Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Evolution Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1490 Full-Text Articles 2232 Authors 194927 Downloads 124 Institutions

All Articles in Evolution

Faceted Search

1490 full-text articles. Page 1 of 62.

Is There A Link Between Aging And Microbiome Diversity In Exceptional Mammalian Longevity?, Graham M. Hughes, John Leech, Sebastien J. Puechmaille, Jose V. Lopez, Emma C. Teeling 2018 University College Dublin - Ireland

Is There A Link Between Aging And Microbiome Diversity In Exceptional Mammalian Longevity?, Graham M. Hughes, John Leech, Sebastien J. Puechmaille, Jose V. Lopez, Emma C. Teeling

Biology Faculty Articles

A changing microbiome has been linked to biological aging in mice and humans, suggesting a possible role of gut flora in pathogenic aging phenotypes. Many bat species have exceptional longevity given their body size and some can live up to ten times longer than expected with little signs of aging. This study explores the anal microbiome of the exceptionally long-lived Myotis myotis bat, investigating bacterial composition in both adult and juvenile bats to determine if the microbiome changes with age in a wild, long-lived non-model organism, using non-lethal sampling. The anal microbiome was sequenced using metabarcoding in more than 50 ...


Animal Suicide: Evolutionary Continuity Or Anthropomorphism?, Antonio Preti 2018 Centro Medico Genneruxi

Animal Suicide: Evolutionary Continuity Or Anthropomorphism?, Antonio Preti

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Evolutionary processes are characterized by both continuity and discontinuity. Evidence on suicide in nonhuman animals is faint and often rests on the metaphorical or anthropomorphic use of the term. Suicidal behavior might be an evolutionary jump relatively recent in our species: a byproduct of living in groups of people who are not as closely related genetically as in social groups of nonhuman mammals.


Caterpillar/Basil-Plant Tandems, Paco Calvo 2018 University of Murcia

Caterpillar/Basil-Plant Tandems, Paco Calvo

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

According to Reber (2016), subjectivity springs from primitive life itself. Granting his non-neurocentric stance, I shall try to show that his framework falls prey to zoocentric preconceptions that divest certain non-animal life-forms of mentality. There is no reason to exclude the possibility that plants have evolved different structures that underlie their own subjective experiences, all according to Reber’s model. It is the degree of phenotypic flexibility and integration that we observe in the behavioral repertoire of plants that may end up supporting their capacity for subjective experience. This remains an open empirical question.


Conservation And Variation Of Dna Methylation In Lactuca Sativa And Lactuca Serriola, Trudi A. Baker 2017 University of Massachusetts Boston

Conservation And Variation Of Dna Methylation In Lactuca Sativa And Lactuca Serriola, Trudi A. Baker

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

Molecular techniques for guiding plant breeding have successfully used wild progenitors of domestic crops as sources of genetic variants conveying desirable traits. However, epigenetic variation, in particular DNA methylation, is a significant source of phenotypic variation and epigenetic effects of plant domestication are poorly understood. Described herein are the first single-base pair resolution methylomes of the highly valued crop iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa cv. Salinas) and its close relative, and ubiquitous weed, L. serriola. This work suggests several roles for acquisition and inheritance of methylation in the evolution of Lactuca spp. in response to stress. The Lactuca spp. have conserved ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xiii. Review Of Pandinops Hawkeri, P. Peeli, P. Platycheles, And P. Pugilator (Scorpionidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Hassan Sh Abdirahman Elmi 2017 Charles University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xiii. Review Of Pandinops Hawkeri, P. Peeli, P. Platycheles, And P. Pugilator (Scorpionidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Hassan Sh Abdirahman Elmi

Euscorpius

Pandinops platycheles (Werner, 1916) is diagnosed and fully complemented with color photos of types, and Pandinops pugilator (Pocock, 1900) is diagnosed and fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens, as well as its habitat. The hemispermatophore of P. pugilator is illustrated and described for the first time. Pandinus hawkeri Pocock, 1900 and Pandinus peeli Pocock, 1900 are synonymized with Pandinops pugilator (Pocock, 1900).


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xii. Pandinurus Hangarale Sp. N. (Scorpionidae) From Somaliland And A Review Of Type Locality And True Distribution Of Pandinurus Smithi (Pocock, 1897), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Tomáš Mazuch, Ahmed Ibrahim Awale, Jana Štundlová, František Šťáhlavský 2017 Charles University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xii. Pandinurus Hangarale Sp. N. (Scorpionidae) From Somaliland And A Review Of Type Locality And True Distribution Of Pandinurus Smithi (Pocock, 1897), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Tomáš Mazuch, Ahmed Ibrahim Awale, Jana Štundlová, František Šťáhlavský

Euscorpius

Pandinurus hangarale sp. n. from Somaliland is described and fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens, as well as its habitat. Hemispermatophore of P. hangarale sp. n. is illustrated and described. In addition to the analyses of external morphology and hemispermatophores, we also describe the karyotype of P. hangarale sp. n. (2n=120). Known localities of Pandinurus smithi (Pocock, 1897) are compiled; the type locality is not in Somaliland but in Ethiopia (Turfa) and in reality it is probably an endemic of Ethiopia.


Comparative Genomics Of An Unusual Biogeographic Disjunction In The Cotton Tribe (Gossypieae) Yields Insights Into Genome Downsizing, Corrinne E. Grover, Mark A. Arick II, Justin L. Conover, Adam Thrash, Guanjing Hu, William S. Sanders, Chuan-Yu Hsu, Rubab Zahra Naqvi, Muhammad Farooq, Xiaochong Li, Lei Gong, Joann Mudge, Thiru Ramaraj, Joshua A. Udall, Daniel G. Peterson, Jonathan F. Wendel 2017 Iowa State University

Comparative Genomics Of An Unusual Biogeographic Disjunction In The Cotton Tribe (Gossypieae) Yields Insights Into Genome Downsizing, Corrinne E. Grover, Mark A. Arick Ii, Justin L. Conover, Adam Thrash, Guanjing Hu, William S. Sanders, Chuan-Yu Hsu, Rubab Zahra Naqvi, Muhammad Farooq, Xiaochong Li, Lei Gong, Joann Mudge, Thiru Ramaraj, Joshua A. Udall, Daniel G. Peterson, Jonathan F. Wendel

Jonathan F. Wendel

Long-distance insular dispersal is associated with divergence and speciation because of founder effects and strong genetic drift. The cotton tribe (Gossypieae) has experienced multiple trans-oceanic dispersals, generating an aggregate geographic range that encompasses much of the tropics and subtropics worldwide. Two genera in the Gossypieae, Kokia and Gossypioides, exhibit a remarkable geographic disjunction, being restricted to the Hawaiian Islands and Madagascar/East Africa, respectively. We assembled and use de novo genome sequences to address questions regarding the divergence of these two genera from each other and from their sister-group, Gossypium. In addition, we explore processes underlying the genome downsizing that ...


A New Island Species Of Centruroides Marx, 1890 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From The Southwestern Caribbean, Rolando Teruel, Brandon Myers 2017 Museo de Historia Natural “Tomás Romay”

A New Island Species Of Centruroides Marx, 1890 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From The Southwestern Caribbean, Rolando Teruel, Brandon Myers

Euscorpius

Herein we describe a new species of the Buthidae scorpion genus Centruroides Marx, 1890. It occurs at least in two small offshore islands of the southwestern Caribbean: Cozumel in Mexico and Guanaja in Honduras, based upon type specimens from the former and photographic evidence from the latter. It belongs in the "gracilis" species-group and is most closely related to both Centruroides gracilis (Latreille, 1805) and Centruroides nigrescens (Pocock, 1898).


Using Pentosidine And Hydroxyproline To Predict Age And Sex In An Avian Species, Brian S. Dorr, Randal S. Stahl, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Carol A. Furcolow 2017 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Using Pentosidine And Hydroxyproline To Predict Age And Sex In An Avian Species, Brian S. Dorr, Randal S. Stahl, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Carol A. Furcolow

Brian S Dorr

All living organisms are subject to senescence accompanied by progressive and irreversiblephysiological changes. The error damage and cross-linkingtheories suggest that cellsand tissues are damaged by an accumulation of cross-linkedproteins, slowing down bodilyprocesses and resulting in aging. A major category of these cross-linkedproteins arecompounds called advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We investigated the relationshipbetween accumulation of the AGE, pentosidine (Ps), and hydroxyproline (HYP)a post-translationallymodified amino acid, with age, sex, and breeding status (breeder/nonbreeder) from skin samples of known age (i.e., banded as fledglings), free-rangingDouble-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus, Lesson 1831). We developed multivariate models and evaluated the predictive capability ...


Catalinia, A New Scorpion Genus From Southern California, Usa And Northern Baja California, Mexico (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Michael E. Soleglad, Richard F. Ayrey, Matthew R. Graham, Victor Fet 2017 Eastern Connecticut State University

Catalinia, A New Scorpion Genus From Southern California, Usa And Northern Baja California, Mexico (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Michael E. Soleglad, Richard F. Ayrey, Matthew R. Graham, Victor Fet

Euscorpius

Genus Catalinia, gen. nov. (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae) is described from southern California, USA and Baja California, Mexico. The genus is composed of four species formerly placed in Pseudouroctonus: Catalinia minima (Kraepelin, 1911), comb. nov. (type species), C. andreas (Gertsch et Soleglad, 1972), comb. nov., C. castanea (Gertsch et Soleglad, 1972), comb. nov., and C. thompsoni, comb. nov. (Gertsch et Soleglad, 1972). Major diagnostic characters of Catalinia include a carapace with a very weak anterior indentation, a very stout metasoma with little or no tapering from segment I to V, and a mating plug with two partial bases. Evidence is presented suggesting ...


Prebiotic Rna Network Formation: A Taxonomy Of Molecular Cooperation, Cole Mathis, Sanjay N. Ramprasad, Sara Imari Walker, Niles Lehman 2017 Arizona State University

Prebiotic Rna Network Formation: A Taxonomy Of Molecular Cooperation, Cole Mathis, Sanjay N. Ramprasad, Sara Imari Walker, Niles Lehman

Chemistry Faculty Publications and Presentations

Cooperation is essential for evolution of biological complexity. Recent work has shown game theoretic arguments, commonly used to model biological cooperation, can also illuminate the dynamics of chemical systems. Here we investigate the types of cooperation possible in a real RNA system based on the Azoarcusribozyme, by constructing a taxonomy of possible cooperative groups. We construct a computational model of this system to investigate the features of the real system promoting cooperation. We find triplet interactions among genotypes are intrinsically biased towards cooperation due to the particular distribution of catalytic rate constants measured empirically in the real system. For other ...


A Polyglot Approach To Bioinformatics Data Integration: A Phylogenetic Analysis Of Hiv-1, Steven Reisman, Thomas Hatzopoulos, Konstantin Laufer, George K. Thiruvathukal, Catherine Putonti 2017 Loyola University Chicago

A Polyglot Approach To Bioinformatics Data Integration: A Phylogenetic Analysis Of Hiv-1, Steven Reisman, Thomas Hatzopoulos, Konstantin Laufer, George K. Thiruvathukal, Catherine Putonti

Konstantin Läufer

As sequencing technologies continue to drop in price and increase in throughput, new challenges emerge for the management and accessibility of genomic sequence data. We have developed a pipeline for facilitating the storage, retrieval, and subsequent analysis of molecular data, integrating both sequence and metadata. Taking a polyglot approach involving multiple languages, libraries, and persistence mechanisms, sequence data can be aggregated from publicly available and local repositories. Data are exposed in the form of a RESTful web service, formatted for easy querying, and retrieved for downstream analyses. As a proof of concept, we have developed a resource for annotated HIV-1 ...


The North American Quails, Partridges, And Pheasants, Paul A. Johnsgard 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The North American Quails, Partridges, And Pheasants, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This book documents the biology of six species of New World quails that are native to North America north of Mexico (mountain, scaled, Gambel’s, California, and Montezuma quails, and the northern bobwhite), three introduced Old World partridges (chukar, Himalayan snowcock, and gray partridge), and the introduced common (ring-necked) pheasant. Collectively, quails, partridges, and pheasants range throughout all of the continental United States and the Canadian provinces. Two of the species, the northern bobwhite and ring-necked pheasant, are the most economically important of all North American upland game birds. All of the species are hunted extensively for sport and are ...


Cytonuclear Evolution Of Rubisco In Four Allopolyploid Lineages, Lei Gong, Mischa Olson, Jonathan F. Wendel 2017 Iowa State University

Cytonuclear Evolution Of Rubisco In Four Allopolyploid Lineages, Lei Gong, Mischa Olson, Jonathan F. Wendel

Jonathan F. Wendel

Allopolyploidization in plants entails the merger of two divergent nuclear genomes, typically with only one set (usually maternal) of parental plastidial and mitochondrial genomes and with an altered cytonuclear stoichiometry. Thus, we might expect cytonuclear coevolution to be an important dimension of allopolyploid evolution. Here, we investigate cytonuclear coordination for the key chloroplast protein rubisco (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), which is composed of nuclear-encoded, small subunits (SSUs) and plastid-encoded, large subunits. By studying gene composition and diversity as well as gene expression in four model allopolyploid lineages, Arabidopsis, Arachis, Brassica, and Nicotiana, we demonstrate that paralogous nuclear-encoded rbcS genes ...


Handicap Principle Implies Emergence Of Dimorphic Ornaments, Sara Clifton, Daniel M. Abrams, Rosemary I. Braun 2017 Northwestern University

Handicap Principle Implies Emergence Of Dimorphic Ornaments, Sara Clifton, Daniel M. Abrams, Rosemary I. Braun

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


The Effects Of Evolution On Food Web Diversity And Abundance, Rosalyn Rael 2017 Tulane University of Louisiana

The Effects Of Evolution On Food Web Diversity And Abundance, Rosalyn Rael

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


A Polyglot Approach To Bioinformatics Data Integration: A Phylogenetic Analysis Of Hiv-1, Steven Reisman, Thomas Hatzopoulos, Konstantin Laufer, George K. Thiruvathukal, Catherine Putonti 2017 Loyola University Chicago

A Polyglot Approach To Bioinformatics Data Integration: A Phylogenetic Analysis Of Hiv-1, Steven Reisman, Thomas Hatzopoulos, Konstantin Laufer, George K. Thiruvathukal, Catherine Putonti

Catherine Putonti

As sequencing technologies continue to drop in price and increase in throughput, new challenges emerge for the management and accessibility of genomic sequence data. We have developed a pipeline for facilitating the storage, retrieval, and subsequent analysis of molecular data, integrating both sequence and metadata. Taking a polyglot approach involving multiple languages, libraries, and persistence mechanisms, sequence data can be aggregated from publicly available and local repositories. Data are exposed in the form of a RESTful web service, formatted for easy querying, and retrieved for downstream analyses. As a proof of concept, we have developed a resource for annotated HIV-1 ...


Clusters Of Alpha Satellite On Human Chromosome 21 Are Dispersed Far Onto The Short Arm And Lack Ancient Layers, William Ziccardi, Chongjian Zhao, Valery Shepelev, Lev Uralsky, Ivan Alexandrov, Tatyana Andreeva, Evgeny Rogaev, Christopher Bun, Emily Miller, Catherine Putonti, Jeffrey Doering 2017 Loyola University Chicago

Clusters Of Alpha Satellite On Human Chromosome 21 Are Dispersed Far Onto The Short Arm And Lack Ancient Layers, William Ziccardi, Chongjian Zhao, Valery Shepelev, Lev Uralsky, Ivan Alexandrov, Tatyana Andreeva, Evgeny Rogaev, Christopher Bun, Emily Miller, Catherine Putonti, Jeffrey Doering

Catherine Putonti

Human alpha satellite (AS) sequence domains that currently function as centromeres are typically flanked by layers of evolutionarily older AS that presumably represent the remnants of earlier primate centromeres. Studies on several human chromosomes reveal that these older AS arrays are arranged in an age gradient, with the oldest arrays farthest from the functional centromere and arrays progressively closer to the centromere being progressively younger. The organization of AS on human chromosome 21 (HC21) has not been well-characterized. We have used newly available HC21 sequence data and an HC21p YAC map to determine the size, organization, and location of the ...


To 'Die Hel' And Back. Expeditions Of The Phylogeny Of World Tachinidae Project. Part I: Western Cape, South Africa, Pierfilippo Cerretti, James E. O'Hara, John O. Stireman III, Isaac S. Winkler, Ashley H. Kirk-Spriggs 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus

To 'Die Hel' And Back. Expeditions Of The Phylogeny Of World Tachinidae Project. Part I: Western Cape, South Africa, Pierfilippo Cerretti, James E. O'Hara, John O. Stireman Iii, Isaac S. Winkler, Ashley H. Kirk-Spriggs

John Stireman

The “Phylogeny of World Tachinidae” project kicked off with an operational meeting in June 2012 at the Canadian National Collection of Insects (CNC) in Ottawa. Goals were discussed, work plans prepared, and of course the destinations and timing of major field expeditions were debated. During our three years of National Science Foundation funding we hope to gather fresh material for molecular analysis from all biogeographic regions of the world.


The Genetic And Environmental Basis For Chc Biosynthesis In Drosophila, Heather KE Ward 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Genetic And Environmental Basis For Chc Biosynthesis In Drosophila, Heather Ke Ward

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are produced by insects and primarily used to prevent desiccation. In Drosophila, certain compounds have secondary roles as infochemicals that may act during courtship to influence mate choice. Certain CHCs may stimulate courtship with heterospecifics or act to repel conspecifics. The CHC profile produced by an individual is the result of the interaction between its genetic background and the environment, though the genes that underlie species differences in CHC production and how the environment can modulate the abundance of individual compounds within a species is not well known. Here, candidate gene CG5946 was found to be involved ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress