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1138 full-text articles. Page 1 of 43.

Bounds On The Expected Size Of The Maximum Agreement Subtree, Colby Long, Daniel Irving Bernstein, Lam Si Tung Ho, Mike Steel, Katherine St. John, Seth Sullivant 2016 The Ohio State University

Bounds On The Expected Size Of The Maximum Agreement Subtree, Colby Long, Daniel Irving Bernstein, Lam Si Tung Ho, Mike Steel, Katherine St. John, Seth Sullivant

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


General Equations For Natural Selection Under Complete Dominance, Kasthuri Kannan, Adriana Heguy 2016 New York University

General Equations For Natural Selection Under Complete Dominance, Kasthuri Kannan, Adriana Heguy

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Evolving Healthy Populations, Nina H. Fefferman 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Evolving Healthy Populations, Nina H. Fefferman

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Comparative Population Genomics And Speciation Of Snakes Across The North American Deserts, Edward A. Myers 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Comparative Population Genomics And Speciation Of Snakes Across The North American Deserts, Edward A. Myers

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Understanding the process of speciation is of central interest to evolutionary biologists. Speciation can be studied using a phylogeographic approach, by identifying regions that promote lineage divergence, addressing whether speciation has occurred with gene flow, and when extended to multiple taxa, addressing if the same patterns of speciation are shared across codistributed groups with different ecologies. Here I examine the comparative phylogeographic histories and population genomics of thirteen snake taxa that are widely distributed and co-occur across the arid southwest of North America. I first quantify the degree to which these species groups have a shared history of population divergence ...


Models And Methods In Cultural And Social Evolution, Elliot G. Aguilar 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Models And Methods In Cultural And Social Evolution, Elliot G. Aguilar

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Chapter 1 The mathematical study of genealogies has yielded important insights in population biology, such as the ability to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of a sample of genetic sequences or of a group of individuals. Here we introduce a model of cultural genealogies that is a step toward answering similar questions for cultural traits. In our model individuals can inherit from a variable, potentially large number of ancestors, rather than from a fixed, small number of ancestors (one or two) as is typical of genetic evolution. We first show that, given a sample of ...


Cognitive Dissonance Or Contrast?, Thomas R. Zentall 2016 University of Kentucky

Cognitive Dissonance Or Contrast?, Thomas R. Zentall

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

According to Festinger (1957), cognitive dissonance occurs when one’s behavior or belief is inconsistent with another belief and one modifies one of the beliefs in an attempt to reduce the dissonance. In nonhuman animals, we have examined a version of human cognitive dissonance theory called justification of effort, according to which the value of reward following more difficult tasks increases, presumably to justify (to oneself or to others) performing the more difficult task. We have examined the justification of effort effect in animals and found a pattern similar to the one in humans but we propose a simpler underlying ...


Evolutionary Continuity Of Personhood, Anne Benvenuti 2016 University of Winchester

Evolutionary Continuity Of Personhood, Anne Benvenuti

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Rowlands applies the two organizing ideas of the Lockean concept of personhood — mental life and unity — to animals as potential persons. Especially valuable in this context is his descriptive phenomenology of pre-reflective self-awareness as a fundamental form of mental life that necessarily entails unity. Rowland describes certain fundamentals of mental experience that exist across species boundaries, challenging assumptions of early modern philosophers regarding the definition of human personhood and affirming the principle of evolutionary continuity. This opens the door to a broader and deeper set of questions, related to whether we should continue to attempt to apply to other animals ...


Darwin’S Empirical Evidence, Maxine Sheets-Johnstone 2016 University of Oregon

Darwin’S Empirical Evidence, Maxine Sheets-Johnstone

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Darwin’s extensive writings may seem antiquated to current thinkers with their predilections for cognitive science, neuroscience, and analytic branches of philosophy. He showed that morphologies are not simply taxonomic distinctions that allow classification into species. They describe living animals, hence morphologies-in-motion: animate forms of life engaged in synergies of meaningful movement, all of which are testimony to animal sentience.


Animal Personhood Is An Evolutionary Issue, James E. King 2016 University of Arizona

Animal Personhood Is An Evolutionary Issue, James E. King

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

The Rowlands target article makes a case, based on John Locke’s metaphysical argument, that personhood can be applied to many species beyond a few nonhuman primates. The problem with this argument is that personhood has an open-ended list of defining attributes and can, at best only be partially applied to nonhuman species. Therefore, a dichotomous distinction cannot be made between qualifying and non-qualifying species. Instead, between-species comparisons must be based on observational and experimental procedures to demonstrate the extent to which human mental attributes are shared with other species. This would allow a more informed view about the appropriateness ...


Another New Species Of Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 From The Taurus Mountains In Antalya Province, Southern Turkey (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae), Gioele Tropea, Ersen Aydın Yağmur, Aristeidis Parmakelis, Kadir Boğaç Kunt 2016 Celal Bayar University

Another New Species Of Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 From The Taurus Mountains In Antalya Province, Southern Turkey (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae), Gioele Tropea, Ersen Aydın Yağmur, Aristeidis Parmakelis, Kadir Boğaç Kunt

Euscorpius

A new scorpion species, Euscorpius alanyaensis sp. n., is described based on specimens collected from the Taurus Mountains in Antalya Province (Alanya District) in southern Turkey. It is a sibling species of the recently described E. gocmeni Tropea et al., 2014, and similarly, the new species is also characterized by a high trichobothrial count (Pv = 9–11, et = 7, em = 4, and eb = 4), a high pectinal teeth count (Dp = 9–11 in males, 8 in females), medium-small size, and light to medium brown-reddish colour. In addition, for the first time a phylogenetic analysis (concatenated sequences of 16S rDNA and ...


How Could Consciousness Emerge From Adaptive Functioning?, Max Velmans 2016 Goldsmiths, University of London

How Could Consciousness Emerge From Adaptive Functioning?, Max Velmans

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

The sudden appearance of consciousness that Reber posits in creatures with flexible cell walls and motility rather than non-flexible cells walls and no motility involves an evolutionary discontinuity. This kind of “miracle” is required by all “discontinuity” theories of consciousness. To avoid miraculous emergence, one may need to consider continuity theories, which accept that different forms of consciousness and material functioning co-evolve but assume the existence of consciousness to be primal in the way that matter and energy are assumed to be primal in physics.


“Cellular Basis Of Consciousness”: Not Just Radical But Wrong, Brian Key 2016 The University of Queensland

“Cellular Basis Of Consciousness”: Not Just Radical But Wrong, Brian Key

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Reber (2016) attempts to resuscitate an obscure and outdated hypothesis referred to as the “cellular basis of consciousness” that was originally formulated by the author nearly twenty years ago. This hypothesis proposes that any organism with flexible cell walls, a sensitivity to its surrounds, and the capacity for locomotion will possess the biological foundations of mind and consciousness. Reber seeks to reduce consciousness to a fundamental property inherent to individual cells rather than to centralised nervous systems. This commentary shows how this hypothesis is based on supposition, false premises and a misunderstanding of evolutionary theory. The cellular basis of consciousness ...


The Evolutionary History Of Consciousness, Eirik Søvik, Clint Perry 2016 Volda University College

The Evolutionary History Of Consciousness, Eirik Søvik, Clint Perry

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Klein & Barron argue that insects are capable of subjective experience, i.e., sentience. Whereas we mostly agree with the conclusion of their arguments, we think there is an even more important message to be learned from their work. The line of reasoning opened by Klein & Barron proves instructive for how neuroscientists can and should explore the biological phenomenon of consciousness.


Beginnings: Physics, Sentience And Luca, Carolyn A. Ristau 2016 Animal Studies Repository

Beginnings: Physics, Sentience And Luca, Carolyn A. Ristau

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

According to Reber’s model, Cellular Basis of Consciousness (CBC), sentience had its origins in a unicellular organism and is an inherent property of living, mobile organic forms. He argues by analogy to basic physical forces which he considers to be inherent properties of matter; I suggest that they are instead the stuff of scientific investigation in physics. I find no convincing argument that sentience had to begin in endogenously mobile cells, a criterial attribute of the originator cell(s)for sentience according to CBC. Non-endogenously mobile cells, (i.e., plants or precursors) in a moving environment would suffice. Despite ...


Might Insects Experience Pain?, Robert W. Elwood 2016 Queen's University - Belfast

Might Insects Experience Pain?, Robert W. Elwood

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

The aim of this commentary is to expand the discussion about subjective experience to other arthropods, notably crustaceans. Various species of crustaceans show responses consistent with their feeling pain. Hermit crabs also show prolonged investigation of new shells. They clearly attend to and integrate information from a wide variety of sources that enable them to evaluate the quality of the new shell relative to their current shell. These observations too are consistent with their having subjective experience.


Mind/Body “Hard Problem” Is Not A Category Error, Linda A.W. Brakel 2016 University of Michigan

Mind/Body “Hard Problem” Is Not A Category Error, Linda A.W. Brakel

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Reber’s Cellular Basis of Consciousness (CBC) has much to recommend it. However, while the CBC effectively renders null any ontological gap between mind and body, it leaves two important remaining gaps unaddressed: the epistemologic and the causal gap. Brakel’s (2013) Diachronic Conjunctive Token Physicalism (DiCoToP) is briefly introduced as a beginning remedy for the epistemologic, but unfortunately not the causal, gap. Thus the “hard problem” remains both hard and problematic.


Phenomenal Consciousness In Insects? A Possible Way Forward, Brian Key 2016 The University of Queensland

Phenomenal Consciousness In Insects? A Possible Way Forward, Brian Key

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Klein & Barron (2016) propose that subjective experience in humans arises in the midbrain and then argue that insects have the capacity for subjective experience because their nervous system can perform neural processing similar to that of the midbrain. This approach ultimately fails because it is built on the false premise that the midbrain is the source of the awareness of sensory stimuli. I instead propose that the capacity for subjective experience must be based on fundamental neural computations that generate the “what it feels like” experience. Two such computations associated with metarepresentations and high level representations entering working memory are ...


From Thinking Selves To Social Selves, Judith Benz-Schwarzburg 2016 Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna

From Thinking Selves To Social Selves, Judith Benz-Schwarzburg

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

I argue that Rowlands’s concept of pre-reflective self-awareness offers a way to understand animals as Social Selves. It does so because it departs from the orthodox conception of self-awareness, which is both egocentric and logocentric. Instead, its focus is on the relation between consciousness and a person’s lived body, her actions and goals. Characterizing persons as pre-reflectively self-aware beings in Rowlands’s sense offers a much more useful conceptual tool to interpret social behaviour in animals.


What Do We Owe Animals As Persons?, Judith Benz-Schwarzburg 2016 Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna

What Do We Owe Animals As Persons?, Judith Benz-Schwarzburg

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Rowlands (2016) concentrates strictly on the metaphysical concept of person, but his notion of animal personhood bears a moral dimension (Monsó, 2016). His definition of pre-reflective self-awareness has a focus on sentience and on the lived body of a person as well as on her implicit awareness of her own goals. Interestingly, these also play a key role in animal welfare science, as well as in animal rights theories that value the interests of animals. Thus, Rowlands’s concept shows connectivity with both major fields of animal ethics. His metaphysical arguments might indeed contain a strong answer to the question ...


If Insects Have Phenomenal Consciousness, Could They Suffer?, Elizabeth S. Paul, Michael T. Mendl 2016 University of Bristol

If Insects Have Phenomenal Consciousness, Could They Suffer?, Elizabeth S. Paul, Michael T. Mendl

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Klein & Barron’s (K & B’s) suggestion that insects have the capacity for phenomenal consciousness is a refreshing and challenging departure from the cautious and agnostic stance that is taken by many researchers when considering this possibility. It is impossible to falsify the sceptic’s view that neural and behavioural parallels between humans and insects need not imply either similar conscious experience or even any phenomenal consciousness in insects at all. But if K & B are right, it is important to consider the possible contents of insect consciousness. Here we discuss whether affective consciousness, with its implications for potential suffering ...


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