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Cave-Dwelling Heleomyzid Flies (Diptera: Heleomyzidae) From The Polish Caves. Historical Overview And New Data, Joanna Kocot-Zalewska, Andrzej J. Woźnica 2021 Upper Silesian Museum, Department of Natural History, Poland

Cave-Dwelling Heleomyzid Flies (Diptera: Heleomyzidae) From The Polish Caves. Historical Overview And New Data, Joanna Kocot-Zalewska, Andrzej J. Woźnica

International Journal of Speleology

This article details the analysed results of the recent study on heleomyzid flies (Diptera: Heleomyzidae) that occurred in the caves of Kraków-Częstochowa Upland. Additionally, all accessible information about those flies from the Polish caves has been compiled. In effect, 23 species from seven genera were identified. Among these determined species, one was considered as troglobiont, eleven as eutroglophiles, nine as subtroglophiles, and two as trogloxenes. Dominant species were Scoliocentra brachypterna, Heleomyza captiosa and Eccoptomera pallescens. The highest number of species has currently been found in the Kraków-Częstochowa Upland.


Identification And Comparison Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi And Soil Microbiomes Between American Chestnuts And Surrounding Hardwoods, Sarah Andrews, Geoffrey Eger, Isabella Vahle 2021 Kennesaw State University

Identification And Comparison Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi And Soil Microbiomes Between American Chestnuts And Surrounding Hardwoods, Sarah Andrews, Geoffrey Eger, Isabella Vahle

Symposium of Student Scholars

Background/Questions/Methods

The introduction of the Chinese chestnut blight in 1904 decimated native American chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkh.) populations. In this study we aim to: 1) document the location of individual chestnuts in our vicinity; 2) document healthy versus blight infected individuals; 3) characterize putative differences in the soil microbiome between infected and non-infected individuals, as well as between chestnuts and hardwood neighbors. With this information we hope to provide new insights into mechanisms that may enhance blight and fungal resistance in American chestnuts through the understanding of the interactions between the trees and their surrounding soil microbiome ...


Introduction Of Native Podostemum Ceratophyllum Michx. (Podostemaceae, Hornleaf Riverweed) Into The Norwalk River, Wilton, Ct, Kelly Marie Nealon 2021 Western Connecticut State University

Introduction Of Native Podostemum Ceratophyllum Michx. (Podostemaceae, Hornleaf Riverweed) Into The Norwalk River, Wilton, Ct, Kelly Marie Nealon

MS in Integrated Biological Diversity

Podostemum ceratophyllum (Podostemaceae), “Hornleaf riverweed,” is a native aquatic flowering plant that occurs only attached to rocks in fast flowing water. The species occurs in much of eastern United States and Canada. Over the last several decades the species has notably declined in numbers, largely as a result of human induced factors. The ecological importance of P. ceratophyllum in rivers is well documented. This research is the first attempt to transplant the species into a river where it was not known to occur, with the goal of helping to mitigate the loss of populations. The plant was taken from two ...


Soil Macroinvertebrates Responses To Wildfires In The Blue Ridge Mountains, Usa, Madeline Olliff 2021 Georgia College

Soil Macroinvertebrates Responses To Wildfires In The Blue Ridge Mountains, Usa, Madeline Olliff

Biology Theses

Fire has been a prevalent disturbance on Earth for millions of years. Around the globe there are several regions that have become fire adapted, including the Southeastern United States. There have been few studies examining the effects of wildland fires on soil macroinvertebrates in the Blue Ridge Mountains, in spite of the importance of these animals to soil processes and their contributions to the biodiversity of these ecosystems. During the fall of 2016, the Southeastern USA experienced numerous, large wildfires. These fires offered an opportunity to study the effects of wildland fire on soil macroinvertebrates. We sampled sites from three ...


Detection Of Neonicotinoids In Northern Leopard Frog (Rana Pipiens) Brains, Peyton G. Keller 2021 University of South Dakota

Detection Of Neonicotinoids In Northern Leopard Frog (Rana Pipiens) Brains, Peyton G. Keller

Honors Thesis

Neonicotinoids are widespread and commonly used to fight agricultural pests. Unfortunately, these neurotoxic insecticides commonly reach nearby wetlands due to tile drainage systems and agricultural runoff. Non-target organisms, such as amphibians, use wetlands as habitat and are likely exposed to elevated neonicotinoid levels. We collected Northern leopard frogs and water samples from control and tile wetlands to compare imidacloprid brain concentrations and subsequent changes in brain morphology. Additionally, a lab-based experiment was conducted to further analyze the ability of imidacloprid and its metabolite, imidacloprid-olefin, to cross the blood-brain barrier. Tile wetlands had higher aquatic imidacloprid concentrations. Subsequently, amphibians collected from ...


Terrestrial Soldier Crab (Coenobita Clypeatus, Fabricius 1787) And Cerion Spp. (Röding 1798) Shell Relationship On San Salvador Island, Bahamas, Harley Hunt 2021 Georgia College

Terrestrial Soldier Crab (Coenobita Clypeatus, Fabricius 1787) And Cerion Spp. (Röding 1798) Shell Relationship On San Salvador Island, Bahamas, Harley Hunt

Biology Theses

The Caribbean terrestrial soldier crab, Coenobita clypeatus(Fabricius 1787), coexist and utilize the shells of numerous species of land and marine gastropods. Soldier crabs rely on gastropod shells for protection as the crabs have a soft abdomen, leaving them vulnerable for predation and desiccation, threatening their survival. This creates a strong pressure to obtain well-fitting shells that provide adequate protection against water loss. Cerion of Röding (1798) shells are one of the most commonly used shells among living colonies of C. clypeatuson San Salvador Island. This study is interested in the frequency of shell use by C. clypeatus crabs ...


Sublethal Effects Of Red Imported Fire Ant Envenomation On Hatchlings Of North American Oviparous Snakes, Hannah Warner, Meredith Swartwout 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Sublethal Effects Of Red Imported Fire Ant Envenomation On Hatchlings Of North American Oviparous Snakes, Hannah Warner, Meredith Swartwout

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Invasive species cause major ecological and economic damage. The Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA; Solenopsis invicta) has successfully invaded much of the southeastern United States and has caused both widespread economic damage and is suspected to be the driver of enigmatic declines of several oviparous snake species. This study aimed to determine the sublethal effects of RIFA on hatchlings of six species of oviparous snakes (Coluber constrictor, Lampropeltis calligaster, L. holbrooki, Opheodrys aestivus, Pantherophis emoryi, and P. obsoletus) by exposing hatchlings to envenomation by RIFA and then measuring two performance metrics: righting response and swimming speed. We found a slight ...


Troglofauna Of Van Buren And White County: A Survey Of Four Caves In The Mideastern Cumberland Plateau, Gavin Page 2021 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Troglofauna Of Van Buren And White County: A Survey Of Four Caves In The Mideastern Cumberland Plateau, Gavin Page

Honors Theses

The Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee has the highest cave-obligate biodiversity in North America. Cave-obligate species are entirely restricted to subterranean habitat and demonstrate unique troglomorphy. These species are categorized as troglobionts. However, because of their isolated occurrences, theses species are vulnerable to a variety of disturbances. This issue is furthered in the fact that only approximately 7% of the caves in this region have been surveyed. Of these caves that have been surveyed, only a small portion were professional entomological surveys, while almost no cave has ever been extensively repeat sampled. This study involved newly sampling one cave and repeat ...


Three Centuries Of Vegetation Change In The William & Mary College Woods Reconstructed Using Phytoliths, Timothy Terlizzi 2021 William & Mary

Three Centuries Of Vegetation Change In The William & Mary College Woods Reconstructed Using Phytoliths, Timothy Terlizzi

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The College Woods, west of William & Mary’s campus, consists of ~900 acres of protected southern mixed hardwood forest. The woods surround Lake Matoaka, a former millpond established in ~1700. Despite the rich history of the area, little is known about how the dominant vegetative landcover has shifted over the last 300 years. This study set out to quantify the modern vegetation within the College Woods via the phytolith assemblages within the soil and identify shifts in the assemblages since the creation of Lake Matoaka and whether these changes are distinct from the vegetation that existed in the area before the lake. To accomplish this, I studied the composition and preservation of phytoliths – silica bodies generated within and between plant cells. The study focused on the two questions: do the modern phytolith assemblages in the soil of the College Woods reflect the vegetation present and can phytoliths within the sediments of Lake Matoaka be used to identify the dominant vegetative communities over the last ~300 years? I addressed these questions with three approaches: 1) Identify the primary phytolith producing taxa within the College Woods; 2) Identify the modern phytolith assemblages within the soil of the College Woods; 3) Identify the differences between phytolith assemblages from the lake sediment core samples. I found the following: 1) The production of phytoliths varies heavily between and within different common taxa of the College Woods, with species of oaks (Quercus spp.) unpredictably producing phytoliths and beeches (Fagus grandifolia) likely contributing the majority of dicot phytoliths; 2) The modern phytolith assemblages of the College Woods reflect a low phytolith producing environment, and the vegetative homogeneity is reflected in the phytolith record; 3) The ...


Gray Wolves, Eric Gese, John P. Hart, Patricia Terletzky 2021 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Gray Wolves, Eric Gese, John P. Hart, Patricia Terletzky

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Wolf conflicts are primarily related to predation on livestock, pets and other domestic animals, as well as their direct and indirect impacts on native ungulates (i.e., big game). Economic losses vary widely with some livestock producers facing high levels of depredation in some areas. This publication focuses on wolf ecology, damage, and management, particularly as it relates to wolf depredation on livestock and other conflicts with people.

Wolves and people share the same environments more than people realize. In the U.S., wolves are not confined to wilderness areas. Though curious, wolves generally fear people and rarely pose a ...


The State Of The Salish Sea, Kathryn L. Sobocinski 2021 Western Washington University

The State Of The Salish Sea, Kathryn L. Sobocinski

Institute Publications

This report synthesizes information on past, current, and emerging stressors within the Salish Sea estuarine ecosystem. The Salish Sea is a complex waterbody shared by Coast Salish Tribes and First Nations, Canada, and the United States. It is defined by multiple freshwater inputs and marine water from the Pacific Ocean that mix in two primary basins, Puget Sound and the Strait of Georgia. Human impacts are multifaceted and extensive within the Salish Sea, with a regional population of almost 9 million people. Population growth has driven urbanization and development, which in turn has triggered structural changes to the landscape and ...


State Of The Salish Sea: Executive Summary, Kathryn L. Sobocinski 2021 Western Washington University

State Of The Salish Sea: Executive Summary, Kathryn L. Sobocinski

Institute Publications

This report synthesizes information on past, current, and emerging stressors within the Salish Sea estuarine ecosystem. The Salish Sea is a complex waterbody shared by Coast Salish Tribes and First Nations, Canada, and the United States. It is defined by multiple freshwater inputs and marine water from the Pacific Ocean that mix in two primary basins, Puget Sound and the Strait of Georgia. Human impacts are multifaceted and extensive within the Salish Sea, with a regional population of almost 9 million people. Population growth has driven urbanization and development, which in turn has triggered structural changes to the landscape and ...


Short- And Long-Term Mechanisms For Increasing Inputs Of Phosphorus In Mountain Waterbodies Of Northeastern Utah, Usa, Jessica Scholz 2021 Utah State University

Short- And Long-Term Mechanisms For Increasing Inputs Of Phosphorus In Mountain Waterbodies Of Northeastern Utah, Usa, Jessica Scholz

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Phosphorus is an essential nutrient that allows life in water to flourish, but changes in phosphorus supplies are not well understood in remote watersheds. In mountain environments, remote watersheds contain critical high-quality water supplies and unique ecosystems, but excess phosphorus can diminish water quality by producing unfavorable aquatic species. Therefore, observed trends of increasing phosphorus concentrations in remote lakes and rivers in the US over the last two decades are a significant concern. Using the Uinta Mountains as a case study, we evaluated three different direct and indirect pathways for phosphorus increases in remote mountain watersheds that may explain observed ...


Soil Salinity And The Occurrence Of Invasive Phragmites Australis In Scarborough Marsh, Anthony DeVecchis 2021 University of Southern Maine

Soil Salinity And The Occurrence Of Invasive Phragmites Australis In Scarborough Marsh, Anthony Devecchis

Thinking Matters Symposium

In North America, Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin. is a common invasive reed that competes well in wetland ecosystems and wet ditches. According to the Maine Department of Agriculture, Conservation and Forestry’s Natural Areas Program, P. australis is disruptive to both tidal and freshwater marshes throughout Maine, including Scarborough Marsh, the state’s largest salt marsh covering an area of 3100 acres (≈ 1,254 hectares). Like many tidal marshes, Scarborough Marsh plays an important role buffering against high tides and flood waters, whilst providing key habitat for numerous species of fishes, birds, and insects. Previous research suggests that changes in ...


The Impacts Of Atrazine Exposure On The Performance Of Northern Two-Lined Salamander Larvae (Eurycea Bislineata), Kody Streeter 2021 Susquehanna University

The Impacts Of Atrazine Exposure On The Performance Of Northern Two-Lined Salamander Larvae (Eurycea Bislineata), Kody Streeter

Senior Scholars Day

Atrazine is one of the most common herbicides used in the United States. Despite having a large spectrum of weed control, the herbicide has many negative consequences on stream integrity, specifically on aquatic organisms. Amphibians have many biological characteristics that make them highly susceptible to agricultural contaminants. Understanding the effects of herbicides on vulnerable species will allow for inferences to be made about the effects on the entire ecosystem. We investigated the hypothesis that herbicide exposure would affect the survival and growth of northern two lined salamander larvae (Eurycea bislineata). We exposed larvae to one of four different treatments of ...


The Lethal Effects Of Herbicides And Herbicide Residues On The Agriculturally Important Wolf Spider Pardosa Milvina, Tyler Gross, Kevin Rainey 2021 Susquehanna University

The Lethal Effects Of Herbicides And Herbicide Residues On The Agriculturally Important Wolf Spider Pardosa Milvina, Tyler Gross, Kevin Rainey

Senior Scholars Day

Herbicides are applied to commercial crops with increasing frequency and diversity yet are rarely tested for acute or chronic toxicity effects on beneficial non target species such as spiders We measured the lethal effects of chronic exposure to field relevant doses of herbicide treated soil on an agriculturally abundant wolf spider, Pardosa milvina. We tested six herbicides including atrazine, S-metolachlor, mesotrione, glyphosate, 2,4-D, and dicamba. We also tested a mixture of all six herbicides and a distilled water control. Spiders were housed individually in containers with topsoil previously sprayed with a recommended herbicide dosage or water control group To ...


Assessing The Body Condition Of Brook Trout (Salvelinus Fontinalis) In The Loyalsock Creek Watershed, Rebecca Harner 2021 Susquehanna University

Assessing The Body Condition Of Brook Trout (Salvelinus Fontinalis) In The Loyalsock Creek Watershed, Rebecca Harner

Senior Scholars Day

The body condition of an animal is an indicator of their health based on their size and weight. Assessing body condition can be useful for evaluating populations and tracing ecological disturbances. This study assessed the body condition of brook trout in the Loyalsock Creek watershed after Tropical Storm Lee in September 2011. The storm brought heavy rainfall to central Pennsylvania and triggered a catastrophic flood that disrupted the streams and trout populations. Fish populations were surveyed annually at 30 sites in the Loyalsock Creek watershed from 2011 to 2020. Fish were electroshocked, following procedures from the Pennsylvania Fish and Boat ...


Decline In Amphibian Health In Local Stream, Elyse Vetter, Elise DeArment, Colton Russell, Audrey Fontes, Lee Kats 2021 Pepperdine University

Decline In Amphibian Health In Local Stream, Elyse Vetter, Elise Dearment, Colton Russell, Audrey Fontes, Lee Kats

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Many local streams of the Santa Monica Mountains are populated by the native California Newt, Taricha torosa, a species of special concern. Arroyo Sequit is one of these streams, the upper and lower portions of which are split by a culvert and the Mulholland Highway. This stream and the surrounding areas burned during the Woolsey fire of 2018. Since the fire, construction has been ongoing in and around the stream. Two years post-fire (during the summer of 2020) significantly more newts were found in the stream than years prior. A large proportion of these newts were unhealthy in appearance, presenting ...


Conspecific Aggression Of Invasive Crayfish, P. Clarkii, In Response To Chemical Cues, Elyse Vetter, Elise DeArment, Audrey Fontes, Gary Bucciarelli, Lee Kats 2021 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, UCLA

Conspecific Aggression Of Invasive Crayfish, P. Clarkii, In Response To Chemical Cues, Elyse Vetter, Elise Dearment, Audrey Fontes, Gary Bucciarelli, Lee Kats

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Red Swamp Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, have caused vast damage to the stream ecosystem of the Santa Monica Mountains, following their invasive introduction. Through their extensive eating habits, high levels of aggression, and responsiveness to environmental stimuli, P. clarkii have a tremendous impact on the success of native species in the Santa Monica Mountains. With exposure to chemical cues, crayfish are able to perceive threats and react accordingly. To determine the extent of such chemoreception, pairs of P. clarkii were tested in the laboratory for conspecific aggression in the presence of native newt, native frog, and conspecific alarm cues. The level ...


The Effects Of Symbiote Ostracods On Invasive Crayfish Behavior, Audrey Fontes, Elyse Vetter, Gary Bucciarelli, Lee Kats 2021 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, UCLA

The Effects Of Symbiote Ostracods On Invasive Crayfish Behavior, Audrey Fontes, Elyse Vetter, Gary Bucciarelli, Lee Kats

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Invasive crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, are known to negatively impact the biodiversity of Santa Monica Mountain streams. Small symbiotes, ostracods, live on Procambarus clarkii in some local streams. However, their effect on the behaviour of invasive crayfish is unknown. We used an aqueous chlorobutanol solution to remove ostracods from crayfish. We paired control crayfish with those that had ostracods removed and scored aggressive interactions. Crayfish without ostracods were found to be significantly more aggressive towards crayfish with ostracods. When we compared feeding behavior, we found that crayfish without ostracods consumed food more quickly than control crayfish. We again subjected crayfish to ...


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