Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Ecology and Evolutionary Biology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

13,278 Full-Text Articles 20,954 Authors 1,964,419 Downloads 245 Institutions

All Articles in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology

Faceted Search

13,278 full-text articles. Page 6 of 415.

Providing Modeling Tools On Extreme Events Of Climate Change To Puget Sound Managers, Andrea Copping, Zhaoqing Yang, Ian Miller, Jude Apple, Guillaume Mauger, Nathalie Voisin, Aimee Fullerton, Ning Sun, Mikaela Freeman 2018 Pacific Northwest National Lab., United States

Providing Modeling Tools On Extreme Events Of Climate Change To Puget Sound Managers, Andrea Copping, Zhaoqing Yang, Ian Miller, Jude Apple, Guillaume Mauger, Nathalie Voisin, Aimee Fullerton, Ning Sun, Mikaela Freeman

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

As climate change becomes a reality for the management of Puget Sound, water resource and fisheries managers should consider incorporating predictions and outcomes of future climate drivers into their long-range plans and daily operations. Modeling tools that focus on climate impacts and predictions show that extreme events are more often responsible for large impacts than the long-term press of climate change. Working with water resource and fisheries managers in the Dungeness and Skagit watersheds, this project uses outputs of existing climate and estuarine models to define thresholds and metrics associated with extreme climate-driven events that are of importance to the ...


Ambient Monitoring To Inform The Protection Of Beneficial Uses And Achieve Water Quality Goals In Sinclair And Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, Wa, Robert Johnston, Michelle Aylward, Gunther Rosen, Jonathan Strivens, Nicholas Schlafer, Marienne Colvin, Jill Brandenberger, Paul Caswell 2018 Space and Naval Warfare Systems Ctr. Pacific, United States

Ambient Monitoring To Inform The Protection Of Beneficial Uses And Achieve Water Quality Goals In Sinclair And Dyes Inlets, Puget Sound, Wa, Robert Johnston, Michelle Aylward, Gunther Rosen, Jonathan Strivens, Nicholas Schlafer, Marienne Colvin, Jill Brandenberger, Paul Caswell

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Currently discharge limits enforced under the Clean Water Act are focused on meeting National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) limits at the end of the pipe and environmental performance is measured based on meeting the NPDES discharge limits; but meeting discharge limits has very little to do with achieving water quality goals for coastal and estuarine ecosystems. Therefore an effective monitoring and assessment program is needed to assess continuous process improvement, evaluate the ecological conditions, and provide metrics that can inform effective management of coastal and estuarine water quality. Here we report on an ambient monitoring program within Sinclair and ...


Identifying Areas Of High Conservation Value In Howe Sound To Strengthen Regional Marine Spatial Planning, Fiona Beaty, Jessica Schultz, Bill Wareham 2018 Ocean Wise, Canada

Identifying Areas Of High Conservation Value In Howe Sound To Strengthen Regional Marine Spatial Planning, Fiona Beaty, Jessica Schultz, Bill Wareham

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Marine spatial planning is a crucial step in the transition toward ecosystem-based management. It allows multiple users to co-manage marine spaces, minimizes user conflict, and informs marine conservation strategies. Spatial planning tools, such as web-based interactive maps, are especially useful in regions with complex and overlapping jurisdictions, where understanding processes outside of district boundaries can be both critical and difficult to achieve. Howe Sound/Atl’kitsem is one such region. The area is a fjord adjacent to Metro Vancouver and is within the traditional territory of the Squamish First Nation. Additionally, Howe Sound is governed by three regional districts, five ...


Interactive Effects Of Ocean Acidification And Ocean Warming On Pacific Herring (Clupea Pallasi) Early Life Stages, Brooke Love, Cristina Villalobos, M. Brady Olson 2018 Western Washington Univ., United States

Interactive Effects Of Ocean Acidification And Ocean Warming On Pacific Herring (Clupea Pallasi) Early Life Stages, Brooke Love, Cristina Villalobos, M. Brady Olson

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The synergy of ocean acidification and ocean warming may lead to negative marine organism responses not apparent under single stressors. While adult fish are effective acid-base regulators, and presumably less affected by environmental stressors, early life stages may be more susceptible. Pacific herring are ecologically and economically important forage fish, native to the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW). However, the herring populations in the PNW have experienced reductions in stock abundance. This study focused on the combined effects of ocean acidification and ocean warming on Pacific herring embryo and larval life stages. Pacific herring embryos were incubated under a factorial ...


Hood Canal Bridge Effect On Hydrodynamics And Nearfield Zone Of Influence, Adi Nugraha, Tarang Khangaonkar 2018 Pacific Northwest National Lab., United States

Hood Canal Bridge Effect On Hydrodynamics And Nearfield Zone Of Influence, Adi Nugraha, Tarang Khangaonkar

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Hood Canal is a deep and long estuarine sub-basin within the Salish Sea that exhibits characteristics of classic fjords. Presence of the Hood Canal Bridge (HCB), a floating barge-like block near the mouth of Hood Canal is under investigation for potential environmental impacts on water quality and pelagic ecosystem. In this study, the effect of HCB on Hood Canal stratification and transport were evaluated using the Salish Sea Model, a 3-D hydrodynamic model with Hood Canal Bridge embedded at a high local resolution. The effects of the bridge as an obstruction to tidal currents and circulation were examined near the ...


Understanding Shoreline Landowner Views On Water Quality Best Management Practices And Outreach, Bob Simmons, Darcy McNamara, Heidi Keller 2018 Washington State Univ. Extension, United States

Understanding Shoreline Landowner Views On Water Quality Best Management Practices And Outreach, Bob Simmons, Darcy Mcnamara, Heidi Keller

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Place-based research targeting rural shoreline property owners provided valuable insights into water quality issue awareness, viewpoints, and willingness to adopt best management practices (BMPs). This information can improve the efficacy of outreach programs designed to motivate shoreline homeowners to protect adjacent waterways. Between 2009 and 2016, 7 different sets of audience research were conducted to determine how to increase the voluntary adoption of water quality BMPs on private land. The studies focused on shoreline landowners and were conducted in rural areas in the South Puget Sound and Hood Canal regions of Washington State. Barriers and motivators for a variety of ...


Turning The Ship: A New Direction For Managing Wood Waste In The Salish Sea Of Washington State, Russ McMillan, Chance Asher, John Evered, Celina Abercrombie 2018 Washington State Dept. of Ecology, United States

Turning The Ship: A New Direction For Managing Wood Waste In The Salish Sea Of Washington State, Russ Mcmillan, Chance Asher, John Evered, Celina Abercrombie

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Wood waste has been a major driver in numerous large scale, nearshore cleanups in Washington State Its presence has contributed substantially to both the extent and volume of sediment requiring cleanup which is costly and time consuming. Success in dealing with wood waste must start with controlling sources and a reassessment of how timber-related uses of our waters are conducted. Recognizing its ecological impacts and the financial burden of cleanup prompts the change from practices that release wood waste to state waters. While it is tough to change from traditional use of waters for transport and storage of logs or ...


Living With The Shoreline: Education For Property Owners, Shannon Davis, Tina Whitman 2018 Friends of the San Juans, United States

Living With The Shoreline: Education For Property Owners, Shannon Davis, Tina Whitman

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

As over 90% of shoreline parcels in San Juan County are in private, residential ownership, shoreline property owners are critical caretakers of marine habitats. Information that is provided directly to shoreline property owners can be beneficial to all who enjoy the resources provided by our marine habitats. And in our changing climate, shoreline property owners’ actions can also help improve resilience to the impacts ahead. So, how do you educate shoreline landowners in a manner that engages and inspires them toward positive choices? Friends of the San Juans took on this challenge and created an attractive, positive, and engaging booklet ...


Past, Present, And Future Water Quality In Lake Union/Ship Canal, Elliott Bay, And The Duwamish Estuary And The Benefits Of Combined Sewer Overflow Control And Other Projects, Jim Simmonds 2018 King County, United States

Past, Present, And Future Water Quality In Lake Union/Ship Canal, Elliott Bay, And The Duwamish Estuary And The Benefits Of Combined Sewer Overflow Control And Other Projects, Jim Simmonds

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

To help protect regional water quality, in 2012 King County initiated a study to review the impacts of combined sewer overflows (CSOs) and other sources of pollution to inform the region of the benefits of CSO control. King County’s Water Quality Assessment and Monitoring Study (Study) explored water quality in Lake Union/Ship Canal, Elliott Bay, and the Duwamish Estuary, where the County is planning projects to reduce the frequency of CSOs to an average of one untreated overflow per site per year over a 20-year moving average. Reducing CSO frequency to this degree is known as CSO “control ...


Age Truncation And Portfolio Effects In Puget Sound Pacific Herring, Margaret Siple, Andrew O. Shelton, Tessa B. Francis, Dayv Lowry, Adam P. Lindquist, Timothy E. Essington 2018 School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, United States

Age Truncation And Portfolio Effects In Puget Sound Pacific Herring, Margaret Siple, Andrew O. Shelton, Tessa B. Francis, Dayv Lowry, Adam P. Lindquist, Timothy E. Essington

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Forage fish undergo dramatic changes in abundance through time. Long-term fluctuations, which have historically been attributed to changes in recruitment, may also be due to changes in adult mortality. Pacific herring, a lightly exploited forage fish in Puget Sound, WA, have exhibited shifts in age structure and decreases in spawning biomass during the past 30 years. Here, we investigate changes in adult mortality as a potential explanation for these shifts. Using a hierarchical, age-structured population model, we indicate that adult natural mortality for Puget Sound Pacific herring has increased since 1973. We find that natural mortality has increased for every ...


Modeling Wind-Induced Waves In The Salish Sea, Zhaoqing Yang, Wei-Cheng Wu, Taiping Wang, Guillaume Mauger, Ruby Leung 2018 Pacific Northwest National Lab., United States

Modeling Wind-Induced Waves In The Salish Sea, Zhaoqing Yang, Wei-Cheng Wu, Taiping Wang, Guillaume Mauger, Ruby Leung

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

There have been on-going efforts for increasing coastal resilience to the risk of coastal inundation as a result of sea-level rise in Washington. Accurate coastal risk projection depends on detailed and accurate information of sea level rise, including waves and storm surge induced by windstorms. This paper presents a modeling study simulating wind-induced waves in the Salish Sea. A nested-grid modeling approach was used to provide accurate and robust model simulations at various scales. The NOAA NCEP’s WaveWatch III (WW3) model is configured at global and regional scales with wind forcing obtained from the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR ...


Understanding And Managing Underwater Noise From Vessel Activities, Michelle Sanders, Jeff Pelton 2018 Transport Canada, Canada

Understanding And Managing Underwater Noise From Vessel Activities, Michelle Sanders, Jeff Pelton

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Part B Presentation Topic: Understanding and Managing Underwater Noise from Vessel Activities. Abstract A complex mix of threats have resulted in nineteen of Canada’s whale populations being listed under the Species at Risk Act, including eight as endangered. Factors such as insufficient access to food, contaminants, and acoustic and physical disturbance – including vessel noise and vessel strikes - have contributed to population declines and hindered recovery, particularly for three of these endangered species - the Southern Resident Killer Whale (SRKW), the St. Lawrence Estuary Beluga, and the North Atlantic Right Whale. In November 2016, the Prime Minister of Canada launched the ...


From Data To Decisions: Navigating The “So What?” And “What’S Next?” Conversation Around Nearshore Data, Dawn Spilsbury Pucci 2018 Island County, United States

From Data To Decisions: Navigating The “So What?” And “What’S Next?” Conversation Around Nearshore Data, Dawn Spilsbury Pucci

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Ever wonder what happens to all those data being collected? In Island County, we are fortunate to be the focus of a plethora of data collection efforts. We have comprehensive nearshore assessments that describe where our habitats are and how those habitats are built. We have habitat assessments that are a collaborative effort between citizen science groups and state agencies. We have long-term status and trends data sets on intertidal habitats and presence for a few specific species. We have a high resolution shoreline armor dataset and we have a predictive probability model for coastal flood risk. But what do ...


Techniques For Understory Kelp Salvage And Recolonization Of Disturbed Sites To Mitigate Temporal Habitat Loss, Ashley Park, Gina Lemieux, Brian Emmett, Doug McMillan, Peter Troffe, Shauna Davis, Michael Bodman, Mike Waters, Cliff Robinson 2018 Archipelago Marine Research Ltd., Canada

Techniques For Understory Kelp Salvage And Recolonization Of Disturbed Sites To Mitigate Temporal Habitat Loss, Ashley Park, Gina Lemieux, Brian Emmett, Doug Mcmillan, Peter Troffe, Shauna Davis, Michael Bodman, Mike Waters, Cliff Robinson

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Defence Construction Canada, on behalf of the Department of National Defence (DND), undertook dredging in Constance Cove, Esquimalt Harbour, as part of DND's multi-year, harbour-wide sediment remediation program. One of the mitigation measures recently implemented with the Constance Cove remedial dredging is the salvage of understory kelp within the project's dredge footprint prior to the dredging; the relocation of salvaged material to a temporary storage area, and restocking once construction is complete. These kelp salvage measures are intended to address impacts of temporal fish habitat loss due to dredging activities in an area with an existing kelp bed ...


Urban-Related Distribution Patterns Of An Iconic Salish Sea Mesopredator, The Giant Pacific Octopus (Enteroctopus Dofleini), Eliza C. Heery, Amy G. Olsen, Blake E. Feist, Kenneth P. Sebens 2018 National Univ. of Singapore, Singapore

Urban-Related Distribution Patterns Of An Iconic Salish Sea Mesopredator, The Giant Pacific Octopus (Enteroctopus Dofleini), Eliza C. Heery, Amy G. Olsen, Blake E. Feist, Kenneth P. Sebens

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Like many coastal areas globally, the Salish Sea has undergone rapid urbanization over recent decades. Terrestrial research suggests urbanization facilitates a variety of mesopredators by enhancing food and shelter resources and by limiting apex predation. Yet urbanization’s effect on mesopredators in the marine environment has rarely been examined. The giant Pacific octopus, Enteroctopus dofleini, is an iconic mesopredator of the Pacific Northwest due to its size and cognition, and is thought to reach a particularly large maximum size in inland waters of the Salish Sea. We examined the spatial distribution patterns and habitat use of giant Pacific octopus in ...


Did The Rules Work? An Assessment On The Effectiveness Of Federal Vessel Regulations For Southern Resident Killer Whales, Teresa Mongillo, Grace Ferrara, Lynne Barre 2018 NOAA Fisheries, United States

Did The Rules Work? An Assessment On The Effectiveness Of Federal Vessel Regulations For Southern Resident Killer Whales, Teresa Mongillo, Grace Ferrara, Lynne Barre

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Southern Resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the Pacific Northwest are the principal target species for a commercial whale watch industry and encounter a variety of other vessels in their urban environment. The population was listed as endangered in 2005 due to limited prey, high levels of contaminants, and disturbance from vessels and sound. There has been a growing body of evidence documenting effects from vessels on small cetaceans and other marine mammals including behavioral disturbance, physiological impacts, and acoustic interference. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Recovery Plan identified actions to address vessel impacts, including vessel regulations. In 2011 ...


Recent Progress Toward Reducing Seawalls In Puget Sound, Doris Small, Hugh Shipman, Jenna Jewett, Nathalie Hamel 2018 Washington Dept. of Fish and Wildlife, United States

Recent Progress Toward Reducing Seawalls In Puget Sound, Doris Small, Hugh Shipman, Jenna Jewett, Nathalie Hamel

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Recovery efforts for Puget Sound have focused on improving shoreline function by reducing seawalls (e.g. rock and concrete bank protection) and encouraging alternatives, such as soft shore protection. Shoreline armor was one of the key stressors identified by the Puget Sound Partnership in 2010 to protect and restore habitat. Armor is one of the Puget Sound Vital Signs, those measures used by the Puget Sound Partnership to track ecosystem health. One of the targets associated with the Vital Sign, a net reduction of the total extent of armor between 2011 and 2020, is tracked using the Hydraulic Project Approval ...


Lessons From Long Time-Series Of Benthic Invertebrate Communities In The Southern Salish Sea, And An Expansion Of Parameters To Assess Nutrient Loading And Climate Change Pressures, Valerie Partridge, Margaret Dutch, Sandra Weakland, Dany Burgess, Angela Eagleston 2018 Washington State Dept. of Ecology, United States

Lessons From Long Time-Series Of Benthic Invertebrate Communities In The Southern Salish Sea, And An Expansion Of Parameters To Assess Nutrient Loading And Climate Change Pressures, Valerie Partridge, Margaret Dutch, Sandra Weakland, Dany Burgess, Angela Eagleston

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Changes in habitat and benthic invertebrates indicate responses of the ecosystem to stressors. Since 1989, the Washington State Department of Ecology has monitored sediments and benthic invertebrate communities annually at ten sentinel stations. This is a unique and important dataset, providing yearly insights into benthic community structure and abundance cycles of individual species. Except where events destabilized the habitats and communities, the sediments at these ten long-term stations, and the invertebrate communities inhabiting them, have largely remained stable over time, though with some drift and cycles in species composition and abundance. A few of these long-term stations, however, have experienced ...


Application Of Genomics To Develop A Monitoring Tool For Stormwater Treatment Wetlands, Jessica LeNoble, Chris Johnston, James Atwater, Susan Baldwin 2018 Kerr Wood Leidal, Canada

Application Of Genomics To Develop A Monitoring Tool For Stormwater Treatment Wetlands, Jessica Lenoble, Chris Johnston, James Atwater, Susan Baldwin

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

Urban stormwater treatment wetlands benefit communities because they filter pollutants from receiving waters and provide habitat for urban wildlife and birds. The installation of wetlands is often avoided because stormwater quality is highly variable, which makes it both challenging and expensive to ensure that the wetlands are effectively mitigating the impacts of stormwater runoff. For decades, macroscopic species, such as benthic invertebrates, have been used as biological indicators of watershed health. With recent advancements in genomics (the branch of science that studies the function and structure of DNA within a single cell), it may now be feasible to use microscopic ...


A Collaborative Approach For Evaluating Agricultural Contributions To Nonpoint Source Pollution In The Deschutes Watershed, South Puget Sound, Stephen Bramwell, Nicole Warren 2018 Washington State Univ., United States

A Collaborative Approach For Evaluating Agricultural Contributions To Nonpoint Source Pollution In The Deschutes Watershed, South Puget Sound, Stephen Bramwell, Nicole Warren

Salish Sea Ecosystem Conference

The 2015 Deschutes River Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) report by the Washington State Department of Ecology (ECY) recommended actions to improve water quality parameters in this watershed, including reduction of agricultural non-point source pollution. Farmers in the watershed were suspected of contributing to violations of state water quality standards for fecal coliform and nutrient loading, among other parameters, but basic information on crop production, livestock numbers and stocking rates, and the presence or absence of exclusion fencing, among other data, was unavailable. A local research effort was initiated in 2016 to address these issues. A local collaboration was established ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress