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1149 full-text articles. Page 1 of 46.

The Biogeographic Origins And Trophic Ecology Of Maine’S Island Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus), Nikko-Ideen Shaidani 2017 University of Maine

The Biogeographic Origins And Trophic Ecology Of Maine’S Island Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus), Nikko-Ideen Shaidani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Island populations of terrestrial species have an increased potential, compared to mainland populations, to adapt and diverge, as these populations often are isolated with respect to gene flow from other populations and may be subjected to novel pressures. Indeed, extended isolation of individuals can elicit dramatic changes within populations and is recognized as a common driver of speciation. It is for these reasons that island populations are often a priority for conservation. Plethodontid salamanders are among the most terrestrial of Maine’s amphibians and are not tolerant of prolonged exposure to seawater, and yet, they are found on a number ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xi. Pandinurus Kmoniceki Sp. N. Somaliland., František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Tomáš Mazuch, Jana Plíškova, František Šťáhlavský 2017 Charles University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part Xi. Pandinurus Kmoniceki Sp. N. Somaliland., František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Tomáš Mazuch, Jana Plíškova, František Šťáhlavský

Euscorpius

Pandinurus kmoniceki sp. n. from Somaliland is described and fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens, as well as its habitat. Hemispermatophore of P. kmoniceki sp. n. is illustrated and described. In addition to the analyses of external morphology and hemispermatophores, we also describe the karyotypes of P. kmoniceki sp. n. (2n=120).


Some Taxonomic Corrections To The Genus Tityus C. L. Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) In Hispaniola, Greater Antilles, Rolando Teruel 2017 Museo de Historia Natural “Tomás Romay”

Some Taxonomic Corrections To The Genus Tityus C. L. Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) In Hispaniola, Greater Antilles, Rolando Teruel

Euscorpius

In the present paper, the taxonomic status of several Hispaniolan members of the genus Tityus C. L. Koch, 1966 is revised after examination of almost all primary types and abundant supplementary material. This resulted in six new synonymies, which involve both extant and fossil species. The extant taxa herein synonymized are Tityus anasilviae Armas et Abud, 2004 under Tityus ottenwalderi Armas, 1999, Tityus bahoruco Teruel et Armas, 2006 under Tityus crassimanus (Thorell, 1876), Tityus ebanoverde Armas, 1999 under Tityus elii Armas et Marcano, 1992, and Tityus septentrionalis Armas et Abud, 2004 under Tityus portoplatensis Armas et Marcano, 1992. The fossil ...


Shoes Are Not Paleo, Stephanie Welch 2017 Ancestral Health Society

Shoes Are Not Paleo, Stephanie Welch

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Evolutionary Mismatch: Implications Far Beyond Diet And Exercise, George M. Diggs Jr. 2017 Austin College Department of Biology and Program in Public Health

Evolutionary Mismatch: Implications Far Beyond Diet And Exercise, George M. Diggs Jr.

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Evolutionary Medicine’S Place In Nutrition And Dietetics, Anthony J. Basile, David B. Schwartz, Joseph Rigdon, Hamilton M. Stapell 2017 Columbia University Medical Center

Evolutionary Medicine’S Place In Nutrition And Dietetics, Anthony J. Basile, David B. Schwartz, Joseph Rigdon, Hamilton M. Stapell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Phylogenies, The Comparative Method, And The Conflation Of Tempo And Mode, Antigoni Kaliontzopoulou, Dean C. Adams 2017 CIBIO/InBio, Vairão, Portugal

Phylogenies, The Comparative Method, And The Conflation Of Tempo And Mode, Antigoni Kaliontzopoulou, Dean C. Adams

Dean C. Adams

The comparison of mathematical models that represent alternative hypotheses about the tempo and mode of evolutionary change is a common approach for assessing the evolutionary processes underlying phenotypic diversification. However, because model parameters are estimated simultaneously, they are inextricably linked, such that changes in tempo, the pace of evolution, and mode, the manner in which evolution occurs, may be difficult to assess separately. This may potentially complicate biological interpretation, but the extent to which this occurs has not yet been determined. In this study, we examined 160 phylogeny × trait empirical datasets, and conducted extensive numerical phylogenetic simulations, to investigate the ...


Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker 2017 Duke University

Patterns Of Morphological And Molecular Evolution In The Antillean Tree Bat, Ardops Nichollsi (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae), Roxanne J. Larsen, Peter A. Larsen, Caleb D. Phillips, Hugh H. Genoways, Gary G. Kwiecinski, Scott C. Pedersen, Carleton J. Phillips, Robert J. Baker

Mammalogy Papers: University of Nebraska State Museum

Species endemic to oceanic islands offer unique insights into the mechanisms underlying evolution and have served as model systems for decades. Often these species show phenotypic variation that is correlated with the ecosystems in which they occur and such correlations may be a product of genetic drift, natural selection, and/or environmental factors. We explore the morphologic and genetic variation within Ardops nichollsi, a species of phyllostomid bat endemic to the Lesser Antillean islands. Ardops nichollsi is an ideal taxon to investigate the tempo of evolution in Chiroptera, as it: is a recently derived genus in the family Phyllostomidae; contains ...


Taxonomic Placement Of The Nidulariaceae Of Nebraska And Iowa Based On Molecular And Morphological Data, Goodmond H. Danielsen IV 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Taxonomic Placement Of The Nidulariaceae Of Nebraska And Iowa Based On Molecular And Morphological Data, Goodmond H. Danielsen Iv

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Proper taxonomic and molecular study is necessary to better organize closely related species that may not only be used for human needs, but also in the quest for knowledge of how the world around us works. Though important, the taxonomic placement of Nebraskan and Iowan bird’s nest fungi (Nidulariaceae) is not well documented. Here, phylogenetic analysis is used to place the Nidulariaceae of Nebraska and Iowa in the tree of life using molecular and morphological techniques. Based on these results and results of further work done on these specimens, it will be possible to better place the Nidulariaceae of ...


Serradigitus Miscionei, The First Vaejovid Scorpion To Exhibit Parthenogenesis, Richard F. Ayrey 2017 Marshall University

Serradigitus Miscionei, The First Vaejovid Scorpion To Exhibit Parthenogenesis, Richard F. Ayrey

Euscorpius

Thelytokous parthenogenesis (all-female broods) is strongly suggested for the vaejovid species Serradigitus miscionei (Vaejovidae) from southern Arizona, USA. This conclusion is based on the examination of 187 specimens and 15 broods, all determined as females.


The Missing Piece Of The Puzzle Solved: Heteronebo Pocock, 1899 (Scorpiones: Scorpionidae) Occurs At Isla De Pinos, Cuba, Rolando Teruel, Tomás M. Rodríguez-Cabrera 2017 Museo de Historia Natural “Tomás Romay”

The Missing Piece Of The Puzzle Solved: Heteronebo Pocock, 1899 (Scorpiones: Scorpionidae) Occurs At Isla De Pinos, Cuba, Rolando Teruel, Tomás M. Rodríguez-Cabrera

Euscorpius

The diplocentrine scorpion genus Heteronebo Pocock, 1899 is recorded herein for the first time from Isla de Pinos, southwestern Cuba. A total of 15 specimens of Heteronebo bermudezi (Moreno, 1938) were collected in two nearby localities of the southern coast of the island, where it occurs in exactly the same habitat previously known for this species in Guanahacabibes Peninsula and two cays of Canarreos Archipelago. The allegedly polytypic status of this species is also revised and full species rank is restored to the subspecies Heteronebo bermudezi morenoi (Armas, 1973). An updated distribution map of H. bermudezi is provided.


Centruroides Thorellii (Scorpiones: Buthidae): Traveling From Guatemala To England Without A Passport, Rony E. Trujillo, Luis F. de Armas, Darren Mansfield 2017 Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala

Centruroides Thorellii (Scorpiones: Buthidae): Traveling From Guatemala To England Without A Passport, Rony E. Trujillo, Luis F. De Armas, Darren Mansfield

Euscorpius

We recorded a pregnant female of the Central American bark stripped scorpion Centruroides thorellii (Kraepelin, 1891), which arrived to England as a stowaway in the bag of a woman that previously visited the Departments of Sacatepéquez, Sololá and San Marcos, Guatemala. On January 2, this C. thorellii female had a litter of three off-spring and three infertile eggs, but she has eaten them, probably as consequence of the stress caused by the hard travel and the environmental changes. We provide a map with the geographical distribution of this species and photos of the female detected in a British train.


Revbayes: Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference Using Graphical Models And An Interactive Model-Specification Language, Sebastian Höhna, Michael J. Landis, Tracy A. Heath, Nicolas Lartillot, Brian R. Moore, John P. Huelsenbeck, Fredrik Ronquist 2017 University of California, Berkeley

Revbayes: Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference Using Graphical Models And An Interactive Model-Specification Language, Sebastian Höhna, Michael J. Landis, Tracy A. Heath, Nicolas Lartillot, Brian R. Moore, John P. Huelsenbeck, Fredrik Ronquist

Tracy Heath

Programs for Bayesian inference of phylogeny currently implement a unique and fixed suite of models. Consequently, users of these software packages are simultaneously forced to use a number of programs for a given study, while also lacking the freedom to explore models that have not been implemented by the developers of those programs. We developed a new open-source software package, RevBayes, to address these problems. RevBayes is entirely based on probabilistic graphical models, a powerful generic framework for specifying and analyzing statistical models. Phylogenetic-graphical models can be specified interactively in RevBayes, piece by piece, using a new succinct and intuitive ...


Total-Evidence Dating Under The Fossilized Birth–Death Process, Chi Zhang, Tanja Stadler, Serena Klopfstein, Tracy A. Heath, Fredrik Ronquist 2017 Swedish Museum of Natural History

Total-Evidence Dating Under The Fossilized Birth–Death Process, Chi Zhang, Tanja Stadler, Serena Klopfstein, Tracy A. Heath, Fredrik Ronquist

Tracy Heath

Bayesian total-evidence dating involves the simultaneous analysis of morphological data from the fossil record and morphological and sequence data from recent organisms, and it accommodates the uncertainty in the placement of fossils while dating the phylogenetic tree. Due to the flexibility of the Bayesian approach, total-evidence dating can also incorporate additional sources of information. Here, we take advantage of this and expand the analysis to include information about fossilization and sampling processes. Our work is based on the recently described fossilized birth–death (FBD) process, which has been used to model speciation, extinction, and fossilization rates that can vary over ...


Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part X. Pandiborellius Stat. N. And Pandinurus (Scorpionidae) With Description Of Four New Species From Eritrea And Ethiopia, And Review Of Pandinus Sensu Lato Taxonomy, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Michael E. Soleglad, Jana Plíškova 2017 Charles University

Scorpions Of The Horn Of Africa (Arachnida: Scorpiones). Part X. Pandiborellius Stat. N. And Pandinurus (Scorpionidae) With Description Of Four New Species From Eritrea And Ethiopia, And Review Of Pandinus Sensu Lato Taxonomy, František Kovařík, Graeme Lowe, Michael E. Soleglad, Jana Plíškova

Euscorpius

We introduce a new system of classification for the subfamily Scorpioninae Latreille, 1802 which includes genera Heterometrus Ehrenberg, 1828, Opistophthalmus C. L. Koch, 1837, Pandiborellius Rossi, 2015 stat. n., Pandinoides Fet, 1997, Pandinops Birula, 1913, Pandinurus Fet, 1997, Pandinus (Pandinus) Thorell, 1876, Pandinus (Pandinopsis) Vachon, 1974 stat. n., Pandinus (Pandipalpus) Rossi, 2015 stat. n., and Scorpio Linné, 1758. We provide a checklist of 41 valid species and their synonyms of Pandinus sensu lato. We revise Horn of Africa genera Pandiborellius stat. n. and Pandinurus; all species are fully complemented with color photos of live and preserved specimens, as well as ...


A New Species Of The “Apacheanus” Group Of Genus Pseudouroctonus From Western Texas (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Richard F. Ayrey, Michael E. Soleglad 2017 Marshall University

A New Species Of The “Apacheanus” Group Of Genus Pseudouroctonus From Western Texas (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Richard F. Ayrey, Michael E. Soleglad

Euscorpius

A new species of the “apacheanus” group of genus Pseudouroctonus is described from western Texas, USA, Pseudouroctonus brysoni, sp. nov. This new species is closely related to P. apacheanus (Gertsch et Soleglad, 1972) and two other species recently described from southern Arizona. A combination of morphological differences in the hemispermatophore, the mating plug, and several morphometric-based characters are identified as diagnostic.


Consciousness In Teleosts: There Is Something It Feels Like To Be A Fish, Michael L. Woodruff 2017 East Tennessee State University

Consciousness In Teleosts: There Is Something It Feels Like To Be A Fish, Michael L. Woodruff

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Ray-finned fish are often excluded from the group of non-human animals considered to have phenomenal consciousness. This is generally done on the grounds that the fish pallium lacks a sufficiently expansive gross parcellation, as well as even minimally sufficient neuronal organization, intrinsic connectivity, and reciprocal extrinsic connections with the thalamus to support the subjective experience of qualia. It is also argued that fish do not exhibit the level of behavioral flexibility indicative of consciousness. A review of neuroanatomical, neurophysiological and behavioral studies is presented which leads to the conclusion that fish do have neurobiological correlates and behavioral flexibility of sufficient ...


To Identify All The Relevant Factors Is To Explain Feeling, Arthur S. Reber 2017 University of British Columbia

To Identify All The Relevant Factors Is To Explain Feeling, Arthur S. Reber

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Several additional comments on Reber (2016a) have appeared. Like those addressed in Reber (2016b), they reflect points of agreement and disagreement on various elements of my Cellular Basis of Consciousness (CBC) model. Some, however, seem to have missed key points. I'm willing to take some responsibility for this. Perhaps I was not clear about some of the more radical points of the model. Hopefully the case-by-case review here will help.


The Potential For Sentience In Fishes, Jay R., Stauffer Jr. 2017 Penn State University

The Potential For Sentience In Fishes, Jay R., Stauffer Jr.

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Balcombe’s book is filled with information on the biology, behavior, and life history of fishes. I do not agree with all his premises. I am still somewhat perplexed about the discussion of whether fish feel pain; I am not sure whether the distinction between nociception and pain makes any difference. Overall, however, his treatment of the principles of both natural and sexual selection is comprehensive and accurate, and has greatly increased my knowledge and awareness of the biology, ethology, and potential for sentience in fishes. In summary, this work has exposed me to new ideas about how to examine ...


What Can Research On Nonhumans Tell Us About Human Dissonance?, Jennifer Vonk 2017 Oakland University

What Can Research On Nonhumans Tell Us About Human Dissonance?, Jennifer Vonk

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Zentall’s thoughtful review of the literature on cognitive dissonance in nonhumans helps to highlight the common finding that similar outcomes in humans and nonhumans can be attributed to different underlying mechanisms. I advocate a more fully comparative approach to the underlying mechanisms, avoiding the assumption of shared processes in humans and nonhumans.


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