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Breeding Ecology And Habitat Use Of Unisexual Salamanders And Their Sperm-Hosts, Blue-Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Laterale), Kristine Hoffmann 2017 UMaine

Breeding Ecology And Habitat Use Of Unisexual Salamanders And Their Sperm-Hosts, Blue-Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Laterale), Kristine Hoffmann

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Unsexual Salamanders within the Blue-Spotted Salamander Complex carry combinations of ambystomatid genomes (those of Blue-Spotted Salamanders, Ambystoma laterale, and Jefferson Salamanders, A. jeffersonianum in Maine). They are nearly all female, breed in wetlands, and use sperm of related species to reproduce. Little is known about their ecology to guide the conservation of this unique lineage. I examined breeding site occupancy, demographics, orientation, and terrestrial habitat selection of Unisexual Salamanders in comparison to Blue-Spotted Salamanders and other amphibians. I compared statistical tests of orientation to determine which was most appropriate for pitfall data.

Unisexual Salamander occupancy at breeding sites was positively ...


The Biogeographic Origins And Trophic Ecology Of Maine’S Island Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus), Nikko-Ideen Shaidani 2017 University of Maine

The Biogeographic Origins And Trophic Ecology Of Maine’S Island Red-Backed Salamanders (Plethodon Cinereus), Nikko-Ideen Shaidani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Island populations of terrestrial species have an increased potential, compared to mainland populations, to adapt and diverge, as these populations often are isolated with respect to gene flow from other populations and may be subjected to novel pressures. Indeed, extended isolation of individuals can elicit dramatic changes within populations and is recognized as a common driver of speciation. It is for these reasons that island populations are often a priority for conservation. Plethodontid salamanders are among the most terrestrial of Maine’s amphibians and are not tolerant of prolonged exposure to seawater, and yet, they are found on a number ...


Non-Native Mangroves Of Moloka'i, Hawai'i: A Socio-Ecological Analysis, Casey Lewis 2017 Portland State University

Non-Native Mangroves Of Moloka'i, Hawai'i: A Socio-Ecological Analysis, Casey Lewis

Student Research Symposium

Invasive species are recognized as a leading threat to ecosystems and their management is expensive, time consuming, and labor intensive. Therefore, it is important to review both benefits and detriments of the species to inform appropriate management decisions. Red mangrove was introduced to Moloka'i, Hawaii in 1902 to mitigate the effects of soil erosion and has since spread along the coast and to adjacent islands creating novel habitat. This study assessed both biological services and social attitudes towards Moloka'i's non-native mangroves to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the species. Zooplankton community structure was examined in mangrove and ...


Breeding Stage And Parentage Affect Tameness In Common Loons, Mina Ibrahim 2017 Chapman University

Breeding Stage And Parentage Affect Tameness In Common Loons, Mina Ibrahim

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Tameness is a measure of tolerance towards human disturbance. As human disturbance and recreational activity are increasing, it is becoming more and more important to understand responses of species to this disturbance. Tameness has been shown to be influenced by an individuals characteristics and life history. Two possible determinants of tameness are breeding stage and parentage. We studied tameness in common loons (Gavia immer) specifically looking at the effects of breeding stage and parentage. Tameness was measured by flight initiation distance (FID), the distance at which a loon dove from an approaching human observer in a canoe. Loons with chicks ...


Heterogeneity Of Avian Breeding Habitat On Grazing Lands Of The Northern Great Plains, Maggi S. Sliwinski 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Heterogeneity Of Avian Breeding Habitat On Grazing Lands Of The Northern Great Plains, Maggi S. Sliwinski

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Native rangelands in the Great Plains are largely privately owned and used for beef production. Vegetation heterogeneity is important for maintaining biodiversity, but private land may be more homogenous than desired. My research had two components: 1) to examine whether a variety of grazing strategies created vegetation heterogeneity in a large, intact rangeland, and 2) to understand beef producers’ attitudes about vegetation heterogeneity.

First, I sampled vegetation structure, composition, and bird abundance at multiple plots on eleven management units in Cherry County, Nebraska. Units were managed with commonly used grazing strategies (e.g., short-duration grazing and season-long continuous grazing). I ...


Dispersal Rate Of The Asian Clam (Corbicula Fluminea): A Study With Pit Tagging, Tommy Cianciolo 2017 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Dispersal Rate Of The Asian Clam (Corbicula Fluminea): A Study With Pit Tagging, Tommy Cianciolo

University of Tennessee Honors Thesis Projects

No abstract provided.


Influence Of Stream Permanence, Predation, And Invasive Species On Crayfish In The Ozark Highlands With An Emphasis On Species Of Greatest Conservation Need (Orconectes Marchandi, Orconectes Eupunctus And Cambarus Hubbsi), Allyson Noelle Yarra 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Influence Of Stream Permanence, Predation, And Invasive Species On Crayfish In The Ozark Highlands With An Emphasis On Species Of Greatest Conservation Need (Orconectes Marchandi, Orconectes Eupunctus And Cambarus Hubbsi), Allyson Noelle Yarra

Theses and Dissertations

Due to the ecological importance of crayfish and the increasing vulnerability of freshwater systems due to habitat loss, invasive species, and hydrologic alteration, understanding crayfish-environment relationships is crucial in the context of aquatic species conservation. I sought to examine the influence of hydrologic variation among intermittent and permanent streams on crayfish occupancy, abundance, predation risk, and potential vulnerability to invasive species effects. I conducted crayfish and environmental data sampling during two consecutive summers across 20 Ozark streams of differing permanence levels (10 intermittent, 10 permanent). In these same streams, I conducted fish and scat surveys over the course of four ...


Flight Activity, Oviposition Pit Distribution, And Emergence Densities Of Monochamus Titillator And M. Carolinensis In The Ozark-St. Francis National Forest In Arkansas, Jake Bodart 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Flight Activity, Oviposition Pit Distribution, And Emergence Densities Of Monochamus Titillator And M. Carolinensis In The Ozark-St. Francis National Forest In Arkansas, Jake Bodart

Theses and Dissertations

Monochamus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) are a genus of longhorn beetles commonly known as pine sawyers. They have a worldwide distribution coincident with pines (Pinaceae) and are vectors of the pinewood nematode (Bursaphelenchus xylophilus). In the United States, there are eight known Monochamus species and they have a sympatric distribution with at least one other Monochamus species throughout their range. Monochamus are known to attack stressed, dead, and dying conifers especially pines. In the Ozark- St. Francis National Forest in Arkansas, there are two species of pine sawyers and they share this sympatric distribution observed throughout the United States, M. titillator (southern ...


Review Of Seagrassnet Monitoring Photographs In Great Bay, New Hampshire, Usa 2007 - 2014, Frederick T. Short 2017 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Review Of Seagrassnet Monitoring Photographs In Great Bay, New Hampshire, Usa 2007 - 2014, Frederick T. Short

PREP Publications

SeagrassNet is a global monitoring program begun in 2001 and designed to scientifically detect and document seagrass habitat change (Short et al. 2006a, 2014). Monitoring of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) in the Great Bay Estuary using SeagrassNet was conducted in Portsmouth Harbor between 2001 and 2009 (Short et al 2006b, Rivers and Short 2007), and is ongoing in Great Bay itself, from 2007 (Short 2009) to the present. In this report, July quadrat photos taken along the three Great Bay SeagrassNet transects from 2007 – 2014 are presented and discussed. They provide useful documentation of field percent cover measurements of eelgrass ...


Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers : 2016 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Rob Latour, Patrick McGrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee 2017 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia's Rivers : 2016 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Rob Latour, Patrick Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee

Reports

This report describes the results of the nineteenth year of a continuing study to estimate the relative abundance and assess the status of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) stocks in Virginia by monitoring the spawning runs in the James, York and Rappahannock rivers in spring 2016, evaluating hatchery programs, and contributing to coast-wide assessments (ASMFC 2007). We also report on a new fishery-independent monitoring program using staked gillnets to determine relative abundance and stock structure for the adult spawning run of river herring (A. pseudoharengus, and A. aestivalis) in the Rappahannock River. Data are also reported from two separate fishery-independent monitoring ...


Spatial And Temporal Variability Of Water Quality Parameters In Cedar Lake (Cedarville, Ohio), Laura A. Cashman, William A. Smith, Shannon L. Swicker, Abigail L. Williams, Mark A. Gathany 2017 Cedarville University

Spatial And Temporal Variability Of Water Quality Parameters In Cedar Lake (Cedarville, Ohio), Laura A. Cashman, William A. Smith, Shannon L. Swicker, Abigail L. Williams, Mark A. Gathany

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

Cedar Lake is a man-made lake that is central to Cedarville University’s campus. This focal point of the campus is a source of aesthetic appeal and beauty of Cedarville University. The lake ranges in depth from 0.6-3.7m, is 140m by 150m across, an approximate volume of 40,000 m3 and demonstrates normal capabilities to support fish and other life. There is, however, some concern over Cedar Lake’s level of productivity as undesirable algae blooms are common during warmer months. In October and November 2016 we began to assess the spatial and temporal variability of water ...


Determination Of Metal Concentrations In Sediments Of Big Walnut Creek, Hayley Quinn, Joan M. Esson, Kierra M. Lathrop, Michael A. Hoggarth, Kevin Svitana, Nathan Hess 2017 Otterbein University

Determination Of Metal Concentrations In Sediments Of Big Walnut Creek, Hayley Quinn, Joan M. Esson, Kierra M. Lathrop, Michael A. Hoggarth, Kevin Svitana, Nathan Hess

Distinction Papers

The freshwater mussel populations in the lower stretch of Big Walnut Creek in central Ohio have been found to vary along the run of the creek with the lowest population of mussels in the middle stretch. One possible cause for the decline is the presence of contaminants in the sediments of the creek. In this study, nine Sites along the creek were examined. At each Site, sediment samples from a pool region and two quadrants from where mussels were also studied (the area of interest) were collected, along with pseudo feces, which is the waste mussels produce as they filter ...


Mechanical Harvesting Effectively Controls Young Typha Spp. Invasion And Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data Enhances Post-Treatment Monitoring, Shane Lishawa, Brendan D. Carson, Jodi S. Brandt, Jason M. Tallant, Nicholas J. Reo, Dennis A. Albert, Andrew M. Monks, Joseph M. Lautenbach 2017 Loyola University Chicago

Mechanical Harvesting Effectively Controls Young Typha Spp. Invasion And Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Data Enhances Post-Treatment Monitoring, Shane Lishawa, Brendan D. Carson, Jodi S. Brandt, Jason M. Tallant, Nicholas J. Reo, Dennis A. Albert, Andrew M. Monks, Joseph M. Lautenbach

Institute of Environmental Sustainability: Faculty Publications and Other Works

The ecological impacts of invasive plants increase dramatically with time since invasion. Targeting young populations for treatment is therefore an economically and ecologically effective management approach, especially when linked to post-treatment monitoring to evaluate the efficacy of management. However, collecting detailed field-based post-treatment data is prohibitively expensive, typically resulting in inadequate documentation of the ecological effects of invasive plant management. Alternative approaches, such as remote detection with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), provide an opportunity to advance the science and practice of restoration ecology. In this study, we sought to determine the plant community response to different mechanical removal treatments to ...


The Role Of Adult Fiddler Crab Environmental Acoustic Cues And Chemical Cues In Stimulating Molting Of Field-Caught Megalopae, Emily E. Waddell, Wendy Dow Piniak, Kathleen A. Reinsel, James M. Welch 2017 Gettysburg College

The Role Of Adult Fiddler Crab Environmental Acoustic Cues And Chemical Cues In Stimulating Molting Of Field-Caught Megalopae, Emily E. Waddell, Wendy Dow Piniak, Kathleen A. Reinsel, James M. Welch

Student Publications

In mid-Atlantic estuaries, three fiddler crab species, Uca pugilator, Uca pugnax and Uca minax co-occur, with their adults occupying different habitat types distinguished by salinity and sediment size. Some evidence exists that selective settlement is responsible for this separation but the mechanism is largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that field-caught megalopae would accelerate metamorphosis in the presence of adult species-specific environmental acoustic cues and conspecific chemical cues. We placed megalopae in seawater with and without adult chemical cues, exposed them to one of three sound treatments for 8 days, and recorded the time each megalopa took to metamorphose. In ...


Oyster Reef Restoration In Great Bay Estuary, Raymond Grizzle, Krystin Ward 2017 The Jackson Laboratory

Oyster Reef Restoration In Great Bay Estuary, Raymond Grizzle, Krystin Ward

PREP Publications

This report describes the results of the construction and initial monitoring phase of an oyster restoration project conducted in 2016 by the University of New Hampshire (UNH) and The Nature Conservancy (TNC), funded by the New Hampshire Aquatic Resources Mitigation Program. The overall goal of the project was to construct 5 acres of new oyster reef habitat in an area adjacent to a live natural reef northwest of Nannie Island, in the Town of Newington, NH, off Woodman Point. The report is organized according to the four major tasks listed as deliverables in the subaward to UNH from TNC.


A Reexamination The Freshwater Mussels (Family Unionidae) In Lower Big Walnut Creek, Kierra M. Lathrop 2017 Otterbein University, Ohio

A Reexamination The Freshwater Mussels (Family Unionidae) In Lower Big Walnut Creek, Kierra M. Lathrop

Distinction Papers

Freshwater mussels (family Unionidae) have become increasingly rare as the threats to water quality, habitat quality, and other aquatic animals, which the mussels depend on, have increased. The absence of mussels can provide evidence that one of these factors is insufficient. Lower Big Walnut Creek (BWC) is known to support a diverse community of mussels but they are unevenly distributed throughout the creek with abundance, density, and richness being high in the upper section, very low in the midsection, and intermediate in the lower section. It has been suggested water quality nor symbiotic fish host communities are responsible for this ...


The North American Whistling-Ducks, Pochards, And Stifftails, Paul A. Johnsgard 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The North American Whistling-Ducks, Pochards, And Stifftails, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

Although the 12 species representing three waterfowl tribes described in this volume are not closely related, they fortuitously provide an instructive example of adaptive evolutionary radiation within the much larger waterfowl lineage (the family Anatidae), especially as to their divergent morphologies, life histories, and social behaviors.

The whistling-ducks (Dendrocygna), with three known North American species, are notable for their permanent pair-bonds, extended biparental family care, and strong social cohesion. In contrast, males of the five typical pochards of North American diving ducks (Aythya) establish monogamous pair-bonds that are maintained only long enough to assure that the female’s eggs are ...


Groundcover Community Assembly In High-Diversity Pine Savannas: Seed Arrival And Fire-Generated Environmental Filtering, Kyle E. Harms, Paul R. Gagnon, Heather A. Passmore, Jonathan A. Myers, William J. Platt 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Groundcover Community Assembly In High-Diversity Pine Savannas: Seed Arrival And Fire-Generated Environmental Filtering, Kyle E. Harms, Paul R. Gagnon, Heather A. Passmore, Jonathan A. Myers, William J. Platt

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Environmental filtering—abiotic and biotic constraints on the demographic performance of individual organisms—is a widespread mechanism of selection in communities. A given individual is “filtered out” (i.e., selectively removed) when environmental conditions or disturbances like fires preclude its survival and reproduction. Although interactions between these filters and dispersal from the regional species pool are thought to determine much about species composition locally, there have been relatively few studies of dispersal × filtering interactions in species-rich communities and fewer still where fire is also a primary selective agent. We experimentally manipulated dispersal and filtering by fire (pre-fire fuel loads and ...


Blue Sucker Summer Utilization Distributions And Inter-Annual Fidelity To Summering Habitats, J. David Adams, Casey L. Bergthold, Justin D. Haas, Mark A. Pegg, Gerald E. Mestl 2017 Nebraska Game and Parks Commission

Blue Sucker Summer Utilization Distributions And Inter-Annual Fidelity To Summering Habitats, J. David Adams, Casey L. Bergthold, Justin D. Haas, Mark A. Pegg, Gerald E. Mestl

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Blue Sucker Cycleptus elongatus populations in the Missouri River are believed to be declining. The decline is most likely attributable to anthropogenic modifications including channelization and dam construction. We compared 2008 and 2009 summer use distribution (UD) for 21 blue suckers implanted with acoustic tags to better understand how blue suckers use the Missouri River. UDs are used to analyze space-use requirements based on the home range concept. The geometric mean 95% UD range was 1.9 river kilometers (RKM) in 2008 and 0.3 RKM in 2009, and differed statistically by year. The upper bound of the 2008 95 ...


Movement Patterns And Population Genetics Of The American Horseshoe Crab In Relation To Long Island Sound Conservation Strategies, Jo-Marie Kasinak, Kirk A. Bartholomew, Mark Beekey, Jennifer Mattei 2017 Sacred Heart University

Movement Patterns And Population Genetics Of The American Horseshoe Crab In Relation To Long Island Sound Conservation Strategies, Jo-Marie Kasinak, Kirk A. Bartholomew, Mark Beekey, Jennifer Mattei

Jo-Marie Kasinak

The Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CTDEP) established three no-harvest zones for the horseshoe crab (Limulus polyphemus) population as part of a conservation plan for the species. Data from a long-term mark/recapture study of horseshoe crabs in conjunction with a microsatellite-based genetic survey of the population were analyzed to determine if this plan was appropriate to conserve genetic diversity and broaden our knowledge of movement patterns of Limulus in Long Island Sound (LIS). To date, ~53,000 crabs have been tagged over a 10 year period through the Project Limulus program with an annual average recapture rate of 12 ...


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