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Ecology Of The Young-Of-The-Year Emerald Shiner (Notropis Atherinoides) In The Upper Niagara River, New York: Growth, Diversity, And Importance As A Forage Species, Jacob L. Cochran 2017 State University of New York College at Buffalo

Ecology Of The Young-Of-The-Year Emerald Shiner (Notropis Atherinoides) In The Upper Niagara River, New York: Growth, Diversity, And Importance As A Forage Species, Jacob L. Cochran

Great Lakes Center Masters Theses

The emerald shiner (Notropis atherinoides) is a relatively understudied Cyprinid that fills a major keystone role in the Niagara River. Little is known about the emerald shiner’s early life history, such as the ecology of their larval and juvenile stages, which is the focus of this study. In the upper Niagara River, larvae first recruited into sampling gear in early July at a mean water temperature of 23oC, with larvae appearing into August. Young-of-the-year (YOY) emerald shiners grew an average of 1.5 mm and 31.5 mg a week throughout the growing season with condition peaking ...


Continuous, Pulsed And Disrupted Nutrient Subsidy Effects On Ecosystem Productivity, Stability, And Energy Flow, Michael J. Weber, Michael L. Brown 2017 South Dakota State University

Continuous, Pulsed And Disrupted Nutrient Subsidy Effects On Ecosystem Productivity, Stability, And Energy Flow, Michael J. Weber, Michael L. Brown

Michael J Weber Dr

Resource pulses and subsidies can supply ecosystems with an important source of nutrients that supports additional productivity at multiple trophic levels. Common carp Cyprinus carpio provide ecosystems with a continuous nutrient subsidy through bioturbation and excretion but may also initiate a nutrient pulse through carcass decomposition. We examined how continuous (common carp foraging and excretion), pulsed (carcass decomposition) and disrupted (carp introduced and then removed) nutrient subsidies differed in their ability to alter nutrient availability, ecosystem productivity and stability and energy flow. Nitrogen and phosphorus availability and primary production were highest in pulsed, intermediate in continuous and lowest for disrupted ...


, Brooke Love, Colleen O'Brien, Douglas Bulthuis 2017 Western Washington University

, Brooke Love, Colleen O'Brien, Douglas Bulthuis

Brooke Love

It has been suggested that photosynthetic activity of macrophytes in coastal areas can decrease pCO2 and may provide areas of refuge for organisms sensitive to ocean acidification. To assess the effect of a large eel grass meadow on water chemistry, discreet samples were collected hourly over several 24 hour cycles in Padilla Bay, WA. Calculated pCO2 ranged from less than 100 ppm to greater than 700 ppm, often over the course of only a few hours. Aragonite saturation, DIC and pH were also highly variable. These data, weather station data and in-situ sensors(Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve) were ...


Spatial And Temporal Variability Of Water Quality Parameters In Cedar Lake (Cedarville, Ohio), Laura A. Cashman, William A. Smith, Shannon L. Swicker, Abigail L. Williams, Mark A. Gathany 2017 Cedarville University

Spatial And Temporal Variability Of Water Quality Parameters In Cedar Lake (Cedarville, Ohio), Laura A. Cashman, William A. Smith, Shannon L. Swicker, Abigail L. Williams, Mark A. Gathany

Mark A. Gathany, Ph.D.

Cedar Lake is a man-made lake that is central to Cedarville University’s campus. This focal point of the campus is a source of aesthetic appeal and beauty of Cedarville University. The lake ranges in depth from 0.6-3.7m, is 140m by 150m across, an approximate volume of 40,000 m3 and demonstrates normal capabilities to support fish and other life. There is, however, some concern over Cedar Lake’s level of productivity as undesirable algae blooms are common during warmer months. In October and November 2016 we began to assess the spatial and temporal variability of water ...


Phenotypic Plasticity Of Native Vs. Invasive Purple Loosestrife: A Two-State Multivariate Approach, Young Jin Chun, Michael L. Collyer, Kirk A. Moloney, Jason D. Nason 2017 Iowa State University

Phenotypic Plasticity Of Native Vs. Invasive Purple Loosestrife: A Two-State Multivariate Approach, Young Jin Chun, Michael L. Collyer, Kirk A. Moloney, Jason D. Nason

Jason D Nason

The differences in phenotypic plasticity between invasive (North American) and native (German) provenances of the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) were examined using a multivariate reaction norm approach testing two important attributes of reaction norms described by multivariate vectors of phenotypic change: the magnitude and direction of mean trait differences between environments. Data were collected for six life history traits from native and invasive plants using a split-plot design with experimentally manipulated water and nutrient levels. We found significant differences between native and invasive plants in multivariate phenotypic plasticity for comparisons between low and high water treatments within low ...


Attracting Birds To Your Yard, Shane Patterson, Adam Janke, Georgia Bryan, James Pease, Karl Jungbluth 2017 Iowa State University

Attracting Birds To Your Yard, Shane Patterson, Adam Janke, Georgia Bryan, James Pease, Karl Jungbluth

Adam Janke

Birds capture the imagination of homeowners from all walks of life. A glance out a window during fall or spring may reveal a pinstriped blackpoll warbler busily feeding during a break from migratory flights that take it to places as far away as the boreal forests of Canada or the mountain forests of South America. Lifeless and cold winter days may be enhanced by the company of a flock of chickadees. A morning on the back porch may turn into a front seat for the first attempts at flight by recently hatched robins. Backyard habitats are important resources for many ...


Windbreaks For Wildlife, Adam Janke 2017 Iowa State University

Windbreaks For Wildlife, Adam Janke

Adam Janke

Trees and shrubs planted in windbreaks have many on-farm benefits such as reducing energy consumption, controlling odor, protecting buildings and livestock from snow and wind, and improving aesthetics. Another rewarding benefit of windbreaks is to provide habitat for wildlife. In this fact sheet, we discuss ways to improve the suitability of windbreaks for wildlife while retaining other desired benefits.


Effects Of Dam Removal On Assemblage Composition And The Interactions Of Fishes In The Penobscot River, Maine, Jonathan Watson 2017 University of Maine

Effects Of Dam Removal On Assemblage Composition And The Interactions Of Fishes In The Penobscot River, Maine, Jonathan Watson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dams and their impoundments disrupt river habitat connectivity to the detriment of migratory fishes. Removal of dams improves riverine connectivity and lotic habitat which benefits these fishes along with resident fluvial specialist species. Restoration efforts on the Penobscot River (Maine, USA) are among the largest recently completed in the United States, and include the removal of the two lower-most dams and improvements to fish passage at several remaining barriers. Here we describe initial and potential future changes to fish communities in the Penobscot River associated with these restoration efforts.

We assessed fish assemblages in the mainstem river and several major ...


The Biogeographic Origins And Trophic Ecology Of Maine’S Island Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus), Nikko-Ideen Shaidani 2017 University of Maine

The Biogeographic Origins And Trophic Ecology Of Maine’S Island Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus), Nikko-Ideen Shaidani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Island populations of terrestrial species have an increased potential, compared to mainland populations, to adapt and diverge, as these populations often are isolated with respect to gene flow from other populations and may be subjected to novel pressures. Indeed, extended isolation of individuals can elicit dramatic changes within populations and is recognized as a common driver of speciation. It is for these reasons that island populations are often a priority for conservation. Plethodontid salamanders are among the most terrestrial of Maine’s amphibians and are not tolerant of prolonged exposure to seawater, and yet, they are found on a number ...


Breeding Ecology And Habitat Use Of Unisexual Salamanders And Their Sperm-Hosts, Blue-Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Laterale), Kristine Hoffmann 2017 UMaine

Breeding Ecology And Habitat Use Of Unisexual Salamanders And Their Sperm-Hosts, Blue-Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Laterale), Kristine Hoffmann

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Unsexual Salamanders within the Blue-Spotted Salamander Complex carry combinations of ambystomatid genomes (those of Blue-Spotted Salamanders, Ambystoma laterale, and Jefferson Salamanders, A. jeffersonianum in Maine). They are nearly all female, breed in wetlands, and use sperm of related species to reproduce. Little is known about their ecology to guide the conservation of this unique lineage. I examined breeding site occupancy, demographics, orientation, and terrestrial habitat selection of Unisexual Salamanders in comparison to Blue-Spotted Salamanders and other amphibians. I compared statistical tests of orientation to determine which was most appropriate for pitfall data.

Unisexual Salamander occupancy at breeding sites was positively ...


Non-Native Mangroves Of Moloka'i, Hawai'i: A Socio-Ecological Analysis, Casey Lewis 2017 Portland State University

Non-Native Mangroves Of Moloka'i, Hawai'i: A Socio-Ecological Analysis, Casey Lewis

Student Research Symposium

Invasive species are recognized as a leading threat to ecosystems and their management is expensive, time consuming, and labor intensive. Therefore, it is important to review both benefits and detriments of the species to inform appropriate management decisions. Red mangrove was introduced to Moloka'i, Hawaii in 1902 to mitigate the effects of soil erosion and has since spread along the coast and to adjacent islands creating novel habitat. This study assessed both biological services and social attitudes towards Moloka'i's non-native mangroves to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the species. Zooplankton community structure was examined in mangrove and ...


Breeding Stage And Parentage Affect Tameness In Common Loons, Mina Ibrahim 2017 Chapman University

Breeding Stage And Parentage Affect Tameness In Common Loons, Mina Ibrahim

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Tameness is a measure of tolerance towards human disturbance. As human disturbance and recreational activity are increasing, it is becoming more and more important to understand responses of species to this disturbance. Tameness has been shown to be influenced by an individuals characteristics and life history. Two possible determinants of tameness are breeding stage and parentage. We studied tameness in common loons (Gavia immer) specifically looking at the effects of breeding stage and parentage. Tameness was measured by flight initiation distance (FID), the distance at which a loon dove from an approaching human observer in a canoe. Loons with chicks ...


The Role Of Avian Seed Dispersers And Large Woody Debris In Plant Establishment Following Dam Removal On The Elwha River, Wa, Sara J. Cendejas-Zarelli 2017 Western Washington University

The Role Of Avian Seed Dispersers And Large Woody Debris In Plant Establishment Following Dam Removal On The Elwha River, Wa, Sara J. Cendejas-Zarelli

Graduate Student Conference

Reservoir drawdown following the removal of two hydroelectric dams on the Elwha River, Washington, exposed ~800 acres of sediments and left a barren landscape in the former reservoirs. The establishment of native vegetation within these areas is critical to meeting restoration objectives. Large woody debris (LWD) can play an important role in riparian ecosystems and may assist in the development of early plant communities. LWD helps create favorable microsites for seedlings by creating shade, which decreases temperatures and increases moisture levels in sediments. In sparsely-vegetated landscapes such as those present in the former Mills reservoir, wildlife such as birds can ...


Heterogeneity Of Avian Breeding Habitat On Grazing Lands Of The Northern Great Plains, Maggi S. Sliwinski 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Heterogeneity Of Avian Breeding Habitat On Grazing Lands Of The Northern Great Plains, Maggi S. Sliwinski

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Native rangelands in the Great Plains are largely privately owned and used for beef production. Vegetation heterogeneity is important for maintaining biodiversity, but private land may be more homogenous than desired. My research had two components: 1) to examine whether a variety of grazing strategies created vegetation heterogeneity in a large, intact rangeland, and 2) to understand beef producers’ attitudes about vegetation heterogeneity.

First, I sampled vegetation structure, composition, and bird abundance at multiple plots on eleven management units in Cherry County, Nebraska. Units were managed with commonly used grazing strategies (e.g., short-duration grazing and season-long continuous grazing). I ...


Dispersal Rate Of The Asian Clam (Corbicula Fluminea): A Study With Pit Tagging, Tommy Cianciolo 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Dispersal Rate Of The Asian Clam (Corbicula Fluminea): A Study With Pit Tagging, Tommy Cianciolo

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Influence Of Stream Permanence, Predation, And Invasive Species On Crayfish In The Ozark Highlands With An Emphasis On Species Of Greatest Conservation Need (Orconectes Marchandi, Orconectes Eupunctus And Cambarus Hubbsi), Allyson Noelle Yarra 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Influence Of Stream Permanence, Predation, And Invasive Species On Crayfish In The Ozark Highlands With An Emphasis On Species Of Greatest Conservation Need (Orconectes Marchandi, Orconectes Eupunctus And Cambarus Hubbsi), Allyson Noelle Yarra

Theses and Dissertations

Due to the ecological importance of crayfish and the increasing vulnerability of freshwater systems due to habitat loss, invasive species, and hydrologic alteration, understanding crayfish-environment relationships is crucial in the context of aquatic species conservation. I sought to examine the influence of hydrologic variation among intermittent and permanent streams on crayfish occupancy, abundance, predation risk, and potential vulnerability to invasive species effects. I conducted crayfish and environmental data sampling during two consecutive summers across 20 Ozark streams of differing permanence levels (10 intermittent, 10 permanent). In these same streams, I conducted fish and scat surveys over the course of four ...


Flight Activity, Oviposition Pit Distribution, And Emergence Densities Of Monochamus Titillator And M. Carolinensis In The Ozark-St. Francis National Forest In Arkansas, Jake Bodart 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Flight Activity, Oviposition Pit Distribution, And Emergence Densities Of Monochamus Titillator And M. Carolinensis In The Ozark-St. Francis National Forest In Arkansas, Jake Bodart

Theses and Dissertations

Monochamus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) are a genus of longhorn beetles commonly known as pine sawyers. They have a worldwide distribution coincident with pines (Pinaceae) and are vectors of the pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus). In the United States, there are eight known Monochamus species and they have a sympatric distribution with at least one other Monochamus species throughout their range. Monochamus are known to attack stressed, dead, and dying conifers especially pines. In the Ozark- St. Francis National Forest in Arkansas, there are two species of pine sawyers and they share this sympatric distribution observed throughout the United States, M. titillator (southern ...


Ecological Importance Of Invader Source Population And Disturbance In Aquatic Invasions, Nicole Elizabeth Graham 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Ecological Importance Of Invader Source Population And Disturbance In Aquatic Invasions, Nicole Elizabeth Graham

Theses and Dissertations

Invasive species are a global problem and their effects on recipient ecosystems may be mediated by disturbance and intraspecific variation. Crayfish can substantially influence stream structure and function, and invasive crayfish often have differential impacts than native crayfish in aquatic ecosystems. Since species traits often vary across a distribution, it is possible that invasive crayfish from different source populations may have distinct impacts on recipient ecosystem structure and function. In the Ozark Highlands of Arkansas and Missouri, USA, invasive O. neglectus (the Ringed Crayfish) may be leading to the displacement of native O. eupunctus (the Coldwater Crayfish). The objective of ...


Where In The World Are Pallas's Fish Eagles? Migration And Ecology Of Haliaeetus Leucoryphus In Asia, Marla Lynn Steele 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Where In The World Are Pallas's Fish Eagles? Migration And Ecology Of Haliaeetus Leucoryphus In Asia, Marla Lynn Steele

Theses and Dissertations

Pallas’s Fish Eagle (Haliaeetus leucoryphus) is the Northern Hemisphere’s least understood eagle species. Virtually nothing is known concerning the species’ ecology. Historically, Pallas’s Fish Eagles were expected to breed in three separate populations in Mongolia, China, and India and was considered one of the most common raptors in Asia prior to the 1900’s. However, by 1960’s major declines were observed. The species is currently listed as “globally vulnerable” by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List. The current study examined over a century of Pallas’s Fish Eagle observation data to ...


Financial Assessment Of Agricultural Lands At Risk To Coastal Salt Marsh Migration In Relation To Climate Change Induced Sea Level Rise In Dorchester County, Maryland, Jewell Porter 2017 Clark University

Financial Assessment Of Agricultural Lands At Risk To Coastal Salt Marsh Migration In Relation To Climate Change Induced Sea Level Rise In Dorchester County, Maryland, Jewell Porter

International Development, Community and Environment (IDCE)

The increasing rate and effects of sea level rise is a major environmental concern in the Chesapeake Bay. This paper evaluates the impacts of rising sea level on coastal salt marshes and the surrounding agricultural lands at risk in Dorchester County, Maryland to build off existing environmental monitoring work performed by NOAA’s Sentinel Site Program. The results of the spatial analysis were used to estimate monetary benefits to incentivize farmers to protect these marshes by making their land available for marsh migration to occur. Looking at three scenarios of sea level rise and marsh migration, grain crops (corn, soybeans ...


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