Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

13,236 Full-Text Articles 20,899 Authors 1,964,419 Downloads 245 Institutions

All Articles in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Faceted Search

13,236 full-text articles. Page 1 of 414.

The Contribution Of Local And Transport Processes To Phytoplankton Biomass Variability Over Different Timescales In The Upper James River, Virginia, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen 2018 Virginia Institute of Marine Science

The Contribution Of Local And Transport Processes To Phytoplankton Biomass Variability Over Different Timescales In The Upper James River, Virginia, Qubin Qin, Jian Shen

Articles

Although both local processes (photosynthesis, respiration, grazing, and settling), and transport processes (advective transport and diffusive transport) significantly affect local phytoplankton dynamics, it is difficult to separate their contributions and to investigate the relative importance of each process to the local variability of phytoplankton biomass over different timescales. A method of using the transport rate is introduced to quantify the contribution of transport processes. By combining the time-varying transport rate and high-frequency observed chlorophyll a data, we can explicitly examine the impact of local and transport processes on phytoplankton biomass over a range of timescales from hourly to annually. For ...


Understanding Plant Secondary Metabolites; Above And Below Ground, Andrea K. Clemensen 2018 Utah State University

Understanding Plant Secondary Metabolites; Above And Below Ground, Andrea K. Clemensen

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Plants naturally produce primary and secondary metabolites. Primary metabolites are directly involved with plant growth and metabolic function. Plant secondary metabolites (PSM) were once thought of as metabolic waste products, and more recently viewed as toxins to herbivores. However, ongoing research shows that PSM are beneficial to herbivores at low doses, and PSM aid plants by attracting pollinators, recovering from injury, protecting from ultraviolet radiation, increasing drought tolerance, and aid in defense against pathogens, diseases, and herbivores. Plant secondary metabolites also influence soil nutrient cycling, and can increase the sustainability of agroecosystems. Endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) , which contains ...


Using Anthropogenic Risks To Inform Salmonid Conservation At The Landscape Scale, Andrew W. Witt 2018 Utah State University

Using Anthropogenic Risks To Inform Salmonid Conservation At The Landscape Scale, Andrew W. Witt

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The expansion and industrialization of humanity has caused many unforeseen consequences to the natural world. Due to the importance of freshwater for people, rivers have been particularly altered to meet human needs, often at the expense of the natural world. Supplying water for farms, industries, and cities has reshaped the natural state of rivers by altering river paths, chemistry, and species compositions. These changes have harmed many species that prospered before widespread human alterations, including the native trout and salmon of western North America. As human populations continue to grow, new threats will surface for rivers, and the trout and ...


A New Species Of Vaejovis From The Patagonia Mountains, Southern Arizona (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Richard F. Ayrey 2018 Marshall University

A New Species Of Vaejovis From The Patagonia Mountains, Southern Arizona (Scorpiones: Vaejovidae), Richard F. Ayrey

Euscorpius

A new scorpion species, Vaejovis patagonia sp. nov. is described and placed in the “vorhiesi” group. This small, dark brown species is found near Patagonia, Arizona. It is geographically closest to V. troupi Ayrey & Soleglad, V. grahami Ayrey & Soleglad and V. vorhiesi Stahnke. Those three species are found in a triangle surrounding the Patagonia Mountains, the locality of Vaejovis patagonia. The pedipalp fixed finger has 5 ID denticles and the movable finger has 6, like most, but not all, of the other southern Arizona Vaejovis. Carapace of female is shorter than metasomal segment V.


The Genera Butheolus Simon, 1882 And Xenobuthus Gen. Nov. (Scorpiones: Buthidae) In Oman, Graeme Lowe 2018 Monell Chemical Senses Center

The Genera Butheolus Simon, 1882 And Xenobuthus Gen. Nov. (Scorpiones: Buthidae) In Oman, Graeme Lowe

Euscorpius

The genus Butheolus Simon, 1882 is revised based on new material from Dhofar Province in Oman. B. gallagheri Vachon, 1980 is redescribed, and a related new species, B. harrisoni sp. n., is also described. The species B. anthracinus (Pocock, 1895) is redescribed and moved to a new genus Xenobuthus gen. n., that is differentiated from Butheolus by size, pedipalp finger dentition, setation, granulation and hemispermatophore structure, and a related new species, X. xanthus sp. n., is also described. Revised diagnoses are provided for the genus Butheolus, and for the species B. thalassinus Simon, 1882, and B. villosus Hendrixson, 2006, a ...


The Influence Of Dose Of A Plant-Derived Volatile Cue On Arabidopsis Thaliana Resistance Against Insect Herbivores, Sarah Bissmeyer, Grace Freundlich, Christopher Frost 2018 University of Louisville

The Influence Of Dose Of A Plant-Derived Volatile Cue On Arabidopsis Thaliana Resistance Against Insect Herbivores, Sarah Bissmeyer, Grace Freundlich, Christopher Frost

Kentucky Journal of Undergraduate Scholarship

Green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are plant-derived volatile organic compounds (VOCs) known to affect plant-plant communication. Specifically, GLVs can facilitate “priming”, whereby plants initiate a faster and stronger defensive response to a subsequent stress. The stress-induced GLV cis-3-hexenyl acetate (z3HAC) is a known priming cue, yet whether the concentration of the z3HAC affects plant defenses is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that z3HAC concentration of would influence Arabidopsis thaliana resistance against a specialist (Trichoplusia ni) and generalist (Spodoptera exigua) herbivore. Our z3HAC treatments ranged from 0-100 ng/hr, which spanned the range of recorded natural ...


Arabidopsis Thaliana Ei-5: Minor Vein Architecture Adjustment Compensates For Low Vein Density In Support Of Photosynthesis, Jared J. Stewart, Stephanie K. Polutchko, Barbara Demmig-Adams, William W. Adams III 2018 University of Colorado Boulder

Arabidopsis Thaliana Ei-5: Minor Vein Architecture Adjustment Compensates For Low Vein Density In Support Of Photosynthesis, Jared J. Stewart, Stephanie K. Polutchko, Barbara Demmig-Adams, William W. Adams Iii

University Libraries Open Access Fund Supported Publications

An Arabidopsis thaliana accession with naturally low vein density, Eifel-5 (Ei-5), was compared to Columbia-0 (Col-0) with respect to rosette growth, foliar vein architecture, photosynthesis, and transpiration. In addition to having to a lower vein density, Ei-5 grew more slowly, with significantly lower rates of rosette expansion, but had similar capacities for photosynthetic oxygen evolution on a leaf area basis compared to Col-0. The individual foliar minor veins were larger in Ei-5, with a greater number of vascular cells per vein, compared to Col-0. This compensation for low vein density resulted in similar values for the product of vein density ...


Integrating Species Traits Into Species Pools, Marko J. Spasojevic, Christopher P. Catano, Joseph A. LaManna 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Integrating Species Traits Into Species Pools, Marko J. Spasojevic, Christopher P. Catano, Joseph A. Lamanna

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Despite decades of research on the species‐pool concept and the recent explosion of interest in trait‐based frameworks in ecology and biogeography, surprisingly little is known about how spatial and temporal changes in species‐pool functional diversity (SPFD) influence biodiversity and the processes underlying community assembly. Current trait‐based frameworks focus primarily on community assembly from a static regional species pool, without considering how spatial or temporal variation in SPFD alters the relative importance of deterministic and stochastic assembly processes. Likewise, species‐pool concepts primarily focus on how the number of species in the species pool influences local biodiversity ...


Predicting Critical Transitions In Spatially Distributed Populations With Cubical Homology, Laura Storch, Sarah Day 2018 College of William and Mary

Predicting Critical Transitions In Spatially Distributed Populations With Cubical Homology, Laura Storch, Sarah Day

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


The Role Of Outcome Preferences In Optimizing Heterogenous Disease Control Strategies., Evan Milliken 2018 Arizona State University at the Tempe Campus

The Role Of Outcome Preferences In Optimizing Heterogenous Disease Control Strategies., Evan Milliken

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Population Genetics And Bumble Bee Conservation: Saving Species By Thinking Small, Cady Greenslit 2018 Lawrence University

Population Genetics And Bumble Bee Conservation: Saving Species By Thinking Small, Cady Greenslit

Lawrence University Honors Projects

Pollinators have experienced a severe decline over the last few decades, and this includes bumble bee populations (g. Bombus). Bumble bees are important native pollinators, and here I investigate the health of local populations with molecular tools. The field of conservation genetics has created useful methodology for investigating the health and informing management strategies of threatened populations. This work investigates and describes the applications of population genetics, which uses span across the board. These applications are then brought back into the context of bumble bee conservation, and how they fit into the experimental plan I originally designed. I designed an ...


Functions Of Ecosystems: Stream Metabolism As An Efficient And Effective Means To Gage The Health And Understand The Interworking Of Urban Streams In A Watershed Of Rock Island, Il, Ryan Johnson, Dr. Kevin Geedey 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Functions Of Ecosystems: Stream Metabolism As An Efficient And Effective Means To Gage The Health And Understand The Interworking Of Urban Streams In A Watershed Of Rock Island, Il, Ryan Johnson, Dr. Kevin Geedey

Celebration of Learning

Stream metabolism is a critical functional measure of stream health that integrates physical parameters like slope and discharge, with ecosystem functions like photosynthesis and respiration. Stream metabolism is widely studied; however, urban stream metabolism remains poorly understood. Stream metabolism was measured for five streams ranging from 1st to 5th orders from October 11th to October 18th 2017 and four streams ranging from 1st to 4th order from October 22nd to 25th 2017 located within an approximately 9.3 square kilometer watershed of Rock Island, IL that has an urban to suburban type ...


A Quantitative Analysis Of The Effects Of Urbanization, Mesophication And Prescribed Burns On Oak Woodlands In The Chicago Metropolitan Area, Chad Populorum 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

A Quantitative Analysis Of The Effects Of Urbanization, Mesophication And Prescribed Burns On Oak Woodlands In The Chicago Metropolitan Area, Chad Populorum

Celebration of Learning

Urban expansion has had devastating impacts on forest ecosystems, especially within the past century. Human attempts to dominate nature have diminished natural disturbance regimes, which have maintained the biodiversity and historic composition of these ecosystems. Fires have been a prominent force in maintaining the structure of oak, hickory and other heliophytic (sun loving and fire-adapted) forest systems. Human induced fire suppression has led to mesophication across North America. Mesophication is the transition from drier conditions with open canopies to wetter conditions with closed canopies. These new conditions decrease the survival rates of these important species and begin to favor mesophytic ...


Effect Of Adult Chemical Cues On Molting Of Fiddler Crab Megalopae In Low Salinity Seawater, Sydney Rilum 2018 University of San Diego

Effect Of Adult Chemical Cues On Molting Of Fiddler Crab Megalopae In Low Salinity Seawater, Sydney Rilum

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Three species of fiddler crabs, Uca minax, U. pugnax, and U. pugilator, are commonly found in estuaries along the Atlantic coast, each with distinct adult habitats differing in salinity and sediment grain size. Prior research has found evidence for larvae exhibiting selective settlement; however, the degree to which and the method by which they choose their species-appropriate habitat to settle in is still unknown. Additionally, a recent study determined that chemical cues from adult crabs stimulate molting in field-caught fiddler crab megalopae, as previously determined in lab-reared megalopae; however, in 35 ppt seawater, few U. minax molted. This study tested ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


‘Preferred’ Stimulus Of A Whole Model Visual System, Olivier Penacchio, Julie M. Harris 2018 University of St Andrews

‘Preferred’ Stimulus Of A Whole Model Visual System, Olivier Penacchio, Julie M. Harris

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


The Distribution, Abundance, And Gut Microbiome Of Ribbed Mussel, Geukensia Demissa, Across Natural And Restored Salt Marshes In Jamaica Bay, New York, Bethany Freynk 2018 CUNY Baruch

The Distribution, Abundance, And Gut Microbiome Of Ribbed Mussel, Geukensia Demissa, Across Natural And Restored Salt Marshes In Jamaica Bay, New York, Bethany Freynk

Student Theses

Coastal wetlands perform valuable functions by protecting shorelines from floodwaters and storm surges, providing habitats for marine species, and improving local water quality. Unfortunately, over half of the area of global wetlands has been lost over the past century. Locally, in Jamaica Bay (Queens, NY), loss of wetlands has exceeded 98%. Restoration of Jamaica Bay marshes began in 2003. Ribbed mussels, Geukensia demissa, live symbiotically with marsh plants and have been shown to stabilize sediments and provide organic nutrients that enhance marsh plant growth. Mussels are suspension feeders, which collect algae from seawater and deposit organic matter in marsh sediments ...


Secrets Of A Rare Bird: Breeding Behavior Of The Gray-Breasted Flycatcher (Lathrotriccus Griseipectus) In Ecuador, William Harris Kirkpatrick 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Secrets Of A Rare Bird: Breeding Behavior Of The Gray-Breasted Flycatcher (Lathrotriccus Griseipectus) In Ecuador, William Harris Kirkpatrick

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

The Tumbesian region of southwestern Ecuador and northwestern Peru is home to a large number of endemic bird species. Many of these species are threatened with extinction, and little is known about their basic biology. Thus, information regarding natural history of species in the region is needed to guide conservation management. We studied the reproductive biology of the Gray-breasted Flycatcher, Lathrotriccus griseipectus, a small Tyrannid that lives in the Tumbesian region. Due to habitat destruction, the range size of L. griseipectus has dwindled and the species is now listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. We used a mounted ...


Seasonal Variation In Physiology Challenges The Notion Of Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) As A Forest-Adapted Species, Erin G. Wessling, Tobias Deschner, Roger Mundry, Jill D. Pruetz, Roman M. Wittig, Hjalmar S. Kühl 2018 Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

Seasonal Variation In Physiology Challenges The Notion Of Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) As A Forest-Adapted Species, Erin G. Wessling, Tobias Deschner, Roger Mundry, Jill D. Pruetz, Roman M. Wittig, Hjalmar S. Kühl

World Languages and Cultures Publications

Savanna-mosaic habitats are thought to represent exceptional circumstances for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and owing to the virtues of their habitat as well as peripheral biogeographic location, they are often regarded as marginal to the chimpanzee ecological niche. If these habitats are marginal, then we should expect that chimpanzees living in these habitats demonstrate physiological consequences of the extremity of this environment. We therefore compared seasonal variation in physiological responses to climatic and ecological factors in chimpanzees inhabiting Fongoli, a savanna-mosaic habitat at the margins of the chimpanzee range with chimpanzees from Taï National Park, a lowland rainforest centrally located within ...


Population Structure, Demographic History, And Environmental Niche Of The Sand Fly Disease Vector Lutzomyia Shannoni (Dyar) (Diptera: Psychodidae) In The U.S., Mexico, And Colombia, Matthew E. Wolkoff 2018 University of Texas at Tyler

Population Structure, Demographic History, And Environmental Niche Of The Sand Fly Disease Vector Lutzomyia Shannoni (Dyar) (Diptera: Psychodidae) In The U.S., Mexico, And Colombia, Matthew E. Wolkoff

Biology Theses

Lutzomyia shannoni (Dyar, 1929) (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the only known sand fly vector of vesicular stomatitis virus, a putative leishmaniasis vector, and also boasts the widest distribution of any sand fly in the New World. Research on Lu. shannoni in Central and South America has revealed genetically divergent subpopulations; however, tentative analysis of Lu. shannoni in the U.S. has failed to detect any significant population structure, even between specimens collected from highly disparate localities.

The present study used four molecular markers to more closely investigate the population structure of Lu. shannoni in the U.S., and assess the species ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress