The Effect Of Intensified Illuminance And Artificial Light At Night On Fitness And Susceptibility To Abiotic And Biotic Stressors, Grascen Shidemantle
Biological Sciences Student Scholarship
Changing light conditions due to human activities represents an important emerging environmental concern. Although changes to natural light conditions can be independently detrimental, in nature, organisms commonly face multiple stressors. To understand the consequences of altered light conditions, we exposed a model amphibian (wood frog; Lithobates sylvaticus) to a control and two anthropogenic light conditions: intensified daytime illuminance and artificial light at night - ALAN (intensified daytime illuminance + extended photoperiod). We measured (1) metrics of fitness (hatching success as well as survival to, size at, and time to metamorphosis) (2) susceptibility (time to death) to a commonly cooccurring anthropogenic stressor, road ...
Size Selective Parasitism Of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) By Chestnut Lampreys (Ichthyomyzon Castaneus) In An Artificial Setting, 2020 University of Arkansas at Pine Bluff
Size Selective Parasitism Of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss) By Chestnut Lampreys (Ichthyomyzon Castaneus) In An Artificial Setting, Jeremiah M. Salinger, Ronald L. Johnson
Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings
Paradigms of optimal resource utilization by animals, both classical and more recent, were not originally developed in the context of parasitism. Though this oversight has slowly been reversed, little attention has been paid to optimal resource utilization by parasitic fishes, such as lampreys. Multiple explanations for host size selection by parasitic lampreys may be plausible, but results from previous studies have been inconsistent. We studied host size selection by Chestnut Lampreys (Ichthyomyzon castaneus) parasitizing Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in fish hatchery raceways in north central Arkansas during the late winter and early spring of 2013. Parasitized Rainbow Trout were significantly ...
Use Of Dead Mussel Shells By Madtom Catfishes In The Green River, 2020 Western Kentucky University
Use Of Dead Mussel Shells By Madtom Catfishes In The Green River, Jacob F. Brumley, Philip W. Lienesch
Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings
The Green River in Kentucky has high fish and macroinvertebrate diversity. As both fish and macroinvertebrates have evolved together in this system, relationships have developed between species. One type of relationship that has been observed is between madtom catfishes (Noturus spp.) and mussels in the Green River, where madtoms use dead mussel shells as cover when not actively foraging. In the fall of 2016 and 2017, surveys were conducted to determine if madtom catfishes use dead mussel shells more than rocks of similar size. We predicted that madtoms would select mussel shells as cover more frequently than rocks due to ...
Influences Of Anti-Bd Bacteria On Amphibians And Their Microbiomes, 2020 University of South Dakota
Influences Of Anti-Bd Bacteria On Amphibians And Their Microbiomes, Emme L. Schmidt
The fungal pathogen Batrochochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been threatening amphibian populations across the globe. Recent work has discovered that bacteria isolated from certain populations of amphibians protect hosts from this pathogen. This project focuses on the anti-fungal mechanisms of Serratia marcescens, a species of bacteria isolated from a Costa Rican frog that dramatically inhibited Bd in culture. Wild-type and recombinant S. marcescens was introduced to the microbiomes of a live amphibian host, Acris blanchardi (Blanchard’s Cricket Frog) and then challenged with Bd to examine the protective effects of this bacteria. The experiment includes recombinant S. marcescens with the genetic ...
Behavioral Ecology Of Territorial Aggression In Uca Pugilator And Uca Pugnax, 2020 Coastal Carolina University
Behavioral Ecology Of Territorial Aggression In Uca Pugilator And Uca Pugnax, Abbey N. Thomas
The nature of animal aggression has long been a research interest in many different scientific fields. Resources, including food, shelter, and mates are all common assets for which animals compete. Two species of fiddler crabs, the Atlantic Sand Fiddler Crab (Uca pugilator) and the Atlantic Marsh Fiddler Crab (U. pugnax) were studied in regards to their aggression shown when competing for shelter. One crab was placed in a contained shelter for two days, and then a second of the same species was introduced. Aggressive interactions were scored and compared with claw and carapace size to ascertain if aggression correlated with ...
Chemosensory And Temperature-Based Prey Discrimination In Ball Pythons, 2020 Susquehanna University
Chemosensory And Temperature-Based Prey Discrimination In Ball Pythons, Brianne Yarger
Senior Scholars Day
Ball pythons (Python regius), like other snakes in the Boidae family, use heat-sensitive pit organs and odor-sensitive Jacobson’s organ (vomernasal organ) to detect prey. The discrimination sensitivity and interaction of these organs to influence prey detection and choice however have been poorly tested. We performed a series of two-choice experiments to determine ball python preference for specific odors and/or biologically-relevant thermal stimuli. We tested the following pairs of stimuli: 1) rat odor vs. water, 2) anterior vs posterior odors of a rat, 3) rat (familiar) vs rabbit (unfamiliar) odor, 4) rat vs orange peel odor, 5) odor from ...
Herbicide Effects On The Feeding Behavior Of The Wolf Spider Pardosa Milvina, 2020 Susquehanna University
Herbicide Effects On The Feeding Behavior Of The Wolf Spider Pardosa Milvina, Briana Heinly, William Ward, Catherine Johnson, Jack Preston
Senior Scholars Day
Herbicides can potentially impact feeding behavior of beneficial predators in agricultural systems and subsequently compromise integrated pest management efficacy. We measured variation in feeding behaviors of an agriculturally abundant wolf spider, Pardosa milvina, when exposed to soil with field-relevant concentrations of five commonly used herbicides. Tested herbicides included atrazine, S-metolachlor, rimsulfuron, mesotrione, glyphosate, a mixture of all five herbicides, and a distilled water control. Spiders were housed individually in containers with topsoil previously sprayed with a recommended herbicide dosage or water control. Tested spiders were collected from two adjacent fields: one kept under continuous crop rotation for over twenty years ...
Analyzing The Flight Patterns And Behavior Of Dragonflies Engaged In Aerial Territory Battles, 2020 Longwood University
Analyzing The Flight Patterns And Behavior Of Dragonflies Engaged In Aerial Territory Battles, Brandon Hastings, Brandon Jackson
Student Showcase for Research and Creative Inquiry
It has previously been determined that male dragonflies occupying the most suitable territory within a habitat have a higher flight-muscle ratio (FMR) than those occupying poor territories, but it is unknown how this increased FMR relates to their flight patterns. This study examined the flight patterns of dragonflies engaged in aerial territory battles to investigate differences in maneuverability between winners and losers. 3D video data of dragonflies interacting in a natural habitat was analyzed for territorial flights. Winners showed a lower maximum angular velocity compared to losers.
298— Rural Economic Growth And Disease Intervention In Ghana; The Edward Pettinella '73 Endowed Ambassadorship In Business, Lucas Sutton
Schistosomiasis is a leading parasitic infection that debilitates many individuals in sub Saharan Africa. Because this parasitic infection involves a snail as an intermediate host, we use a native prawn species as a natural predator to decrease the population of this snail community. This study focuses on Tomefa, a primarily fishing peri-urban community located oi the outskirts of Accra, the capital city of Ghana. A survey was also given to the local community measuring economic characteristics. In the laboratory, Macrobrachium spp prawn exhibit preference of Bulinus snails over Biomphalaria snails while non-parasitic snails were consumed in higher proportion to parasitized ...
333— Effectiveness Of Batesian Mimicry In The Ant Mimicking Spider Myrmarachne Formicaria, Alanna Richman, Bea Dipzinski
Myrmarachne formicaria is a non-native ant-mimicking spider that was first recorded in New York in 2006. Little is known about its natural history in its native range in Europe and Asia or in its newly colonized range in North America. Some spider species are Batesian mimics that resemble ants in order to avoid being eaten, since many potential predators will not prey on ants. To assess the effectiveness of Batesian mimicry in this species, we staged encounters with a larger salticid spider species that could be a potential predator of M. formicaria. In total, 12 predator spiders were observed with ...
Chemical Communication In Songbirds, 2020 The University of Western Ontario
Chemical Communication In Songbirds, Leanne A. Grieves
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Avian chemical communication has been understudied due to the misconception that olfaction is unimportant or even lacking in birds. Early work focused on the olfactory foraging capabilities of seabirds because of their ecology (open ocean foraging) and large olfactory bulbs. In contrast, olfaction in passerine birds, comprising over half of all extant avian taxa, was long overlooked due to their relatively small olfactory bulbs. It is now well established that passerines can smell, and their olfactory acuity is comparable to that of macrosmatic mammals such as rats. Much of our theory on communication and mate choice has involved studying visual ...
Do Eastern Gray Squirrels (Sciurus Carolinensis) Use Human-Provided Cues To Increase Foraging Success In Urban Landscapes?, 2020 University of Louisville
Do Eastern Gray Squirrels (Sciurus Carolinensis) Use Human-Provided Cues To Increase Foraging Success In Urban Landscapes?, Aditya A. Mehta, Jeeva H. Rathnaweera
Undergraduate Arts and Research Showcase
The coexistence of humans with other animals in urban and suburban areas has given rise to a spectrum of agonistic and beneficial interactions. Animals thriving in urban settings are known to exhibit superior foraging and food extraction abilities compared to their wild conspecifics. This has raised the question regarding if non-human animals can form and maintain a similar “theory of mind” to humans based on the actions they observe in their environments (Schloegl et al., 2007). For this experiment, human-made click and gaze cues were used while placing food for eastern gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) located on the University of ...
Grackles, 2020 USDA APHIS Wildlife Services
Grackles, Michael J. Bodenchuk, David L. Bergman
Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series
Numbering in the tens of millions of birds, grackle populations in North America can cause a variety of conflicts with people. Grackles eat agricultural crops and livestock feed, damage property, spread pathogens, and collide with aircraft. Their large roosts can be a nuisance in urban and suburban areas. A combination of dispersal techniques, exclusion, and lethal removal may help to reduce grackle damage.
Grackles adapt easily to human-dominated environments, and exploit human food and other features of human landscapes. Thus, an integrated damage management approach to grackle damage focuses on reducing and eliminating the damage, rather than simply controlling grackle ...
Physiological And Behavioral Effects Of Climate Change On Wildlife: An Introduction And Overview, 2020 Liberty University
Physiological And Behavioral Effects Of Climate Change On Wildlife: An Introduction And Overview, Andy Clarke
Senior Honors Theses
Planetary environmental system changes have been recorded and documented for several decades. Fluctuations that were first noticed in atmospheric carbon-dioxide levels have now extended into global pattern changes. Climatic variations that were initially non-threatening variabilities have since been observed creating significant biological influences. The results and evidence of the effects of worldwide environmental climate change on wildlife and biotic environments are worth examining because of the impacts it has on the planet. These climatic effects extend from changes in distribution and diversity patterns of terrestrial mammals to sea-life impacts and recovery trends. Possible wildlife benefits may include increased humidity and ...
Substrate-Borne Vibrational Communication In Veiled Chameleons (Chamaeleo Calyptratus) During Courtship, Breeding, And Territoriality, 2020 Western Kentucky University
Substrate-Borne Vibrational Communication In Veiled Chameleons (Chamaeleo Calyptratus) During Courtship, Breeding, And Territoriality, Lauren Kappel
Masters Theses & Specialist Projects
Substrate-borne vibrations, or biotremors, are utilized by vertebrates found in unique environments because biotremors are an effective way to transmit signals through dense media. Previous studies have shown that veiled chameleons (Chamaeleo calyptratus) are able to produce biotremors via specialized neck muscles. I hypothesized that during courtship and/or breeding, the veiled chameleon, a tree-dwelling species, would communicate with biotremors through branches. Additionally, I hypothesized that female call characteristics would differ between reproductive condition (i.e., receptive and non-receptive), while male call characteristics would differ between behavioral contexts (i.e., territorial vs. courtship). Chameleons were paired (one male, one female ...
The North American Swans: Their Biology And Conservation, 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
The North American Swans: Their Biology And Conservation, Paul Johnsgard
Among birds, swans are relatively long-lived species and are also among the most strongly monogamous, having prolonged pair and family bonds that strongly influence their reproductive and general social behavior, which, in combination with their beauty and elegance, contribute to the overall high degree of worldwide human interest in them. This volume of more than 59,000 words describes the distributions, ecology, social behavior, and breeding biologies of the four species of swans that breed or have historically bred in North America, including the native trumpeter and tundra swans, the introduced mute swan, and the marginally occurring whooper swan. Also ...
Adaptive Manipulation Of Information Broadcast From A Microbial Community, 2020 University of Connecticut at Waterbury
Adaptive Manipulation Of Information Broadcast From A Microbial Community, Stephen T. Trumbo, Paula Kb Philbrick, Sandra Steiger
No abstract provided.
A New Ectotherm 3d Tracking And Behavior Analytics System Using A Depth-Based Approach With Color Validation, With Preliminary Data On Kihansi Spray Toad (Nectophrynoides Asperginis) Activity, 2020 Fordham University
A New Ectotherm 3d Tracking And Behavior Analytics System Using A Depth-Based Approach With Color Validation, With Preliminary Data On Kihansi Spray Toad (Nectophrynoides Asperginis) Activity, Philip Bal, Damian Lyons, Avishai Shuter
The Kihansi spray toad (Nectophrynoides asperginis), classified as Extinct in the Wild by the IUCN, is being bred at the Wildlife Conservation Society’s (WCS) Bronx Zoo as part of an effort to successfully reintroduce the species into the wild. Thousands of toads live at the Bronx Zoo presenting an opportunity to learn more about their behaviors for the first time, at scale. It is impractical to perform manual observations for long periods of time. This paper reports on the development of a RGB-D tracking and analytics approach that allows researchers to accurately and efficiently gather information about the toads ...
What's The Buzz?, 2020 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy
What's The Buzz?, Christine L. Moskalik
Professional Learning Day
A fun, interdisciplinary, hands-on activity with circuits, engineering, and bees Teachers will learn how to implement an activity with their students to explore circuit basics, energy transfer, and pollination through a hands-on toothbrush-bot activity that is coupled with a fun storyline involving honey bee communication and behavior.
Sequential Analysis Of Livestock Herding Dog And Sheep Interactions, 2020 University of Sydney
Sequential Analysis Of Livestock Herding Dog And Sheep Interactions, Jonathan Early, Jessica Alders, Elizabeth R. Arnott, Claire M. Wade, Paul Mcgreevy
Interactive Behavior Collection
Livestock herding dogs are crucial contributors to Australian agriculture. However, there is a dearth of empirical studies of the behavioural interactions between dog and livestock during herding. A statistical approach that may reveal cause and effect in such interactions is lag sequential analysis. Using 48 video recordings of livestock herding dogs and sheep in a yard trial competition, event-based (time between behaviours is irrelevant) and time-based (time between behaviours is defined) lag sequential analyses identified several significant behavioural interactions (adjusted residuals greater than 2.58; the maximum likelihood-ratio chi-squared statistic for all eight contingency tables identified all sequences as highly ...