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Behavioral Differences Between Native And Exotic Invertebrate Prey Affect Susceptibility To Predation By A Native Amphibian Predator, Zachary Cava 2016 State University of New York College at Buffalo

Behavioral Differences Between Native And Exotic Invertebrate Prey Affect Susceptibility To Predation By A Native Amphibian Predator, Zachary Cava

Biology Theses

Invasive species threaten global biodiversity via mechanisms that include altering the dynamics and structure of native food webs. Whereas much research has focused on how exotic species respond to native predators, less is known about how native predators are affected by invasive prey. Here I investigate the response of a rare and threatened native predator—the Eastern Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) to a high-profile invasive crayfish species, Orconectes rusticus. Hellbenders have declined throughout much of their range, and although the potential for exotic predators (i.e. sport fish) to negatively impact C. alleganiensis has been addressed, effects of exotic prey on ...


Short-Term Water Potential Fluctuations And Eggs Of The Red-Eared Slider Turtle (Trachemys Scripta Elegans), John K. Tucker, Gary L. Paukstis, Fredric J. Janzen 2016 Illinois Natural History Survey

Short-Term Water Potential Fluctuations And Eggs Of The Red-Eared Slider Turtle (Trachemys Scripta Elegans), John K. Tucker, Gary L. Paukstis, Fredric J. Janzen

Fredric Janzen

We exposed eggs of the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) to short duration (i.e., 48 hours) changes in water potential at two embryonic ages (20 and 40 days). Survivorship to hatching did not differ by substrate water potential or among treatments. Net change in egg mass, a measure of net water exchange between the egg and substrate, was affected by treatments. However, treatments had no effect on hatchling mass, carcass mass, yolk mass, or incubation period. Eggs and embryos are able to exploit beneficial short-term increases in water potential and withstand adverse ones.


Phenotypic And Fitness Consequences Of Maternal Nest-Site Choice Across Multiple Early Life Stages, Timothy S. Mitchell, Daniel A. Warner, Fredric J. Janzen 2016 Iowa State University

Phenotypic And Fitness Consequences Of Maternal Nest-Site Choice Across Multiple Early Life Stages, Timothy S. Mitchell, Daniel A. Warner, Fredric J. Janzen

Fredric Janzen

Identifying the relative contributions of genetic, maternal, and environmental factors to phenotypic variation is critical for evaluating the evolutionary potential of fitness-related traits. We employed a novel two-step cross-fostering experiment to quantify the relative contributions of clutch (i.e., maternal identity) and maternally chosen nest sites to phenotypic variation during three early life stages (incubation, hibernation, dispersal) of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). By translocating eggs between nests in the field, we demonstrated that both clutch and nest site contribute to phenotypic variation at hatching. Because hatchling C. pictahibernate inside nests, we performed a second cross-foster to decouple the ...


Modeling The Effects Of Climate Change–Induced Shifts In Reproductive Phenology On Temperature-Dependent Traits, Rory S. Telemeco, Karen C. Abbott, Fredric J. Janzen 2016 Iowa State University

Modeling The Effects Of Climate Change–Induced Shifts In Reproductive Phenology On Temperature-Dependent Traits, Rory S. Telemeco, Karen C. Abbott, Fredric J. Janzen

Fredric Janzen

By altering phenology, organisms have the potential to match life-history events with suitable environmental conditions. Because of this, phenological plasticity has been proposed as a mechanism whereby populations might buffer themselves from climate change. We examine the potential buffering power of advancing one aspect of phenology, nesting date, on sex ratio in painted turtles (Chrysemys picta), a species with temperature-dependent sex determination. We developed a modified constant temperature equivalent model that accounts for the effect of the interaction among climate change, oviposition date, and seasonal thermal pattern on temperature during sexual differentiation and thus on offspring sex ratio. Our results ...


Laboratory Survivorship Of Aerially Exposed Pond Snails (Physella Integra) From Illinois, John K. Tucker, Fredric J. Janzen, Gary L. Paukstis 2016 Illinois Natural History Survey

Laboratory Survivorship Of Aerially Exposed Pond Snails (Physella Integra) From Illinois, John K. Tucker, Fredric J. Janzen, Gary L. Paukstis

Fredric Janzen

Many aquatic snails occupy ephemeral habitats that are occasionally subjected to severe environmental conditions. To investigate the physiological capacity of these animals to resist extreme environmental changes, we aerially exposed aquatic pond snails (Physella integra) to temperatures of 5°C and 20°C for 6, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 hours. Survivorship varied with temperature and exposure times. At 20°C, survivorship was 0% for snails aerially exposed for 24 hours or longer. At 5°C, 0% survivorship was attained at 60 hours exposure. Sensitivity to aerial exposure was related to shell size of individuals, with larger specimens ...


Impact Of Nest-Site Selection On Nest Success And Nest Temperature In Natural And Disturbed Habitats, Jason J. Kolbe, Fredric J. Janzen 2016 Iowa State University

Impact Of Nest-Site Selection On Nest Success And Nest Temperature In Natural And Disturbed Habitats, Jason J. Kolbe, Fredric J. Janzen

Fredric Janzen

Nest-site selection behavior is a maternal effect that contributes to offspring survival and variation in offspring phenotypes that are subject to natural selection. We investigated nest-site selection and its consequences in the snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina, in northwestern Illinois. We evaluated nest-site selection at both the microhabitat and habitat patch levels. Turtles selected nest sites with shorter vegetation, more open sand, and fewer cacti than random locations. These microhabitat characteristics described sandy patches where both nest density and success were higher compared to grassy patches in 1999. We subsequently investigated nest-site selection within two discrete subdivisions of the study area ...


Hydric Conditions During Incubation Influence Phenotypes Of Neonatal Reptiles In The Field, Brooke L. Bodensteiner, Timothy S. Mitchell, Jeramie T. Strickland, Fredric J. Janzen 2016 Iowa State University

Hydric Conditions During Incubation Influence Phenotypes Of Neonatal Reptiles In The Field, Brooke L. Bodensteiner, Timothy S. Mitchell, Jeramie T. Strickland, Fredric J. Janzen

Fredric Janzen

  1. Phenotypic variation is strongly impacted by environmental conditions experienced during development. Substantial laboratory research has shown that reptiles with flexible-shelled eggs are particularly sensitive to hydric conditions, yet research on nests in the wild is sparse.
  2. In this 2-year field experiment, we explore the influence of hydric conditions during incubation on phenotypic traits of hatchling painted turtles (Chrysemys picta). Using a split-clutch design, we created two artificial nests adjacent to each maternally selected nest site. Half the eggs incubated in a nest that received regular supplemental watering, while the control nest was exposed to natural precipitation only.
  3. Our results suggest ...


Climate Change And Temperature‐Dependent Sex Determination: Can Individual Plasticity In Nesting Phenology Prevent Extreme Sex Ratios?, Lisa E. Schwanz, Fredric J. Janzen 2016 Iowa State University

Climate Change And Temperature‐Dependent Sex Determination: Can Individual Plasticity In Nesting Phenology Prevent Extreme Sex Ratios?, Lisa E. Schwanz, Fredric J. Janzen

Fredric Janzen

Under temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), temperatures experienced by embryos during development determine the sex of the offspring. Consequently, populations of organisms with TSD have the potential to be strongly impacted by climatic warming that could bias offspring sex ratio, a fundamental demographic parameter involved in population dynamics. Moreover, many taxa with TSD are imperiled, so research on this phenomenon, particularly long-term field study, has assumed great urgency. Recently, turtles with TSD have joined the diverse list of taxa that have demonstrated population- level changes in breeding phenology in response to recent climate change. This raises the possibility that any adverse ...


Climate And Predation Dominate Juvenile And Adult Recruitment In A Turtle With Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination, Lisa E. Schwanz, Ricky-John Spencer, Rachel M. Bowden, Fredric J. Janzen 2016 Iowa State University

Climate And Predation Dominate Juvenile And Adult Recruitment In A Turtle With Temperature-Dependent Sex Determination, Lisa E. Schwanz, Ricky-John Spencer, Rachel M. Bowden, Fredric J. Janzen

Fredric Janzen

Conditions experienced early in life can influence phenotypes in ecologically important ways, as exemplified by organisms with environmental sex determination. For organisms with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD), variation in nest temperatures induces phenotypic variation that could impact population growth rates. In environments that vary over space and time, how does this variation influence key demographic parameters (cohort sex ratio and hatchling recruitment) in early life stages of populations exhibiting TSD? We leverage a 17-year data set on a population of painted turtles, Chrysemys picta, to investigate how spatial variation in nest vegetation cover and temporal variation in climate influence early ...


Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) Occurrence In The Moray Firth, North-East Scotland, Kevin P. Robinson, Sonja Eisfeld, Marina Costa, Mark P. Simmonds 2016 Cetacean Research and Rescue Unit

Short-Beaked Common Dolphin (Delphinus Delphis) Occurrence In The Moray Firth, North-East Scotland, Kevin P. Robinson, Sonja Eisfeld, Marina Costa, Mark P. Simmonds

Mark P. Simmonds, O.B.E.

The short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) is regarded as notably rare or absent from the northern North Sea, but recent evidence suggests a rising frequency of the species in these waters with increasing regional sea temperatures. The following paper documents the presence of D. delphis in the Moray Firth in north-east Scotland and provides the first evidence for the sustained occurrence of these delphinids in this region during the warmer summer months at least. Sightings were collated during systematic surveys of the outer Moray Firth between 2001 and 2009 by independent research teams from the CRRU and WDCS. A total ...


Cephalopods Are Best Candidates For Invertebrate Consciousness, Jennifer A. Mather, Claudio Carere 2016 Psychology, University of Lethbridge

Cephalopods Are Best Candidates For Invertebrate Consciousness, Jennifer A. Mather, Claudio Carere

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Insects might have been the first invertebrates to evolve sentience, but cephalopods were the first invertebrates to gain scientific recognition for it.


Land Cover Data For The Mississippi-Alabama Barrier Islands, 2010-2011, Gregory A. Carter, Carlton P. Anderson, Kelly L. Lucas, Nathan L. Hopper 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Land Cover Data For The Mississippi-Alabama Barrier Islands, 2010-2011, Gregory A. Carter, Carlton P. Anderson, Kelly L. Lucas, Nathan L. Hopper

Land Cover Data for the Mississippi-Alabama Barrier Islands, 2010-2011

Land cover on the Mississippi-Alabama barrier islands was surveyed in 2010-2011 as part of continuing research on island geomorphic and vegetation dynamics following the 2005 impact of Hurricane Katrina. Results of the survey include sub-meter GPS location, a listing of dominant vegetation species and field photographs recorded at 375 sampling locations distributed among Cat, West Ship, East Ship, Horn, Sand, Petit Bois and West Dauphin Islands. The survey was conducted in a period of intensive remote sensing data acquisition over the northern Gulf of Mexico by federal, state and commercial organizations in response to the 2010 Macondo Well (Deepwater Horizon ...


Caterpillars, Consciousness And The Origins Of Mind, Arthur S. Reber 2016 University of British Columbia

Caterpillars, Consciousness And The Origins Of Mind, Arthur S. Reber

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

A novel framework for the origins of consciousness and mind, the Cellular Basis of Consciousness (CBC), is presented. The model is based on a simple, perhaps radical axiom: subjectivity is an inherent feature of particular kinds of organic form. Experiential states, including those denoted as "mind" and "consciousness," are present in the most primitive species. The model has several conceptual and empirical virtues, among them: (a) it (re)solves the problem of how minds are created by brains ─ also known as the "Hard Problem" (Chalmers 1995) ─ by revealing that the apparent difficulty results from a category error, (b) it redirects ...


Telomere Length Shortens With Body Length In Alligator Mississippiensis, Nicole M. Scott, Mark F. Haussmann, Ruth M. Elsey, Phillip L. Trosclair III, Carol M. Vleck 2016 Iowa State University

Telomere Length Shortens With Body Length In Alligator Mississippiensis, Nicole M. Scott, Mark F. Haussmann, Ruth M. Elsey, Phillip L. Trosclair Iii, Carol M. Vleck

Carol Vleck

In Alligator mississippiensis (American Alligator), body length increases with age, but body length can be used as an accurate estimator of age only up to about 6–7 years, when growth rates slow considerably. Telomeres are repetitive DNA sequences that cap the ends of each chromosome. Telomeres shorten with age in most animals, but telomere shortening has not been examined in reptiles. We measured telomere length in erythrocytes of A. mississippiensis varying between ≈ 5 and 240 cm in body length and found a negative relationship between telomere length and body length (P < 0.01). Assuming that erythrocyte telomeres continue to shorten with time, even after growth rate declines, those individuals with the shortest telomeres should be the oldest members of the population. This method of estimating age, even in animals of similar body size, should allow questions about age structure and senescence to be addressed.


Are Animals Persons?, Mark Rowlands 2016 University of Miami

Are Animals Persons?, Mark Rowlands

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

It is orthodox to suppose that very few, if any, nonhuman animals are persons. The category “person” is restricted to self-aware creatures: humans (above a certain age) and possibly some of the great apes and cetaceans. I argue that this orthodoxy should be rejected, because it rests on a mistaken conception of the kind of self-awareness relevant to personhood. Replacing this with a sense of self-awareness that is relevant requires us to accept that personhood is much more widely distributed through the animal kingdom.


Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Flux Of Restored Vs. Unrestored Wetlands: A Case Study At Prairie Wolf Slough, Matthew Connors, Beth Lawrence 2016 DePaul University

Quantifying Greenhouse Gas Flux Of Restored Vs. Unrestored Wetlands: A Case Study At Prairie Wolf Slough, Matthew Connors, Beth Lawrence

DePaul Discoveries

Wetlands provide ecological services such as cleansing the water supply, sequestering carbon, and providing habitat for wildlife, however wetland restoration often alters the greenhouse gas flux of the site. Our study aims to investigate the effects of wetland restoration on greenhouse gas flux at Prairie Wolf Slough. We did this by comparing greenhouse gas flux on matching hydric soil series from the restored wetland with an adjacent abandoned agricultural field. We measured known controls of greenhouse gas flux such as soil moisture and soil temperature. We found that there was no detectable methane and nitrous oxide flux at either site ...


Insects Have The Capacity For Subjective Experience, Colin Klein, Andrew B. Barron 2016 Macquarie University, Australia

Insects Have The Capacity For Subjective Experience, Colin Klein, Andrew B. Barron

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

To what degree are non-human animals conscious? We propose that the most meaningful way to approach this question is from the perspective of functional neurobiology. Here we focus on subjective experience, which is a basic awareness of the world without further reflection on that awareness. This is considered the most basic form of consciousness. Tellingly, this capacity is supported by the integrated midbrain and basal ganglia structures, which are among the oldest and most highly conserved brain systems in vertebrates. A reasonable inference is that the capacity for subjective experience is both widespread and evolutionarily old within the vertebrate lineage ...


Utilitarianism Generalized To Include Animals, Yew-Kwang Ng 2016 Nanyang Technological University

Utilitarianism Generalized To Include Animals, Yew-Kwang Ng

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

In response to the seventeen commentaries to date on my target article on reducing animal suffering, I propose that the term “welfarism” (when used pejoratively by animal advocates) should be qualified as “anthropocentric welfarism” so as to leave “welfarism” simpliciter to be used in its generic sense of efforts to improve conditions for those who need it. Welfarism in this benign sense — even in its specific utilitarian form (maximizing the sum total of net welfare) with long-term future effects and effects on others (including animals) appropriately taken into account — should be unobjectionable (even if not considered sufficient by all advocates ...


Cross-Species Mind-Reading, Stevan Harnad 2016 Université du Québec à Montréal & University of Southampton

Cross-Species Mind-Reading, Stevan Harnad

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

We can never be sure anyone else is sentient. But we can be sure enough in the case of other people, nonhuman primates, mammals, birds, fish, lower vertebrates and invertebrates as to make scepticism academic and otiose (not to mention monumentally cruel). The only genuinely uncertain kinds of cases are jellyfish, microbes and plants. The rest is not about whether but what they are feeling.


My Orgasms Cannot Be Traded Off Against Others’ Agony, Stevan Harnad 2016 Université du Québec à Montréal & University of Southampton

My Orgasms Cannot Be Traded Off Against Others’ Agony, Stevan Harnad

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Only I can calculate my own welfare as net pleasure minus pain. No one else can do that calculation for me – nor for a population, and especially not averaging across some individuals’ pleasure and other individuals’ pain. Pain and pleasure are incommensurable and only pain matters morally. To maximize welfare is to minimize pain.


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