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Elevated Moisture Stimulates Carbon Loss From Mineral Soils By Releasing Protected Organic Matter, Wenjuan Huang, Steven J. Hall 2018 Iowa State University

Elevated Moisture Stimulates Carbon Loss From Mineral Soils By Releasing Protected Organic Matter, Wenjuan Huang, Steven J. Hall

Steven J. Hall

Moisture response functions for soil microbial carbon (C) mineralization remain a critical uncertainty for predicting ecosystem-climate feedbacks. Theory and models posit that C mineralization declines under elevated moisture and associated anaerobic conditions, leading to soil C accumulation. Yet, iron (Fe) reduction potentially releases protected C, providing an under-appreciated mechanism for C destabilization under elevated moisture. Here we incubate Mollisols from ecosystems under C3/C4 plant rotations at moisture levels at and above field capacity over 5 months. Increased moisture and anaerobiosis initially suppress soil C mineralization, consistent with theory. However, after 25 days, elevated moisture stimulates cumulative gaseous C-loss as ...


Erratum To Blahnik And Holzenthal (2017): Revision Of The Northern South American Species Of Mortoniella Ulmer, 1906 (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae: Protoptilinae), Roger J. Blahnik, Ralph W. Holzenthal 2018 University of Minnesota

Erratum To Blahnik And Holzenthal (2017): Revision Of The Northern South American Species Of Mortoniella Ulmer, 1906 (Trichoptera: Glossosomatidae: Protoptilinae), Roger J. Blahnik, Ralph W. Holzenthal

Insecta Mundi

After publication of Blahnik and Holzenthal (2017), it was noticed that a large portion of the text had been accidentally removed from the “Phylogenetic and evolutionary comments” section during the proofing stage. The beginning of the deleted section completes the sentence on line 6 of page 129, which begins “The species included in the subgenus...”. The Insecta Mundi editorial staff apologizes for this oversight. In order to provide context for the deleted excerpt, the entire “Phylogenetic and evolutionary comments” section is reproduced here, with the deleted text reincorporated. Insecta Mundi has also released a revised version of the Blahnik and ...


A Social–Ecological Perspective For Riverscape Management In The Columbia River Basin, Brian K. Hand, Courtney G. Flint, Chris A. Frissell, Clint C. Muhlfeld, Shawn P. Devlin, Brian P. Kennedy, Robert L. Crabtree, W. Arthur McKee, Gordon Luikart, Jack A. Stanford 2018 The University Of Montana

A Social–Ecological Perspective For Riverscape Management In The Columbia River Basin, Brian K. Hand, Courtney G. Flint, Chris A. Frissell, Clint C. Muhlfeld, Shawn P. Devlin, Brian P. Kennedy, Robert L. Crabtree, W. Arthur Mckee, Gordon Luikart, Jack A. Stanford

Sociology, Social Work and Anthropology Faculty Publications

Riverscapes are complex, landscape-scale mosaics of connected river and stream habitats embedded in diverse ecological and socioeconomic settings. Social–ecological interactions among stakeholders often complicate natural-resource conservation and management of riverscapes. The management challenges posed by the conservation and restoration of wild salmonid populations in the Columbia River Basin (CRB) of western North America are one such example. Because of their ecological, cultural, and socioeconomic importance, salmonids present a complex management landscape due to interacting environmental factors (eg climate change, invasive species) as well as socioeconomic and political factors (eg dams, hatcheries, land-use change, transboundary agreements). Many of the problems ...


Scale-Dependent Linkages Between Nitrate Isotopes And Denitrification In Surface Soils: Implications For Isotope Measurements And Models, Steven J. Hall, Samantha R. Weintraub, David Bowling 2018 Iowa State University

Scale-Dependent Linkages Between Nitrate Isotopes And Denitrification In Surface Soils: Implications For Isotope Measurements And Models, Steven J. Hall, Samantha R. Weintraub, David Bowling

Steven J. Hall

Natural abundance nitrate (NO3−) isotopes represent a powerful tool for assessing denitrification, yet the scale and context dependence of relationships between isotopes and denitrification have received little attention, especially in surface soils. We measured the NO3−isotope compositions in soil extractions and lysimeter water from a semi-arid meadow and lawn during snowmelt, along with the denitrification potential, bulk O2, and a proxy for anaerobic microsites. Denitrification potential varied by three orders of magnitude and the slope of δ18O/δ15N in soil-extracted NO3− from all samples measured 1.04 ± 0.12 (R2 = 0.64, p < 0.0001), consistent with fractionation from denitrification. However, δ15N of extracted NO3− was often lower than bulk soil δ15N (by up to 24 ‰), indicative of fractionation during nitrification that was partially overprinted by denitrification. Mean NO3− isotopes in lysimeter water differed from soil extractions by up to 19 ‰ in δ18O and 12 ‰ in δ15N, indicating distinct biogeochemical processing in relatively mobile water versus soil microsites. This implies that NO3− isotopes in streams, which are predominantly fed by mobile water, do not fully reflect terrestrial soil N cycling. Relationships between potential denitrification and δ15N of extracted NO3− showed a strong threshold effect culminating in a null relationship at high denitrification rates. Our observations of (1) competing fractionation from nitrification and denitrification in redox-heterogeneous surface soils, (2) large NO3− isotopic differences between relatively immobile and mobile water pools, (3) and the spatial dependence of δ18O/δ15N relationships suggest caution in using NO3− isotopes to infer site or watershed-scale patterns in denitrification.


Drivers And Patterns Of Iron Redox Cycling From Surface To Bedrock In A Deep Tropical Forest 1 Soil: A New Conceptual Model, Steven J. Hall, Daniel Liptzin, Heather L. Buss, Kristen DeAngelis, Whendee L. Silver 2018 Iowa State University

Drivers And Patterns Of Iron Redox Cycling From Surface To Bedrock In A Deep Tropical Forest 1 Soil: A New Conceptual Model, Steven J. Hall, Daniel Liptzin, Heather L. Buss, Kristen Deangelis, Whendee L. Silver

Steven J. Hall

Iron (Fe) reduction and oxidation are important biogeochemical processes coupled to decomposition, nutrient cycling, and mineral weathering, but factors controlling their rates and spatial distribution with depth are poorly understood in terrestrial soils. In aquatic ecosystems, Fe reduction often occurs below a zone of oxic sediments. We tested an alternative conceptual model for Fe redox cycling in terrestrial soils using a deep humid tropical forest soil profile. We hypothesized that Fe reduction in anaerobic microsites scales with depth variation in labile C and Fe availability, as opposed to bulk oxygen (O2). We measured bulk O2 at multiple depths from 0 ...


Is There A Link Between Aging And Microbiome Diversity In Exceptional Mammalian Longevity?, Graham M. Hughes, John Leech, Sebastien J. Puechmaille, Jose V. Lopez, Emma C. Teeling 2018 University College Dublin - Ireland

Is There A Link Between Aging And Microbiome Diversity In Exceptional Mammalian Longevity?, Graham M. Hughes, John Leech, Sebastien J. Puechmaille, Jose V. Lopez, Emma C. Teeling

Biology Faculty Articles

A changing microbiome has been linked to biological aging in mice and humans, suggesting a possible role of gut flora in pathogenic aging phenotypes. Many bat species have exceptional longevity given their body size and some can live up to ten times longer than expected with little signs of aging. This study explores the anal microbiome of the exceptionally long-lived Myotis myotis bat, investigating bacterial composition in both adult and juvenile bats to determine if the microbiome changes with age in a wild, long-lived non-model organism, using non-lethal sampling. The anal microbiome was sequenced using metabarcoding in more than 50 ...


Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham MacWilliams 2018 Pomona College

Potential For Climate Induced Methane Hydrate Dissociation, Graham Macwilliams

Pomona Senior Theses

Methane hydrates are frozen deposits of methane and water found in high pressure or low temperature sediments. When these deposits destabilize, large quantities of methane can be emitted into the atmosphere. This is significant to climate change because methane has 25 times more greenhouse gas potential than Carbon Dioxide. Worldwide, it is estimated there are between 2500 and 10000 gigatons of methane stored in hydrate deposits. This represents more carbon than all fossil fuels on Earth. It is estimated that between 200 and 2000 gigatons of methane are stored in hydrates in Arctic waters acutely vulnerable to greenhouse warming. Over ...


Data: Pre-Fire Disturbance History Modulates Relationships Between Ground Cover And Post-Fire Conifer Regeneration, Nathan Gill, Dan Jarvis, Tom Veblen, John Rogan, Dominik Kulakowski 2018 Clark University

Data: Pre-Fire Disturbance History Modulates Relationships Between Ground Cover And Post-Fire Conifer Regeneration, Nathan Gill, Dan Jarvis, Tom Veblen, John Rogan, Dominik Kulakowski

Student Works

Understory vegetation and ground cover drive many important ecosystem processes, including tree seedling regeneration. The exact effect of ground cover on tree seedling establishment, survival, and growth depends on biophysical context. In subalpine forests, this context is largely determined by disturbances such as beetle outbreak, blowdown, and fire. Compounded disturbances that overlap in short succession can alter stand properties and trajectories in ways that are not predictable from the additive impact of individual disturbances. The aim of this study is to examine how compounded Dendroctonus rufipennis (spruce beetle; SB) outbreak followed by fire and compounded wind blowdown followed by fire ...


Muskrats, James E. Miller 2018 Mississippi State University

Muskrats, James E. Miller

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

The muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) is a common, semi-aquatic rodent native to the United States (Figure 1). It spends its life in aquatic habitats and is well adapted for swimming.

Although muskrats are an important part of native ecosystems, their burrowing and foraging activities can damage agricultural crops, native marshes and water control systems, such as aquaculture and farm ponds and levees. Such damage can significantly impact agricultural crops like rice that rely on consistent water levels for growth.

Muskrats also cause damage by eating agricultural crops, other vegetation, and crayfish, mussels and other aquaculture products. Loss of vegetation from muskrat ...


Wild Turkeys, James E. Miller 2018 Mississippi State University

Wild Turkeys, James E. Miller

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Like other bird and mammal species whose populations have been restored through conservation efforts, wild turkeys (Figure 1) are treasured by many recreationists and outdoor enthusiasts. Wild turkeys have responded positively to wildlife habitat and population management. In some areas, however, their increased populations have led to increased damage to property and agricultural crops, and threats to human health and safety. Turkeys frequent agricultural fields, pastures, vineyards and orchards, as well as some urban and suburban neighborhoods. Because of this, they may cause damage or mistakenly be blamed for damage. Research has found that despite increases in turkey numbers and ...


If Nonhuman Animals Can Suicide, Why Don’T They?, C. A. Soper, Todd K. Shackelford 2018 University of Gloucestershire, England

If Nonhuman Animals Can Suicide, Why Don’T They?, C. A. Soper, Todd K. Shackelford

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

An evolutionary analysis suggests that selection is unlikely to have tolerated the capacity for intentional self-killing in nonhuman animals. The potential to escape pain by suicide would have presented a recurrent and severe adaptive problem for an animal with a reproductive future to protect. If the potential for suicide arose in the evolutionary past, anti-suicide mechanisms may have co-evolved, as we believe they have in adult humans. Peña-Guzmán’s (2017) argument that some nonhuman animals can suicide is incomplete without an account of the defences that result in the vast majority opting not to.


Taming The Beast—A Community Teaching Material Resource For Beast 2, Joelle Barido-Sottani, Veronika Boskova, Louis du Plessis, Denise Kuhnert, Carsten Magnus, Venelin Mitov, Nicola F. Muller, Julia Pecerska, David A. Rasmussen, Chi Zhang, Alexei J. Drummond, Tracy A. Heath, Oliver G. Pybus, Timothy G. Vaughan, Tanja Stadler 2018 ETH Zurich

Taming The Beast—A Community Teaching Material Resource For Beast 2, Joelle Barido-Sottani, Veronika Boskova, Louis Du Plessis, Denise Kuhnert, Carsten Magnus, Venelin Mitov, Nicola F. Muller, Julia Pecerska, David A. Rasmussen, Chi Zhang, Alexei J. Drummond, Tracy A. Heath, Oliver G. Pybus, Timothy G. Vaughan, Tanja Stadler

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Phylogenetics and phylodynamics are central topics in modern evolutionary biology. Phylogenetic methods reconstruct the evolutionary relationships among organisms, whereas phylodynamic approaches reveal the underlying diversification processes that lead to the observed relationships. These two fields have many practical applications in disciplines as diverse as epidemiology, developmental biology, palaeontology, ecology, and linguistics. The combination of increasingly large genetic data sets and increases in computing power is facilitating the development of more sophisticated phylogenetic and phylodynamic methods. Big data sets allow us to answer complex questions. However, since the required analyses are highly specific to the particular data set and question, a ...


Effects Of The Floral Phytochemical Eugenol On Parasite Evolution And Bumble Bee Infection And Preference, Evan C. Palmer-Young, Austin C. Calhoun, Anastasiya Mirzayeva, Benn M. Sadd 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Effects Of The Floral Phytochemical Eugenol On Parasite Evolution And Bumble Bee Infection And Preference, Evan C. Palmer-Young, Austin C. Calhoun, Anastasiya Mirzayeva, Benn M. Sadd

Organismic and Evolutionary Biology Graduate Student Publication Series

Ecological and evolutionary pressures on hosts and parasites jointly determine infection success. In pollinators, parasite exposure to floral phytochemicals may influence between-host transmission and within-host replication. In the bumble bee parasite Crithidia bombi, strains vary in phytochemical resistance, and resistance increases under in vitro selection, implying that resistance/infectivity trade-offs could maintain intraspecific variation in resistance. We assessed costs and benefits of in vitro selection for resistance to the floral phytochemical eugenol on C. bombi infection in Bombus impatiens fed eugenol-rich and eugenol-free diets. We also assessed infection-induced changes in host preferences for eugenol. In vitro, eugenol-exposed cells initially increased ...


Examination Of Orthologous Genes (Mrub_2518 And B3728, Mrub_2519 And B3727, Mrub_2520 And B3726, Mrub_2521 And B3725) Responsible For Abc Phosphate Transporters In Two Species M. Ruber And E. Coli, Margaret Meyer, Dr. Lori Scott 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Examination Of Orthologous Genes (Mrub_2518 And B3728, Mrub_2519 And B3727, Mrub_2520 And B3726, Mrub_2521 And B3725) Responsible For Abc Phosphate Transporters In Two Species M. Ruber And E. Coli, Margaret Meyer, Dr. Lori Scott

Meiothermus ruber Genome Analysis Project

In this project we investigated the biological function of the genes b3725, b3726, b3727, b3728 and Mrub_2518, Mrub_2519, Mrub_2520 and Mrub_2521 (KEGG map number 02010). We predict that these genes encode the components of a Phosphate ABC transporter: Orthologous genes Mrub_2518 (DNA coordinates 2565359..2566438) and b3728 encodes the periplasmic phosphate binding component; Orthologous genes Mrub_2519 (DNA coordinates 2566499..2567485) and b3727, and Mrub_2520 (DNA coordinates 2567496..2568326) and b3726 encode for the two transmembrane proteins; Orthologous genes Mrub_2521 (DNA coordinates 2568338..2569159) and b3725 encode for the ATP binding protein within the cytoplasm. Within the two species, M. ruber ...


Mrub_0680, Mrub_0836, And Mrub_0837 Found To Be Orthologous To E. Coli Ccma, Ccmb, And Ccmc, Respectively, Coding For Abc-Transport Proteins Involved In Cytochrome-C Biogenesis, Sarah N. Church, Dr. Lori Scott 2018 Augustana College, Rock Island Illinois

Mrub_0680, Mrub_0836, And Mrub_0837 Found To Be Orthologous To E. Coli Ccma, Ccmb, And Ccmc, Respectively, Coding For Abc-Transport Proteins Involved In Cytochrome-C Biogenesis, Sarah N. Church, Dr. Lori Scott

Meiothermus ruber Genome Analysis Project

In this project we investigated the biological function of the genes Mrub_0680, Mrub_0836 and Mrub_0837(KEGG map number 02010). We predict these genes encode components of a Heme ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter: 1) Mrub_0836 (DNA coordinates 823734..824399on the reverse strand) encodes the permease component (aka transmembrane domain), predicted to be an ortho; and 2) Mrub_0680(DNA coordinates 659484..660071 on the reverse strand) encodes the ATP-binding domain (aka nucleotide binding domain); and 3) Mrub_0837(DNA coordinates 824570..825262on the reverse strand) encodes the solute binding protein. This gene system encodes a transmembrane exporter and helper proteins ...


Caterpillar/Basil-Plant Tandems, Paco Calvo 2018 University of Murcia

Caterpillar/Basil-Plant Tandems, Paco Calvo

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

According to Reber (2016), subjectivity springs from primitive life itself. Granting his non-neurocentric stance, I shall try to show that his framework falls prey to zoocentric preconceptions that divest certain non-animal life-forms of mentality. There is no reason to exclude the possibility that plants have evolved different structures that underlie their own subjective experiences, all according to Reber’s model. It is the degree of phenotypic flexibility and integration that we observe in the behavioral repertoire of plants that may end up supporting their capacity for subjective experience. This remains an open empirical question.


Sentient Plants? Nervous Minds?, Arthur S. Reber 2018 University of British Columbia

Sentient Plants? Nervous Minds?, Arthur S. Reber

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

The commentaries by Calvo (2018) and Mallatt & Feinberg (2017) on my 2016 target branch out from a common conceptual node like forks in a road. Calvo criticizes me for not acknowledging that plants too are likely to be sentient and claims I have fallen into the kind of category error of which I accuse others ─ a zoocentric bias that fails to grant consciousness to flora. Mallatt & Feinberg maintain that I've gone too far in granting sentience to any species that lacks a nervous system. Calvo makes some good points but there are other issues concerning plant sentience such as ...


Chickens Play To The Crowd, Cinzia Chiandetti 2018 University of Trieste, Department of Life Sciences

Chickens Play To The Crowd, Cinzia Chiandetti

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

The time was ripe for Marino’s review of chickens’ cognitive capacities. The research community, apart from expressing gratitude for Marino’s work, should now use it to increase public awareness of chickens’ abilities. People’s views on many animals are ill-informed. Scientists need to communicate and engage with the public about the relevance and societal implications of their findings.


Continuum And Temporality, Gerard Kuperus 2018 University of San Francisco

Continuum And Temporality, Gerard Kuperus

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

I fully support the continuum proposed in the target article and argue along the same lines that we should be suspicious of drawing any strict borders between human and non-human animals. Since we can say very little with absolute certainty about human intentions regarding suicide, we have no certainty about the intentions of non-human animals. Although I am very sympathetic to Peña-Guzmán’s overall argument, I suggest that time could be taken into consideration as well.


Animal Suicide And "Anthropodenial", Ryan Hediger 2018 Kent State University - Tuscarawas Campus

Animal Suicide And "Anthropodenial", Ryan Hediger

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Increasing understanding of the impressive cognitive and social capacities of nonhuman animals suggests the possibility that they may sometimes commit suicide. Such notions tend to be dismissed as “anthropomorphism.” That interpretive hazard, I argue, must be weighed against the opposite hazard of “anthropodenial” — “the a priori rejection of shared characteristics between humans and animals” (de Waal 2006). If animals do commit suicide, how often is it motivated precisely by the impact of humans on animal life?


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