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Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Of Quaternary Saltville, Virginia, Using Ostracode Autecology, Austin Gause 2020 East Tennessee State University

Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Of Quaternary Saltville, Virginia, Using Ostracode Autecology, Austin Gause

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Saltville valley in southwestern Virginia is home to Quaternary localities containing paleontological and archaeological remains. Historically the valley has been mined for salt and the small lakes, ponds and springs along the valley floor have a brackish signature. A preliminary report on the site’s ostracode fauna suggested that the site’s water was not always saline. This study analyzed modern and Quaternary ostracodes to understand the valley’s hydrologic and chemical evolution. Sediments contained primarily freshwater species, including the environmentally sensitive Candona crogmaniana. The presence of Pelocypris tuberculatum and a new Fabaeformiscandona species throughout a vertical section spanning ...


Improving Our Ability To Estimate Vital Rates Of Endangered Fishes On The San Juan River Using Novel Applications Of Pit-Tag Technology, J. Benjamin Stout 2020 Utah State University

Improving Our Ability To Estimate Vital Rates Of Endangered Fishes On The San Juan River Using Novel Applications Of Pit-Tag Technology, J. Benjamin Stout

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Estimating demographic parameters, such as survival and abundance, with accuracy and precision is vital for detecting trends in populations and assessing the effectiveness of management actions. In most cases, a lack of capture data make estimating parameters very challenging. The use of new technologies to increase the amount of remotely collected data is increasing, but brings new limitations and analytical issues to be resolved. One of those new technologies is the use of a mobile floating PIT-tag antenna to detect PIT-tagged fish. The issue that arises with this technology is determination of the status of detected tags (i.e., live ...


Beaver Moderated Fire Resistance In The North Cascades, Wa, Usa, Joseph Weirich, Rebecca Brown PhD. 2020 Eastern Washington University

Beaver Moderated Fire Resistance In The North Cascades, Wa, Usa, Joseph Weirich, Rebecca Brown Phd.

2020 Symposium Posters

Climate change and fire suppression have altered historic fire regimes creating conditions for larger, high severity fires. Intense burns denude vegetation, alter hydrology, and cause channel incision, impairing riparian function. Burn severity varies based on topography and increases with distance from water sources like lakes, streams, and wetlands. Beaver introduction is a passive technique to restore incised and degraded streams using their unique abilities to build dams, store water and create wetland environments. The objective of this study was to assess whether beaver impoundments increase landscape resistance to wildfire by increasing riparian soil and vegetation moisture levels. We hypothesize that ...


The Effect Of Intensified Illuminance And Artificial Light At Night On Fitness And Susceptibility To Abiotic And Biotic Stressors, Grascen Shidemantle 2020 Binghamton University

The Effect Of Intensified Illuminance And Artificial Light At Night On Fitness And Susceptibility To Abiotic And Biotic Stressors, Grascen Shidemantle

Biological Sciences Student Scholarship

Changing light conditions due to human activities represents an important emerging environmental concern. Although changes to natural light conditions can be independently detrimental, in nature, organisms commonly face multiple stressors. To understand the consequences of altered light conditions, we exposed a model amphibian (wood frog; Lithobates sylvaticus) to a control and two anthropogenic light conditions: intensified daytime illuminance and artificial light at night - ALAN (intensified daytime illuminance + extended photoperiod). We measured (1) metrics of fitness (hatching success as well as survival to, size at, and time to metamorphosis) (2) susceptibility (time to death) to a commonly cooccurring anthropogenic stressor, road ...


Size Selective Parasitism Of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) By Chestnut Lampreys (Ichthyomyzon Castaneus) In An Artificial Setting, Jeremiah M. Salinger, Ronald L. Johnson 2020 University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff

Size Selective Parasitism Of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) By Chestnut Lampreys (Ichthyomyzon Castaneus) In An Artificial Setting, Jeremiah M. Salinger, Ronald L. Johnson

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

Paradigms of optimal resource utilization by animals, both classical and more recent, were not originally developed in the context of parasitism. Though this oversight has slowly been reversed, little attention has been paid to optimal resource utilization by parasitic fishes, such as lampreys. Multiple explanations for host size selection by parasitic lampreys may be plausible, but results from previous studies have been inconsistent. We studied host size selection by Chestnut Lampreys (Ichthyomyzon castaneus) parasitizing Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in fish hatchery raceways in north central Arkansas during the late winter and early spring of 2013. Parasitized Rainbow Trout were significantly ...


Movement Of Translocated Adult Sicklefin Redhorse (Moxostoma Sp.) In The Oconaluftee River, North Carolina: Implications For Species Restoration, Jessica L. Davis, David P. Gillette, C. Reed Rossell Jr., Michael J. LaVoie 2020 University of North Carolina, Asheville

Movement Of Translocated Adult Sicklefin Redhorse (Moxostoma Sp.) In The Oconaluftee River, North Carolina: Implications For Species Restoration, Jessica L. Davis, David P. Gillette, C. Reed Rossell Jr., Michael J. Lavoie

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

The Sicklefin Redhorse is a rare, undescribed species of Moxostoma, endemic to the Hiwassee and Little Tennessee River basins of western North Carolina and northern Georgia, where it has been eliminated from much of its native range. It is listed as endangered in Georgia and threatened in North Carolina. Although it has not been granted federal protected status, this species is the subject of a Candidate Conservation Agreement between federal, state, tribal, and private stakeholders, of which one objective calls for the re-establishment of Sicklefin Redhorse populations throughout its historical range. The objective of our study was to evaluate suitability ...


A Mathematical Approach To Understanding Eurasian Watermilfoil Growth, Spread, And Control, Diana White, Jonathan Martin, Isabel Dengos 2020 Clarkson University

A Mathematical Approach To Understanding Eurasian Watermilfoil Growth, Spread, And Control, Diana White, Jonathan Martin, Isabel Dengos

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Photographic Validation Of Target Versus Nontarget Take Of Brown Treesnake Baits, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Cynthia G. Payne, Francinem M. Chlarson, Craig S. Clark, Stephen M. Mosher 2020 USDA, APHIS, WS, National Wildlife Research Center

Photographic Validation Of Target Versus Nontarget Take Of Brown Treesnake Baits, Shane R. Siers, Aaron B. Shiels, Cynthia G. Payne, Francinem M. Chlarson, Craig S. Clark, Stephen M. Mosher

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Use of toxic baits or other tools for managing nuisance species must ensure that the species of interest is adequately targeted while exposure to nontarget species is minimized. Nontarget takes of acetaminophen‐laced baits for control of invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) on Guam may put those animals at risk of lethal intoxication and render the bait unavailable to the intended target species. We used wildlife cameras to identify species removing toxic and nontoxic baits from brown treesnake bait stations designed to exclude nontarget taxa in 2015 and 2016. Throughout various sites and habitat types, and balanced by season (wet ...


Time Allocation To Resources By Three Species Of Rats (Rattus Spp.) In A Radial Arm Maze, Gary Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Rachael S. Moulton 2020 USDA/APHIS Wildlife Services National Wildlife Research Center

Time Allocation To Resources By Three Species Of Rats (Rattus Spp.) In A Radial Arm Maze, Gary Witmer, Nathan P. Snow, Rachael S. Moulton

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Context. Introduced rats (Rattus spp.) can pose a serious threat to native flora and fauna, especially on islands where most species have evolved in the absence of terrestrial predators. Effective detection and eradication methods for introduced rats are essential to the maintenance of insular ecosystem integrity. Thus, it is important to better understand the behaviour of rats when they first arrive in a new setting.

Aims. To determine whether rats would find some novel stimuli to be significantly more attractive than other novel stimuli.

Methods. An eight-arm radial maze was used to study the behaviour of three species of Rattus ...


Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck 2020 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Interactions With Humans Shape Coyote Responses To Hazing, Julie K. Young, Edd Hammill, Stewart W. Breck

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Medium and large carnivores coexist with people in urban areas globally, occasionally resulting in

negative interactions that prompt questions about how to reduce human-wildlife conflict. Hazing,

i.e., scaring wildlife, is frequently promoted as an important non-lethal means for urbanites to reduce

conflict but there is limited scientific evidence for its efficacy. We used a population of captive coyotes (Canis latrans) to simulate urban human-coyote interactions and subsequent effects of hazing on coyote behavior. Past experiences with humans significantly affected the number of times a coyoteapproached a human to necessitate hazing. coyotes that had been hand fed by adults had ...


Hawaii As A Microcosm: Advancing The Science And Practice Of Managing Introduced And Invasive Species, Liba Pejchar, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Jean E. Fantle-Lepczyk, Steven C. Hess, M. Tracy Johnson, Christina R. Leopold, Michael Marchetti, Katherine M. Mcclure, Aaron B. Shiels 2020 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Hawaii As A Microcosm: Advancing The Science And Practice Of Managing Introduced And Invasive Species, Liba Pejchar, Christopher A. Lepczyk, Jean E. Fantle-Lepczyk, Steven C. Hess, M. Tracy Johnson, Christina R. Leopold, Michael Marchetti, Katherine M. Mcclure, Aaron B. Shiels

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Invasive species are a leading driver of global change, with consequences for biodiversity and society. Because of extraordinary rates of endemism, introduction, and extinction, Hawaii offers a rich platform for exploring the cross-disciplinary challenges of managing invasive species in a dynamic world. We highlight key successes and shortcomings to share lessons learned and inspire innovation and action in and beyond the archipelago. We then discuss thematic challenges and opportunities of broad relevance to invaded ecosystems and human communities. Important research needs and possible actions include eradicating mammals from mainland island sanctuaries, assessing hidden threats from poorly known introduced species, harnessing ...


Deciphering Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer And Approaching Vehicle, Morgan Pfeiffer, Raymond B. Iglay, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. DeVault 2020 USDA National Wildlife Research Center & Nelson Mandela University

Deciphering Interactions Between White-Tailed Deer And Approaching Vehicle, Morgan Pfeiffer, Raymond B. Iglay, Thomas W. Seamans, Bradley F. Blackwell, Travis L. Devault

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Deer-vehicle collisions are a major transportation hazard, but factors affecting deer escape decision-making in response to vehicle approach remain poorly characterized. We made opportunistic observations of deer response to vehicle approach during daylight hours on a restricted- access facility in Ohio, USA (vehicle speeds were ≤64 km/h). We hypothesized that animal proximity to the road, group size, vehicle approach, and ambient conditions would affect perceived risk by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) to vehicle approach, as measured by flight-initiation distance (FID). We constructed a priori models for FID, as well as road-crossing behavior. Deer responses were variable and did not ...


Sourcing And Evaluating The Use Of Detritus As A Supplementary Diet For Bivalve Aquaculture Using Stable Isotopes And Fatty Acid Biomarkers, Adrianus C. Both 2020 University of Maine

Sourcing And Evaluating The Use Of Detritus As A Supplementary Diet For Bivalve Aquaculture Using Stable Isotopes And Fatty Acid Biomarkers, Adrianus C. Both

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Detritus is a ubiquitous component of ecosystems and an important fuel for secondary production. Due to the extractive nature of bivalve aquaculture, detritus is often incorporated into carrying capacity and growth models for cultured bivalves. However, despite the complexity and difficulty in obtaining direct measurements, detritus is often treated as a homogeneous food source in models. Further understanding the role detritus plays in the diet of cultured bivalves could lead to more comprehensive and accurate models as well as more informed site selection for growers. The purpose of this study was to assess the abundance, bioavailability, and contribution of detritus ...


Reclamation, Thomas R. Starkey-Owens 2020 Humboldt State University

Reclamation, Thomas R. Starkey-Owens

Toyon Literary Magazine

No abstract provided.


Ecological Analyses Of Macroinvertebrates And Fish Species In Six Streams On A Louisiana Military Base From 2001 To 2019, Danielle Joerger 2020 University of Texas at Tyler

Ecological Analyses Of Macroinvertebrates And Fish Species In Six Streams On A Louisiana Military Base From 2001 To 2019, Danielle Joerger

Biology Theses

An in-depth ecological analysis of how and why the aquatic community changes over time was conducted for 6 streams on the Fort Polk military base in Louisiana using data collected from 2001 to 2019. Fort Polk is a unique location as nineteen first-order streams are located on the premises belonging to three separate drainages. The primary goal was to determine whether temporal or between-drainage variation has a larger effect on community structure. To accomplish this the effects of disturbance on fish and macroinvertebrate assemblages was determined temporally and between drainages. Several hypotheses were drawn from this: 1) temporally, assemblages exhibit ...


Year Long Water Quality Analysis Of White Horn Brook, Kevin Dyer 2020 University of Arizona

Year Long Water Quality Analysis Of White Horn Brook, Kevin Dyer

Senior Honors Projects

KEVIN DYER (Marine Biology)

Year-long Analysis of the Water Quality of White Horn Brook

Sponsor: Thomas Boving (Geological Sciences)

Water is the foundation for all life on earth and is the most vital resource on this planet. Despite this, oceans and waterways all over the world are being polluted and exploited in ways detrimental to their fundamental hydrologic functions. For instance, excess nitrate levels can lead to eutrophication which gives rise to harmful algae blooms. Low pH can cause the breakdown of CaCO3 exoskeletons of organisms, such mollusks. High temperature variations are major stressors to living things and can cause ...


Characterization Of Stream Quality Of Five Ouachita River Tributaries Utilizing Macrobenthic Species And Fish Populations, Hunter Jones, Brockton Brown 2020 Ouachita Baptist University

Characterization Of Stream Quality Of Five Ouachita River Tributaries Utilizing Macrobenthic Species And Fish Populations, Hunter Jones, Brockton Brown

Scholars Day Conference

The Ouachita River originates in west-central Arkansas and exits the state in south-central Arkansas near El Dorado. There are many tributaries that make up the Ouachita River through its Arkansas journey. Five of these tributaries are located in Clark County and were selected for this research. Basic in situ water quality parameters were measured and the riparian zone was characterized at each sample site. The five streams selected were Decieper/Little Deceiper Creek, Mill Creek, DeRoche Creek, Saline Bayou, and Tupelo Creek. Macrobenthic and fish surveys were conducted at two sites (upper and lower) on each creek except Saline Bayou ...


The Effect Of Ocean Plastic On Plankton And Marine Ecosystems, Aiden Brinkmann '22, Eric Shackelford '22 2020 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

The Effect Of Ocean Plastic On Plankton And Marine Ecosystems, Aiden Brinkmann '22, Eric Shackelford '22

Student Leadership Exchange (SLX)

Title: The Effect of Ocean Plastic on Plankton and Marine Ecosystems Abstract: This presentation aims to raise awareness for the harm plastics in our oceans are causing analysis and visualization of scientific data. It is largely inspired by the fourteenth United Nations Sustainable Development Goal: Life Below Water. The datasets used primary fall into two categories: ocean plastic content statistics and plankton population demographics. The presentation will also explore plankton’s role as the base of many aquatic ecosystems and model the impact a population decline could have on these ecosystems. The effects ocean plastics can have on our modern ...


What Roadkills Did We Miss In A Driving Survey? A Comparison Of Driving And Walking Surveys In Baldwin County, Georgia, Kori A. Ogletree, Alfred J. Mead 2020 Georgia College & State University

What Roadkills Did We Miss In A Driving Survey? A Comparison Of Driving And Walking Surveys In Baldwin County, Georgia, Kori A. Ogletree, Alfred J. Mead

Georgia Journal of Science

Accurate estimates of vertebrate road mortalities are necessary prior to the consideration of mitigation measures by resource managers. Due to ease of implementation, driving surveys are more common than walking surveys. From February 2018 to February 2019, two survey methods, driving and walking, were used to monitor a 1.16 km section of Highway 212 in Baldwin County, Georgia. Roadkills were identified and monitored for persistence from sunrise to noon two days a week. Twenty-nine roadkills were recorded over the survey period: 48.3% mammals (14/29), 27.6% herpetofauna (8/29), and 24.1% birds (7/29). Forty-eight percent ...


136— Predation On Microbivalves By Juvenile Naticid Gastropods On San Salvador Island, The Bahamas, Eliza Merges 2020 SUNY Geneseo

136— Predation On Microbivalves By Juvenile Naticid Gastropods On San Salvador Island, The Bahamas, Eliza Merges

GREAT Day

Predator-prey interactions, where snails eat clams, evolutionarily has been a key interaction within marine molluscan communities. There is evidence of molluscan extinctions in the fossil record that are marked by changes in predation ratios. In this study, we will investigate predation of microbivalves by juvenile naticid gastropods in a shallow marine setting on San Salvador Island in the Bahamas. We propose to test predation density within different environments (facies) of a lagoonal setting. Significantly different ratios between these facies in one time period can indicate that predator-prey interactions can change over time from one environment to another. It is more ...


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