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The North American Quails, Partridges, And Pheasants, Paul A. Johnsgard 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The North American Quails, Partridges, And Pheasants, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This book documents the biology of six species of New World quails that are native to North America north of Mexico (mountain, scaled, Gambel’s, California, and Montezuma quails, and the northern bobwhite), three introduced Old World partridges (chukar, Himalayan snowcock, and gray partridge), and the introduced common (ring-necked) pheasant. Collectively, quails, partridges, and pheasants range throughout all of the continental United States and the Canadian provinces. Two of the species, the northern bobwhite and ring-necked pheasant, are the most economically important of all North American upland game birds. All of the species are hunted extensively for sport and are ...


Desert Pool {If Every Desert Was Once A Sea}, Karen Miranda Abel 2017 York University

Desert Pool {If Every Desert Was Once A Sea}, Karen Miranda Abel

The Goose

Desert Pool {If every desert was once a sea} is a site-specific art project by Canadian artist Karen Miranda Abel completed in 2016 while artist-in-residence at Joya: arte + ecología, an arts-led research centre situated in an alpine desert within a national park in southern Spain. The elemental installation represents an envisioning of the ancient sea that occupied the Sierra de María-Los Vélez Natural Park millions of years before the current desert ecology, a time when its highest mountain peaks may have been islands.


Precipitation Patterns And Fungal Community Succession In A Seasonally Dry Secondary Tropical Savanna, Sara R. Lopez 2017 University of New Mexico - Main Campus

Precipitation Patterns And Fungal Community Succession In A Seasonally Dry Secondary Tropical Savanna, Sara R. Lopez

Biology ETDs

Life in seasonally dry areas strongly depends on pulses of precipitation during certain portions of the year. This is particularly relevant for Tropical savannas on the Caribbean coast of Colombia that have been converted from Tropical Dry Forests and subjected to permanent agricultural and grazing practices that in turn induce changes in nutrient status in these systems. Several studies have presented evidence for a shift in C and N dynamics following forest conversion, including a decrease in total soil organic carbon and changes in nitrogen status, but the consequences of forest conversion on soil microbial processes are poorly understood. No ...


Plant-Microbial Interactions Are Strong Determinants Of Plant Population And Community Dynamics, Y. Anny Chung 9485698 2017 University of New Mexico

Plant-Microbial Interactions Are Strong Determinants Of Plant Population And Community Dynamics, Y. Anny Chung 9485698

Biology ETDs

Plant-microbial interactions are ubiquitous and yet the consequences of these interactions on plant population and community dynamics are relatively unknown. Here, we used two different classes of plant-microbial interactions to examine their effects on key plant population and community characteristics such as commonness and rarity, competition and coexistence, as well as community stability.

Vertically-transmitted endophytes had stage-dependent effects on the population growth of two grass species Poa sylvestris and Poa alsodes, and generally increased host population growth rates. However, it was the intrinsic demographic advantage of P. sylvestris that allowed its population to grow at a much faster rate compared ...


Bat Urea-Derived Minerals In Arid Environment. First Identification Of Allantoin, C4H6N4O3, In Kahf Kharrat Najem Cave, United Arab Emirates, Philippe Audra, Pavel Bosák, Fernando Gázquez, Didier Cailhol, Roman Skála, Lenka Lisá, Šárka Jonášová, Amos Frumkin, Martin Knez, Tadej Slabe, Nadja Zupan Hajna, Asma Al-Farraj 2017 University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis

Bat Urea-Derived Minerals In Arid Environment. First Identification Of Allantoin, C4H6N4O3, In Kahf Kharrat Najem Cave, United Arab Emirates, Philippe Audra, Pavel Bosák, Fernando Gázquez, Didier Cailhol, Roman Skála, Lenka Lisá, Šárka Jonášová, Amos Frumkin, Martin Knez, Tadej Slabe, Nadja Zupan Hajna, Asma Al-Farraj

International Journal of Speleology

Kahf Kharrat Najem Cave is a small cave in United Arab Emirates (UAE) that hosts a bat colony which is the source of guano deposits and peculiar centimeter-long yellowish stalactites. The mineralogy and geochemistry of these deposits were analyzed using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopic microanalysis (EDX), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and stable isotope composition (δ13C and δ15N). Urea CO(NH2)2 was found to be the main compound of these stalactites, while allantoin C4H6N4O3 was found to be an accessory urea byproduct. This paper ...


Abnormal Coloration In Bighorn Sheep (Ovis Canadensis), Vernon C. Bleich 2017 University of Nevada, Reno

Abnormal Coloration In Bighorn Sheep (Ovis Canadensis), Vernon C. Bleich

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Despite no mention of abnormal coloration in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) in two earlier reviews addressing that subject, leucism, piebaldism, and melanism do occur in that species. Presented herein is a compilation of observations of abnormally colored bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) assembled with information obtained from personal observations and the use of on-line literature search services, other on-line searches, private interviews, and a questionnaire. The majority of abnormally colored bighorn sheep have been described as "white" or "albinistic". Review of images provided by respondents, however, verified that the majority of such reports were of leucistic individuals. "White" or leucistic bighorn ...


Rewiring Metabolism Under Oxygen Deprivation: Naked Mole-Rats Evolved A Means To Cope With Anoxia, Jay F. Storz, Grant B. McClelland 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Rewiring Metabolism Under Oxygen Deprivation: Naked Mole-Rats Evolved A Means To Cope With Anoxia, Jay F. Storz, Grant B. Mcclelland

Jay F. Storz Publications

When faced with a reduced availability of oxygen in the environment (hypoxia), vertebrates can make a variety of respiratory, cardiovascular, and hematological adjustments to ensure an uninterrupted supply of oxygen to the cells of metabolizing tissues (1, 2). These are adaptive solutions for “aerobic organisms in an aerobic world” (3). Coping with the complete absence of oxygen (anoxia) requires more fundamental alterations of cellular metabolism that are typically nothing more than emergency stopgap measures to buy time until the oxygen supply is (hopefully) reestablished (4). On page 307 of this issue [Science 356 (6335)], Park et al. (5) identify a ...


Direct And Indirect Effects Of Climate Change On Plant Populations And Communities In Sagebrush Steppe, Andrew R. Kleinhesselink 2017 Utah State University

Direct And Indirect Effects Of Climate Change On Plant Populations And Communities In Sagebrush Steppe, Andrew R. Kleinhesselink

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Forecasting the effects of climate change on plant and animal populations is a high priority in ecology. We studied the effects of climate on plant populations through the use of observational and experimental data, as well as analytical models. Our research questions were: (1) Do the effects of interannual climate variation on the population growth rates of widespread species show a coherent pattern across gradients of mean annual climate? (2) How well can population models fit to observational data predict the response of populations to field experiments that manipulate climate? And (3) does niche overlap between competitors predict the magnitude ...


Drivers And Feedbacks Of The Fire-Grazing Interaction In The Northern Great Plains, Jacob E. Powell 2017 University of Montana

Drivers And Feedbacks Of The Fire-Grazing Interaction In The Northern Great Plains, Jacob E. Powell

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

The fire-grazing interaction is well studied in mesic grasslands worldwide, but research is lacking in semiarid systems. In addition, the fire-grazing interaction reduces the invasion of exotic forage species in mesic grasslands by increasing the scale of grazing selection and may be a tool to control invasive plants in other grasslands. We examined the principal drivers and feedbacks of the fire-grazing interaction on the strength of cattle grazing selection, forage quantity and quality, and vegetation structure and composition in two pastures in northeast Montana at The Nature Conservancy’s Matador Ranch. We also determined the influence of time since fire ...


Can Functional Traits Predict Plant Community Response To Global Change?, Sarah Kimball, Jennifer L. Funk, Marko J. Spasojevic, Katharine N. Suding, Scot Parker, Michael K. Goulden 2016 University of California - Irvine

Can Functional Traits Predict Plant Community Response To Global Change?, Sarah Kimball, Jennifer L. Funk, Marko J. Spasojevic, Katharine N. Suding, Scot Parker, Michael K. Goulden

Biology, Chemistry, and Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles and Research

One primary goal at the intersection of community ecology and global change biology is to identify functional traits that are useful for predicting plant community response to global change. We used observations of community composition from a long-term field experiment in two adjacent plant communities (grassland and coastal sage shrub) to investigate how nine key plant functional traits were related to altered water and nitrogen availability following fire. We asked whether the functional responses of species found in more than one community type were context dependent and whether community-weighted mean and functional diversity were significantly altered by water and nitrogen ...


Plant-Biocrust Interactions Mediated By The Fungal Loop, Eva Dettweiler-Robinson 2016 University of New Mexico

Plant-Biocrust Interactions Mediated By The Fungal Loop, Eva Dettweiler-Robinson

Biology ETDs

Plant-microbial interactions influence biogeochemical cycles. Plants and biological soil crusts are primary producers in drylands. Biocrusts include cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, algae, fungi, bacteria, and archaea on the soil surface, some of which fix atmospheric nitrogen. I investigated controls on biocrust carbon fluxes and their contribution to ecosystem fluxes, the incorporation of plant-derived carbon into biocrusts, and the role of soil fungi in promoting performance of plants and biocrusts. Biocrusts responded to temperature and moisture differently by biome. Biocrusts in grasslands/shrublands contributed >25% of total summertime ecosystem respiration, but biocrusts in savannas/woodlands contributed <1%. Biocrusts contributed <2% to GPP in any biome. To augment their native photosynthesis, biocrusts may include 16% plant-derived carbon. Fungal connections improved plant and biocrust performance and reduced differences in the CN ratio between organisms compared to when connections were impeded. Investigation of interactions among biocrusts, plants, and fungi has improved understanding of resource cycling in drylands.


Comparative Population Genomics And Speciation Of Snakes Across The North American Deserts, Edward A. Myers 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Comparative Population Genomics And Speciation Of Snakes Across The North American Deserts, Edward A. Myers

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Understanding the process of speciation is of central interest to evolutionary biologists. Speciation can be studied using a phylogeographic approach, by identifying regions that promote lineage divergence, addressing whether speciation has occurred with gene flow, and when extended to multiple taxa, addressing if the same patterns of speciation are shared across codistributed groups with different ecologies. Here I examine the comparative phylogeographic histories and population genomics of thirteen snake taxa that are widely distributed and co-occur across the arid southwest of North America. I first quantify the degree to which these species groups have a shared history of population divergence ...


The Effects Of Drought On Diets Of Apex Predators In The South African Lowveld Inferred By Fecal Hair Analysis, Shelby Wade 2016 Western Kentucky University

The Effects Of Drought On Diets Of Apex Predators In The South African Lowveld Inferred By Fecal Hair Analysis, Shelby Wade

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

To properly manage offtake quotas and conservation efforts, Balule Nature Reserve (South Africa) instituted a study in 2014 to determine prey species selection by megapredators. In 2015, Balule Nature Reserve received about 190 mm less rainfall between the months of January and June than in 2014 (116 mm less than average). This study compares the diets of lions and hyaenas between 2014 and 2015. Prey species consumed were determined by fecal analysis, and results were compared to prey availability. Sixteen, 1 km2 plots were chosen from the 400 km2 Reserve. Between June and August 2015, we walked three, 1 km ...


The Karoo: Ecological Patterns And Processes, Kirk A. Moloney 2016 Iowa State University

The Karoo: Ecological Patterns And Processes, Kirk A. Moloney

Kirk Moloney

This book consists of chapters that examine a wide range of topics concerning the ecology of the little known, arid karoo of South Arica: "a vast region of rugged landscapes and low treeless vegetation" (p xxi). The karoo has a very high level of species diver sity and endemism, particularly the flora that "probably exceeds 7000 species of which up to 50% are endemic" (p 44). This fact alone makes the karoo an extremely interesting ecological system suitable of book-length treatment, particularly if it is well done, as in this case.


Spreaders, Igniters And Burning Shrubs: Plant Flammability Explains Novel Fire Dynamics In Grass-Invaded Deserts, Andres Fuentes-Ramirez, Joseph W. Veldman, Claus Holzapfel, Kirk A. Moloney 2016 Universidad de La Frontera

Spreaders, Igniters And Burning Shrubs: Plant Flammability Explains Novel Fire Dynamics In Grass-Invaded Deserts, Andres Fuentes-Ramirez, Joseph W. Veldman, Claus Holzapfel, Kirk A. Moloney

Kirk Moloney

Novel fire regimes are an important cause and consequence of global environmental change that involve interactions among biotic, climatic, and human components of ecosystems. Plant flammability is key to these interactions, yet few studies directly measure flammability or consider how multiple species with different flammabilities interact to produce novel fire regimes. Deserts of the southwestern USA are an ideal system for exploring how novel fire regimes can emerge when fire-promoting species invade ecosystems comprised of species that did not evolve with fire. In these deserts, exotic annual grasses provide fuel continuity across landscapes that did not historically burn. These fires ...


Rapidly Restoring Biological Soil Crusts And Ecosystem Functions In A Severely Disturbed Desert Ecosystem, Lindsay P. Chiquoine, Scott R. Abella, Matthew A. Bowker 2016 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Rapidly Restoring Biological Soil Crusts And Ecosystem Functions In A Severely Disturbed Desert Ecosystem, Lindsay P. Chiquoine, Scott R. Abella, Matthew A. Bowker

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

Restoring biological soil crusts (biocrusts) in degraded drylands can contribute to recovery of ecosystem functions that have global implications, including erosion resistance and nutrient cycling. To examine techniques for restoring biocrusts, we conducted a replicated, factorial experiment on recently abandoned road surfaces by applying biocrust inoculation (salvaged and stored dry for two years), salvaged topsoil, an abiotic soil amendment (wood shavings), and planting of a dominant perennial shrub (Ambrosia dumosa). Eighteen months after treatments, we measured biocrust abundance and species composition, soil chlorophyll a content and fertility, and soil resistance to erosion. Biocrust addition significantly accelerated biocrust recovery on disturbed ...


Wildlife And Local Community Investigation In Trans-Boundary Area Between China-Mongolia Borders, Weikang Yang, Wenxuan Xu, Canjun Xia, Wei Liu, Xingyi Gao 2016 Chinese Academy of Sciences

Wildlife And Local Community Investigation In Trans-Boundary Area Between China-Mongolia Borders, Weikang Yang, Wenxuan Xu, Canjun Xia, Wei Liu, Xingyi Gao

Erforschung biologischer Ressourcen der Mongolei / Exploration into the Biological Resources of Mongolia, ISSN 0440-1298

During June 2008, and August and December 2010, we investigated both the status of wildlife and local human communities in the great Gobi trans-boundary area between China and Mongolia. We surveyed Baytik Mountain (called Baitag Bogdt on the Mongolian side of the border)( 44°59′ - 45°21′N,90°30′ - 90°53′E), which is located in the West of Great Gobi B strict protected area (GGB) and connected with Dzungarian Gobi. The Kazakh shepherds still maintain their nomadic life here in Baytik Mountains. The region was divided into summer, winter and transitional pasture, and most of the livestock were ...


Rodent Removal Of Fallen Joshua Tree (Yucca Brevifolia) Fruits, Mark I. Borchert 8784318 2016 US Forest Service, retired

Rodent Removal Of Fallen Joshua Tree (Yucca Brevifolia) Fruits, Mark I. Borchert 8784318

Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences

Abstract.—Joshua trees (Yucca brevifolia) produce large, indehiscent fruits that contain numerous large seeds. Seed dispersal in this species depends on rodents to dismantle fruits and extract the seeds which they disperse tens of meters from the source. Using camera trapping and fruits equipped with bobbins, I show that white-tailed antelope squirrels (Ammospermophilus leucurus) and kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) moved intact, fallen fruits 6 to 7 m from trees before opening them. Pocket mice (Chaetodipus fallax and Perognathus longimembris) and pinyon mice (Peromyscus trueii) dismantled fruits in situ and harvested loose seeds but did not appear to move them. However ...


Spreaders, Igniters And Burning Shrubs: Plant Flammability Explains Novel Fire Dynamics In Grass-Invaded Deserts, Andres Fuentes-Ramirez, Joseph W. Veldman, Claus Holzapfel, Kirk A. Moloney 2016 Universidad de La Frontera

Spreaders, Igniters And Burning Shrubs: Plant Flammability Explains Novel Fire Dynamics In Grass-Invaded Deserts, Andres Fuentes-Ramirez, Joseph W. Veldman, Claus Holzapfel, Kirk A. Moloney

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Novel fire regimes are an important cause and consequence of global environmental change that involve interactions among biotic, climatic, and human components of ecosystems. Plant flammability is key to these interactions, yet few studies directly measure flammability or consider how multiple species with different flammabilities interact to produce novel fire regimes. Deserts of the southwestern USA are an ideal system for exploring how novel fire regimes can emerge when fire-promoting species invade ecosystems comprised of species that did not evolve with fire. In these deserts, exotic annual grasses provide fuel continuity across landscapes that did not historically burn. These fires ...


Genetic Structure And Connectivity Of The Endangered Giant Kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys Ingens) In A Heterogeneous Environment, Nathan Alexander 2016 Humboldt State University

Genetic Structure And Connectivity Of The Endangered Giant Kangaroo Rat (Dipodomys Ingens) In A Heterogeneous Environment, Nathan Alexander

Theses and projects

Movement ecology and dispersal are important aspects of species’ life histories that can inform conservation and management. Dispersal is often cryptic and difficult to detect, but recent advances genetic technology and applications have provided new approaches to identifying and describing dispersal patterns. Giant kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ingens) are an endangered heteromyid that appear to persist in small subpopulations in a heterogeneous environment of their northern range, the Ciervo-Panoche Natural Area, California. Previous work suggested high levels of genetic diversity between populations with genetic distances not being correlated to geographic distances. Here, I identified landscape population structure through clustering programs STRUCTURE ...


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