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Centruroides Thorellii (Scorpiones: Buthidae): Traveling From Guatemala To England Without A Passport, Rony E. Trujillo, Luis F. de Armas, Darren Mansfield 2017 Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala

Centruroides Thorellii (Scorpiones: Buthidae): Traveling From Guatemala To England Without A Passport, Rony E. Trujillo, Luis F. De Armas, Darren Mansfield

Euscorpius

We recorded a pregnant female of the Central American bark stripped scorpion Centruroides thorellii (Kraepelin, 1891), which arrived to England as a stowaway in the bag of a woman that previously visited the Departments of Sacatepéquez, Sololá and San Marcos, Guatemala. On January 2, this C. thorellii female had a litter of three off-spring and three infertile eggs, but she has eaten them, probably as consequence of the stress caused by the hard travel and the environmental changes. We provide a map with the geographical distribution of this species and photos of the female detected in a British train.


Revbayes: Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference Using Graphical Models And An Interactive Model-Specification Language, Sebastian Höhna, Michael J. Landis, Tracy A. Heath, Nicolas Lartillot, Brian R. Moore, John P. Huelsenbeck, Fredrik Ronquist 2017 University of California, Berkeley

Revbayes: Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference Using Graphical Models And An Interactive Model-Specification Language, Sebastian Höhna, Michael J. Landis, Tracy A. Heath, Nicolas Lartillot, Brian R. Moore, John P. Huelsenbeck, Fredrik Ronquist

Tracy Heath

Programs for Bayesian inference of phylogeny currently implement a unique and fixed suite of models. Consequently, users of these software packages are simultaneously forced to use a number of programs for a given study, while also lacking the freedom to explore models that have not been implemented by the developers of those programs. We developed a new open-source software package, RevBayes, to address these problems. RevBayes is entirely based on probabilistic graphical models, a powerful generic framework for specifying and analyzing statistical models. Phylogenetic-graphical models can be specified interactively in RevBayes, piece by piece, using a new succinct and intuitive ...


Total-Evidence Dating Under The Fossilized Birth–Death Process, Chi Zhang, Tanja Stadler, Serena Klopfstein, Tracy A. Heath, Fredrik Ronquist 2017 Swedish Museum of Natural History

Total-Evidence Dating Under The Fossilized Birth–Death Process, Chi Zhang, Tanja Stadler, Serena Klopfstein, Tracy A. Heath, Fredrik Ronquist

Tracy Heath

Bayesian total-evidence dating involves the simultaneous analysis of morphological data from the fossil record and morphological and sequence data from recent organisms, and it accommodates the uncertainty in the placement of fossils while dating the phylogenetic tree. Due to the flexibility of the Bayesian approach, total-evidence dating can also incorporate additional sources of information. Here, we take advantage of this and expand the analysis to include information about fossilization and sampling processes. Our work is based on the recently described fossilized birth–death (FBD) process, which has been used to model speciation, extinction, and fossilization rates that can vary over ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part X. Pandiborellius Stat. N. And Pandinurus (Scorpionidae) With Description Of Four New Species From Eritrea And Ethiopia, And Review Of Pandinus Sensu Lato Taxonomy, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Michael E. Soleglad, Jana Plíškova 2017 Charles University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part X. Pandiborellius Stat. N. And Pandinurus (Scorpionidae) With Description Of Four New Species From Eritrea And Ethiopia, And Review Of Pandinus Sensu Lato Taxonomy, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Michael E. Soleglad, Jana Plíškova

Euscorpius

We introduce a new system of classification for the subfamily Scorpioninae Latreille, 1802 which includes genera Heterometrus Ehrenberg, 1828, Opistophthalmus C. L. Koch, 1837, Pandiborellius Rossi, 2015 stat. n., Pandinoides Fet, 1997, Pandinops Birula, 1913, Pandinurus Fet, 1997, Pandinus (Pandinus) Thorell, 1876, Pandinus (Pandinopsis) Vachon, 1974 stat. n., Pandinus (Pandipalpus) Rossi, 2015 stat. n., and Scorpio Linné, 1758. We provide a checklist of 41 valid species and their synonyms of Pandinus sensu lato. We revise Horn of Africa genera Pandiborellius stat. n. and Pandinurus; all species are fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens, as well as ...


A New Species Of The “Apacheanus” Group Of Genus Pseudouroctonus From Western Texas (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Richard F. Ayrey, Michael E. Soleglad 2017 Marshall University

A New Species Of The “Apacheanus” Group Of Genus Pseudouroctonus From Western Texas (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Richard F. Ayrey, Michael E. Soleglad

Euscorpius

A new species of the “apacheanus” group of genus Pseudouroctonus is described from western Texas, USA, Pseudouroctonus brysoni, sp. nov. This new species is closely related to P. apacheanus (Gertsch et Soleglad, 1972) and two other species recently described from southern Arizona. A combination of morphological differences in the hemispermatophore, the mating plug, and several morphometric-based characters are identified as diagnostic.


The Potential For Sentience In Fishes, Jay R., Stauffer Jr. 2017 Penn State University

The Potential For Sentience In Fishes, Jay R., Stauffer Jr.

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Balcombe’s book is filled with information on the biology, behavior, and life history of fishes. I do not agree with all his premises. I am still somewhat perplexed about the discussion of whether fish feel pain; I am not sure whether the distinction between nociception and pain makes any difference. Overall, however, his treatment of the principles of both natural and sexual selection is comprehensive and accurate, and has greatly increased my knowledge and awareness of the biology, ethology, and potential for sentience in fishes. In summary, this work has exposed me to new ideas about how to examine ...


To Identify All The Relevant Factors Is To Explain Feeling, Arthur S. Reber 2017 University of British Columbia

To Identify All The Relevant Factors Is To Explain Feeling, Arthur S. Reber

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Several additional comments on Reber (2016a) have appeared. Like those addressed in Reber (2016b), they reflect points of agreement and disagreement on various elements of my Cellular Basis of Consciousness (CBC) model. Some, however, seem to have missed key points. I'm willing to take some responsibility for this. Perhaps I was not clear about some of the more radical points of the model. Hopefully the case-by-case review here will help.


What Can Research On Nonhumans Tell Us About Human Dissonance?, Jennifer Vonk 2017 Oakland University

What Can Research On Nonhumans Tell Us About Human Dissonance?, Jennifer Vonk

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Zentall’s thoughtful review of the literature on cognitive dissonance in nonhumans helps to highlight the common finding that similar outcomes in humans and nonhumans can be attributed to different underlying mechanisms. I advocate a more fully comparative approach to the underlying mechanisms, avoiding the assumption of shared processes in humans and nonhumans.


Mrub_2642, Mrub_1054, And Mrub_1059 Genes Are Orthologs Of The Escherichia Coli Genes B2942, B0159, And B2687 Genes, Respectively, Which Code For Methionine Adenosyltransferase, Adenosylhomocysteine Nucleosidase, And S-Ribosylhomocysteine Lyase, Nicholas M. Orslini, Dr. Lori R. Scott 2017 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Mrub_2642, Mrub_1054, And Mrub_1059 Genes Are Orthologs Of The Escherichia Coli Genes B2942, B0159, And B2687 Genes, Respectively, Which Code For Methionine Adenosyltransferase, Adenosylhomocysteine Nucleosidase, And S-Ribosylhomocysteine Lyase, Nicholas M. Orslini, Dr. Lori R. Scott

Meiothermus ruber Genome Analysis Project

This project is part of the Meiothermus ruber genome analysis project, which uses the bioinformatics tools associated with the Guiding Education through Novel Investigation –Annotation Collaboration Toolkit (GENI-ACT) to predict gene function. We investigated the biological function of the genes Mrub_2642, Mrub_1054, and Mrub_1059.

We predict that Mrub_2642 encodes the enzyme methionine adenosyltransferase (DNA coordinates [2677251…2678426] on the reverse strand), the first step of the methionine degradation pathway (KEGG map number 00270). Methionine adenosyltransferase catalyzes the conversion of the substrates, ATP, L-methionine, and water, to yield the products S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM), inorganic phosphate, and diphosphate. Mrub_1054 encodes adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase (DNA ...


Dissonance Reduction In Nonhuman Animals: Implications For Cognitive Dissonance Theory, Cindy Harmon-Jones, Nick Haslam, Brock Bastian 2017 The University of New South Wales

Dissonance Reduction In Nonhuman Animals: Implications For Cognitive Dissonance Theory, Cindy Harmon-Jones, Nick Haslam, Brock Bastian

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

We review the evidence for dissonance reduction in nonhuman animals and examine the alternative explanations for these effects. If nonhuman animals engage in dissonance reduction, this supports the original theory as proposed by Festinger (1957) over the revisions to the theory that focused on the self-concept. Evidence of animal sentience, including dissonance reduction, may be a source of cognitive dissonance.


Fish Are Flexible Learners Who Can Discriminate Human Faces, Ulrike E. Siebeck 2017 The University of Queensland, Australia

Fish Are Flexible Learners Who Can Discriminate Human Faces, Ulrike E. Siebeck

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

In his book “What a fish knows” Jonathan Balcombe (2016a, b) has created a comprehensive profile of a group of animals still often thought to have a 3-second memory, no ability to feel pain, and a generally limited ability to learn. Chapter by chapter, Balcombe dismantles these and other such assumptions and makes a convincing case that fish have many abilities that are not that different from our own. Here, I focus on one example which supports the notion that fish are flexible learners and able to perform tasks which are generally thought to require the advanced processing power of ...


Evolution In The Deep Sea: Scales And Mechanisms Of Population Divergence, Amanda E. Glazier 2016 University of Massachusetts Boston

Evolution In The Deep Sea: Scales And Mechanisms Of Population Divergence, Amanda E. Glazier

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

The deep sea is the Earth’s largest ecosystem and harbors a unique and largely endemic fauna. Although most research has focused on the ecological mechanisms that allow coexistence, recent studies have begun to investigate how this remarkable fauna evolved.. My work quantifies geographic patterns of genetic variation and investigates potential mechanisms that shape evolution in the deep ocean.

Bathymetric genetic divergence is common in the deep sea with population structure typically decreasing with depth. The evolutionary mechanisms that underlie these patterns are poorly understood. Geographic patterns of genetic variation indicated that the protobranch bivalve Neilonella salicensis was composed of ...


Reef Society And The Tyranny Of Data, Robert Wintner 2016 Snorkel Bob's Hawaii

Reef Society And The Tyranny Of Data, Robert Wintner

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Modern science now approaches divergent processes in many areas, including health assessments of marine eco-systems and social aspects of marine species. Scientific data have long enjoyed a reputation for objectivity but incidents of science-for-hire, data spinning/skewing and political jading are more frequent than ever. In the field of reef creature sensitivity, technical treatises can “logically” explain away what a person of average education can clearly observe on any given reef. Western medicine discounted anecdotal evidence of any cure outside the 4% margin of error until those cures demanded attention and in some cases application. Modern science must now enter ...


Still Wondering How Flesh Can Feel, Gwen J. Broude 2016 Vassar College

Still Wondering How Flesh Can Feel, Gwen J. Broude

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Reber believes he has simplified Chalmers’s “hard problem” of consciousness by arguing that subjectivity is an inherent feature of biological forms. His argument rests on the related notions of continuity of mind and gradual accretion of capacities across evolutionary time. These notions need to be defended, not just asserted. Because Reber minimizes the differences in mental faculties among species across evolutionary time, it becomes easier to assert, and perhaps believe, that sentience is already present in early biological forms. The more explicit we are about the differences among these mental faculties and the differences across species, the less persuasive ...


A New Species Of Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 From Peloponnese, Greece (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae, Gioele Tropea, Victor Fet, Aristeidis Parmakelis, Panayiota Kotsakiozi, Iasmi Stathi 2016 Società Romana di Scienze Naturali

A New Species Of Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 From Peloponnese, Greece (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae, Gioele Tropea, Victor Fet, Aristeidis Parmakelis, Panayiota Kotsakiozi, Iasmi Stathi

Victor Fet

A new scorpion species, Euscorpius (Euscorpius) erymanthius sp. n., is described from Peloponnese, Greece (Erymanthos Mts.), based on genetic and morphological evidence. It is characterized by small size, light brown to reddish color, and a standard trichobothrial pattern (Pv = 8–9, et = 7–6, em = 4 and eb = 4). In a phylogeny based on multiple DNA markers, the new species groups close with E. corcyraeus Tropea et Rossi, 2012 from Corfu (Kerkyra) Island.


Toward The History Of Study Of Symbiogenesis: On The English Translation Of B. M. Kozo-Polyansky’S A New Principle Of Biology (1924), Victor Fet 2016 Marshall University

Toward The History Of Study Of Symbiogenesis: On The English Translation Of B. M. Kozo-Polyansky’S A New Principle Of Biology (1924), Victor Fet

Victor Fet

We reproduce the text by Victor Fet, which was read on 6 October 2011 at the Moscow Society of Naturalists during the presentation of new book translation (B.M. Kozo- Polyansky. Symbiogenesis: A New Principle of Evolution / transl. by Victor Fet; ed. by Victor Fet & Lynn Margulis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2010. 138 p.) This half- forgotten book by Boris M. Kozo-Polyansky was known only by name to Western biologists. Victor Fet gives a brief history of this new translation, enthusiastically initiated and supported by Lynn Margulis (1938–2011), a famous naturalist who was always eager to gave credit where credit was due. Kozo- Polyansky, along with Merezhkovsky, Portier, and Wallin, pioneered symbiogenetic ideas that were brilliantly developed and vindicated starting from 1960–1970s. It was Lynn Margulis who noticed also that Kozo- Polyansky preceded E. Chatton in recognizing the profound diff erence between prokaryotes and eukaryotes; in fact, he maintained that this difference was due to symbiogenetic, complex nature of the eukaryotic cell! Two “scientistic” poems (in Russian) by Victor Fet are included, dedicated to all the prophets and martyrs of science.


Changes In Male Hunting Returns, Raymond B. Hames 2016 Universit of Nebraska Lincoln

Changes In Male Hunting Returns, Raymond B. Hames

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Research on changes in male hunting among hunter-gatherers addresses two important issues in early human evolution: the nature of the family and trade-offs in mating and parenting effort as well as the development of embodied capital. In the hunter-gatherer literature, there is a debate about the function of male hunting that has implications for understanding the role males play in the evolution of the pair bond. The traditional model argues that male hunting and other economic activities are forms of male provisioning or parenting effort designed to enhance a man’s fitness through his wife’s reproduction and the survivorship ...


Review Of Northwestern African Buthacus, With Description Of Buthacus Stockmanni Sp. N. From Morocco And Western Sahara (Scorpiones, Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, František Šťáhlavský 2016 Charles University

Review Of Northwestern African Buthacus, With Description Of Buthacus Stockmanni Sp. N. From Morocco And Western Sahara (Scorpiones, Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, František Šťáhlavský

Euscorpius

Northwestern African Buthacus species are revised. Buthacus stockmanni sp. n. from Morocco and Western Sahara is described and fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens, as well as their habitat. The hemispermatophore of B. stockmanni sp. n. is illustrated and described. In addition to morphology and hemi-spermatophores, we also describe the karyotypes of B. stockmanni sp. n. (2n=20). B. stockmanni sp. n. is compared with B. occidentalis Vachon, 1953 and B. ziegleri Lourenço, 2000. Both these species are differentiated from B. stockmanni sp. n. geographically and morphologically. The male of B. stockmanni sp. n. has fingers ...


First Report Of Lissothus Occidentalis Vachon, 1950 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Morocco And Western Sahara, With Notes On Ecology And Captive Breeding, Mark Stockmann, Carlos Turiel, Felix Althoff, Graeme Lowe, František Kovařík 2016 Monell Chemical Senses Center

First Report Of Lissothus Occidentalis Vachon, 1950 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Morocco And Western Sahara, With Notes On Ecology And Captive Breeding, Mark Stockmann, Carlos Turiel, Felix Althoff, Graeme Lowe, František Kovařík

Euscorpius

Genus Lissothus Vachon, 1948 represented by L. occidentalis Vachon, 1950 is reported for the first time from four localities in Morocco and the Western Sahara. We provide a revised diagnosis of L. occidentalis, fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens. Hemispermatophore is also illustrated and described in detail. Furthermore, we describe aspects of the ecology of this species, and provide photos of collection sites and habitats. We also report on the reproductive biology of this species based on captive breeding and rearing. and provide the first envenomation report for the species.


Animals Aren’T Persons, But Is It Time For A Neologism?, Helen Steward 2016 University of Leeds

Animals Aren’T Persons, But Is It Time For A Neologism?, Helen Steward

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Mark Rowlands argues that at least some animals are persons, based on the idea that (i) many animals have a property he calls “pre-reflective awareness,” (ii) the capacity for pre-reflective awareness is sufficient to satisfy the traditional Lockean definition of personhood, and (iii) satisfaction of the traditional Lockean definition of personhood is sufficient for being a person. I agree with (i) and can see that there is a persuasive case for (ii), but I think the case against (iii) blocks the conclusion that animals are persons. I suggest that we may need instead to coin a neologism in order to ...


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