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A New Species Of The “Apacheanus” Group Of Genus Pseudouroctonus From Western Texas (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Richard F. Ayrey, Michael E. Soleglad 2017 Marshall University

A New Species Of The “Apacheanus” Group Of Genus Pseudouroctonus From Western Texas (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Richard F. Ayrey, Michael E. Soleglad

Euscorpius

A new species of the “apacheanus” group of genus Pseudouroctonus is described from western Texas, USA, Pseudouroctonus brysoni, sp. nov. This new species is closely related to P. apacheanus (Gertsch et Soleglad, 1972) and two other species recently described from southern Arizona. A combination of morphological differences in the hemispermatophore, the mating plug, and several morphometric-based characters are identified as diagnostic.


Reef Society And The Tyranny Of Data, Robert Wintner 2016 Snorkel Bob's Hawaii

Reef Society And The Tyranny Of Data, Robert Wintner

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Modern science now approaches divergent processes in many areas, including health assessments of marine eco-systems and social aspects of marine species. Scientific data have long enjoyed a reputation for objectivity but incidents of science-for-hire, data spinning/skewing and political jading are more frequent than ever. In the field of reef creature sensitivity, technical treatises can “logically” explain away what a person of average education can clearly observe on any given reef. Western medicine discounted anecdotal evidence of any cure outside the 4% margin of error until those cures demanded attention and in some cases application. Modern science must now enter ...


Still Wondering How Flesh Can Feel, Gwen J. Broude 2016 Vassar College

Still Wondering How Flesh Can Feel, Gwen J. Broude

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Reber believes he has simplified Chalmers’s “hard problem” of consciousness by arguing that subjectivity is an inherent feature of biological forms. His argument rests on the related notions of continuity of mind and gradual accretion of capacities across evolutionary time. These notions need to be defended, not just asserted. Because Reber minimizes the differences in mental faculties among species across evolutionary time, it becomes easier to assert, and perhaps believe, that sentience is already present in early biological forms. The more explicit we are about the differences among these mental faculties and the differences across species, the less persuasive ...


A New Species Of Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 From Peloponnese, Greece (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae, Gioele Tropea, Victor Fet, Aristeidis Parmakelis, Panayiota Kotsakiozi, Iasmi Stathi 2016 Società Romana di Scienze Naturali

A New Species Of Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 From Peloponnese, Greece (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae, Gioele Tropea, Victor Fet, Aristeidis Parmakelis, Panayiota Kotsakiozi, Iasmi Stathi

Victor Fet

A new scorpion species, Euscorpius (Euscorpius) erymanthius sp. n., is described from Peloponnese, Greece (Erymanthos Mts.), based on genetic and morphological evidence. It is characterized by small size, light brown to reddish color, and a standard trichobothrial pattern (Pv = 8–9, et = 7–6, em = 4 and eb = 4). In a phylogeny based on multiple DNA markers, the new species groups close with E. corcyraeus Tropea et Rossi, 2012 from Corfu (Kerkyra) Island.


Toward The History Of Study Of Symbiogenesis: On The English Translation Of B. M. Kozo-Polyansky’S A New Principle Of Biology (1924), Victor Fet 2016 Marshall University

Toward The History Of Study Of Symbiogenesis: On The English Translation Of B. M. Kozo-Polyansky’S A New Principle Of Biology (1924), Victor Fet

Victor Fet

We reproduce the text by Victor Fet, which was read on 6 October 2011 at the Moscow Society of Naturalists during the presentation of new book translation (B.M. Kozo- Polyansky. Symbiogenesis: A New Principle of Evolution / transl. by Victor Fet; ed. by Victor Fet & Lynn Margulis. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2010. 138 p.) This half- forgotten book by Boris M. Kozo-Polyansky was known only by name to Western biologists. Victor Fet gives a brief history of this new translation, enthusiastically initiated and supported by Lynn Margulis (1938–2011), a famous naturalist who was always eager to gave credit where credit was due. Kozo- Polyansky, along with Merezhkovsky, Portier, and Wallin, pioneered symbiogenetic ideas that were brilliantly developed and vindicated starting from 1960–1970s. It was Lynn Margulis who noticed also that Kozo- Polyansky preceded E. Chatton in recognizing the profound diff erence between prokaryotes and eukaryotes; in fact, he maintained that this difference was due to symbiogenetic, complex nature of the eukaryotic cell! Two “scientistic” poems (in Russian) by Victor Fet are included, dedicated to all the prophets and martyrs of science.


Review Of Northwestern African Buthacus, With Description Of Buthacus Stockmanni Sp. N. From Morocco And Western Sahara (Scorpiones, Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, František Šťáhlavský 2016 Charles University

Review Of Northwestern African Buthacus, With Description Of Buthacus Stockmanni Sp. N. From Morocco And Western Sahara (Scorpiones, Buthidae), František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, František Šťáhlavský

Euscorpius

Northwestern African Buthacus species are revised. Buthacus stockmanni sp. n. from Morocco and Western Sahara is described and fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens, as well as their habitat. The hemispermatophore of B. stockmanni sp. n. is illustrated and described. In addition to morphology and hemi-spermatophores, we also describe the karyotypes of B. stockmanni sp. n. (2n=20). B. stockmanni sp. n. is compared with B. occidentalis Vachon, 1953 and B. ziegleri Lourenço, 2000. Both these species are differentiated from B. stockmanni sp. n. geographically and morphologically. The male of B. stockmanni sp. n. has fingers ...


First Report Of Lissothus Occidentalis Vachon, 1950 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Morocco And Western Sahara, With Notes On Ecology And Captive Breeding, Mark Stockmann, Carlos Turiel, Felix Althoff, Graeme Lowe, František Kovařík 2016 Monell Chemical Senses Center

First Report Of Lissothus Occidentalis Vachon, 1950 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Morocco And Western Sahara, With Notes On Ecology And Captive Breeding, Mark Stockmann, Carlos Turiel, Felix Althoff, Graeme Lowe, František Kovařík

Euscorpius

Genus Lissothus Vachon, 1948 represented by L. occidentalis Vachon, 1950 is reported for the first time from four localities in Morocco and the Western Sahara. We provide a revised diagnosis of L. occidentalis, fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens. Hemispermatophore is also illustrated and described in detail. Furthermore, we describe aspects of the ecology of this species, and provide photos of collection sites and habitats. We also report on the reproductive biology of this species based on captive breeding and rearing. and provide the first envenomation report for the species.


Animals Aren’T Persons, But Is It Time For A Neologism?, Helen Steward 2016 University of Leeds

Animals Aren’T Persons, But Is It Time For A Neologism?, Helen Steward

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Mark Rowlands argues that at least some animals are persons, based on the idea that (i) many animals have a property he calls “pre-reflective awareness,” (ii) the capacity for pre-reflective awareness is sufficient to satisfy the traditional Lockean definition of personhood, and (iii) satisfaction of the traditional Lockean definition of personhood is sufficient for being a person. I agree with (i) and can see that there is a persuasive case for (ii), but I think the case against (iii) blocks the conclusion that animals are persons. I suggest that we may need instead to coin a neologism in order to ...


Reber’S Caterpillar Offers No Help, Carl Safina 2016 Stony Brook University

Reber’S Caterpillar Offers No Help, Carl Safina

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Reber’s target article “Caterpillars, consciousness and the origins of mind” seems only to shift but not to address the question of where the mind is and how minds occur.



Evolution In Light Of Mitonuclear Landscapes An Examination Of Mitochondrial Replacement In Killifish (Fundulus Spp.), Stephen D. Flanagan 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Evolution In Light Of Mitonuclear Landscapes An Examination Of Mitochondrial Replacement In Killifish (Fundulus Spp.), Stephen D. Flanagan

Dissertations

The mitochondria are responsible for the bulk of energy production in eukaryotes. They possess their own genome that works in conjunction with the nuclear genome to accomplish the extraordinarily important task of energy conversion. When species hybridize there will be a mismatch in evolutionary histories between these two genomes. The deleterious interactions of these genomes have been studied in great detail (i.e. hybrid breakdown). However, little work has been conducted to understand the population genetic, and morphological consequences of wide-ranging replacement. The Fundulus notatus complex is comprised of 3 species: F. notatus, F. olivaceus, and F. euryzonus. Within the ...


Two New Species Of Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 From Southern Turkey (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae), Gioele Tropea, Ersen Aydın Yağmur 2016 Società Romana di Scienze Naturali

Two New Species Of Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 From Southern Turkey (Scorpiones: Euscorpiidae), Gioele Tropea, Ersen Aydın Yağmur

Euscorpius

Two new species of scorpion of the genus Euscorpius Thorell, 1876 are described from southern Turkey based on morphological ratio and trichobothrial data. E. hakani sp. n. from Mt. Eşeler, in Denizli Province in southwestern Turkey and E. aladaglarensis sp. n. from the Aladağlar Mts., in Niğde, Kayseri, and Adana Provinces. With the description of two new taxa, 17 species of Euscorpius are currently recognized in Turkey.


Insect Consciousness: Commitments, Conflicts And Consequences, Colin Klein, Andrew B. Barron 2016 Macquarie University, Australia

Insect Consciousness: Commitments, Conflicts And Consequences, Colin Klein, Andrew B. Barron

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Our target article, “Insects have the capacity for subjective experience,” has provoked a diverse range of commentaries. In this response we have collated what we see as the major themes of the discussion. It is clear that we differ from some commentators in our commitments to what subjective experience is and what the midbrain is capable of. Here we clarify where we stand on those points and how our view differs from some other influential perspectives. The commentaries have highlighted the most lively areas of disagreement. We revisit here the debates surrounding whether the cortex is essential for any form ...


Consciousness And Evolutionary Biology, Yew-Kwang Ng 2016 Nanyang Technological University

Consciousness And Evolutionary Biology, Yew-Kwang Ng

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Reber’s axiom: “Any organism with flexible cell walls, a sensitivity to its surrounds and the capacity for locomotion will possess the biological foundations of mind and consciousness” does not seem to be supported by things we know and the logic of evolutionary biology. The latter leads to the conclusion that conscious species are flexible in their behavior (rather than in their cell walls), as argued in Ng (1995, 2016). Locomotion may be completely hard-wired and need not involve consciousness. It is hard enough to explain how consciousness could emerge in a sophisticated brain: Isn’t it a harder problem ...


The Difference Between Conscious And Unconscious Brain Circuits, Ezequiel Morsella, Zaviera Reyes 2016 San Francisco State University

The Difference Between Conscious And Unconscious Brain Circuits, Ezequiel Morsella, Zaviera Reyes

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Theoretical frameworks in which consciousness is an inherent property of the neuron must account for the contrast between conscious and unconscious processes in the brain and address how neural events can ever be unconscious if consciousness is a property of all neurons. Other approaches have sought answers regarding consciousness by contrasting conscious and unconscious processes and through investigating the complex interactions between the two kinds of processes, as occurs most notably in human voluntary action. In voluntary action, consciousness is associated most, not with motor control or low-level perceptual processing, but with the stage of processing known as action selection.



Resolving The Hard Problem And Calling For A Small Miracle, Arthur S. Reber 2016 University of British Columbia

Resolving The Hard Problem And Calling For A Small Miracle, Arthur S. Reber

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

With the exception of the commentary by Key, the commentaries on Reber have a common feature: the commenters feel, with varying levels of enthusiasm, that there is at least some virtue in the core assumption of the Cellular Basis of Consciousness (CBC) theory that consciousness (or subjectivity or sentience) accompanies the earliest forms of life. The model has two important entailments: (a) it resolves the (in)famous Hard Problem by redirecting the search for the biochemical foundations of sentience away from human consciousness; and (b) it reduces the need for an emergentist miracle to a far simpler scale than is ...


No Help On The Hard Problem, Derek Ball 2016 University of St Andrews

No Help On The Hard Problem, Derek Ball

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

The hard problem of consciousness is to explain why certain physical states are conscious: why do they feel the way they do, rather than some other way or no way at all? Arthur Reber (2016) claims to solve the hard problem. But he does not: even if we grant that amoebae are conscious, we can ask why such organisms feel the way they do, and Reber’s theory provides no answer. Still, Reber’s theory may be methodologically useful: we do not yet have a satisfactory theory of consciousness, but perhaps the study of simple minds is a way to ...


Unconscious Higher-Order Thoughts (Hots) As Pre-Reflective Self-Awareness?, Rocco J. Gennaro 2016 The University of Southern Indiana

Unconscious Higher-Order Thoughts (Hots) As Pre-Reflective Self-Awareness?, Rocco J. Gennaro

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Rowlands argues that many nonhuman animals are “persons,” contrary to the prevailing orthodoxy which rests on a mistaken conception of the kind of self-awareness relevant to personhood. He argues that self-awareness bifurcates into two importantly different forms — reflective self-awareness and pre-reflective self-awareness — and that many animals can have the latter, which is sufficient for personhood. I agree that there is good reason to think that many animals can have pre-reflective self-awareness, but I think Rowlands is mistaken about its nature. His account runs the risk of leading to an infinite regress objection, and his notion of pre-reflective self-awareness actually sounds ...


The Psychological Concept Of “Person”, Kristin Andrews 2016 York University Animal Sentience

The Psychological Concept Of “Person”, Kristin Andrews

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Reluctance to overextend personhood seems to drive many of the skeptical responses in the first round of commentaries on Rowlands's target article. Despite Rowlands’s straightforward Response that we already accept some nonhumans as persons, there is still hesitation to accept that other nonhuman animals are persons. Rowlands's argument is sound but the skeptics don’t accept the Lockean notion of person. The metaphysical sense of person is a psychological one, however, and psychological properties grant one moral status according to many ethical theories.


Inter- And Intra-Individual Variation In Predator-Related Behavioral Plasticity Expressed By Female Green Swordtails (Xiphophorus Hellerii), Rachael A. DiSciullo 2016 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Inter- And Intra-Individual Variation In Predator-Related Behavioral Plasticity Expressed By Female Green Swordtails (Xiphophorus Hellerii), Rachael A. Disciullo

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of one genotype to express multiple phenotypes under variable environments. Behavioral plasticity is a type of phenotypic plasticity in which individuals adjust behavior in response to changes in environment. Often, behavioral plasticity is studied at the level of the population, rather than at the level of the individual. Further, few studies have considered the effect of individual traits, such as size and age, on the expression of behavioral plasticity, or, how individual plasticity may be correlated across different contexts. In this study, we used female green swordtails (Xiphophorus hellerii) to test the effects of body ...


A New Species Of Centruroides (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Quiché, Northwestern Guatemala, Rony E. Trujillo, Luis F. de Armas 2016 Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala

A New Species Of Centruroides (Scorpiones: Buthidae) From Quiché, Northwestern Guatemala, Rony E. Trujillo, Luis F. De Armas

Euscorpius

A new species of the genus Centruroides Marx, 1890 is described from Sotzil Village (15.61775°N, -91.09745°W, 1173 m a.s.l.), Chajul Municipality, Quiché Department, Guatemala, on basis of one female and one male. It closely resembles Centruroides caral Armas et Trujillo, 2013 from northeastern Guatemala (240 Km southeast of Chajul), but male differs by having a most globose pedipalp manus, as well as metasoma clearly more attenuate (len-gth/width ratio: segments II–IV = 2.4, 2.7 and 1.4, respectively; 1.7, 2.2 and 2.5 in the holotype of C. caral, the ...


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