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The Legacy Of Natural Species And Substantial Form For Thomistic Evolution, James R. Hofmann 2019 California State University, Fullerton

The Legacy Of Natural Species And Substantial Form For Thomistic Evolution, James R. Hofmann

Forum Lectures

Exploration of theistic evolution within a Thomistic framework has taken on the label of Thomistic evolution. Although the conceptual boundaries of this approach are not precise, a historical trajectory of its scholastic methodology can be traced back to the views of Aquinas himself. An enduring central concept in this tradition has been the idea of substantial form. For Aquinas, distinct substantial forms were associated with the kinds of animals and plants that have no prior ancestry and are ascribed to God's production during the Genesis days of adornment. Later in the tradition, the early twentieth century Jesuit Erich Wasmann ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xix. Pandiborellius Meidensis (Karsch, 1879) And Pandinurus Fulvipes Sp. N. (Scorpionidae) From Somaliland., František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Tomáš Mazuch 2019 Marshall University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xix. Pandiborellius Meidensis (Karsch, 1879) And Pandinurus Fulvipes Sp. N. (Scorpionidae) From Somaliland., František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Tomáš Mazuch

Euscorpius

The male of Pandiborellius meidensis (Karsch, 1879) is introduced for the first time and illustrated in detail with color photos, and sexual dimorphism and occurrence of the species are discussed. Pandinurus fulvipes sp. n. from Somaliland is described and fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens, as well as of its habitat.


Chaerilus Alberti Sp. N. From Malaysia (Scorpiones: Chaerilidae), František Kovařík 2019 Marshall University

Chaerilus Alberti Sp. N. From Malaysia (Scorpiones: Chaerilidae), František Kovařík

Euscorpius

Chaerilus alberti sp. n. from Malaysia (Cameron Highlands) is described and fully illustrated with color photographs of preserved specimens, as well as of their habitat. Males of C. alberti sp. n. have a unique shape of chela which is stout with the manus swollen anteriorly. They are compared to other species from Southeast Asia, from all of which C. alberti sp. n. differs by the shape of pedipalp chela parallel or swollen posteriorly or medially. Pedipalp chela is illustrated with color photographs of 21 of these species.


A New Semidesert Microtityus Kjellesvig-Waering, 1966 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Southeast Cuba, Greater Antilles., Rolando Teruel 2019 Marshall University

A New Semidesert Microtityus Kjellesvig-Waering, 1966 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Southeast Cuba, Greater Antilles., Rolando Teruel

Euscorpius

A new species of the buthid scorpion genus Microtityus Kjellesvig-Waering, 1966, is herein described from specimens of both sexes collected at three nearby localities in the western part of the Guantánamo Bay Area, southeast Cuba. It belongs in the "jaumei" species-group of the subgenus Microtityus (Parvabsonus) Armas, 1974 and is very peculiar not only by its external morphology (very distinct from its other Cuban congeners), but also by the unusual habitat where it occurs in and seems to be restricted to (dry and hot cactus scrub on volcanic sandy plain). The present contribution reinforces the position of this genus as ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xviii. Gint Banfasae Sp. N. From Somaliland (Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe 2019 Marshall University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xviii. Gint Banfasae Sp. N. From Somaliland (Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe

Euscorpius

Gint banfasae sp. n. from Somaliland is described and compared with other species of the genus. Additional information is provided on the taxonomy and distribution of the genus Gint, fully complemented with color photos of specimens of both sexes of the new species, as well as of their habitat. Included is a key for Gint.


Humans: Uniquely Responsible For Causing Conservation Problems, Uniquely Capable Of Solving Them, Michael L. Wilson, Clarence L. Lehman 2019 University of Minnesota

Humans: Uniquely Responsible For Causing Conservation Problems, Uniquely Capable Of Solving Them, Michael L. Wilson, Clarence L. Lehman

Animal Sentience

We share Chapman & Huffman’s views on the importance of promoting animal welfare and conservation. We disagree with their implication, however, that reverence for life and concern for the wellbeing of global ecosystems depend on a belief that other living things are similar to humans in any of their capacities. Humans exhibit special traits — language, cumulative culture, extraordinary capacity for cooperation when we are at our best, and ever-advancing technological developments — that enabled them to dominate the planet, resulting in the current conservation crisis. It is precisely the fact that humans have become unique that provides hope for finding conservation ...


More Evidence Of Complex Cognition In Nonhuman Species, Lesley J. Rogers 2019 University of New England

More Evidence Of Complex Cognition In Nonhuman Species, Lesley J. Rogers

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman have highlighted observations of animals performing, in nature, complex behaviour once thought to be unique to humans. Just as relevant to their argument are examples of cognition shown by domesticated species tested in controlled conditions. These strengthen the case for human/nonhuman similarities in behaviour and cognition. Recent research has brought to our attention the ability of nonhuman species to perform many tasks previously considered to be the hallmark of humans. Even though different species may use different ways of solving these tasks, the very fact that they can do it undermines the notion of human superiority.


Developmental Aspects Of Capacities, Karen Bartsch 2019 University of Wyoming

Developmental Aspects Of Capacities, Karen Bartsch

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman suggest that judgments of human superiority underlie our cruelty to animals. It might be useful to examine how such judgments operate within the human community. Children arguably have a potential for developing “superior” capacities but are outperformed on many tasks by animals. There is a continuum of development in children’s capacities. Perhaps there are interspecies evolutionary continua too. This highlights the complexity of reasoning about humans, animals, and moral inclusion.


Sentience Is The Foundation Of Animal Rights, Michael L. Woodruff 2019 East Tennessee State University

Sentience Is The Foundation Of Animal Rights, Michael L. Woodruff

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman argue that the cognitive differences between humans and nonhuman animals do not make humans superior to animals. I suggest that humans have domain-general cognitive abilities that make them superior in causing uniquely complex changes in the world not caused by any other species. The ability to conceive of and articulate a claim of rights is an example. However, possession of superior cognitive ability does not entitle humans to superior moral status. It is sentience, not cognitive complexity, that is the basis for the assignment of rights and the protections under the law that accompany them.


Unique In Degree Not Kindness, Jennifer Vonk 2019 Oakland University

Unique In Degree Not Kindness, Jennifer Vonk

Animal Sentience

Humans are certainly unique among living species. This is evident in the transformation of human environments and its resulting impact on other animals. However, many of the traits unique to humans are costly as well as adaptive and should certainly not be used to elevate their status above that of other species.


A Change In Grain? Diet Induced Plasticity In The Generalist Grasshopper Melanoplus Differentialis, Austin M. Culotta 2018 University of New Orleans

A Change In Grain? Diet Induced Plasticity In The Generalist Grasshopper Melanoplus Differentialis, Austin M. Culotta

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Phenotypic plasticity is favored in heterogeneous environments in which alternative phenotypes can exploit alternative resources. However, it’s not clear whether phenotypic plasticity is useful in environments that become more homogenous over an organism’s life cycle. I studied a population of grasshopper Melanoplus differentialis that experiences high resource diversity as nymphs but low resource diversity as adults to determine if individuals can undergo diet-induced morphological plasticity in head shape to increase biting ability and ingestion of hard diets. Insects on a soft diet were larger and had greater bite force than those on a hard diet. Head structures related ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xvii.Revision Of Neobuthus, With Description Of Seven New Species From Ethiopia, Kenya And Somaliland (Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Ahmed Ibrahim Awale, Hassan Sh Abdirahman Elmi, Ali Abdi Hurre 2018 Marshall University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida, Scorpiones). Part Xvii.Revision Of Neobuthus, With Description Of Seven New Species From Ethiopia, Kenya And Somaliland (Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Ahmed Ibrahim Awale, Hassan Sh Abdirahman Elmi, Ali Abdi Hurre

Euscorpius

New information about the taxonomy and distribution of the genus Neobuthus Hirst, 1911 is presented, based on material recently collected mainly from Somaliland, but also Djibouti and Kenya. Emended diagnoses are proposed for N. berberensis Hirst, 1911 and N. ferrugineus (Kraepelin, 1898) sensu stricto. New species described are: N. amoudensis sp. n. from Ethiopia and Somaliland; N. erigavoensis sp. n., N. factorio sp. n., N. gubanensis sp. n., N. maidensis sp. n., and N. montanus sp. n. from Somaliland; and N. kloppersi sp. n. from Kenya. This doubles the number of species in Neobuthus, unearthing a rich diversification of this ...


Revision Of The Central Asian Scorpion Genus Anomalobuthus Kraepelin, 1900, With Descriptions Of Three New Species And A Generic Synonymy (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Rolando Teruel, František Kovařík, Victor Fet 2018 Marshall University

Revision Of The Central Asian Scorpion Genus Anomalobuthus Kraepelin, 1900, With Descriptions Of Three New Species And A Generic Synonymy (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Rolando Teruel, František Kovařík, Victor Fet

Euscorpius

We revise the Central Asian endemic genus Anomalobuthus Kraepelin, 1900, which was considered monotypic for more than 100 years until the recent addition of a second species from Iran (Teruel et al., 2014). We redefine the generic diagnosis of Anomalobuthus and reveal that it is composed of no less than six species, three of which are described as new: A. krivochatskyi, sp. n. (central Uzbekistan and extreme southern Kazakhstan), A. lowei, sp. n. (southeastern Kazakhstan), and A. pavlovskyi, sp. n. (south-central Kazakhstan and extreme northern Turkmenistan). The monotypic genus Psammobuthus Birula, 1911 (described from the Ferghana Valley at the border ...


Genetic Basis Of Thermal Divergence In Saccharomyces Species, Xueying C. Li 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Genetic Basis Of Thermal Divergence In Saccharomyces Species, Xueying C. Li

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The genetic architecture of phenotypic divergence is a central question in evolutionary biology. Genetic architecture is impacted by whether evolution occurs through accumulation of many small-effect or a few large-effect changes, the relative contribution of coding and cis-regulatory changes, and the prevalence of epistatic effects. Our empirical understanding of the genetic basis of evolutionary change remains incomplete, largely because reproductive barriers limit genetic analysis to those phenotypes that distinguish closely related species. In this dissertation, I use hybrid genetic analysis to examine the basis of thermal divergence between two post-zygotically isolated species, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and S. uvarum. S. cerevisiae is ...


Courtship Behavior, Communication, And Copulation In Tigrosa Annexa, Samuel White 2018 Murray State University

Courtship Behavior, Communication, And Copulation In Tigrosa Annexa, Samuel White

Scholars Week

The evolution of multimodal communication, where signalers use multiple signal components in multiple sensory modalities, has become the subject of investigation by many researchers. Signaling puts males at risk of predation, so why do males of some species evolve extra signals that may increase this risk? In some wolf spider species, males incorporate many visual and vibrational signals into a display that they use to attract a female for mating. Female spiders are often aggressive toward courting males and so the male display also functions to decrease the odds of cannibalism. Female wandering spiders deposit silk containing pheromones that communicate ...


The Paradoxical Giant Hummingbird: Comparison Of Andean And Coastal Subspecies With Respect To Blood, Migration, And Genes, Jessie L. Williamson 2018 University of New Mexico

The Paradoxical Giant Hummingbird: Comparison Of Andean And Coastal Subspecies With Respect To Blood, Migration, And Genes, Jessie L. Williamson

Shared Knowledge Conference

The Giant Hummingbird (Patagona gigas) is twice as large as the next largest hummingbird species and has long been considered paradoxical with respect to flight biomechanics. It is also an extreme outlier in other respects. For example, it is the only hummingbird species that breeds above 4,000 m elevation and also along the beaches of the Pacific Ocean. The high Andean populations of Giant Hummingbird (P. g. peruviana) that we have studied previously have a beta-hemoglobin genotype (serine at beta-hemoglobin A positions 13 and 83) that is characterized by high O2-affinity and is only shared with four unrelated hummingbird ...


Becoming Human: The Darwinian Evolution Of Ai, Alexander Aviles 2018 University of North Georgia

Becoming Human: The Darwinian Evolution Of Ai, Alexander Aviles

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Public fear about the rise of artificial intelligence (AI) has created growing interest in understanding the differences from what created humans and machines. This project contrasts the two major models for creating intelligent life, Darwin’s Theory of Evolution and the neural mapping use to construct AI. Beginning by defining the particulars of Darwinian evolution, the paper explains how evolution relies upon interaction between populations and environmental factors. Turning to research in computer science by the likes of Alan Turing and John McCarthy, the paper then explains how artificial neural networks are programmed to work locally to accomplish a set ...


Stochastic Difference Model For Evolutional Dynamics Of Large Antigen Repertoires In African Trypanosomes, Fan Yu 2018 Illinois State University

Stochastic Difference Model For Evolutional Dynamics Of Large Antigen Repertoires In African Trypanosomes, Fan Yu

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Notes On The Genera Buthacus, Compsobuthus, And Lanzatus With Several Synonymies And Corrections Of Published Characters (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík 2018 Marshall University

Notes On The Genera Buthacus, Compsobuthus, And Lanzatus With Several Synonymies And Corrections Of Published Characters (Scorpiones: Buthidae), František Kovařík

Euscorpius

The taxonomic position of Buthacus armasi Lourenço, 2013, B. clevai Lourenço, 2001, B. huberi Lourenço, 2001, B. maliensis Lourenço & Qi, 2007, B. nigerianus Lourenço & Qi, 2006, Compsobuthus andresi Lourenço, 2004, C. simoni Lourenço, 1999, C. tassili Lourenço, 2010, C. tofti Lourenço, 2001, C. williamsi Lourenço, 1999, and Sabinebuthus elegans Lourenço, 2001 is revised and fictitious characters in their original descriptions are discussed and corrected. Buthacus armasi Lourenço, 2013 is synonymized with Buthacus leptochelys (Ehrenberg, 1829) syn. n., B. huberi Lourenço, 2001 is confirmed to be a synonym of Buthacus occidentalis Vachon, 1953, B. maliensis Lourenço & Qi, 2007 is synonymized with ...


Males And Females Evolve Riskier Traits In Populations With Eavesdropping Parasitoids, Oliver M. Beckers, William E. Wagner 2018 Murray State University

Males And Females Evolve Riskier Traits In Populations With Eavesdropping Parasitoids, Oliver M. Beckers, William E. Wagner

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Predation and/or parasitism often limits the evolution of conspicuous male traits and female preferences because conspicuous traits can attract predators or parasites and it is costly for females to associate with males that attract predators or parasites. As a result, males and females in high-risk populations are expected to evolve safer mating behaviors compared to individuals from low-risk populations. We tested this antagonistic selection hypothesis in the field cricket Gryllus lineaticeps. Males produce chirped songs, and both female crickets and the eavesdropping parasitoid fly Ormia ochracea prefer faster chirp rates. The flies attack the field crickets late in the ...


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