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What Do We Owe Animals As Persons?, Judith Benz-Schwarzburg 2016 Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna

What Do We Owe Animals As Persons?, Judith Benz-Schwarzburg

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Rowlands (2016) concentrates strictly on the metaphysical concept of person, but his notion of animal personhood bears a moral dimension (Monsó, 2016). His definition of pre-reflective self-awareness has a focus on sentience and on the lived body of a person as well as on her implicit awareness of her own goals. Interestingly, these also play a key role in animal welfare science, as well as in animal rights theories that value the interests of animals. Thus, Rowlands’s concept shows connectivity with both major fields of animal ethics. His metaphysical arguments might indeed contain a strong answer to the question ...


Behavioral Differences Between Native And Exotic Invertebrate Prey Affect Susceptibility To Predation By A Native Amphibian Predator, Zachary Cava 2016 State University of New York College at Buffalo

Behavioral Differences Between Native And Exotic Invertebrate Prey Affect Susceptibility To Predation By A Native Amphibian Predator, Zachary Cava

Biology Theses

Invasive species threaten global biodiversity via mechanisms that include altering the dynamics and structure of native food webs. Whereas much research has focused on how exotic species respond to native predators, less is known about how native predators are affected by invasive prey. Here I investigate the response of a rare and threatened native predator—the Eastern Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) to a high-profile invasive crayfish species, Orconectes rusticus. Hellbenders have declined throughout much of their range, and although the potential for exotic predators (i.e. sport fish) to negatively impact C. alleganiensis has been addressed, effects of exotic prey on ...


Turtles: The Animal Answer Guide, Fredric J. Janzen 2016 Iowa State University

Turtles: The Animal Answer Guide, Fredric J. Janzen

Fredric Janzen

Turtles are among the most universally adored organisms. They exhibit an instantly recognizable morphology, yet lead lives that are cryptic to the casual observer, thus questions naturally surface regarding all sorts of aspects of their biology and history. In the absence of informed experience, mythic explanations have arisen and even become entrenched culturally, often doing no favor to the turtles or to turtle biologists who must combat such nonsense on behalf of the animals. Into this informational void appears this volume prepared by the expert authors, with the assistance of many knowledgeable colleagues.


Evolutionary Genetics: From Molecules To Morphology, Fredric J. Janzen 2016 Iowa State University

Evolutionary Genetics: From Molecules To Morphology, Fredric J. Janzen

Fredric Janzen

The past 35 years have witnessed a revolution in evolutionary genetics that, like the proverbial The Little Engine that Could going over the mountain pass, shows no signs of slowing, much less stopping. To a considerable extent, we owe much to one per­ son, Richard Lewontin, for getting this little train over the hump and conducting it while the masses have shoveled coal into the boiler. Indeed, few have had such a substantive and pervasive impact on evolutionary biology in general, and so this edited volume is a welcome and well-deserved tribute to the powerful and varied influence of Lewontin ...


The North American Geese: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The North American Geese: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

The eight currently recognized species of North American geese are part of a familiar group of birds collectively called waterfowl, all of which are smaller than swans and generally larger than ducks. They include the most popular of our aquatic gamebirds, with several million shot each year by sport hunters. Our two most abundant waterfowl, the Canada goose and snow goose, have populations collectively totaling about 15 million individuals. Like swans, the lifelong pairbonding of geese, their familial care, and prolonged social attachment to their offspring are legendary. Their seasonal migratory flights sometimes span thousands of miles, and the sight ...


"Beyond Words," Yes, But Also Beyond Numbers, Fred L. Bookstein 2016 University of Washington - Seattle Campus

"Beyond Words," Yes, But Also Beyond Numbers, Fred L. Bookstein

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Safina’s fascinating series of fifty separate feuilletons tries to bridge a painful Methodenstreit in contemporary ethology mainly by an accumulation of anecdotes. Some deal with his own dogs, but most derive from reading or conversing with observers of a wider range of social mammals including elephants, wolves, apes, and whales. In spite of the many interruptions by travesties of the academic lifestyle and its literature, there is a point to be made, concerning the centrality of evidence about cooperative behavior styles, especially aspects of child-rearing, for the understanding of “what animals think and feel.” But Safina’s argument would ...


Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew C. Leach, Karl A. Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John P. Gluck, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens 2016 Tufts University

Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew C. Leach, Karl A. Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John P. Gluck, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

Pain and distress are central topics in legislation, regulations, and standards regarding the use of animals in research. However, in practice, pain has received greatly increased attention in recent years, while attention to distress has lagged far behind, especially for distress that is not induced by pain. A contributing factor is that there is less information readily available on distress, including practical information on its recognition, assessment and alleviation.

This chapter attempts to help fill that void by reversing the usual pattern and giving greater attention to distress than to pain. In addition, we also bypass the pain versus distress ...


Proximate And Evolutionary Causes Of Sexual Size Dimorphism In The Crab Spider Mecaphesa Celer, Marie Claire Chelini 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Proximate And Evolutionary Causes Of Sexual Size Dimorphism In The Crab Spider Mecaphesa Celer, Marie Claire Chelini

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Animal species’ body sizes result from the balance between selection for survival and selection for reproduction. In species with sexual size dimorphism (SSD), this balance differs between females and males, resulting in distinct sizes despite similar constraints. I used an integrative approach to understand how sexual section, and differences in developmental trajectories and metabolic physiology, resulted in the female biased SSD of the crab spider Mecaphesa celer (Thomisidae). SSD in spiders is often assumed to be a consequence of selection for early male maturation, which should provide males with additional mating opportunities. My results allow us to discard mate choice ...


The Importance Of Ants In Cave Ecology, With New Records And Behavioral Observations Of Ants In Arizona Caves, Robert B. Pape 2016 University of Arizona

The Importance Of Ants In Cave Ecology, With New Records And Behavioral Observations Of Ants In Arizona Caves, Robert B. Pape

International Journal of Speleology

The importance of ants as elements in cave ecology has been mostly unrecognized. A global list of ant species recorded from caves, compiled from a review of existing literature, is presented. This paper also reviews what is currently known about ants occurring in Arizona (USA) caves. The diversity and distribution represented in these records suggests ants are relatively common cave visitors (trogloxenes). A general utilization of caves by ants within both temperate and tropical latitudes may be inferred from this combined evidence. Observations of ant behavior in Arizona caves demonstrate a low level and sporadic, but persistent, use of these ...


Range-Wide Patterns Of Geographic Variation In Songs Of Golden-Crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia Atricapilla), Daizaburo Shizuka, M Ross Lein, Glen Chilton 2016 University of Chicago

Range-Wide Patterns Of Geographic Variation In Songs Of Golden-Crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia Atricapilla), Daizaburo Shizuka, M Ross Lein, Glen Chilton

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Discrete geographic variation, or dialects, in songs of songbirds arise as a consequence of complex interactions between ecology and song learning. Four of the five species of Zonotrichia sparrows, including the model species White-crowned Sparrow (Z. leucophrys), have been studied with respect to the causes and consequences of geographic variation in song. Within White-crowned Sparrows, subspecies that migrate farther have larger range size of dialects. Here, we assessed geographic patterns of song variation in the fifth species of this genus, the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Z. atricapilla). We analyzed field-recorded songs from 2 sampling periods (1996–1998 and 2006–2013) covering most ...


The North American Grouse: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The North American Grouse: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

The ten currently recognized species of grouse in North America have played an important role in America’s history, from the famous but ill-fated heath hen, a primary source of meat for the earliest New England immigrants, to the ruffed grouse, currently one of the most abundant and soughtafter upland game birds in more than 40 states and provinces. This book summarizes the ecology, reproductive biology, and social behavior of all ten of the extant North American grouse species. It also describes the current status of grouse populations, some of which are perilously close to extinction. The social behavior of ...


Animal Pain, Bernard E. Rollin 2016 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Animal Pain, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, Ph.D.

Some time ago, I received a telephone call from an eminent primatologist asking me to give the keynote address at a scientific seminar on animal pain. My first response was to express surprise that they were inviting a philosopher. His reply was remarkable, if only for its rarity among scientists: "The truly interesting and important issues concerning pain in animals are not scientific ones," he said. "They are moral, philosophical, and conceptual ones. And the total failure of science to engage or even acknowledge these issues discredits biomedical science and weakens its conceptual base." I hope to show you that ...


Stopover Ecology Of Ruby-Throated Hummingbirds (Archilochus Colubris) During Autumn Migration, Theodore Joseph Zenzal Jr 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Stopover Ecology Of Ruby-Throated Hummingbirds (Archilochus Colubris) During Autumn Migration, Theodore Joseph Zenzal Jr

Dissertations

The Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) is one of the smallest Nearctic-Neotropical migrants and the only species of hummingbird that breeds in Eastern North America, yet few studies have investigated the biology of Ruby-throated Hummingbirds when they stopover during migration. Given their small size, high metabolism, aggression, and specialized diet, hummingbirds may represent a migrant that operates on the physiological edge. Therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence their stopover as well as the decision to resume migration. Towards this end, Ruby-throated Hummingbirds were captured during autumn migration along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico to ...


Connecting The Physiological And Behavioral Response To Heat Stress On A Warming Planet, Anastasia Kalyta 2016 Chapman University

Connecting The Physiological And Behavioral Response To Heat Stress On A Warming Planet, Anastasia Kalyta

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Intertidal communities are considered good models of the biological effects of climate change on ecosystems, as their resident organisms are subjected to heat spells during daytime low tides. The increasing heat exposure can elicit behavioral as well as physiological responses in intertidal organisms. We studied the relationship between these responses to heat stress in the blue-banded hermit crab, Pagurus samuelis, by inducing a “heat shock” with elevated water temperature of 29 °C for 2.5 h. The behavioral effect of heat-shock was quantified using a 30-minute feeding assay, measuring the mass of a standard squid pellet consumed by individual hermit ...


Discrete But Variable Structure Of Animal Societies Leads To The False Perception Of A Social Continuum, Dustin R. Rubenstein, Carlos A. Botero, Eileen A. Lacey 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Discrete But Variable Structure Of Animal Societies Leads To The False Perception Of A Social Continuum, Dustin R. Rubenstein, Carlos A. Botero, Eileen A. Lacey

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Animal societies are typically divided into those in which reproduction within a group is monopolized by a single female versus those in which it is shared among multiple females. It remains controversial, however, whether these two forms of social structure represent distinct evolutionary outcomes or endpoints along a continuum of reproductive options. To address this issue and to determine whether vertebrates and insects exhibit the same patterns of variation in social structure, we examined the demographic and reproductive structures of 293 species of wasps, ants, birds and mammals. Using phylogenetically informed comparative analyses, we found strong evidence indicating that not ...


Comparative Evolutionary Approach To Pain Perception In Fishes, Culum Brown 2016 Macquarie University

Comparative Evolutionary Approach To Pain Perception In Fishes, Culum Brown

Culum Brown

Arguments against the fact that fish feel pain repeatedly appear even in the face of growing evidence that they do. The standards used to judge pain perception keep moving as the hurdles are repeatedly cleared by novel research findings. There is undoubtedly a vested commercial interest in proving that fish do not feel pain, so the topic has a half-life well past its due date. Key (2016) reiterates previous perspectives on this topic characterised by a black-or-white view that is based on the proposed role of the human cortex in pain perception. I argue that this is incongruent with our ...


Nocturnal Foraging Enhanced By Enlarged Secondary Eyes In A Net-Casting Spider, Jay A. Stafstrom, Eileen A. Hebets 2016 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Nocturnal Foraging Enhanced By Enlarged Secondary Eyes In A Net-Casting Spider, Jay A. Stafstrom, Eileen A. Hebets

Eileen Hebets Publications

Animals that possess extreme sensory structures are predicted to have a related extreme behavioral function. This study focuses on one such extreme sensory structure—the posterior median eyes of the net-casting spider Deinopis spinosa. Although past research has implicated the importance of vision in the nocturnal foraging habits of Deinopis, no direct link between vision in the enlarged eyes and nocturnal foraging has yet been made. To directly test the hypothesis that the enlarged posterior median eyes facilitate visually based nocturnal prey capture, we conducted repeated-measures, visual occlusion trials in both natural and laboratory settings. Our results indicate that D ...


The Role Of Hearing In The Brown Anole (Anolis Sagrei, Polychrotidae): A Behavioral Perspective, Lisa Ragan Cantwell 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

The Role Of Hearing In The Brown Anole (Anolis Sagrei, Polychrotidae): A Behavioral Perspective, Lisa Ragan Cantwell

Doctoral Dissertations

All animals are likely to encounter a predator during their lifetime. Prey can reduce their risk of predation by recognizing dangerous situations and modifying their behavior accordingly. Many animals are known to utilize auditory predator cues to assess risk. However, lizards have historically been assumed to emphasize vision to assess risk because most species do not vocalize and, therefore, do not themselves communicate using sound. I conducted a field experiment to investigate the ability of the brown anole (Anolis sagrei, Polychrotidae) to 1) use auditory cues to evaluate predation risk and 2) distinguish between threatening and non-threatening avian calls (Chapter ...


Estimating Avian Populations With Passive Acoustic Technology And Song Behavior, Stephanie C. Prevost 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Estimating Avian Populations With Passive Acoustic Technology And Song Behavior, Stephanie C. Prevost

Masters Theses

The need for improvements in avian wildlife monitoring efficiency, accuracy, and scope has led to use of new technologies such as autonomous recording units (ARUs). As a monitoring tool, passive acoustic recording has numerous benefits, but it is still limited to use in human-accessible areas. There is also need for monitoring technologies in areas that are inaccessible. Military installations, which host a disproportionately large number of threatened, endangered, and at-risk species compared to other federal lands, pose the accessibility problem with sizeable impact areas that are too hazardous for humans to access. This thesis introduces the Balloon Aerial Recording System ...


Psychological Aspects Of Slaughter: Reactions Of College Students To Killing And Butchering Cattle And Hogs, Harold A. Herzog Jr., Sandy McGee 2016 Mars Hill College

Psychological Aspects Of Slaughter: Reactions Of College Students To Killing And Butchering Cattle And Hogs, Harold A. Herzog Jr., Sandy Mcgee

Harold Herzog

This study examined the reactions of college students involved in slaughtering cattle and hogs as part of their jobs on a college work crew. The 27 students were surveyed on attitudes containing items toward slaughtering animals and toward different uses of animals. Nineteen were later interviewed. Some aspects of slaughtering were reported to be more bothersome than others. There was a relationship between the amount of experience of the subjects in slaughtering and also their general attitudes toward various uses of animals and their responses to several of the items on the questionnaire. The perceived benefits of the slaughtering experience ...


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