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The Distribution And Life History Of Axymyia Furcata Mcatee (Diptera: Axymyiidae), A Wood Inhabiting, Semi-Aquatic Fly, Matthew W. Wihlm, Gregory W. Courtney 2019 Iowa State University

The Distribution And Life History Of Axymyia Furcata Mcatee (Diptera: Axymyiidae), A Wood Inhabiting, Semi-Aquatic Fly, Matthew W. Wihlm, Gregory W. Courtney

Gregory W. Courtney

Axymyia furcata McAtee (Diptera: Axymyiidae) is a xylophilic, semiaquatic fly from eastern North America. As part of a comprehensive study of the fly's distribution, life history, and phylogeography, we surveyed populations of A. furcata in the eastern United States and Canada. Collecting and rearing methods are described, and use of the niche modeling software, DIVA GIS, to locate regions with potentially suitable habitat is presented. Based on historical records and our recent survey, A. furcata is confirmed to occur from southern Ontario and Quebec, across the northern tier of states from Minnesota to Maine, and south along the Appalachian ...


Effects Of Larval Density On Dispersal And Fecundity Of Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Leconte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Eric Yu Yu, Aaron J. Gassmann, Thomas W. Sappington 2019 Iowa State University

Effects Of Larval Density On Dispersal And Fecundity Of Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Leconte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Eric Yu Yu, Aaron J. Gassmann, Thomas W. Sappington

Thomas W. Sappington

The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of corn in the northern United States. Some populations have developed resistance to management strategies including transgenic corn that produces insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Knowledge of insect dispersal is of critical importance for models of resistance evolution. Larval density affects survival in the field, and stress from crowding often affects facultative long-distance dispersal of adult insects. In this study, we used laboratory flight mills to characterize western corn rootworm flight performance as a function of larval rearing density. Larvae were ...


How To Build A Human Brain: Evolution, Development, And Education, Aaron P. Blaisdell 2019 University of California, Los Angeles

How To Build A Human Brain: Evolution, Development, And Education, Aaron P. Blaisdell

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Effects Of Larval Density On Dispersal And Fecundity Of Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Leconte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Eric Yu Yu, Aaron J. Gassmann, Thomas W. Sappington 2019 Iowa State University

Effects Of Larval Density On Dispersal And Fecundity Of Western Corn Rootworm, Diabrotica Virgifera Virgifera Leconte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), Eric Yu Yu, Aaron J. Gassmann, Thomas W. Sappington

Entomology Publications

The western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is an economically important pest of corn in the northern United States. Some populations have developed resistance to management strategies including transgenic corn that produces insecticidal toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Knowledge of insect dispersal is of critical importance for models of resistance evolution. Larval density affects survival in the field, and stress from crowding often affects facultative long-distance dispersal of adult insects. In this study, we used laboratory flight mills to characterize western corn rootworm flight performance as a function of larval rearing density. Larvae were ...


Interacting Stressors Matter: Diet Quality And Virus Infection In Honeybee Health, Adam G. Dolezal, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Timothy M. Judd, W. Allen Miller, Bryony C. Bonning, Amy L. Toth 2019 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Interacting Stressors Matter: Diet Quality And Virus Infection In Honeybee Health, Adam G. Dolezal, Jimena Carrillo-Tripp, Timothy M. Judd, W. Allen Miller, Bryony C. Bonning, Amy L. Toth

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Honeybee population declines have been linked to multiple stressors, including reduced diet diversity and increased exposure to understudied viral pathogens. Despite interest in these factors, few experimental studies have explored the interaction between diet diversity and viral infection in honeybees. Here, we used a mixture of laboratory cage and small semi-field nucleus hive experiments to determine how these factors interact. In laboratory experiments, we found that high-quality diets (polyfloral pollen and high-quality single-source pollen) have the potential to reduce mortality in the face of infection with Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV). There was a significant interaction between diet and virus ...


Dolphins In Space: Quantifying The Relative Positions Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Megan S. McGrath 2019 CUNY Hunter College

Dolphins In Space: Quantifying The Relative Positions Of Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus), Megan S. Mcgrath

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) are socially sophisticated mammals with high fission-fusion dynamics and complex communication. The relative positioning of individual dolphins as they swim within their social group may aid in the expression of social roles. This study sought to quantify relative positioning in a small social group of female bottlenose dolphins at the National Aquarium in Baltimore that included two mother-daughter pairs, maternal and paternal half-sisters, a half-aunt and niece, and one unrelated female. We devised a method for scoring relative positioning in three dimensions. We found that the two mothers and their juvenile and adult daughters often swam ...


Climatic Variables Are Strong Predictors Of Allonursing And Communal Nesting In Primates, Alexandra Louppova 2019 CUNY Hunter College

Climatic Variables Are Strong Predictors Of Allonursing And Communal Nesting In Primates, Alexandra Louppova

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

Allomaternal care (AMC) is widespread throughout the primate order, previous studies have focused on benefits and costs to individuals. However, our understanding of environmental impacts on AMC behaviors in primates is still limited. Our study examines how ecology and environmental factors can predict certain AMC behaviors more than others.


Geographic Variation In Thermal Sensitivity Of Early Life Traits In A Widespread Reptile, Brooke L. Bodensteiner, Daniel A. Warner, John B. Iverson, Carrie L. Milne-Zelman, Timothy S. Mitchell, Jeanine M. Refsnider, Fredric Janzen 2019 Iowa State University

Geographic Variation In Thermal Sensitivity Of Early Life Traits In A Widespread Reptile, Brooke L. Bodensteiner, Daniel A. Warner, John B. Iverson, Carrie L. Milne-Zelman, Timothy S. Mitchell, Jeanine M. Refsnider, Fredric Janzen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Taxa with large geographic distributions generally encompass diverse macroclimatic conditions, potentially requiring local adaptation and/or phenotypic plasticity to match their phenotypes to differing environments. These eco‐evolutionary processes are of particular interest in organisms with traits that are directly affected by temperature, such as embryonic development in oviparous ectotherms. Here we examine the spatial distribution of fitness‐related early life phenotypes across the range of a widespread vertebrate, the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta). We quantified embryonic and hatchling traits from seven locations (in Idaho, Minnesota, Oregon, Illinois, Nebraska, Kansas, and New Mexico) after incubating eggs under constant conditions across ...


Moral Relevance Of Cognitive Complexity, Empathy And Species Differences In Suffering, John Lazarus 2019 Newcastle University

Moral Relevance Of Cognitive Complexity, Empathy And Species Differences In Suffering, John Lazarus

Animal Sentience

I qualify two criticisms made by commentators on Chapman & Huffman’s target article. Responding to the view that differences between humans and other animals are irrelevant to deciding how we should treat other species, I point out that differences between any species in their capacity to suffer are morally relevant. And in response to the claim that suffering is the sole criterion for the moral treatment of animals, I argue that cognitive complexity and a capacity for empathy also have moral relevance to the extent that they influence suffering.


Effect Of Group Size On The Activity Budget Of Two Captive Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Kaeley Sullins 2019 Central Washington University

Effect Of Group Size On The Activity Budget Of Two Captive Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes), Kaeley Sullins

All Master's Theses

Captive facilities housing chimpanzees are required to provide adequate care and provisions such as dietary, social, and environmental enrichment to promote the psychological well-being of the apes in their care. Chimpanzees are social creatures and changes in groups as well as relocation to a facility with new social partners, can impact each individual chimpanzee’s welfare. By tracking each chimpanzee’s activity budgets, managers can assess welfare and make improvements or adjustments if necessary. I looked at the activity budgets of two captive chimpanzees after the death of a group member and the two chimpanzees’ subsequent relocation to a novel ...


The Effects Of Sexual Dimorphism On Toxic Prey Avoidance In The Chinese Praying Mantis, Tenodera Sinensis, Sophie Podgorski, Emma Swartz, Tisa Steinmeyer, Kayla I. Miller Ph.D. 2018 Marian University

The Effects Of Sexual Dimorphism On Toxic Prey Avoidance In The Chinese Praying Mantis, Tenodera Sinensis, Sophie Podgorski, Emma Swartz, Tisa Steinmeyer, Kayla I. Miller Ph.D.

Undergraduate Research Symposium (URS)

  • This experiment strives to investigate if sex based behaviors in praying mantid feeding habits hold true when sexual dimorphism is not obvious in juvenile mantids
  • Sensitivity to bitter tastes provides an important means for animals to detect various toxic compounds in food (Wooding et al.2006).
  • In predators, taste sensitivity also allows animals to exploit nutritious but toxic food sources by monitoring the consumption of compounds that may cause illness or death (Wooding et al. 2006).
  • Studies on the Chinese praying mantis, Tenodera sinensis, show that the mantids will wipe their mouths, shake, and reject bitter tasting toxic prey when ...


Safety, Stephen M. Vantassel, Brenda K. Osthus 2018 Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC Lewistown, Montana

Safety, Stephen M. Vantassel, Brenda K. Osthus

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Wildlife damage management (WDM) is an exciting field with many opportunities to provide solutions to the complex issues involved in human-wildlife interactions. In addition, WDM wildlife control operators (WCO) face a variety of threats to their physical well-being. Injuries can result from misused (Figure 1), faulty, or poorly maintained equipment, inexperience, mishandled wildlife, harsh weather, and dangerous situations, such as electrical lines. The goals of this publication are to: * Develop an awareness of safety issues and adopt a mindset of “Safety First”, * Review the major safety threats that WCOs face, * Provide basic information for WCOs to protect themselves, and * List ...


Fall Migration And Winter Habitat Use Of Northern Saw-Whet Owls (Aegolius Acadicus) In The Ozark Highlands, Mitchell L. Pruitt 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Fall Migration And Winter Habitat Use Of Northern Saw-Whet Owls (Aegolius Acadicus) In The Ozark Highlands, Mitchell L. Pruitt

Theses and Dissertations

Studying movement ecology is important not only in understanding the distribution of a species, but in understanding the magnitude of migration through certain regions, as well as explaining regional differences in demographics. The Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus) is a small, migratory forest owl found throughout much of North America. Despite being captured widely during fall migration, the species’ movement ecology is poorly understood. Exploratory studies outside the saw-whet owl’s normal range have successfully captured the species during fall migration. In the Ozark Highlands ecoregion of the central United States, their status has been considered vagrant during fall and ...


Effect Of Macrograzers (Campostoma Spp. And Faxonius Spp.) On Periphyton In Ozark Streams With Considerations Given To Macrograzer Biomass, Phosphorus, And Season: Mensurative And Manipulative Studies, Kayla R. Sayre 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of Macrograzers (Campostoma Spp. And Faxonius Spp.) On Periphyton In Ozark Streams With Considerations Given To Macrograzer Biomass, Phosphorus, And Season: Mensurative And Manipulative Studies, Kayla R. Sayre

Theses and Dissertations

Nutrient and benthic algal biomass relationships can guide numeric nutrient criteria development in lotic systems. However, herbivorous macrograzers may confound this relationship by reducing the slope of the positive relationship between nutrients and periphyton biomass in streams. I conducted a mensurative field study to determine if stoneroller and crayfish abundance related to algal biomass at varying nutrient concentrations and manipulated macrograzer presence with electrical exclosures in streams to examine macrograzer effects on algal biomass and understand whether these effects on periphyton varied with total phosphorus (TP) or season. Macrograzer density was quantified across a TP gradient (n=15 streams; range ...


A Tale Of Two Butterflies: The Effect Of Larval Social Environment And Circadian Rhythms On Mating Behavior In Bicyclus Anynana And Heliconius Hewitsoni, Deonna Nicole Robertson 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Tale Of Two Butterflies: The Effect Of Larval Social Environment And Circadian Rhythms On Mating Behavior In Bicyclus Anynana And Heliconius Hewitsoni, Deonna Nicole Robertson

Theses and Dissertations

Two key components of mate choice research focus on: 1) who an organism mates with, which may be influenced by any number of factors from sexual ornamentation to male-male competition; and, 2) when an organism courts, be it daily, monthly, or seasonally. Both aspects are especially important for gregarious species as mistakes in either can incur high costs to overall fitness. My research focuses on using butterflies to explore kin recognition from the larval stage and its possible impacts on adult mate choice and if courtship is circadian in Heliconius hewitsoni. My first experiment concerned kin recognition. When inbred, Bicyclus ...


Impacts Of Ammonia And Temperature On Freshwater Snail Behavior And Physiology., Megan Christine DeWhatley 2018 University of Louisville

Impacts Of Ammonia And Temperature On Freshwater Snail Behavior And Physiology., Megan Christine Dewhatley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Gastropods are one of the most imperiled groups of animals in North America, yet there are major gaps in the literature pertaining to pollutants and climate change, and especially sublethal impacts. This dissertation assesses the effects of climate warming and unionized ammonia (NH3), one of the most abundant water pollutants, on the behavior and physiology of two caenogastropod snails: fine-ridged elimia (Elimia semicarinata) and Shawnee rocksnails (Lithasia obovata) (Gastropoda: Neotaenioglossa: Pleuroceridae). Righting behavior, or the movement used by snails to turn themselves right-side-up, was used as the main endpoint; delays in this behavior compromise fitness via lost feeding time ...


Effect Of Reinforcement Selection On Mate Selection Rates Of Gambusia Affinis And Gambusia Holbrooki, Molly Stephens 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Effect Of Reinforcement Selection On Mate Selection Rates Of Gambusia Affinis And Gambusia Holbrooki, Molly Stephens

Honors Theses

This study was conducted in order to investigate the effects that reinforcement selection has on non-hybridized and hybridized populations of two separate species of Gambusia (G. affinis and G. holbrooki). In order to examine if organisms from a population that had been previously exposed to hybridization would choose mates so as to not produce species hybrid offspring, 29 trials consisting of 9 different mate preference combinations and 87 individuals were recorded and analyzed. Once mate preference was determined for each female used in each trial, the effect that reproductive isolation had on reinforcement in hybrid zones was analyzed. The results ...


Behavioral Insights Into Nociceptor Function: A Systematic Approach To Understanding Postsurgical And Neuropathic Pain Mechanisms In Rats, Max Odem 2018 The Univesity of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences

Behavioral Insights Into Nociceptor Function: A Systematic Approach To Understanding Postsurgical And Neuropathic Pain Mechanisms In Rats, Max Odem

UT GSBS Dissertations and Theses (Open Access)

Postsurgical and neuropathic pain are each clinically common, and often associated with ongoing pain. Ongoing pain has been linked to ongoing activity (OA) in human C-fiber nociceptors. Preclinical studies using rodent neuropathic models have concentrated on allodynia driven by OA generated in non-nociceptive Aβ fibers, but little attention has been paid to postsurgical pain in sham controls or to C-fiber nociceptor OA promoting ongoing pain.

Operant assays that reveal negative motivational and cognitive aspects of voluntary pain-related behavior may be particularly sensitive to pain-related alterations. In the mechanical conflict (MC) test, rodents can freely choose to escape from a brightly ...


Hitchhiker's Guide To Migration: Effects Of Experimental Parasitic Infection And Other Immune Challenges On Migratory Traits Of Sparrows, Tosha R. Kelly 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Hitchhiker's Guide To Migration: Effects Of Experimental Parasitic Infection And Other Immune Challenges On Migratory Traits Of Sparrows, Tosha R. Kelly

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Seasonal migration exposes animals to a variety of habitats and parasites, and if infected migratory birds migrate successfully there is great potential for birds to transport infectious diseases long distances. Our current understanding of whether birds contribute to the spread of disease relies upon observational field studies that are limited in their ability to discern cause from effect. Using captive and field-based experiments for my doctoral research, I answered three research questions: (1) are nocturnal migratory restlessness (Zugunruhe) and body condition affected by mounting an acute phase immune response during migration; (2) what are the impacts of parasitic infection on ...


Courtship Behavior, Communication, And Copulation In Tigrosa Annexa, Samuel White 2018 Murray State University

Courtship Behavior, Communication, And Copulation In Tigrosa Annexa, Samuel White

Scholars Week

The evolution of multimodal communication, where signalers use multiple signal components in multiple sensory modalities, has become the subject of investigation by many researchers. Signaling puts males at risk of predation, so why do males of some species evolve extra signals that may increase this risk? In some wolf spider species, males incorporate many visual and vibrational signals into a display that they use to attract a female for mating. Female spiders are often aggressive toward courting males and so the male display also functions to decrease the odds of cannibalism. Female wandering spiders deposit silk containing pheromones that communicate ...


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