The Effect Of Physical Stress Signals On Conspecific Interactions In Green-And-Black Poison Frogs (Dendrobates Auratus), Gabriella E. Chan, Maxwell A. Kenyon, Summer Ngo, Lee B. Kats
Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium
Amphibian declines have been a major focus of the scientific community for nearly three decades. Many studies describe the leading causes of amphibian decline related to disease, with chytridiomycosis as the most notable example. However, little is known about behavioral conspecific interactions among ill or stressed amphibians, particularly neotropical species. Previous observational research on poison frogs determined that stressed Dendrobates auratus flip onto their backs in a reaction that is similar to fainting in other species. In this study, we examine conspecific interactions of green-and-black poison frogs (D. auratus) with “healthy” and “sick” model frogs, in order to determine a ...
Search Behavior And Selection Of Innate Chemosensory Cues By Cabbage White (Pieris Rapae) Larvae, 2018 Western Oregon University
Search Behavior And Selection Of Innate Chemosensory Cues By Cabbage White (Pieris Rapae) Larvae, Victoria Fliehr, Sarah Thompson, Erin Baumgartner
Chemoreception of the cues that allow a caterpillar to locate and select a specific host plant reflects evolutionary constraints. In a stable environment, the evolution of innate preferences for specific host plants can increase feeding efficiency through stimulus filtering in a noisy environment. However, food choice plasticity, including the learning of new food cues, can allow survival when a population is faced with a changing environment. We used the caterpillars of cabbage whites, Pieris rapae, to test the hypothesis that preference for innate food cues would be stronger than for learned food cues. P. rapae caterpillars have sensitivity to a ...
The Major Histocompatibility Complex In Song Sparrows: Immunity, Signals, And Mate Choice, 2018 The University of Western Ontario
The Major Histocompatibility Complex In Song Sparrows: Immunity, Signals, And Mate Choice, Joel W.G. Slade
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
In recent years, sexual selection theory has redefined genetic quality to consider not only additive genetic effects on fitness but also non-additive genetic effects, such as heterozygote advantage or disadvantage. In jawed vertebrates, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene family has been shown to exhibit both additive and non-additive genetic effects on fitness. MHC gene products are involved in initiating adaptive immune responses, and MHC genotype determines the range of pathogens to which an individual can respond. Therefore, parasite-mediated selection at MHC may favour locally-adapted, rare, or particular combination of alleles. Because heterozygote advantage at MHC is widespread, sexual selection ...
Mute Swans, 2018 USDA-APHIS Wildlife Services
Mute Swans, David R. Marks
Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series
Mute swans (Cygnus olor) are an invasive species originally brought to the United States in the late 19th and early 20th centuries for ornamental ponds and lakes, zoos and aviculture collections. Original populations were located in northeastern states along the Hudson Valley but have since expanded to several Midwestern states and portions of the western U.S. and Canada. Mute swan damage includes competing with native waterfowl, destroying native plants, spreading disease, and colliding with aircraft. They are also considered a nuisance in some areas due to their abundant fecal droppings and aggressiveness towards people.
Mute swans can impact ecosystems ...
Wild Sri Lankan Elephants Retreat From The Sound Of Disturbed Asian Honey Bees, 2018 University of Pennsylvania
Wild Sri Lankan Elephants Retreat From The Sound Of Disturbed Asian Honey Bees, Lucy King, Shermin De Silva
Shermin de Silva
No abstract provided.
Muskrats, 2018 Mississippi State University
Muskrats, James E. Miller
Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series
The muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus) is a common, semi-aquatic rodent native to the United States (Figure 1). It spends its life in aquatic habitats and is well adapted for swimming.
Although muskrats are an important part of native ecosystems, their burrowing and foraging activities can damage agricultural crops, native marshes and water control systems, such as aquaculture and farm ponds and levees. Such damage can significantly impact agricultural crops like rice that rely on consistent water levels for growth.
Muskrats also cause damage by eating agricultural crops, other vegetation, and crayfish, mussels and other aquaculture products. Loss of vegetation from muskrat ...
Wild Turkeys, 2018 Mississippi State University
Wild Turkeys, James E. Miller
Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series
Like other bird and mammal species whose populations have been restored through conservation efforts, wild turkeys (Figure 1) are treasured by many recreationists and outdoor enthusiasts. Wild turkeys have responded positively to wildlife habitat and population management. In some areas, however, their increased populations have led to increased damage to property and agricultural crops, and threats to human health and safety. Turkeys frequent agricultural fields, pastures, vineyards and orchards, as well as some urban and suburban neighborhoods. Because of this, they may cause damage or mistakenly be blamed for damage. Research has found that despite increases in turkey numbers and ...
Taming The Beast—A Community Teaching Material Resource For Beast 2, 2018 ETH Zurich
Taming The Beast—A Community Teaching Material Resource For Beast 2, Joelle Barido-Sottani, Veronika Boskova, Louis Du Plessis, Denise Kuhnert, Carsten Magnus, Venelin Mitov, Nicola F. Muller, Julia Pecerska, David A. Rasmussen, Chi Zhang, Alexei J. Drummond, Tracy A. Heath, Oliver G. Pybus, Timothy G. Vaughan, Tanja Stadler
Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications
Phylogenetics and phylodynamics are central topics in modern evolutionary biology. Phylogenetic methods reconstruct the evolutionary relationships among organisms, whereas phylodynamic approaches reveal the underlying diversification processes that lead to the observed relationships. These two fields have many practical applications in disciplines as diverse as epidemiology, developmental biology, palaeontology, ecology, and linguistics. The combination of increasingly large genetic data sets and increases in computing power is facilitating the development of more sophisticated phylogenetic and phylodynamic methods. Big data sets allow us to answer complex questions. However, since the required analyses are highly specific to the particular data set and question, a ...
Ecological Uncertainty Influences Vigilance As A Marker Of Fear, 2018 Concordia University
Ecological Uncertainty Influences Vigilance As A Marker Of Fear, Laurence E. A. Feyten, Grant E. Brown
Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling
We expand on the factors that may shape the predictability of risk and the potential impacts on the links between vigilance and fear, primarily in aquatic prey communities. Uncertainty in predation risks has been shown to induce increased levels of neophobia among prey. As a result of this phenotypically plastic response, prey are faced with risk assessment cues that may vary widely in their reliability. We argue that decomposing predictability may provide useful insights into the relationship between vigilance and fear.
Large Birds Of Prey, Policies That Alter Food Availability And Air Traffic: A Risky Mix For Human Safety, 2017 Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment. Spain
Large Birds Of Prey, Policies That Alter Food Availability And Air Traffic: A Risky Mix For Human Safety, Rubén Moreno-Opo, Antoni Margalida
Raptors are considered to pose one of the greatest aviation bird strike risk. We investigated raptor bird strikes reported at the largest Spanish airport (Adolfo Suárez Madrid Barajas; AS-MB) from 2009 to 2016 to determine the factors contributing to the increased incidences and develop recommendations to mitigate the risks. We hypothesized that increased raptor bird strikes resulted from changes in foraging and dispersal patterns of Iberian Peninsula vultures (Aegypius spp. and Gyps spp.) after 2004-2005. We used information on raptor bird strikes obtained from official databases and published studies, reported incidences of raptor bird strikes and their characteristics (i.e ...
Caudal Spine Shedding Periodicity And Site Fidelity Of Round Stingrays, Urobatis Halleri (Cooper), At Seal Beach, California: Implications For Stingray-Related Injury Management, Christopher G. Lowe, Greg J. Moss, Greg Hoisington Iv, Jeremy J. Vaudo, Daniel P. Cartamil, Megan M. Marcotte, Yannis P. Papastamatiou
Natural caudal spine replacement rates, population size and site fidelity of round stingrays, Urobatis halleri (Cooper), at Seal Beach, California were determined to evaluate the efficacy of clipping of caudal spines of stingrays to reduce injury to human beachgoers. Of the 2,183 stingrays caught, clipped, tagged, and released at Seal Beach, only 13 (0.06%) were recaptured over a threeyear period, indicating a large, mobile population. Natural spine replacement occurred between August–October, when a majority of rays were found with two spines. Monthly catch rates of rays were variable, but positively correlated with the number of injuries reported ...
Science And Sentiment: Affecting Change In Environmental Awareness, Attitudes, And Actions Through The Daily Nature Project, Elizabeth D. Haynes Poronsky
The STEAM Journal
Knowledge about what motivates pro-environmental behavior is important to organizations that seek to encourage environmental stewardship. Research suggests that targeting emotions and beliefs about nature can be more effective in changing environmental actions than increasing knowledge. Daily Nature, a site on the social media platform Facebook, features a daily nature photograph, a quote from a notable historical person and a related lyrical written passage. The popularity of this site lends credence to the appeal of interdisciplinary formats, and underscores the benefits of encouraging emotional and aesthetic ties to nature.
Effects Of Trophic Relationships On Oyster Reef Restoration Success In The Mississippi Sound, 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi
Effects Of Trophic Relationships On Oyster Reef Restoration Success In The Mississippi Sound, Virginia Robin Fleer
Natural and anthropogenic changes resulting from altered hydrology, hurricanes, variable precipitation, and the BP oil spill have all taken their toll on oyster reefs in Mississippi. In response, oyster reef restoration efforts are currently underway within the Northern Gulf of Mexico. In order to understand why these efforts succeed or fail, it is crucial to consider predator-prey relationships within the context of the trophic dynamics of oyster reefs. Thus, for this dissertation study I integrated a multidisciplinary approach to understanding key trophic interactions affecting oyster recruitment, growth and survival, comprising field sampling, manipulative lab experiments, and individual-based modeling. Spat settlement ...
Regulation Of Contact With Offspring By Domestic Sows: Temporal Patterns And Individual Variation, E. A. Pajor, D. L. Kramer, D. Fraser
David Fraser, Ph.D.
We used a sow-controlled housing system to examine temporal and individual variation in the tendency of sows to associate with young. During a 5-week lactation, 22 sows and litters were housed in a pen where the sow could freely leave and re-enter the piglets' area by stepping over a barrier that the piglets could not cross. Despite this option, the sows remained with the piglets almost constantly during the 1st day after birth. Nineteen sows ('leavers') changed to spending most of their time away from the litter at some point in the lactation. The change was rapid, often within a ...
Parent-Offspring Resource Allocation In Domestic Pigs, 2017 University of British Columbia
Parent-Offspring Resource Allocation In Domestic Pigs, Anna Drake, David Fraser, Daniel M. Weary
David Fraser, Ph.D.
Behavioural research on domestic pigs has included parent-offspring conflict, sibling competition, and the use of signals which influence resource allocation. In this paper, we review key sow-piglet behavioural studies and discuss their relevance to resource allocation theory. Sibling competition begins in the uterus and continues after birth, as piglets compete directly for access to the sow's teats. This competition is made more severe by a unique dentition, which newborn piglets use to lacerate the faces of siblings during teat disputes. Competition often leads to the death of some littermates, especially those of low birth weight. Piglets also compete indirectly ...
Mixing At Young Ages Reduces Fighting In Unacquainted Domestic Pigs, 2017 University of British Columbia
Mixing At Young Ages Reduces Fighting In Unacquainted Domestic Pigs, Anton D. Pitts, Daniel M. Weary, Edmond A. Pajor, David Fraser
David Fraser, Ph.D.
Under normal farming practices, piglets from different litters are often mixed around the time of weaning, and a high incidence of fighting and minor injuries often occur. The aim of this experiment was to determine the effect of age on the incidence of fighting in piglets mixed before weaning, at different ages between 5 and 26 days. We found no significant relationship between age and the likelihood that a pair of piglets would fight during the first 75 min after mixing. However, the duration of the first fight observed increased from 101±38 s at 5 days to 621±278 ...
A Note On The Effectiveness Of Behavioural Rehabilitation For Reducing Inter-Dog Aggression In Shelter Dogs, 2017 University of British Columbia
A Note On The Effectiveness Of Behavioural Rehabilitation For Reducing Inter-Dog Aggression In Shelter Dogs, Jane S. Orihel, David Fraser
David Fraser, Ph.D.
The effectiveness of a rehabilitation program for reducing inter-dog aggression was evaluated at the municipal animal shelter. Sixteen dogs (of 60 examined) met the study criteria of medium inter-dog aggression as determined by an inter-dog aggression test. These dogs received a 10-day treatment of daily rehabilitation for 30 min (rehabilitation group, n = 9) or daily release into an outdoor enclosure for 30 min (control group, n = 7). Rehabilitation consisted of desensitising and counter-conditioning dogs to the approach of other ‘‘stimulus’’ dogs. Most dogs in the rehabilitation group showed a decline in aggression scores when re-tested after the last treatment (day ...
The Use Of Judgement Bias To Assess Welfare In Farm Livestock, 2017 Queen Mary University of London
The Use Of Judgement Bias To Assess Welfare In Farm Livestock, L. Baciadonna, A. G. Mcelligott
Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.
The development of accurate measures of animal emotions is important for improving and promoting animal welfare. Cognitive bias indicates the effect of emotional states on cognitive processes, such as memory, attention, and judgement. Cognitive bias tests complement existing behavioural and physiological measures for assessing the valence of animal emotions indirectly. The judgement bias test has been used to assess emotional states in non-human animals; mainly in laboratory settings. The aim of this review is to summarise the findings on the use of the judgement bias test approach in assessing emotions in non-human animals, focusing in particular on farm livestock. The ...
A Study Of The Urban Red Fox (Vulpes Vulpes) Population In Baton Rouge, Louisiana Using Social Media, 2017 Louisiana State University
A Study Of The Urban Red Fox (Vulpes Vulpes) Population In Baton Rouge, Louisiana Using Social Media, Ahsennur Soysal
LSU Master's Theses
Foxes are timid yet resourceful animals that are integrated into many urban environments. Because they are elusive, collecting information about the number of urban foxes, their diet and spatial distribution, their interactions with the ecological community in their urban habitat, as well as residents’ response to them, is difficult. Involving stakeholders to participate in the data collection on wildlife via citizen science on social media is one way to overcome this complication, while simultaneously engaging residents in the ecology happening around them. Therefore, we used social media as the platform to engage the public to document and map the foxes ...
Fallow Deer Polyandry Is Related To Fertilization Insurance, 2017 Queen Mary University of London
Fallow Deer Polyandry Is Related To Fertilization Insurance, Elodie Briefer, Mary E. Farrell, Thomas J. Hayden, Alan G. Mcelligott
Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.
Polyandry is widespread, but its adaptive significance is not fully understood. The hypotheses used to explain its persistence have rarely been tested in the wild and particularly for large, long-lived mammals. We investigated polyandry in fallow deer, using female mating and reproduction data gathered over 10 years. Females of this species produce a single offspring (monotocous) and can live to 23 years old. Overall, polyandry was evident in 12 % of females and the long-term, consistent proportion of polyandrous females observed, suggests that monandry and polyandry represent alternative mating strategies. Females were more likely to be polyandrous when their first mate ...