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The Effects Of Urbanization On Insect Morphology: A Meta-Analysis, Evann L. Bailey 2021 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

The Effects Of Urbanization On Insect Morphology: A Meta-Analysis, Evann L. Bailey

Honors Theses

Urbanization has been shown to create a rapid change in the environment as you move from rural areas to urban areas. It can create a multitude of effects on the environment. Some examples include, land disturbance, pollution, increasing temperatures and a disturbance in vegetation and biodiversity. Insects are useful organisms that provide maintenance and upkeep for ecosystem functioning. The rapid development of urbanization and how it is changing the environment may impact insect morphology. Measuring morphological change in organisms have been used successfully as indicators of environmental and ecological disturbance. Changes that take place in an insect’s morphology may ...


An Experiment To Test For Rapid Evolution In An Introduced Ectomycorrhizal Symbiosis, Valerie Rewa 2021 University of Mississippi

An Experiment To Test For Rapid Evolution In An Introduced Ectomycorrhizal Symbiosis, Valerie Rewa

Honors Theses

The rapid evolution of introduced ectomycorrhizal-plant partnerships is an under- explored topic that may have immense impacts on ecosystems around the world. This experiment sought to identify and quantify this evolution and its impacts on both fungal colonization as well as plant growth. I used a laboratory experiment to analyze these factors in native and exotic genotypes of Suillus cothurnatus and Pinus species. Much of the data was not able to be collected, but that which was did not support the presence of rapid evolution in the mutualistic partnership. Pine species was seen to have a significant effect on plant ...


Population And Evolution Dynamics In Predator-Prey Systems With Anti-Predation Responses, Yang Wang 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Population And Evolution Dynamics In Predator-Prey Systems With Anti-Predation Responses, Yang Wang

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis studies the impact of anti-predation strategy on the population dynamics of predator-prey interactions. This work includes three research projects.

In the first project, we study a system of delay differential equations by considering both benefit and cost of anti-predation response, as well as a time delay in the transfer of biomass from the prey to the predator after predation. We reveal some insights on how the anti-predation response level and the biomass transfer delay jointly affect the population dynamics; we also show how the nonlinearity in the predation term mediated by the fear effect affects the long term ...


Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Hoxb6: An Exploration Into The Divergence Of Genomic Dna Sequence And Gene Expression Across Teleost Fishes Post-Genome Duplication, Amber Lynn Rittgers, Pierre Le Pabic, Adam Davis 2021 University of Georgia

Zebrafish (Danio Rerio) Hoxb6: An Exploration Into The Divergence Of Genomic Dna Sequence And Gene Expression Across Teleost Fishes Post-Genome Duplication, Amber Lynn Rittgers, Pierre Le Pabic, Adam Davis

Georgia Journal of Science

Hoxb6 is an evolutionarily conserved developmental regulatory gene that functions, in part, to pattern several organs and organ systems within the embryonic trunk during vertebrate embryogenesis. The cis-regulatory circuitry mediating trunk expression in mouse (Mus musculus) may be conserved across gnathostome vertebrates, as several other species show similar trunk expression patterns, including chicken (Gallus gallus), dogfish shark (Scyliorhinus canicula), and several teleost fishes. A whole genome duplication event that occurred in the lineage leading to teleost fishes has generated at least two Hoxb6 genes, hoxb6a and b6b. Two teleost fishes of the superorder Acanthopterygii, Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and ...


The Phoenix, Fernanda Perez-Alvarez 2021 College of the Holy Cross

The Phoenix, Fernanda Perez-Alvarez

Montserrat Annual Writing Prize

This article uses a mythical creature, the phoenix, to examine and illustrate the biological principles for generation of an adult body plan from a single cell. Using the study of developmental biology, it explores the cellular and molecular biology that underpins the massive complexity of creating an adult body plan. It also explores the similarities and differences between different embryos, and how nature and evolution have shaped the biology of those embryos to create different body plans.


Male Competition Reverses Female Preference For Male Chemical Cues, Z. Vilella-Pacheco, L. D. Mitchem, Vincent A. Formica, E. D. Brodie III 2021 Swarthmore College

Male Competition Reverses Female Preference For Male Chemical Cues, Z. Vilella-Pacheco, L. D. Mitchem, Vincent A. Formica, E. D. Brodie Iii

Biology Faculty Works

Females must choose among potential mates with different phenotypes in a variety of social contexts. Many male traits are inherent and unchanging, but others are labile to social context. Competition, for example, can cause physiological changes that reflect recent wins and losses that fluctuate throughout time. We may expect females to respond differently to males depending on the outcome of their most recent fight. In Bolitotherus cornutus (forked fungus beetles), males compete for access to females, but copulation requires female cooperation. In this study, we use behavioral trials to determine whether females use chemical cues to differentiate between males and ...


Sociality Sculpts Similar Patterns Of Molecular Evolution In Two Independently Evolved Lineages Of Eusocial Bees, Wyatt A. Shell, Michael A. Steffen, Hannah K. Pare, Arun S. Seetharam, Andrew J. Severin, Amy L. Toth, Sandra M. Rehan 2021 York University

Sociality Sculpts Similar Patterns Of Molecular Evolution In Two Independently Evolved Lineages Of Eusocial Bees, Wyatt A. Shell, Michael A. Steffen, Hannah K. Pare, Arun S. Seetharam, Andrew J. Severin, Amy L. Toth, Sandra M. Rehan

Genome Informatics Facility Publications

While it is well known that the genome can affect social behavior, recent models posit that social lifestyles can, in turn, influence genome evolution. Here, we perform the most phylogenetically comprehensive comparative analysis of 16 bee genomes to date: incorporating two published and four new carpenter bee genomes (Apidae: Xylocopinae) for a first-ever genomic comparison with a monophyletic clade containing solitary through advanced eusocial taxa. We find that eusocial lineages have undergone more gene family expansions, feature more signatures of positive selection, and have higher counts of taxonomically restricted genes than solitary and weakly social lineages. Transcriptomic data reveal that ...


Effects Of Gene-Environment Interactions On The Evolution Of Social Behaviours, Vonica J. Flear 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Effects Of Gene-Environment Interactions On The Evolution Of Social Behaviours, Vonica J. Flear

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Inclusive fitness models in sociobiology emphasize the importance of relatedness, R, and synergy, S when exploring the evolution of social behaviours. Very few models explicitly consider ‘role’, or environmental stimuli, influencing the expression of behaviours, and none consider genetic-environment interactions where genotype predisposes individuals to certain roles. I propose a third key variable for inclusive fitness models, Q, which describes the overlooked potential bias in the genetic composition of individuals exposed to an environmental stimulus – here referred to as ‘role’. I describe a model built from Price’s formula which can be presented in a ‘Hamilton’s Rule’ format. I ...


Habitat Characteristics Of Two Scorpion Species, Liocheles Australasiae (Fabricius, 1775) And Isometrus Maculatus (De Geer, 1778) In Miyako Islands, Japan, Kazusa Kawai 2021 Marshall University

Habitat Characteristics Of Two Scorpion Species, Liocheles Australasiae (Fabricius, 1775) And Isometrus Maculatus (De Geer, 1778) In Miyako Islands, Japan, Kazusa Kawai

Euscorpius

Scorpion surveys were conducted in the five islands: Miyakojima, Ikemajima, Kurimajima, Irabujima, and Shimojishima (Miyako Islands, part of Nansei/Ryukyu Islands of Japan). Eight individuals of Liocheles australasiae (Hormuridae) and 16 individuals of Isometrus maculatus (Buthidae) were observed in a total of 10 points on four islands, except Ikemajima. The localities of both species are recorded in this survey, focusing on altitude, distance from the nearest coast, and sunlight. The lowest temperatures in the habitat are also examined, and the cold tolerance of the species is discussed.


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xxvi. Records Of Hottentotta Polystictus (Pocock, 1896), With Descriptions Of H. Haudensis Sp. N. And H. Nigrimontanus Sp. N. (Buthidae) From Somaliland, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe 2021 Marshall University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xxvi. Records Of Hottentotta Polystictus (Pocock, 1896), With Descriptions Of H. Haudensis Sp. N. And H. Nigrimontanus Sp. N. (Buthidae) From Somaliland, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe

Euscorpius

The distribution of Hottentotta polystictus (Pocock, 1896) is summarized according to recently confirmed records. Two new species, Hottentotta haudensis sp. n. and H. nigrimontanus sp. n. from the Somaliland, are described, compared with H. polystictus, and fully illustrated with color photos showing their morphology, habitus and collection areas. H. haudensis sp. n. is the smallest known species of the genus Hottentotta Birula, 1908, while H. nigrimontanus sp. n. is larger than H. polystictus.


Predation Of Ananteris Spp. (Scorpiones: Buthidae) By Ants And A Social Wasp (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Vespidae) In Panama, Central America, Roberto Miranda, Luis F. de Armas, Roberto A. Cambra 2021 Marshall University

Predation Of Ananteris Spp. (Scorpiones: Buthidae) By Ants And A Social Wasp (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, Vespidae) In Panama, Central America, Roberto Miranda, Luis F. De Armas, Roberto A. Cambra

Euscorpius

Two events of predation on Ananteris spp. were observed in the Parque Nacional Darién, Darién Province, Panama. The first case involved the social wasp Agelaia centralis (Cameron, 1907) (Vespidae); the second one, a ponerine ant Leptogenys cf. cuneata Lattke, 2011 (Formicidae). This is the first time that predation by a social wasp on a scorpion is observed. They also represent the first recorded predators for Panamanian Ananteris species.


Fetilinia Dentator Gen. Et Sp. N. From Pakistan (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Graeme Lowe, František Kovařík 2021 Marshall University

Fetilinia Dentator Gen. Et Sp. N. From Pakistan (Scorpiones: Buthidae), Graeme Lowe, František Kovařík

Euscorpius

We describe from northern Pakistan a new buthid genus Fetilinia gen. n., monotypic with type species F. dentator sp. n., belonging to the Palaearctic ‘Buthus’ group. It bears some similarities to Kraepelinia Vachon, 1974, in having enlarged metasomal dentition, and to Orthochirus Karsch, 1891, and related genera in having a trapezoidal carapace and small abbreviated pedipalps.


Characterizing Patterns Of Genomic Variation In The Threatened Utah Prairie Dog: Implications For Conservation And Management, Rachael M. Giglio, Tonie E. Rocke, Jorge E. Osorio, Emily Latch 2021 University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee

Characterizing Patterns Of Genomic Variation In The Threatened Utah Prairie Dog: Implications For Conservation And Management, Rachael M. Giglio, Tonie E. Rocke, Jorge E. Osorio, Emily Latch

Biological Sciences Faculty Articles

Utah prairie dogs (Cynomys parvidens) are federally threatened due to eradication campaigns, habitat destruction, and outbreaks of plague. Today, Utah prairie dogs exist in small, isolated populations, making them less demographically stable and more susceptible to erosion of genetic variation by genetic drift. We characterized patterns of genetic structure at neutral and putatively adaptive loci in order to evaluate the relative effects of genetic drift and local adaptation on population divergence. We sampled individuals across the Utah prairie dog species range and generated 2,955 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using double digest restriction site associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD). Genetic diversity ...


Lepidopteran Granivory Reduces Seed Counts In A Rare Species Of Riparian Scour Prairies, Cheyenne Moore, Angela J. McDonnell, Scott Schuette, Christopher T. Martine 2021 Bucknell University

Lepidopteran Granivory Reduces Seed Counts In A Rare Species Of Riparian Scour Prairies, Cheyenne Moore, Angela J. Mcdonnell, Scott Schuette, Christopher T. Martine

Faculty Journal Articles

In Pennsylvania Baptisia australis var. australis is found along only four waterways: the Allegheny River, Youghiogheny River, Clarion River, and Red Bank Creek. Because of its limited distribution and small number of extant populations, the species is considered state-threatened in Pennsylvania. In addition, the riparian prairie habitat that Pennsylvania Baptisia australis var. australis is restricted to is also in decline and considered vulnerable. Because of these conservation concerns, insights into the natural history of the taxon in the state is valuable and will inform conservation efforts. Field surveys and fruit collections along the Allegheny River and herbarium collections were used ...


The Evolution Of Technology, Kelly Cooper 2021 The University of Akron

The Evolution Of Technology, Kelly Cooper

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

As per outlined by Dr. Quinn, this literature review will be a comprehensive review paper including an overview of current and previous research done in the field of Memetics. This will further include sifting through literature to hone in on a specific, new area of memetics Dr. Weeks is focused on, the evolutionary change of abiotic factors through purchasing. This is to be completed with the help of the library worshops designed to teach the skills necessary to undergo a literature review of this size. I will also participate in weekly reading groups to discuss papers and work closely with ...


Breaking The Chain – The Role Of Intersexual Genetic Correlations In Sexual Dimorphism And The Consequences And Limits Of Their Evolution, Matthew MA Maoloni, Tara Newman, Tristan AF Long Dr. 2021 Wilfrid Laurier University

Breaking The Chain – The Role Of Intersexual Genetic Correlations In Sexual Dimorphism And The Consequences And Limits Of Their Evolution, Matthew Ma Maoloni, Tara Newman, Tristan Af Long Dr.

Theses and Dissertations (Comprehensive)

In many sexually reproducing species, males and females often differ in countless ways beyond their primary sexual organs. This phenomenon is known as sexual dimorphism, and it is generally considered to be an adaptive response to differences in the selection pressures experienced by males and females. Despite the advantages associated with sexual dimorphism, it does not evolve completely unhindered – there are plenty of biological effects that can limit the extent and rate of divergence between the sexes. This research project focusses on the potential role of the intersexual genetic correlation (rmf­) – which describes the degree to which brothers and ...


Were Late Gomphotheres (Plio-Pleistocene) Of The Siwaliks At More Stress As Compared To Early Gomphotheres (Middle To Late Miocene)?, Muhammad Ameen, Abdul Majid Khan, Muhammad Tahir Waseem, Rana Manzoor Ahmad, Ayesha Iqbal, Amtur Rafeh, Muhammad Imran 2020 Department of Zoology, University of the Punjab, Lahore, Pakistan

Were Late Gomphotheres (Plio-Pleistocene) Of The Siwaliks At More Stress As Compared To Early Gomphotheres (Middle To Late Miocene)?, Muhammad Ameen, Abdul Majid Khan, Muhammad Tahir Waseem, Rana Manzoor Ahmad, Ayesha Iqbal, Amtur Rafeh, Muhammad Imran

Journal of Bioresource Management

Gomphotheres existed in the Siwaliks from the middle Miocene (14.2Ma) to the middle Pleistocene (0.8Ma) and became extinct later on. In this paper, we tried to discuss the reasons of such extinction of gomphotheres in the lower Pleistocene time span by considering Linear Enamel Hypoplasia (LEH) among 114 isolated tooth samples to assess whether ecological changes correlate with the stress factor in gomphotheres. For this purpose, the Siwalik gomphotheres were divided into two Groups viz. early gomphotheres (middle Miocene to late Miocene) and late gomphotheres (Pliocene to middle Pleistocene). We presented the hypothesis, that as the gomphotheres are ...


Evaluation Of The Diversity Of Durum Wheat Coleoptera (Triticum Durum Desf.) In The Region Of Sigus Oum El Bouaghi (Eastern Algeria), Amokrane Assia, khammar hichem, Hadjab ramzi, saheb menouar 2020 University of Oum El Bouaghi, Algeria

Evaluation Of The Diversity Of Durum Wheat Coleoptera (Triticum Durum Desf.) In The Region Of Sigus Oum El Bouaghi (Eastern Algeria), Amokrane Assia, Khammar Hichem, Hadjab Ramzi, Saheb Menouar

Journal of Bioresource Management

The Oum El Bouaghi region in Eastern Algeria, long considered as a cereal-growing area is nowadays a durum wheat production region par excellence. Although the damage caused by Coleoptera is very significant, studies on the knowledge of their diversity are few and remain limited for some entomological groups. Our work is the first step to evaluate the diversity of Coleoptera and the long-term impact of taking biological management measures against harmful fauna in favour of more environment friendly agriculture. To assess the beetle community, different sampling methods were combined (Barber trap, coloured traps, mowing net and sight hunting). Evaluation of ...


African Land Mammal Ages, John Van Couvering, Eric Delson 2020 American Museum of Natural History

African Land Mammal Ages, John Van Couvering, Eric Delson

Publications and Research

We define 17 African land mammal ages, or AFLMAs, covering the Cenozoic record of the Afro-arabian continent, the planet’s second largest land mass. While fossiliferous deposits are absent on the eroded plateau of the continent’s interior, almost 800 fossil genera from over 350 locations have now been identified in coastal deposits, karst caves, and in the Neogene rift valleys. Given a well-developed geochronologic framework, together with continuing revision to the fossil record—both stimulated by the story of human evolution in Africa—and also to compensate for the variation in fossil ecosystems across such great distances, the AFLMAs ...


A New Cryptic Species Of Scorpiops Peters, 1861 (Scorpiones: Scorpiopidae) From The Northern Western Ghats, India, Shauri Sulakhe, Shubhankar Deshpande, Nikhil Dandekar, Makarand Ketkar, Anand Padhye, Deshabhushan Bastawade 2020 Marshall University

A New Cryptic Species Of Scorpiops Peters, 1861 (Scorpiones: Scorpiopidae) From The Northern Western Ghats, India, Shauri Sulakhe, Shubhankar Deshpande, Nikhil Dandekar, Makarand Ketkar, Anand Padhye, Deshabhushan Bastawade

Euscorpius

A new cryptic species of Scorpiops (Scorpiopidae) is described from northern Western Ghats of India with integrated taxonomic approach. Scorpiops telbaila sp. n. is closely related to S. tenuicauda and differs from all species of Scorpiops in morphological features and raw genetic divergence of 5.4-14.1 %.


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