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Ecology Of Estuarine Birds: Differences In Desensitization Of Year-Round And Transient Species, Sarah Thomas 2021 Coastal Carolina University

Ecology Of Estuarine Birds: Differences In Desensitization Of Year-Round And Transient Species, Sarah Thomas

Honors Theses

Huntington Beach State Park in Murrells Inlet, SC, USA is considered a “hotspot” for birds, according to the eBird database (eBird, 2020). The park is also visited by approximately 300,000 people, annually (Hobdy, 2019). The causeway at the park is an area of high human and wildlife activity. Here, the differences in desensitization, or lack thereof, of year-round and transient bird species to the stimuli of vehicles and humans were determined. Multiple surveys of the birds at Huntington Beach State Park were conducted from 22nd September, 2019 to 13th June, 2020. Desensitization was quantified by use of a range ...


Detection Of Neonicotinoids In Northern Leopard Frog (Rana Pipiens) Brains, Peyton G. Keller 2021 University of South Dakota

Detection Of Neonicotinoids In Northern Leopard Frog (Rana Pipiens) Brains, Peyton G. Keller

Honors Thesis

Neonicotinoids are widespread and commonly used to fight agricultural pests. Unfortunately, these neurotoxic insecticides commonly reach nearby wetlands due to tile drainage systems and agricultural runoff. Non-target organisms, such as amphibians, use wetlands as habitat and are likely exposed to elevated neonicotinoid levels. We collected Northern leopard frogs and water samples from control and tile wetlands to compare imidacloprid brain concentrations and subsequent changes in brain morphology. Additionally, a lab-based experiment was conducted to further analyze the ability of imidacloprid and its metabolite, imidacloprid-olefin, to cross the blood-brain barrier. Tile wetlands had higher aquatic imidacloprid concentrations. Subsequently, amphibians collected from ...


Big Five Personality Traits And Political Orientation: An Inquiry Into Political Beliefs, Ian E. Phillips 2021 Cleveland State University

Big Five Personality Traits And Political Orientation: An Inquiry Into Political Beliefs, Ian E. Phillips

The Downtown Review

Personality research centered on the Big Five personality traits has heavily impacted our understanding in regards to what forces orient a person on a political spectrum. Examining how personality differences interact with political orientation, this research seeks to provide information on what makes someone either more or less likely to be liberal or conservative based on their temperament. In this paper, previous personality research is synthesized into one discussion, centered on what the effects of each trait are and how they impact political orientation, the heritability of personality, and what implications there are for such research in the realm of ...


Terrestrial Soldier Crab (Coenobita Clypeatus, Fabricius 1787) And Cerion Spp. (Röding 1798) Shell Relationship On San Salvador Island, Bahamas, Harley Hunt 2021 Georgia College

Terrestrial Soldier Crab (Coenobita Clypeatus, Fabricius 1787) And Cerion Spp. (Röding 1798) Shell Relationship On San Salvador Island, Bahamas, Harley Hunt

Biology Theses

The Caribbean terrestrial soldier crab, Coenobita clypeatus(Fabricius 1787), coexist and utilize the shells of numerous species of land and marine gastropods. Soldier crabs rely on gastropod shells for protection as the crabs have a soft abdomen, leaving them vulnerable for predation and desiccation, threatening their survival. This creates a strong pressure to obtain well-fitting shells that provide adequate protection against water loss. Cerion of Röding (1798) shells are one of the most commonly used shells among living colonies of C. clypeatuson San Salvador Island. This study is interested in the frequency of shell use by C. clypeatus crabs ...


Predator-Prey Interactions Between Escherichia Coli Strains And Caenorhabditis Elegans At Various Temperatures And Resource Levels, Elizabeth Haynes Whitaker 2021 University of Mississippi

Predator-Prey Interactions Between Escherichia Coli Strains And Caenorhabditis Elegans At Various Temperatures And Resource Levels, Elizabeth Haynes Whitaker

Honors Theses

Predation is an important component of both evolutionary and ecological interactions across nature. The predator-prey relationship can be altered by differential species’ responses to changes in abiotic factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of temperature, resource levels, and their potential interactions using two strains of Escherichia coli prey and a Caenorhabditis elegans predator. It is concluded that an interaction exists between temperature and resource level on this predator-prey relationship however further testing must be done to confirm results due to contamination in the results.


Sublethal Effects Of Red Imported Fire Ant Envenomation On Hatchlings Of North American Oviparous Snakes, Hannah Warner, Meredith Swartwout 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Sublethal Effects Of Red Imported Fire Ant Envenomation On Hatchlings Of North American Oviparous Snakes, Hannah Warner, Meredith Swartwout

Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Invasive species cause major ecological and economic damage. The Red Imported Fire Ant (RIFA; Solenopsis invicta) has successfully invaded much of the southeastern United States and has caused both widespread economic damage and is suspected to be the driver of enigmatic declines of several oviparous snake species. This study aimed to determine the sublethal effects of RIFA on hatchlings of six species of oviparous snakes (Coluber constrictor, Lampropeltis calligaster, L. holbrooki, Opheodrys aestivus, Pantherophis emoryi, and P. obsoletus) by exposing hatchlings to envenomation by RIFA and then measuring two performance metrics: righting response and swimming speed. We found a slight ...


Not All Pollinator Gardens Are Created Equally: Determining Factors Pertinent To Improving Pollinator Garden Effectiveness, Travis Watson 2021 East Tennessee State University

Not All Pollinator Gardens Are Created Equally: Determining Factors Pertinent To Improving Pollinator Garden Effectiveness, Travis Watson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Increasing evidence documenting the decline of insect populations, resulting from increasing human disturbances has resulted in efforts to establish pollinator gardens to provide additional resources for insect populations. However, our understanding of biotic and abiotic garden characteristics important for attracting and sustaining pollinator diversity is limited. Here, we evaluated 17 pollinator gardens to evaluate the effect of five biotic and three abiotic garden characteristics on pollinator species richness, abundance, and proportional representation of four pollinator functional groups. Plant species richness positively influenced pollinator richness and negatively influenced flower visitation. Bombus proportional abundance responded to several variables (distance to vegetation, plant ...


Trends In Us Crop Yields & Water Use, Britta L. Schumacher 2021 Utah State University

Trends In Us Crop Yields & Water Use, Britta L. Schumacher

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Over half the land in the US is dedicated to agriculture, with the vast majority of all cropland cultivated in corn, wheat, or soybean. Despite continuing advances in agricultural technologies, and consistent yield growth over the twentieth century, research suggests that environmental change is already impacting agricultural yield and future changes are sure to exacerbate challenges to agricultural production. It follows that the future of US agriculture depends on the evolution of the changing climate, the relationship between crop yields and the environment, on-farm management and adaptations, the ecosystems that support agriculture, the political and economic incentives that shape what ...


Effects Of Respiratory Perturbations On Aging And Healthspan In Daphnia Magna, Millicent Nkiruka Ekwudo 2021 East Tennessee State University

Effects Of Respiratory Perturbations On Aging And Healthspan In Daphnia Magna, Millicent Nkiruka Ekwudo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Aging is a degenerative process characterized by a decline in physiological functions and cellular activities. Environmental and pharmacological interventions affecting longevity pathways have been extensively studied in model organisms. This study investigated the effect of chronic mild intermittent hypoxia (4 mg O2/L) or mild mitochondrial uncoupling with three doses of 0 (control), 0.1, 1, and 5 μM of 2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP), on life history and gene expression in four clones of Daphnia magna. Interestingly, clones from intermittent ponds displayed better tolerance to hypoxia and DNP. Although neither treatments extended longevity, hypoxia increased fecundity and body size, and decreased ...


Troglofauna Of Van Buren And White County: A Survey Of Four Caves In The Mideastern Cumberland Plateau, Gavin Page 2021 University of Tennessee at Chattanooga

Troglofauna Of Van Buren And White County: A Survey Of Four Caves In The Mideastern Cumberland Plateau, Gavin Page

Honors Theses

The Cumberland Plateau in Tennessee has the highest cave-obligate biodiversity in North America. Cave-obligate species are entirely restricted to subterranean habitat and demonstrate unique troglomorphy. These species are categorized as troglobionts. However, because of their isolated occurrences, theses species are vulnerable to a variety of disturbances. This issue is furthered in the fact that only approximately 7% of the caves in this region have been surveyed. Of these caves that have been surveyed, only a small portion were professional entomological surveys, while almost no cave has ever been extensively repeat sampled. This study involved newly sampling one cave and repeat ...


Competitive Interactions Among Co-Infecting Symbionts In A Model Animal-Associated Microbiome, Justin L. Pritchett 2021 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Competitive Interactions Among Co-Infecting Symbionts In A Model Animal-Associated Microbiome, Justin L. Pritchett

Chancellor’s Honors Program Projects

No abstract provided.


Effect Of A Near-Zero Magnetic Field On Development And Flight Of Oriental Armyworm (Mythimna Separata), Meng-meng Yan, Lei Zhang, Yun-xia Cheng, Thomas W. Sappington, Wei-dong Pan, Xing-fu Jiang 2021 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences

Effect Of A Near-Zero Magnetic Field On Development And Flight Of Oriental Armyworm (Mythimna Separata), Meng-Meng Yan, Lei Zhang, Yun-Xia Cheng, Thomas W. Sappington, Wei-Dong Pan, Xing-Fu Jiang

Entomology Publications

The geomagnetic field affects all living organisms on the Earth. In this study we investigated the developmental and behavioral effects of rearing Mythimna separata in a near-zero magnetic field (<500 nT) compared to the local geomagnetic field (approximately 50 µT). The near-zero magnetic field produced by a Helmholtz coil system significantly lengthened larval and pupal development durations, increased male longevity, and reduced pupal weight, female reproduction, and the relative expression level of the vitellogenin (Vg) gene in newly emerged females. Moreover, the near-zero magnetic field had a considerable negative effect on the mating ratio of M. separata adults. In addition, the moths in the near-zero magnetic field displayed less flight activity late in the night than those in the Earth's normal geomagnetic field, indicating that the flight rhythm of M. separata may be affected by the near-zero magnetic field. Reduction in magnetic field intensity may have negative effects on the development and flight of oriental armyworm, with consequent additional effects on its migration.


Taphonomy Of Late Jurassic (Tithonian) Morrison Formation Apatosaurus Sp. Vertebrae Found Associated With Teeth From Allosaurus Sp. And Ceratosaurus Sp., And Body Size Extrapolation From The Associated Theropod Teeth., Greg C. Agyan 2021 Utah State University

Taphonomy Of Late Jurassic (Tithonian) Morrison Formation Apatosaurus Sp. Vertebrae Found Associated With Teeth From Allosaurus Sp. And Ceratosaurus Sp., And Body Size Extrapolation From The Associated Theropod Teeth., Greg C. Agyan

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

An Apatosaurus sp. locality from Dinosaur National Monument designated DNM-15 was excavated in 1985, and associated with two Allosaurus teeth and one Ceratosaurus tooth that were near one of the caudal vertebrae. The Ceratosaurus tooth was buried between an overlying rib and that same caudal vertebra. The caudal vertebrae of the DNM-15 Apatosaurus were intact and articulated, but the anterior skeleton was mostly absent, with a row of articulated sacral vertebrae in close association with a femur. Two other Allosaurus teeth were reported near the preserved ilium of the Apatosaurus, but they could not be located in the collections.

Field ...


An Experiment To Test For Rapid Evolution In An Introduced Ectomycorrhizal Symbiosis, Valerie Rewa 2021 University of Mississippi

An Experiment To Test For Rapid Evolution In An Introduced Ectomycorrhizal Symbiosis, Valerie Rewa

Honors Theses

The rapid evolution of introduced ectomycorrhizal-plant partnerships is an under- explored topic that may have immense impacts on ecosystems around the world. This experiment sought to identify and quantify this evolution and its impacts on both fungal colonization as well as plant growth. I used a laboratory experiment to analyze these factors in native and exotic genotypes of Suillus cothurnatus and Pinus species. Much of the data was not able to be collected, but that which was did not support the presence of rapid evolution in the mutualistic partnership. Pine species was seen to have a significant effect on plant ...


Resistance Of The Freshwater Microbiome To A Combination Of Pesticides, Gabriel Hooper 2021 Liberty University

Resistance Of The Freshwater Microbiome To A Combination Of Pesticides, Gabriel Hooper

Senior Honors Theses

Pesticides are used prevalently throughout the United States and can negatively affect non-target organisms. Rain run-off can move multiple pesticides into freshwater ecosystems and bring them in contact with non-target organisms that have variable tolerances to pollution. This study seeks to improve our understanding of how an acute exposure to a combination of pesticides may restructure microbial communities by examining the microbiome before and after a 48-hour exposure to 2000 ppb of herbicides (glyphosate, atrazine, and 2,4-D). Pesticide exposure did not significantly alter the alpha or beta diversity of the sample types, which demonstrates the ability of freshwater microbiomes ...


Interactive Effects Of Soil And Browsing On Big Sagebrush: Implications For Restoration Success, Kyle Nehring 2021 Utah State University

Interactive Effects Of Soil And Browsing On Big Sagebrush: Implications For Restoration Success, Kyle Nehring

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

Heterogeneity in landscape conditions (e.g., soil types) precludes a “one size fits all” management strategy across large landscapes. New management approaches that explicitly account for heterogeneous landscapes (and the variable conditions therein) will be required to maintain habitat quality. In particular, we require an improved mechanistic understanding of how the outcomes of conservation and restoration actions are contingent upon a) contextual abiotic factors (e.g., moisture availability mediated by soils and precipitation) and b) their interactions with biotic factors (e.g., browsing wildlife).

We propose to answer fundamental questions about how big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), the foundational species for ...


Mechanisms Of Overyielding And Coexistence In Diverse Tallgrass Prairie Communities, Leslie E. Forero 2021 Utah State University

Mechanisms Of Overyielding And Coexistence In Diverse Tallgrass Prairie Communities, Leslie E. Forero

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Plants compete for the same basic nutrient and water resources. According to the competitive exclusion principle, when a substantial overlap in resource pools exists, the best competitor for resources should drive all other species to extinction. The ability for plants to coexist in violation of the competitive exclusion principle is the “biodiversity paradox”. Coexistence is actually beneficial for plants: as species diversity increases, you typically see increases in plant biomass production (known as the biodiversity-productivity relationship). The mechanisms behind coexistence and the biodiversity-productivity relationship remain an ecological mystery. One hypothesis is that plants obtain water and nutrients from different places ...


Range-Wide Migratory Connectivity Of Painted Buntings, Andrew J. Sharp 2021 Utah State University

Range-Wide Migratory Connectivity Of Painted Buntings, Andrew J. Sharp

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The Painted Bunting (Passerina cirus) is a small (~16g), short/medium-distance migratory songbird that is listed as a species of conservation concern by the US Fish and Wildlife Service. Painted Buntings breed in two distinct populations, one eastern population and one interior population, separated by a 500 km gap that stretches from Mississippi to Georgia. I analyzed tracking data from 112 Painted Buntings from 11 different breeding sites to explore how individuals from different breeding sites differ in wintering location (chapter 2) and migratory timing (chapter 3). Additionally, I examined differences in migratory behavior between male and females in the ...


Patterns Of Post-Fire Aspen Seedling Establishment, Growth, And Mortality In The Western United States, Mark Regier Kreider 2021 Utah State University

Patterns Of Post-Fire Aspen Seedling Establishment, Growth, And Mortality In The Western United States, Mark Regier Kreider

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Sexual seedling establishment in aspen is increasingly recognized as an important natural regeneration pathway for the species in the western U.S. However, information on seedling abundance as well as factors influencing aspen sexual regeneration is limited and frequently anecdotal, due to historical assumptions of seedling rarity as well as difficulty identifying sexual seedlings from asexual aspen sucker regeneration. This thesis contributes to the field of aspen seedling ecology in three major ways. Chapter 1 utilizes historical aspen seedling occurrences in the western U.S. and a systematic field survey of 2018 fire footprints to explore patterns and test assumptions ...


The Fate And Cycling Of Nitrogen, Phosphorous, And Trace Heavy Metals In Beaver-Altered Headwater Streams, Desneiges S. Murray 2021 Utah State University

The Fate And Cycling Of Nitrogen, Phosphorous, And Trace Heavy Metals In Beaver-Altered Headwater Streams, Desneiges S. Murray

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Human land-use can increase the amount of non-point source (NPS) pollution in a stream, negatively affecting ecosystem health and beneficial services provided by an ecosystem. Unfortunately, NPS pollution remains high in many waterbodies. Beaver dams may be a passive, cost-effective strategy for removing NPS pollution in headwater streams because beaver dams slow stream flow and collect sediments. Impounded sediments can change how nutrients and pollutants are cycled in a stream through multiple pathways. In the first part of our study, we investigated whether beaver activity can reduce nitrogen, phosphorous and heavy metals from otherwise traveling downstream. Results suggest beaver ponds ...


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