal Patterns During Range Expansions., Neha J. Angal 2016 University of Louisville

Effect Of Migration, Carrying Capacity, And Fecundity On The Formation Of Clinal Patterns During Range Expansions., Neha J. Angal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Range expansions, empirically and in simulations, lead to clinal patterns of genetic diversity. Clines are often used as spatial markers of past migrations. This study investigated the effects of migration, growth, and carrying capacities on clinal patterns during range expansions, using forward-time simulations in Nemo. Initial results show, in the absence of prior population structure, range expansions result in a loss of diversity strongly affected by migration, growth, and carrying capacity. This loss of diversity did not persist to the final generation, corresponding to 10,000 years, indicating clinal patterns are less durable than previously assumed—challenging the utility of ...


Effects Of Invasive Shrub Honeysuckle (Lonicera Maackii) And Forest Composition On Bird Communities In Woodland Stands., Katie Rae Lynch 2016 University of Louisville

Effects Of Invasive Shrub Honeysuckle (Lonicera Maackii) And Forest Composition On Bird Communities In Woodland Stands., Katie Rae Lynch

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Invasive species pose a threat to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems by decreasing biodiversity (Didham et al. 2005). Amur bush honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii) has typically reduced native plant diversity and altered animal communities by influencing animal abundance and activity (Collier and Vankat 2002). This study was intended to determine whether honeysuckle density or other characteristics of forested stands influence avian diversity, whether impacts are seasonally dependent, and whether correlations exist between attributes of forested stands and honeysuckle density. In order to test the hypotheses, thirteen forest stands within the Louisville Metropolitan Area were selected. They had similar tree composition but varied ...


Decolonizing The Ya North: Environmental Injustice In Sherri L. Smith’S Orleans, Micah-Jade M. Coleman 2016 The University of Southern Mississippi

Decolonizing The Ya North: Environmental Injustice In Sherri L. Smith’S Orleans, Micah-Jade M. Coleman

Master's Theses

Young Adult (YA) dystopias, in recent years, have imagined a future world fueled by the overuse and misuse of technology, the advancement of science for human gain, as well as societies ruled by governments that govern based on their own self-interests and economic gain. Such novels have opened the door for discussion about how the present-day actions of societies can impact the future of the environment; yet many only focus their attention on societies in the North— regions considered “developed” by the western world. In her YA novel, Orleans (2014), Sherri L. Smith focuses attention on the aftermath of Hurricane ...


Double-Crested Cormorants, Brian S. Dorr, Kristi L. Sullivan, Paul D. Curtis, Richard Chipman, Russell D. McCullough 2016 USDA/WS/National Wildlife Research Center

Double-Crested Cormorants, Brian S. Dorr, Kristi L. Sullivan, Paul D. Curtis, Richard Chipman, Russell D. Mccullough

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

The history of conflict between double-crested cormorants (Figure 1) and human interest in fisheries is long and convoluted. Following a low point in the 1970s, populations of cormorants expanded in North America, as did concerns about impacts on fisheries. By the late 1990s, natural resource agencies in 27 states reported losses of free-ranging fish stocks to cormorants. Agencies in 10 states, ranging from the Southwest to the Northeast, considered cormorant predation to be of moderate to major concern to fishery management.

Overall, double-crested cormorants are not major consumers of commercial and sportfish species. However, exceptions have been recorded at specific ...


Geese, Ducks And Coots, John L. Cummings 2016 National Wildlife Research Center

Geese, Ducks And Coots, John L. Cummings

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Canada geese, snow geese, ducks, and American coots all have been implicated in agricultural crop and turf damage. Canada geese and snow geese that graze on winter wheat and rye crops can reduce subsequent grain and vegetative yields. Canada geese also cause serious damage to sprouting soybeans in spring and to standing cornfields in the autumn. The most common damage to agricultural resources associated with geese results from consumption of crops. Other impacts involve unacceptable accumulations of feces in pastures, trampling of emerging crops, and increased erosion and runoff from fields where the cover crop has been grazed. Canada geese ...


Effect Of Dung Beetles On Dung Decomposition And Nuntrient Cycling In A Nebraska Rangeland, Kenneth Shay Evans 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Effect Of Dung Beetles On Dung Decomposition And Nuntrient Cycling In A Nebraska Rangeland, Kenneth Shay Evans

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research in Agronomy and Horticulture

Management practice can have impacts on the abundance and frequency of dung beetle populations and nutrient cycling in grazing systems. Also, agriculture and livestock production land use is a considerable source of anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, which are known to be one of the causes of global climate change. In this study, we evaluated the effect of dung beetle presence on the fluxes of greenhouse gasses (GHG’s) from dung pats in the semi-arid Sandhills region of Nebraska, by using closed chambers to measure the fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2 ...


Forest Islands In A Sea Of Urban Habitat, Michael J. Olejniczak 2016 State University of New York College at Buffalo - Buffalo State College

Forest Islands In A Sea Of Urban Habitat, Michael J. Olejniczak

Biology Theses

Urban forests are poorly defined as ecological communities. Substantive links between anthropogenic landscape features and forest ecology are lacking. ‘Urbaness’ is commonly defined by human population density or land use classifications, but their use is inconsistent throughout the literature, and rarely is linked with ecological processes. Furthermore, it is unknown whether urban forests are functioning parts of a patchy urban woodland system or isolated islands amidst an ocean of unsuitable habitat. I first used digital satellite imagery and publicly available U.S. National Park data to link urban land use with forest processes. I then linked those land use classifications ...


Habitat Temperature And Precipitation Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Ecotypes Determine The Response Of Foliar Vasculature, Photosynthesis, And Transpiration To Growth Temperature, William W. Adams III, Jared J. Stewart, Christopher M. Cohu, Onno Muller, Barbara Demmig-Adams 2016 University of Colorado Boulder

Habitat Temperature And Precipitation Of Arabidopsis Thaliana Ecotypes Determine The Response Of Foliar Vasculature, Photosynthesis, And Transpiration To Growth Temperature, William W. Adams Iii, Jared J. Stewart, Christopher M. Cohu, Onno Muller, Barbara Demmig-Adams

Ecology & Evolutionary Biology Faculty Contributions

Acclimatory adjustments of foliar vascular architecture, photosynthetic capacity, and transpiration rate in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes (Italian, Polish [Col-0], Swedish) were characterized in the context of habitat of origin. Temperatures of the habitat of origin decreased linearly with increasing habitat latitude, but habitat precipitation was greatest in Italy, lowest in Poland, and intermediate in Sweden. Plants of the three ecotypes raised under three different growth temperature regimes (low, moderate, and high) exhibited highest photosynthetic capacities, greatest leaf thickness, highest chlorophyll a/b ratio and levels of β-carotene, and greatest levels of wall ingrowths in phloem transfer cells, and, in the Col-0 ...


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