Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

11649 Full-Text Articles 18401 Authors 1854285 Downloads 231 Institutions

All Articles in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Faceted Search

11649 full-text articles. Page 1 of 346.

The Contribution Of Local And Transport Processes To Phytoplankton Biomass Variability Over Different Timescales In The Upper James River, Virginia, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen 2018 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

The Contribution Of Local And Transport Processes To Phytoplankton Biomass Variability Over Different Timescales In The Upper James River, Virginia, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen

Articles

Although both local processes (photosynthesis, respiration, grazing, and settling), and transport processes (advective transport and diffusive transport) significantly affect local phytoplankton dynamics, it is difficult to separate their contributions and to investigate the relative importance of each process to the local variability of phytoplankton biomass over different timescales. A method of using the transport rate is introduced to quantify the contribution of transport processes. By combining the time-varying transport rate and high-frequency observed chlorophyll a data, we can explicitly examine the impact of local and transport processes on phytoplankton biomass over a range of timescales from hourly to annually. For ...


Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham MacWilliams 2018 Pomona College

Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham Macwilliams

Pomona Senior Theses

Methane hydrates are frozen deposits of methane and water found in high pressure or low temperature sediments. When these deposits destabilize, large quantities of methane can be emitted into the atmosphere. This is significant to climate change because methane has 25 times more greenhouse gas potential than Carbon Dioxide. Worldwide, it is estimated there are between 2500 and 10000 gigatons of methane stored in hydrate deposits. This represents more carbon than all fossil fuels on Earth. It is estimated that between 200 and 2000 gigatons of methane are stored in hydrates in Arctic waters acutely vulnerable to greenhouse warming. Over ...


Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter 2017 University of Minnesota - Duluth

Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Climate change and habitat loss are projected to be the two greatest drivers of biodiversity loss over the coming century. While public lands have the potential to increase regional resilience of bird populations to these threats, long-term data are necessary to document species responses to changes in climate and habitat to better understand population vulnerabilities. We used generalized linear mixed models to determine the importance of stand-level characteristics, multi-scale land cover, and annual weather factors to the abundance of 61 bird species over a 20-year time frame in Chippewa National Forest, Minnesota, USA. Of the 61 species modeled, we were ...


, Bonnie Becker, Michael Behrens 2017 University of Washington Tacom

, Bonnie Becker, Michael Behrens

Bonnie Becker

Native Olympia oysters have been the subject of widespread restoration efforts across the west coast, including in the Salish Sea. The ultimate goal of restoration is to establish populations that are self-sustaining or even exporting new offspring to other appropriate habitats. It is difficult to study the early life history of marine invertebrates, which have a microscopic and planktonic larval form and often episodic settlement pulses. However, being able to predict larval behaviors and settlement preferences can allow practitioners to design habitats, choose sites, and distribute restoration networks more effectively. The purpose of this study, a collaboration among academic and ...


Book Review Of Serendipity: An Ecologist’S Quest To Understand Nature, E. E. Ball, D. M. Adams, J. N. Dupuie Jr., M. M. Jones, P. G. McGovern, R. M. Ruden, S. R. Schmidt, G. J. Vaziri, J. S. Eeling, B. D. Kirk, A. L. McCombs, A. B. Rabinowitz, K. M. Thompson, Z. J. Hudson, Robert W. Klaver 2017 Iowa State University

Book Review Of Serendipity: An Ecologist’S Quest To Understand Nature, E. E. Ball, D. M. Adams, J. N. Dupuie Jr., M. M. Jones, P. G. Mcgovern, R. M. Ruden, S. R. Schmidt, G. J. Vaziri, J. S. Eeling, B. D. Kirk, A. L. Mccombs, A. B. Rabinowitz, K. M. Thompson, Z. J. Hudson, Robert W. Klaver

Robert Klaver

A common thought among graduate students is: “how do established scientists get where they are today?” In Serendipity: An Ecologist’s Quest to Understand Nature, James Estes offers a personal reflection on research experiences spanning his 50-year career, beginning as a Ph.D. student in 1970 and concluding with recognition as a member of the National Academy of Sciences in 2014. Estes chronologically outlines the foundational trophic cascade ecology research that he and colleagues conducted in the Aleutian Islands, examining key relationships among kelp forests, sea otters, sea urchins, and killer whales through anecdotal stories of achievement and challenge. Estes ...


Response Of Anurans To Wetland Restoration On A Midwestern Agricultural Landscape, Paul E. Bartelt, Robert W. Klaver 2017 Waldorf University

Response Of Anurans To Wetland Restoration On A Midwestern Agricultural Landscape, Paul E. Bartelt, Robert W. Klaver

Robert Klaver

Since the early 1990s, >5,000 ha of historic wetlands (and adjacent prairie) have been restored on the row-crop agricultural landscape of Winnebago County, Iowa, USA. From 2008–2011, we surveyed 22 of these sites for probabilities of occupancy and colonization by Boreal Chorus Frogs (BCF; Pseudacris maculata), Northern Leopard Frogs (NLF; Lithobates pipiens), and American Toads (AT; Anaxyrus americanus). We used radio telemetry to measure patterns of movement and habitat use by 22 NLF and 54 AT and deployed biophysical models in available habitats to estimate their physiological costs. The BCF occupied 100% of restored wetlands; NLF and AT ...


Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter 2017 University of Minnesota - Duluth

Importance Of Scale, Land Cover, And Weather On The Abundance Of Bird Species In A Managed Forest, Alexis R. Grinde, Gerald J. Niemi, Brian R. Sturtevant, Hannah Panci, Wayne Thogmartin, Peter Wolter

Peter Wolter

Climate change and habitat loss are projected to be the two greatest drivers of biodiversity loss over the coming century. While public lands have the potential to increase regional resilience of bird populations to these threats, long-term data are necessary to document species responses to changes in climate and habitat to better understand population vulnerabilities. We used generalized linear mixed models to determine the importance of stand-level characteristics, multi-scale land cover, and annual weather factors to the abundance of 61 bird species over a 20-year time frame in Chippewa National Forest, Minnesota, USA. Of the 61 species modeled, we were ...


The Use Of Judgement Bias To Assess Welfare In Farm Livestock, L. Baciadonna, A. G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

The Use Of Judgement Bias To Assess Welfare In Farm Livestock, L. Baciadonna, A. G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

The development of accurate measures of animal emotions is important for improving and promoting animal welfare. Cognitive bias indicates the effect of emotional states on cognitive processes, such as memory, attention, and judgement. Cognitive bias tests complement existing behavioural and physiological measures for assessing the valence of animal emotions indirectly. The judgement bias test has been used to assess emotional states in non-human animals; mainly in laboratory settings. The aim of this review is to summarise the findings on the use of the judgement bias test approach in assessing emotions in non-human animals, focusing in particular on farm livestock. The ...


Linking Taxonomic Diversity And Trophic Function: A Graph-Based Theoretical Approach, Marcella M. Jurotich, Kaitlyn Dougherty, Barbara Hayford, Sally Clark 2017 Wayne State College

Linking Taxonomic Diversity And Trophic Function: A Graph-Based Theoretical Approach, Marcella M. Jurotich, Kaitlyn Dougherty, Barbara Hayford, Sally Clark

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

The purpose of this study is to develop a novel, visual method in analyzing complex functional trait data in freshwater ecology. We focus on macroinvertebrates in stream ecosystems under a gradient of habitat degradation and employ a combination of taxonomic and functional trait diversity analyses. Then we use graph theory to link changes in functional trait diversity to taxonomic richness and habitat degradation. We test the hypotheses that: 1) taxonomic diversity and trophic functional trait diversity both decrease with increased habitat degradation; 2) loss of taxa leads to a decrease in trophic function as visualized using a bipartite graph; and ...


Fallow Deer Polyandry Is Related To Fertilization Insurance, Elodie Briefer, Mary E. Farrell, Thomas J. Hayden, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Fallow Deer Polyandry Is Related To Fertilization Insurance, Elodie Briefer, Mary E. Farrell, Thomas J. Hayden, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Polyandry is widespread, but its adaptive significance is not fully understood. The hypotheses used to explain its persistence have rarely been tested in the wild and particularly for large, long-lived mammals. We investigated polyandry in fallow deer, using female mating and reproduction data gathered over 10 years. Females of this species produce a single offspring (monotocous) and can live to 23 years old. Overall, polyandry was evident in 12 % of females and the long-term, consistent proportion of polyandrous females observed, suggests that monandry and polyandry represent alternative mating strategies. Females were more likely to be polyandrous when their first mate ...


Assortative Mating In Fallow Deer Reduces The Strength Of Sexual Selection, Mary E. Farrell, Elodie Briefer, Alan G. McElligott 2017 University of the West of England

Assortative Mating In Fallow Deer Reduces The Strength Of Sexual Selection, Mary E. Farrell, Elodie Briefer, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Background: Assortative mating can help explain how genetic variation for male quality is maintained even in highly polygynous species. Here, we present a longitudinal study examining how female and male ages, as well as male social dominance, affect assortative mating in fallow deer (Dama dama) over 10 years. Assortative mating could help explain the substantial proportion of females that do not mate with prime-aged, high ranking males, despite very high mating skew. We investigated the temporal pattern of female and male matings, and the relationship between female age and the age and dominance of their mates. Results: The peak of ...


Goats Favour Personal Over Social Information In An Experimental Foraging Task, Luigi Baciadonna, Alan G. McElligott, Elodie F. Briefer 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Goats Favour Personal Over Social Information In An Experimental Foraging Task, Luigi Baciadonna, Alan G. Mcelligott, Elodie F. Briefer

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Animals can use their environments more efficiently by selecting particular sources of information (personal or social), according to specific situations. Group-living animals may benefit from gaining information based on the behaviour of other individuals. Indeed, social information is assumed to be faster and less costly to use than personal information, thus increasing foraging efficiency. However, when food sources change seasonally or are randomly distributed, individual information may become more reliable than social information. The aim of this study was to test the use of conflicting personal versus social information in goats (Capra hircus), in a foraging task.We found that ...


The Effects Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (Am) Fungal And Garlic Mustard Introductions On Native Am Fungal Diversity, Alexander M. Koch, Pedro M. Antunes, Kathryn Barto, Don Cipollini, Daniel L. Mummey, John N. Klironomos 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus

The Effects Of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (Am) Fungal And Garlic Mustard Introductions On Native Am Fungal Diversity, Alexander M. Koch, Pedro M. Antunes, Kathryn Barto, Don Cipollini, Daniel L. Mummey, John N. Klironomos

Don Cipollini

Introduced, non-native organisms are of global concern, because biological invasions can negatively affect local communities. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal communities have not been well studied in this context. AM fungi are abundant in most soils, forming symbiotic root-associations with many plant species. Commercial AM fungal inocula are increasingly spread worldwide, because of potentially beneficial effects on plant growth. In contrast, some invasive plant species, such as the non-mycorrhizal Alliaria petiolata, can negatively influence AM fungi. In a greenhouse study we examined changes in the structure of a local Canadian AM fungal community in response to inoculation by foreign AM fungi ...


The Sign And Strength Of Plant-Soil Feedback For The Invasive Shrub, Lonicera Maackii, Varies In Different Soils, Kelly Schradin, Don Cipollini 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus

The Sign And Strength Of Plant-Soil Feedback For The Invasive Shrub, Lonicera Maackii, Varies In Different Soils, Kelly Schradin, Don Cipollini

Don Cipollini

Plants alter soil characteristics causing changes in their subsequent growth resulting in positive or negative feedback on both their own fitness and that of other plants. In a greenhouse study, we investigated whether the sign and strength of feedback changed across two distinct soil types, and whether effects were due to shifts in biotic or abiotic soil traits. Using soils from two different locations, we examined growth of the exotic invasive shrub, Lonicera maackii and the related native shrub, Diervilla lonicera, in unconditioned soils and in soils conditioned by previous growth of L. maackii, D. lonicera, and Fraxinus pennsylvanica. In ...


Evidence For Use Of Alliaria Petiolata In North America By The European Cabbage White Butterfly, Pieris Rapae, Sam L. Davis, Don Cipollini 2017 Wright State University - Main Campus

Evidence For Use Of Alliaria Petiolata In North America By The European Cabbage White Butterfly, Pieris Rapae, Sam L. Davis, Don Cipollini

Don Cipollini

Pieris rapae L., an invasive crop pest, may have recently begun using Alliaria petiolata Bieb. (Cavara & Grande), a European invasive biennial. We investigated how P. rapae uses forest habitats for nectar and oviposition and examined larval performance on A. petiolata in the field and laboratory. Being known primarily to occupy open habitats, we found that P. rapae regularly uses forest edge habitats, most surveyed A. petiolata plants had P. rapae damage, and P. rapae successfully used both stages of A. petiolata for larval development.


Potential Benefits Of Wetland Filters For Tile Drainage Systems: Impact On Nitrate Loads To Mississippi River Subbasins, William G. Crumpton, Greg A. Stenback, Bradley Allen Miller, Matt Helmers 2017 Iowa State University

Potential Benefits Of Wetland Filters For Tile Drainage Systems: Impact On Nitrate Loads To Mississippi River Subbasins, William G. Crumpton, Greg A. Stenback, Bradley Allen Miller, Matt Helmers

Matthew J. Helmers

The primary objective of this project was to estimate the nitrate reduction that could be achieved using restored wetlands as nitrogen sinks in tile-drained regions of the upper Mississippi River (UMR) and Ohio River basins. This report provides an assessment of nitrate concentrations and loads across the UMR and Ohio River basins and the mass reduction of nitrate loading that could be achieved using wetlands to intercept nonpoint source nitrate loads. Nitrate concentration and stream discharge data were used to calculate stream nitrate loading and annual flow-weighted average (FWA) nitrate concentrations and to develop a model of FWA nitrate concentration ...


From Vulnerability To Resiliency: Iowa Agriculture In The Age Of Biorenewables, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., Matthew J. Helmers, Matthew Z. Liebman, Lisa A. Schulte 2017 Iowa State University

From Vulnerability To Resiliency: Iowa Agriculture In The Age Of Biorenewables, J. Gordon Arbuckle Jr., Matthew J. Helmers, Matthew Z. Liebman, Lisa A. Schulte

Matthew J. Helmers

The purpose of this white paper is to provide an overview of the most critical sources of agricultural vulnerability and to outline strategies for increasing the resiliency of Iowa agriculture. This paper delineates pathways toward that goal and provides a basis for community discussions about how we can work together to improve agriculture’s environmental, economic, and social resilience and sustainability.


Urban Bobcat (Lynx Rufus) Ecology In The Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas Metroplex, Julie M. Golla 2017 Utah State University

Urban Bobcat (Lynx Rufus) Ecology In The Dallas-Fort Worth, Texas Metroplex, Julie M. Golla

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Urban landscapes are quickly replacing native habitat around the world. As wildlife and people increasingly overlap in their shared space and resources, so does the potential for human-wildlife conflict, especially with predators. Bobcats (Lynx rufus) are a top predator in several urban areas across the United States and a potential contributor to human-carnivore conflicts. This study evaluated the movements and habitat use of bobcats in the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW), Texas metroplex. Spatial data were collected from 10 bobcats via Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) for approximately one year. Average home range size was 4.60 km2 (n=9, SE=0 ...


Direct Effects Of Warming Increase Woody Plant Abundance In A Subarctic Wetland, Lindsay G. Carlson 2017 Utah State University

Direct Effects Of Warming Increase Woody Plant Abundance In A Subarctic Wetland, Lindsay G. Carlson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Climate change is expected to continue to cause large increases in temperature in Arctic and sub-Arctic ecosystems which has already resulted in changes to plant communities; for example, increased shrub biomass and range. It is important to understand how warmer temperatures could affect the plant community in a wetland system because this region provides crucial high-quality forage for migratory herbivores during the breeding season. One mechanism by which warming could cause change is directly, where warming influences the vital rates of a species; these effects may be either positive or negative. Warmer temperatures may also affect a species indirectly, by ...


Using Pentosidine And Hydroxyproline To Predict Age And Sex In An Avian Species, Brian S. Dorr, Randal S. Stahl, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Carol A. Furcolow 2017 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Using Pentosidine And Hydroxyproline To Predict Age And Sex In An Avian Species, Brian S. Dorr, Randal S. Stahl, Katie C. Hanson-Dorr, Carol A. Furcolow

Brian S Dorr

All living organisms are subject to senescence accompanied by progressive and irreversiblephysiological changes. The error damage and cross-linkingtheories suggest that cellsand tissues are damaged by an accumulation of cross-linkedproteins, slowing down bodilyprocesses and resulting in aging. A major category of these cross-linkedproteins arecompounds called advanced glycation end products (AGEs). We investigated the relationshipbetween accumulation of the AGE, pentosidine (Ps), and hydroxyproline (HYP)a post-translationallymodified amino acid, with age, sex, and breeding status (breeder/nonbreeder) from skin samples of known age (i.e., banded as fledglings), free-rangingDouble-crested Cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus, Lesson 1831). We developed multivariate models and evaluated the predictive capability ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress