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Ecological And Societal Services Of Aquatic Diptera, Peter H. Adler, Gregory W. Courtney 2019 Clemson University

Ecological And Societal Services Of Aquatic Diptera, Peter H. Adler, Gregory W. Courtney

Gregory W. Courtney

More than any other group of macro-organisms, true flies (Diptera) dominate the freshwater environment. Nearly one-third of all flies—roughly 46,000 species—have some developmental connection with an aquatic environment. Their abundance, ubiquity, and diversity of adaptations to the aquatic environment position them as major drivers of ecosystem processes and as sources of products and bioinspiration for the benefit of human society. Larval flies are well represented as ecosystem engineers and keystone species that alter the abiotic and biotic environments through activities such as burrowing, grazing, suspension feeding, and predation. The enormous populations sometimes achieved by aquatic flies can ...


The Distribution And Life History Of Axymyia Furcata Mcatee (Diptera: Axymyiidae), A Wood Inhabiting, Semi-Aquatic Fly, Matthew W. Wihlm, Gregory W. Courtney 2019 Iowa State University

The Distribution And Life History Of Axymyia Furcata Mcatee (Diptera: Axymyiidae), A Wood Inhabiting, Semi-Aquatic Fly, Matthew W. Wihlm, Gregory W. Courtney

Gregory W. Courtney

Axymyia furcata McAtee (Diptera: Axymyiidae) is a xylophilic, semiaquatic fly from eastern North America. As part of a comprehensive study of the fly's distribution, life history, and phylogeography, we surveyed populations of A. furcata in the eastern United States and Canada. Collecting and rearing methods are described, and use of the niche modeling software, DIVA GIS, to locate regions with potentially suitable habitat is presented. Based on historical records and our recent survey, A. furcata is confirmed to occur from southern Ontario and Quebec, across the northern tier of states from Minnesota to Maine, and south along the Appalachian ...


Substrate Influences Turtle Nest Temperature, Incubation Period, And Offspring Sex Ratio In The Field, Timothy S. Mitchell, Fredric J. Janzen 2019 Iowa State University

Substrate Influences Turtle Nest Temperature, Incubation Period, And Offspring Sex Ratio In The Field, Timothy S. Mitchell, Fredric J. Janzen

Fredric Janzen

Temperature-dependent sex determination, where egg incubation temperature irreversibly determines offspring sex, is a common sex-determining mechanism in reptiles. Weather is the primary determinant of temperature in reptile nests, yet the effects of weather are mediated through the nest microhabitat selected by the mother (e.g., overstory canopy cover). One potentially important aspect of the nest microhabitat is the physical substrate used for nesting. However, the influence of substrate type on nest temperature and offspring sex determination has never been experimentally assessed in the field. We incubated eggs of Painted Turtles (Chrysemys picta) in three substrate types similar to those commonly ...


Advances In Aquatic Insect Systematics And Biodiversity In The Neotropics: Introduction, David E. Bowles, Gregory W. Courtney 2019 National Park Service

Advances In Aquatic Insect Systematics And Biodiversity In The Neotropics: Introduction, David E. Bowles, Gregory W. Courtney

Gregory W. Courtney

The Neotropical Region or Neotropics, contains vast expanses of rain forest and river systems representing some of the most biologically diverse ecosystems on Earth, but much of its resident biota remains undescribed and undocumented, and some of it is at risk of extirpation and extinction. Anthropogenic disturbances, especially deforestation, urbanization, and climate change, threaten the integrity of the Neotropics and its biodiversity. In the Neotropics, freshwater habitats are particularly susceptible to environmental stressors and freshwater species throughout the Neotropics have experienced marked declines greater than those of other groups when compared to marine and terrestrial systems. Advances in taxonomic descriptions ...


A Brief Review Of Non-Avian Reptile Environmental Dna (Edna), With A Case Study Of Painted Turtle (Chrysemys Picta) Edna Under Field Conditions, Clare I. M. Adams, Luke A. Hoekstra, Morgan R. Muell, Fredric J. Janzen 2019 University of Otago

A Brief Review Of Non-Avian Reptile Environmental Dna (Edna), With A Case Study Of Painted Turtle (Chrysemys Picta) Edna Under Field Conditions, Clare I. M. Adams, Luke A. Hoekstra, Morgan R. Muell, Fredric J. Janzen

Fredric Janzen

Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an increasingly used non-invasive molecular tool for detecting species presence and monitoring populations. In this article, we review the current state of non-avian reptile eDNA work in aquatic systems, as well as present a field experiment on detecting the presence of painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) eDNA. Thus far, turtle and snake eDNA studies have been successful mostly in detecting the presence of these animals in field conditions. However, some instances of low detection rates and non-detection occur for these non-avian reptiles, especially for squamates. We explored this matter by sampling lentic ponds with different densities (0 ...


Substrate Influences Turtle Nest Temperature, Incubation Period, And Offspring Sex Ratio In The Field, Timothy S. Mitchell, Fredric J. Janzen 2019 Iowa State University

Substrate Influences Turtle Nest Temperature, Incubation Period, And Offspring Sex Ratio In The Field, Timothy S. Mitchell, Fredric J. Janzen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Temperature-dependent sex determination, where egg incubation temperature irreversibly determines offspring sex, is a common sex-determining mechanism in reptiles. Weather is the primary determinant of temperature in reptile nests, yet the effects of weather are mediated through the nest microhabitat selected by the mother (e.g., overstory canopy cover). One potentially important aspect of the nest microhabitat is the physical substrate used for nesting. However, the influence of substrate type on nest temperature and offspring sex determination has never been experimentally assessed in the field. We incubated eggs of Painted Turtles (Chrysemys picta) in three substrate types similar to those commonly ...


Meta-Analysis Of Characteristics In Upper Missouri River Fishes: Prediction Of Invasiveness, Steph Purcell 2019 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Meta-Analysis Of Characteristics In Upper Missouri River Fishes: Prediction Of Invasiveness, Steph Purcell

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Invasive species are often considered a global threat due to their association with biodiversity loss and novel diseases. The Missouri-Mississippi River Watershed, including the Missouri River Basin, is particularly vulnerable to invasive species because of low species diversity following historic glaciation events. Management of invasive species is imperative in this watershed but continues to be challenging in that there are over 100 invasive species currently present in this region. The goal of this project is to identify characteristics associated with successful invasions that may assist in developing management strategies to reduce the negative outcomes caused by the establishment of invasive ...


A Brief Review Of Non-Avian Reptile Environmental Dna (Edna), With A Case Study Of Painted Turtle (Chrysemys Picta) Edna Under Field Conditions, Clare I. M. Adams, Luke A. Hoekstra, Morgan R. Muell, Fredric J. Janzen 2019 University of Otago

A Brief Review Of Non-Avian Reptile Environmental Dna (Edna), With A Case Study Of Painted Turtle (Chrysemys Picta) Edna Under Field Conditions, Clare I. M. Adams, Luke A. Hoekstra, Morgan R. Muell, Fredric J. Janzen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Environmental DNA (eDNA) is an increasingly used non-invasive molecular tool for detecting species presence and monitoring populations. In this article, we review the current state of non-avian reptile eDNA work in aquatic systems, as well as present a field experiment on detecting the presence of painted turtle (Chrysemys picta) eDNA. Thus far, turtle and snake eDNA studies have been successful mostly in detecting the presence of these animals in field conditions. However, some instances of low detection rates and non-detection occur for these non-avian reptiles, especially for squamates. We explored this matter by sampling lentic ponds with different densities (0 ...


Predator Water Balance Alters Intraguild Predation In A Streamsidefood Web, Israel L. Leinbach, Kevin E. McCluney, John L. Sabo 2019 Bowling Green State University

Predator Water Balance Alters Intraguild Predation In A Streamsidefood Web, Israel L. Leinbach, Kevin E. Mccluney, John L. Sabo

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Previous work suggests that animal water balance can influence trophic interactions, with predators increasing their consumption of water-laden prey to meet water demands.But it is unclear how the need for water interacts with the need for energy to drive trophic interactions under shifting conditions. Using manipulative field experiments, we show that water balance influences the effects of top predators on prey with contrasting ratios of water and energy, altering the frequency of intraguild predation. Water-stressed top predators (large spiders) negatively affect water-laden basal prey (crickets), especially male prey with higher water content, whereas alleviation of water limitation causes top ...


Fish Growth Changes Over Time In A Midwestern Usa Lake, Eric D. Katzenmeyer, Michael E. Colvin, Timothy W. Stewart, Clay L. Pierce, Scott E. Grummer 2019 Iowa State University

Fish Growth Changes Over Time In A Midwestern Usa Lake, Eric D. Katzenmeyer, Michael E. Colvin, Timothy W. Stewart, Clay L. Pierce, Scott E. Grummer

Clay L. Pierce

Growth of Walleye Sander vitreus, Yellow Bass Morone mississippiensis, Common Carp Cyprinus carpio, and Black Bullhead Ameiurus melas was assessed in Clear Lake, Iowa, USA, over several decades and in relation to environmental variables. Growth of Common Carp was positively correlated with phytoplankton concentration. Recent Black Bullhead growth was faster than in the 1950s and 1990s, which may be a consequence of their recent decline in abundance. Growth of Common Carp and Yellow Bass was faster in the 1940s than in more recent time periods. Relative to their entire range, Common Carp first year growth was below average whereas length ...


Weighting Effective Number Of Species Measures By Abundance Weakens Detection Of Diversity Responses, Yong Cao, Charles P. Hawkins 2019 University of Illinois

Weighting Effective Number Of Species Measures By Abundance Weakens Detection Of Diversity Responses, Yong Cao, Charles P. Hawkins

Ecology Center Publications

1. The effective number of species (ENS) has been proposed as a robust measure of species diversity that overcomes several limitations in terms of both diversity indices and species richness (SR). However, it is not yet clear if ENS improves interpretation and comparison of biodiversity monitoring data, and ultimately resource management decisions.

2. We used simulations of five stream macroinvertebrate assemblages and spatially extensive field data of stream fishes and mussels to show (a) how different ENS formulations respond to stress and (b) how diversity–environment relationships change with values of q, which weight ENS measures by species abundances.

3 ...


Climate Change Within A Biome, Tyone Kruse, Lisa Forcier, Madhav P. Nepal, Larry B. Browning, Matthew L. Miller, P. Troy White 2019 O’Gorman High School, Sioux Falls, South Dakota

Climate Change Within A Biome, Tyone Kruse, Lisa Forcier, Madhav P. Nepal, Larry B. Browning, Matthew L. Miller, P. Troy White

iLEARN Teaching Resources

In this iLEARN lesson, students will investigate impacts of climate change on the native plants and animals, as well as the fisheries, agriculture, and forestry, within a biome of their choosing, and then develop and refine a solution for one of the impacts resulting from the climate change.


Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership 2018 Annual Report, Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership 2019 University of New Hampshire

Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership 2018 Annual Report, Piscataqua Region Estuaries Partnership

PREP Reports & Publications

No abstract provided.


Characterizing Water Quality And Hydrologic Properties Of Urban Streams In Central Virginia, Rikki Lucas 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Characterizing Water Quality And Hydrologic Properties Of Urban Streams In Central Virginia, Rikki Lucas

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to characterize water quality and hydrologic properties of urban streams in the Richmond metropolitan area. Water quality data were analyzed for six urban sites and two non-urban sites. Geomorphological surveys and conservative tracer studies were performed at four urban sites and one non-urban site to describe intra- and inter- site variability in transient storage, channel geomorphology, and related hydrologic parameters. Urban sites showed elevated concentrations of nitrogen and more variable TSS concentrations relative to reference sites. Urban channels were deeply incised with unstable banks and low sinuosity. Little Westham Creek exhibited the greatest transient ...


Animal Sentience Is Not Enough To Motivate Conservation, Irene M. Pepperberg 2019 Harvard University

Animal Sentience Is Not Enough To Motivate Conservation, Irene M. Pepperberg

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman suggest that humans’ views of their own superiority are a source of their callousness toward the environment. I do not disagree but point to a number of other issues that must be addressed for conservation efforts to succeed.


Humans: Uniquely Responsible For Causing Conservation Problems, Uniquely Capable Of Solving Them, Michael L. Wilson, Clarence L. Lehman 2019 University of Minnesota

Humans: Uniquely Responsible For Causing Conservation Problems, Uniquely Capable Of Solving Them, Michael L. Wilson, Clarence L. Lehman

Animal Sentience

We share Chapman & Huffman’s views on the importance of promoting animal welfare and conservation. We disagree with their implication, however, that reverence for life and concern for the wellbeing of global ecosystems depend on a belief that other living things are similar to humans in any of their capacities. Humans exhibit special traits — language, cumulative culture, extraordinary capacity for cooperation when we are at our best, and ever-advancing technological developments — that enabled them to dominate the planet, resulting in the current conservation crisis. It is precisely the fact that humans have become unique that provides hope for finding conservation ...


Home Range, Habitat Use And Thermal Ecology Of The Florida Box Turtle (Terrapene Bauri) On An Anthropogenic Island In Southwestern Florida, Christina Demetrio 2019 Antioch University of New England

Home Range, Habitat Use And Thermal Ecology Of The Florida Box Turtle (Terrapene Bauri) On An Anthropogenic Island In Southwestern Florida, Christina Demetrio

Dissertations & Theses

Limited information is available on the ecology of Terrapene bauri (Florida Box Turtle) in mangrove ecosystems. Radio-telemetry and iButton data loggers were used to study the home range, habitat use, and thermal ecology of ten Florida Box Turtles on an anthropogenic island in the mangrove-dominated region of southwestern Florida. The effects of weather variables on movement and activity were also examined. Home range analysis using Minimum Convex Polygons (MCP) and Kernel Density Estimates (KDE) determined an average home range size of 0.81 ha (MCP) and 2.32 ha (95% KDE). Box Turtles moved an average distance of 6.3 ...


Our Brains Make Us Out To Be Unique In Ways We Are Not, Matthew J. Criscione, Julian Paul Keenan 2019 Montclair State University

Our Brains Make Us Out To Be Unique In Ways We Are Not, Matthew J. Criscione, Julian Paul Keenan

Animal Sentience

Humans have long viewed themselves in a favorable light. This bias is consistent with a general pattern of self-enhancement. Neural systems in the medial prefrontal cortex underlie this way of thinking, which, even when false, may be beneficial for survival. It is hence not surprising that we often disregard contrary evidence in believing ourselves superior.


Phooey On Comparisons, Gwen J. Broude 2019 Vassar College

Phooey On Comparisons, Gwen J. Broude

Animal Sentience

Chapman & Huffman reject the notion that human beings are very different from other animals. The goal is to undermine the claim that human uniqueness and even superiority are reason enough to treat other animals badly. But evaluating human uniqueness for this purpose only plays into the hands of those who exploit invidious comparisons between us and other animals to justify mistreatment of the rest of the animal kingdom. What human uniqueness we may discover would still be no justification for how we behave toward other animals. We should also ask ourselves whether any human-centric criterion can be justification for determining ...


Geographic Variation In Thermal Sensitivity Of Early Life Traits In A Widespread Reptile, Brooke L. Bodensteiner, Daniel A. Warner, John B. Iverson, Carrie L. Milne-Zelman, Timothy S. Mitchell, Jeanine M. Refsnider, Fredric Janzen 2019 Iowa State University

Geographic Variation In Thermal Sensitivity Of Early Life Traits In A Widespread Reptile, Brooke L. Bodensteiner, Daniel A. Warner, John B. Iverson, Carrie L. Milne-Zelman, Timothy S. Mitchell, Jeanine M. Refsnider, Fredric Janzen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Taxa with large geographic distributions generally encompass diverse macroclimatic conditions, potentially requiring local adaptation and/or phenotypic plasticity to match their phenotypes to differing environments. These eco‐evolutionary processes are of particular interest in organisms with traits that are directly affected by temperature, such as embryonic development in oviparous ectotherms. Here we examine the spatial distribution of fitness‐related early life phenotypes across the range of a widespread vertebrate, the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). We quantified embryonic and hatchling traits from seven locations (in Idaho, Minnesota, Oregon, Illinois, Nebraska, Kansas, and New Mexico) after incubating eggs under constant conditions across ...


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