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Effects Of Trophic Relationships On Oyster Reef Restoration Success In The Mississippi Sound, Virginia Robin Fleer 2017 The University of Southern Mississippi

Effects Of Trophic Relationships On Oyster Reef Restoration Success In The Mississippi Sound, Virginia Robin Fleer

Dissertations

Natural and anthropogenic changes resulting from altered hydrology, hurricanes, variable precipitation, and the BP oil spill have all taken their toll on oyster reefs in Mississippi. In response, oyster reef restoration efforts are currently underway within the Northern Gulf of Mexico. In order to understand why these efforts succeed or fail, it is crucial to consider predator-prey relationships within the context of the trophic dynamics of oyster reefs. Thus, for this dissertation study I integrated a multidisciplinary approach to understanding key trophic interactions affecting oyster recruitment, growth and survival, comprising field sampling, manipulative lab experiments, and individual-based modeling. Spat settlement ...


The Use Of Judgement Bias To Assess Welfare In Farm Livestock, L. Baciadonna, A. G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

The Use Of Judgement Bias To Assess Welfare In Farm Livestock, L. Baciadonna, A. G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

The development of accurate measures of animal emotions is important for improving and promoting animal welfare. Cognitive bias indicates the effect of emotional states on cognitive processes, such as memory, attention, and judgement. Cognitive bias tests complement existing behavioural and physiological measures for assessing the valence of animal emotions indirectly. The judgement bias test has been used to assess emotional states in non-human animals; mainly in laboratory settings. The aim of this review is to summarise the findings on the use of the judgement bias test approach in assessing emotions in non-human animals, focusing in particular on farm livestock. The ...


Fallow Deer Polyandry Is Related To Fertilization Insurance, Elodie Briefer, Mary E. Farrell, Thomas J. Hayden, Alan G. McElligott 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Fallow Deer Polyandry Is Related To Fertilization Insurance, Elodie Briefer, Mary E. Farrell, Thomas J. Hayden, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Polyandry is widespread, but its adaptive significance is not fully understood. The hypotheses used to explain its persistence have rarely been tested in the wild and particularly for large, long-lived mammals. We investigated polyandry in fallow deer, using female mating and reproduction data gathered over 10 years. Females of this species produce a single offspring (monotocous) and can live to 23 years old. Overall, polyandry was evident in 12 % of females and the long-term, consistent proportion of polyandrous females observed, suggests that monandry and polyandry represent alternative mating strategies. Females were more likely to be polyandrous when their first mate ...


Assortative Mating In Fallow Deer Reduces The Strength Of Sexual Selection, Mary E. Farrell, Elodie Briefer, Alan G. McElligott 2017 University of the West of England

Assortative Mating In Fallow Deer Reduces The Strength Of Sexual Selection, Mary E. Farrell, Elodie Briefer, Alan G. Mcelligott

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Background: Assortative mating can help explain how genetic variation for male quality is maintained even in highly polygynous species. Here, we present a longitudinal study examining how female and male ages, as well as male social dominance, affect assortative mating in fallow deer (Dama dama) over 10 years. Assortative mating could help explain the substantial proportion of females that do not mate with prime-aged, high ranking males, despite very high mating skew. We investigated the temporal pattern of female and male matings, and the relationship between female age and the age and dominance of their mates. Results: The peak of ...


Goats Favour Personal Over Social Information In An Experimental Foraging Task, Luigi Baciadonna, Alan G. McElligott, Elodie F. Briefer 2017 Queen Mary University of London

Goats Favour Personal Over Social Information In An Experimental Foraging Task, Luigi Baciadonna, Alan G. Mcelligott, Elodie F. Briefer

Alan G. McElligott, Ph.D.

Animals can use their environments more efficiently by selecting particular sources of information (personal or social), according to specific situations. Group-living animals may benefit from gaining information based on the behaviour of other individuals. Indeed, social information is assumed to be faster and less costly to use than personal information, thus increasing foraging efficiency. However, when food sources change seasonally or are randomly distributed, individual information may become more reliable than social information. The aim of this study was to test the use of conflicting personal versus social information in goats (Capra hircus), in a foraging task.We found that ...


The North American Quails, Partridges, And Pheasants, Paul A. Johnsgard 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The North American Quails, Partridges, And Pheasants, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This book documents the biology of six species of New World quails that are native to North America north of Mexico (mountain, scaled, Gambel’s, California, and Montezuma quails, and the northern bobwhite), three introduced Old World partridges (chukar, Himalayan snowcock, and gray partridge), and the introduced common (ring-necked) pheasant. Collectively, quails, partridges, and pheasants range throughout all of the continental United States and the Canadian provinces. Two of the species, the northern bobwhite and ring-necked pheasant, are the most economically important of all North American upland game birds. All of the species are hunted extensively for sport and are ...


The Behavior Response Of Antlion Larvae To Alternating Magnetic Fields, Lindsey Wagner, Caleb L. Adams 2017 Radford University

The Behavior Response Of Antlion Larvae To Alternating Magnetic Fields, Lindsey Wagner, Caleb L. Adams

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Modeling Evolutionary Games Between Predators And Social Prey, Bill Mitchell 2017 Illinois State University

Modeling Evolutionary Games Between Predators And Social Prey, Bill Mitchell

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Field Evidence Challenges The Often-Presumed Relationship Between Early Male Maturation And Female-Biased Sexual Size Dimorphism, Marie Claire Chelini, Eileen Hebets 2017 University of California, Merced

Field Evidence Challenges The Often-Presumed Relationship Between Early Male Maturation And Female-Biased Sexual Size Dimorphism, Marie Claire Chelini, Eileen Hebets

Eileen Hebets Publications

Female-biased sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is often considered an epiphenomenon of selection for the increased mating opportunities provided by early male maturation (i.e., protandry). Empirical evidence of the adaptive significance of protandry remains nonetheless fairly scarce. We use field data collected throughout the reproductive season of an SSD crab spider, Mecaphesa celer, to test two hypotheses: Protandry provides fitness benefits to males, leading to female-biased SSD, or protandry is an indirect consequence of selection for small male size/large female size. Using field-collected data, we modeled the probability of mating success for females and males according to their timing ...


Humans As Prey: Coping With Large Carnivore Attacks Using A Predator-Prey Interaction Perspective, Vincenzo Penteriani, Giulia Bombieri, José María Fedriani, José Vicente López-Bao, Pedro José Garrote, Luca Francesco Russo, María del Mar Delgado 2017 CSIC, Spain

Humans As Prey: Coping With Large Carnivore Attacks Using A Predator-Prey Interaction Perspective, Vincenzo Penteriani, Giulia Bombieri, José María Fedriani, José Vicente López-Bao, Pedro José Garrote, Luca Francesco Russo, María Del Mar Delgado

Human–Wildlife Interactions

The number of attacks on humans by large carnivores in North America is increasing. A better understanding the factors triggering such attacks is critical to mitigating the risk of future encounters in landscape where humans and large carnivore co-exist. Since 1955, of the 632 attacks on humans by large carnivores, 106 (17%) involved predation. We draw on concepts and empirical evidence from the Predator-Prey Interaction Theory to provide insights into how to reduce predatory attacks and, thus, improve human-large carnivore co-existence. Because large carnivore-caused mortality risks for humans are comparable to those shown by other mammal species in response to ...


Using Resident-Based Hazing Programs To Reduce Human-Coyote Conflicts In Urban Environments, Mary Ann Bonnell, Stewart W. Breck 2017 Jefferson County Open Space Department

Using Resident-Based Hazing Programs To Reduce Human-Coyote Conflicts In Urban Environments, Mary Ann Bonnell, Stewart W. Breck

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Abstract The concept of hazing (aversive conditioning) is often promoted as a tool for reducing human-coyote (Canis latrans) conflicts in urban environments. Little scientific evidence exists on the effectiveness of hazing, particularly hazing applied by residents (i.e., community-level hazing). Wildlife professionals question if residents will properly and consistently apply hazing techniques and if hazing impacts coyote behavior over short- and long-term periods. We describe two separate efforts designed to encourage residents to haze coyotes in the Denver Metro Area; a citizen-science program and an open space hazing trial. Both efforts were intended to be management techniques that either could ...


Evaluating Lethal And Nonlethal Management Options For Urban Coyotes, Stewart W. Breck, Sharon A. Poessel, Mary Ann Bonnell 2017 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Evaluating Lethal And Nonlethal Management Options For Urban Coyotes, Stewart W. Breck, Sharon A. Poessel, Mary Ann Bonnell

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Human-coyote conflict in urban environments is a growing issue in cities throughout the United States with the primary problem being the development of problem individuals that are overly bold and aggressive with people and pets. Little research has focused on management options to deal with this conflict. We better define lethal and nonlethal management strategies associated with proactive and reactive management of coyotes with an emphasis on management of problem individuals. We then provide data from research in the Denver Metropolitan Area (DMA) that focused on reactive lethal removal of problem coyotes and reactive nonlethal hazing (i.e., community-level hazing ...


Coyote Attacks On Humans, 1970-2015: Implications For Reducing The Risks, Rex O. Baker, Robert M. Timm 2017 California Polytechnic State University

Coyote Attacks On Humans, 1970-2015: Implications For Reducing The Risks, Rex O. Baker, Robert M. Timm

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Beginning with the emerging pattern of urban and suburban coyotes (Canis latrans) attacking humans in southern California in the late 1970s, we analyzed information from reported attacks to better understand the factors contributing to changes in coyote behavior. We subsequently used updated data collected largely in urban and suburban environments in the United States and Canada during the past 30 years to develop strategies to reduce the risk of attacks. In the 1990s, increased incidents of coyote attacks were reported in states beyond California and in Canadian provinces. We documented 367 attacks on humans by coyotes from 1977 through 2015 ...


The Genetic And Environmental Basis For Chc Biosynthesis In Drosophila, Heather KE Ward 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Genetic And Environmental Basis For Chc Biosynthesis In Drosophila, Heather Ke Ward

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are produced by insects and primarily used to prevent desiccation. In Drosophila, certain compounds have secondary roles as infochemicals that may act during courtship to influence mate choice. Certain CHCs may stimulate courtship with heterospecifics or act to repel conspecifics. The CHC profile produced by an individual is the result of the interaction between its genetic background and the environment, though the genes that underlie species differences in CHC production and how the environment can modulate the abundance of individual compounds within a species is not well known. Here, candidate gene CG5946 was found to be involved ...


European Starlings, H. Jeffrey Homan, Ron J. Johnson, James R. Thiele, George M. Linz 2017 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

European Starlings, H. Jeffrey Homan, Ron J. Johnson, James R. Thiele, George M. Linz

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris, Figure 1) are an invasive species in the United States. The first recorded release of the birds was in 1890 in New York City’s Central Park. Because starlings easily adapt to a variety of habitats, nest sites and food sources, the birds spread quickly across the country. Today, there are about 150 million starlings in North America. Conflicts between people and starlings occur mostly in agricultural settings. Conflicts can occur during winter in urban and suburban environments, especially in business districts.

Starlings damage apples, blueberries, cherries, figs, grapes, peaches, and strawberries. Besides causing direct losses ...


Behavioural Mechanisms Of Protandrous Spring Migration In A Nearctic-Neotropical Songbird, Jessica E. Deakin 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Behavioural Mechanisms Of Protandrous Spring Migration In A Nearctic-Neotropical Songbird, Jessica E. Deakin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Most seasonally migrating songbirds have a protandrous migration pattern, meaning that males arrive to the breeding grounds before females. The proximate mechanisms that underlie this pattern are largely unknown for most species. In this thesis, I evaluate the behavioural mechanisms of protandry in the black-throated blue warbler (Setophaga caerulescens) using onset of migratory restlessness as a proxy for departure from the wintering grounds, migratory restlessness intensity as a proxy for motivation to fly, and stopover duration of radio-tagged birds. The onset of migratory restlessness and stopover duration was similar in both sexes. Males displayed higher intensity wing whirring than females ...


Herons And Egrets, Michael D. Hoy 2017 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Herons And Egrets, Michael D. Hoy

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Human-Wildlife Conflicts

Landscapes -- Herons and egrets commonly cause damage at aquaculture facilities and recreational fishing waters where fish are held at high densities. In one study, on average wading birds consumed from 4 to 24 golden shiners per day at minnow production facilities in Arkansas. Great blue herons and great egrets commonly feed at catfish production facilities in Mississippi. The tendency for herons and egrets to congregate in large feeding flocks often leads to extensive loss of fish at aquaculture facilities. Fish-eating birds also can have an impact on intensively managed sport fisheries. Damage occurs when herons and egrets feed ...


Mapping The Ecology Of Information: Hierarchical Habitat Selection By Nebraska Pheasant Hunters, Lyndsie Wszola 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mapping The Ecology Of Information: Hierarchical Habitat Selection By Nebraska Pheasant Hunters, Lyndsie Wszola

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Hunting regulations are assumed to moderate the effects of hunting consistently across a game population. A growing body of evidence suggests that hunter effort varies temporally and spatially, and that variation in effort at multiple spatial scales can affect game populations in unexpected ways. We set out to determine the causes of variation in hunting effort among ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) hunters at four spatial scales: among regions within the state of Nebraska, among sites within a given region, among access points at a given site, and among habitat patches within a site. At each scale, pheasant hunters used direct ...


The Evolution Of Fear Ecology: A Fruit Fly (Drosophila Melanogaster) Perspective, Itachi Mills 2017 University of Missouri-St. Louis

The Evolution Of Fear Ecology: A Fruit Fly (Drosophila Melanogaster) Perspective, Itachi Mills

Theses

Several mechanisms underlie how evolutionary lineages respond to predation pressures or predation risk. Further mechanisms link evolutionary predation responses to how animals forage, or find mates. However, gaps remain in our understanding about how predation and foraging interact in an evolutionary context.

In my first chapter, I elaborate on how predation and foraging relate in to one another in ecological, evolutionary and behavioral contexts. I start out with an overview of fear ecology. Then, I outline how trade-offs influence the evolution of morphological, chemical and behavioral responses to predation. I further elaborate on how these trade-offs influence reproduction. Finally, I ...


Novel Bio-Logging Tool For Studying Fine-Scale Behaviors Of Marine Turtles In Response To Sound, Reny B. Tyson, Wendy Dow Piniak, Camila Domit, David Mann, Michael Hall, Douglas P. Nowacek, Mariana M. P. B. Fuentes 2017 Sarasota Dolphin Research Program

Novel Bio-Logging Tool For Studying Fine-Scale Behaviors Of Marine Turtles In Response To Sound, Reny B. Tyson, Wendy Dow Piniak, Camila Domit, David Mann, Michael Hall, Douglas P. Nowacek, Mariana M. P. B. Fuentes

Environmental Studies Faculty Publications

Increases in the spatial scale and intensity of activities that produce marine anthropogenic sound highlight the importance of understanding the impacts and effects of sound on threatened species such as marine turtles. Marine turtles detect and behaviorally respond to low-frequency sounds, however few studies have directly examined their behavioral responses to specific types or intensities of anthropogenic or natural sounds. Recent advances in the development of bio-logging tools, which combine acoustic and fine-scale movement measurements, have allowed for evaluations of animal responses to sound. Here, we describe these tools and present a case study demonstrating the potential application of a ...


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