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The North American Whistling-Ducks, Pochards, And Stifftails, Paul A. Johnsgard 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The North American Whistling-Ducks, Pochards, And Stifftails, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

Although the 12 species representing three waterfowl tribes described in this volume are not closely related, they fortuitously provide an instructive example of adaptive evolutionary radiation within the much larger waterfowl lineage (the family Anatidae), especially as to their divergent morphologies, life histories, and social behaviors.

The whistling-ducks (Dendrocygna), with three known North American species, are notable for their permanent pair-bonds, extended biparental family care, and strong social cohesion. In contrast, males of the five typical pochards of North American diving ducks (Aythya) establish monogamous pair-bonds that are maintained only long enough to assure that the female’s eggs are ...


Blue Sucker Summer Utilization Distributions And Inter-Annual Fidelity To Summering Habitats, J. David Adams, Casey L. Bergthold, Justin D. Haas, Mark A. Pegg, Gerald E. Mestl 2017 Nebraska Game and Parks Commission

Blue Sucker Summer Utilization Distributions And Inter-Annual Fidelity To Summering Habitats, J. David Adams, Casey L. Bergthold, Justin D. Haas, Mark A. Pegg, Gerald E. Mestl

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Blue Sucker Cycleptus elongatus populations in the Missouri River are believed to be declining. The decline is most likely attributable to anthropogenic modifications including channelization and dam construction. We compared 2008 and 2009 summer use distribution (UD) for 21 blue suckers implanted with acoustic tags to better understand how blue suckers use the Missouri River. UDs are used to analyze space-use requirements based on the home range concept. The geometric mean 95% UD range was 1.9 river kilometers (RKM) in 2008 and 0.3 RKM in 2009, and differed statistically by year. The upper bound of the 2008 95 ...


Evolutionary Mismatch: Implications Far Beyond Diet And Exercise, George M. Diggs Jr. 2017 Austin College Department of Biology and Program in Public Health

Evolutionary Mismatch: Implications Far Beyond Diet And Exercise, George M. Diggs Jr.

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


P31. Assessing The Long Term Effects Of Perceived Predation Risk On The Avian Brain, Lauren E. Witterick 2017 Western University

P31. Assessing The Long Term Effects Of Perceived Predation Risk On The Avian Brain, Lauren E. Witterick

Western Research Forum

Predators affect prey populations not only through direct killing, but also through the perception of predation risk. Responding to predator threats is critical for prey survival, however perceived predation risk can have lasting effects ranging from individual changes in neurobiology up to the population level. My research focuses on the lasting effects of predator ‘fear’ on the avian brain. I will be using auditory playbacks to manipulate predation risk in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in acoustic isolation and brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in large outdoor aviaries. Lasting behavioural changes have been found in black-capped chickadees one week after exposure to ...


Comparing Consistency Of Stress And Anxiety-Related Behaviors Across Time In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Matthew R. Baker, Alex Goodman 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Comparing Consistency Of Stress And Anxiety-Related Behaviors Across Time In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Matthew R. Baker, Alex Goodman

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Animals are frequently faced with stressors in their environment that they must overcome to survive and reproduce. Across vertebrates, two distinct stress coping styles or ‘personalities’ have been observed known as proactive (bold) and reactive (shy). Animal personalities may be advantageous by limiting individual variation and balancing different trade-offs in unpredictable environments. When identifying animal personalities, behavioral phenotypes must be consistent and repeatable across contexts and time. Here we use selectively bred lines of shy and bold zebrafish, previously shown to have consistent divergent fear- and anxiety-related behaviors across contexts, to test the repeatability and consistency of these behaviors across ...


Social Immunity In A Sub-Social Insect: Influence Of Parental Care And Exposure To Microbes During Development, Jessica l. Rerucha 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Social Immunity In A Sub-Social Insect: Influence Of Parental Care And Exposure To Microbes During Development, Jessica L. Rerucha

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Exposure to microbes during development can have long-lasting impacts into adulthood. Positive effects include ontogenetic priming (i.e., enhanced immune response due to prior exposure), while negative effects include reduced growth resulting in smaller adults with reduced reproductive performance. Mitigating factors like parental care can reduce or even eliminate any fitness costs. The aim of this study was to determine i) whether exposure to microbes during development causes ontogenetic priming and ii) whether parental care mitigates long-term costs associated with exposure to microbes during development. As study organism, we used the burying beetle Nicrophorus marginatus which provide parental care to ...


Beavers, Jimmy D. Taylor, Greg K. Yarrow, James E. Miller 2017 National Wildlife Research Center

Beavers, Jimmy D. Taylor, Greg K. Yarrow, James E. Miller

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

The American beaver (Castor canadensis) (Figure 1) is known as an “ecosystem engineer” because of the benefits their dams provide to biological diversity and ecosystem function. It also is considered a “keystone species” because of its ability to transform its environment, creating new habitats upon which other species depend. Despite the many positive benefits beavers provide through foraging and dam building, beavers also create conflict with people when their activities cause damage. The authors of this publication acknowledge and appreciate the many positive benefits that beavers provide; however, the focus of this publication is to provide basic information on beaver ...


Acoustic Space Is Affected By Anthropogenic Habitat Features: Implications For Avian Vocal Communication, Caitlin R. Kight, Mark H. Hinders, John P. Swaddle 2017 College of William and Mary

Acoustic Space Is Affected By Anthropogenic Habitat Features: Implications For Avian Vocal Communication, Caitlin R. Kight, Mark H. Hinders, John P. Swaddle

John Swaddle

Human-altered landscapes often include structural features, such as higher levels of impervious surface cover (ISC) and less vegetation, that are likely to affect the transmission of avian vocalizations. We investigated the relationships between human habitat modifications and signal transmission by measuring four acoustic parameters—persistence, reverberation, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of broadcast tones, as well as absolute ambient noise level—in each of 39 avian breeding territories across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient. Using a geographic information system, we quantified the amounts of different habitat features (e.g., ISC, grass, trees) at each site; a principal component analysis was used to ...


Starlings Can Categorize Symmetry Differences In Dot Displays, John P. Swaddle, Stephen Pruett-Jones 2017 College of William and Mary

Starlings Can Categorize Symmetry Differences In Dot Displays, John P. Swaddle, Stephen Pruett-Jones

John Swaddle

Fluctuating asymmetry is an estimate of developmental stability and, in some cases, the asymmetry of morphological traits can reflect aspects of individual fitness. As asymmetry can be a marker for fitness, it has been proposed that organisms could use morphological asymmetry as a direct visual cue during inter‐ and intraspecific encounters. Despite some experimental evidence to support this prediction, the perceptual abilities of animals to detect and respond to symmetry differences have been largely overlooked. Studying the ability of animals to perceive symmetry and factors that affect this ability are crucial to assessing whether fluctuating asymmetry could be used as ...


Experimental Exposure To Urban And Pink Noise Affects Brain Development And Song Learning In Zebra Finches (Taenopygia Guttata), Dominique A. Potvin, Michael T. Curcio, John P. Swaddle, Scott A. MacDougall-Shackleton 2017 University of the Sunshine Coast

Experimental Exposure To Urban And Pink Noise Affects Brain Development And Song Learning In Zebra Finches (Taenopygia Guttata), Dominique A. Potvin, Michael T. Curcio, John P. Swaddle, Scott A. Macdougall-Shackleton

John Swaddle

Recently, numerous studies have observed changes in bird vocalizations—especially song—in urban habitats. These changes are often interpreted as adaptive, since they increase the active space of the signal in its environment. However, the proximate mechanisms driving cross-generational changes in song are still unknown. We performed a captive experiment to identify whether noise experienced during development affects song learning and the development of song-control brain regions. Zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) were bred while exposed, or not exposed, to recorded traffic urban noise (Study 1) or pink noise (Study 2). We recorded the songs of male offspring and compared these ...


Habitat Selection By The Northern Long-Eared Myotis (Myotis Septentrionalis) In The Midwestern United States: Life In A Shredded Farmscape, Jeremy A. White, Patricia Freeman, Cliff A. Lemen 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Habitat Selection By The Northern Long-Eared Myotis (Myotis Septentrionalis) In The Midwestern United States: Life In A Shredded Farmscape, Jeremy A. White, Patricia Freeman, Cliff A. Lemen

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Populations of the Northern Long-Eared Myotis (Myotis septentrionalis) have declined dramatically in recent years in eastern North America due to white-nose syndrome. Although M. septentrionalis was once common in parts of eastern North America, few studies have examined habitat selection of this species in an agricultural landscape. We used acoustical methods to quantify bat activity and construct a habitat model of M. septentrionalis in an intensively farmed area in the Midwestern United States, where mortality from white-nose syndrome has not yet been observed. Our study confirms that M. septentrionalis prefers forest and avoids open habitats in this agricultural region. The ...


The Mixed Source Chinook Salmon Fishery In Lake Huron: A Comparison Of Spawning And Foraging Habitat Use By Naturalized And Hatchery Fish, Stephen A.C. Marklevitz 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Mixed Source Chinook Salmon Fishery In Lake Huron: A Comparison Of Spawning And Foraging Habitat Use By Naturalized And Hatchery Fish, Stephen A.C. Marklevitz

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were introduced into the Great Lakes to restore top-down control of the food web and create new recreational fisheries. Soon after introduction, naturalized spawning populations became established, and with continued stocking of hatchery fish, created a mixed source fishery. My research provides new ecological information about the contributions of naturalized fish to the mixed source Chinook salmon fishery in Lake Huron. I examined spawning and foraging habitat use by naturalized and hatchery Chinook salmon using multiple methods to identify sources of individual fish (external tags, hatchery fin clips, and otolith microchemistry). In the Sydenham River, Ontario ...


Cognition-Mediated Evolution Of Low-Quality Floral Nectars, Vladislav Nachev, Kai Petra Stich, Clemens Winter, Alan B. Bond, Alan Kamil, York Winter 2017 Humboldt University, Berlin

Cognition-Mediated Evolution Of Low-Quality Floral Nectars, Vladislav Nachev, Kai Petra Stich, Clemens Winter, Alan B. Bond, Alan Kamil, York Winter

Alan Bond Publications

Plants pollinated by hummingbirds or bats produce dilute nectars even though these animals prefer more concentrated sugar solutions. This mismatch is an unsolved evolutionary paradox. Here we show that lower quality, or more dilute, nectars evolve when the strength of preferring larger quantities or higher qualities of nectar diminishes as magnitudes of the physical stimuli increase. In a virtual evolution experiment conducted in the tropical rainforest, bats visited computer-automated flowers with simulated genomes that evolved relatively dilute nectars. Simulations replicated this evolution only when value functions, which relate the physical stimuli to subjective sensations, were nonlinear. Selection also depended on ...


Sandhill And Whooping Cranes, Jeb Barzen, Ken Ballinger 2017 Private Lands Conservation, LLC

Sandhill And Whooping Cranes, Jeb Barzen, Ken Ballinger

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

As sandhill crane populations continue to grow in the United States, so too does crop damage, property damage to homeowners, and the risk of crane collisions with aircraft. Whooping crane populations also continue to grow, but with a global population of about 500 individuals (as of 2017), damage is rare and problems often require different solutions due to the species’ endangered status. The behavioral characteristics and habitat needs of sandhill and whooping cranes set the stage for conflict between these birds and people. Recognizing behavioral differences between territorial and non-territorial cranes greatly improves the effectiveness of any management effort.

Human-Wildlife ...


Wildlife At Airports, Travis L. DeVault, Bradley F. Blackwell, Jerrold L. Belant, Michael J. Begier 2017 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

Wildlife At Airports, Travis L. Devault, Bradley F. Blackwell, Jerrold L. Belant, Michael J. Begier

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Collisions between aircraft and wildlife (wildlife strikes) are common occurrences across the developed world. Wildlife strikes are not only numerous, but also costly. Estimates suggest that wildlife strikes cost the civil aviation industry in the U.S. up to $625 million annually, and nearly 500 people have been killed in wildlife strikes worldwide. Most wildlife strikes occur in the airport environment: 72 percent of all strikes occur when the aircraft is ≤500 ft (152 m) above ground level, and 41 percent of strikes occur when the aircraft is on the ground during landing or takeoff. Thus, management efforts to reduce ...


Integrating Habitat Suitability Modeling And Radio Telemetry To Describe Habitat Use Of The Western Massasaugas, Sistrurus T. Tergeminus, In Texas, Mitchell R. Barazowski 2016 University of Texas at Tyler

Integrating Habitat Suitability Modeling And Radio Telemetry To Describe Habitat Use Of The Western Massasaugas, Sistrurus T. Tergeminus, In Texas, Mitchell R. Barazowski

Biology Theses

Habitat suitability modeling using the software package MaxEnt (Phillips, Anderson, & Schapire, 2006) is a popular method for describing the habitat of rare species. MaxEnt uses “presence only” data to develop models; however presence data are highly skewed towards areas of high detection probability and these areas may not represent the full range of habitat use. Thusly, predictions from models developed using only data from areas with high detection probability may not represent all suitable habitat. This study tested the ability of MaxEnt models developed using three different data sets to accurately describe Western Massasauga (Sistrurus t. tergeminus) habitat at a local scale. Models were evaluated by their ability to predict high suitability values at locations of known snake occurrence. The first ...


Changes In Male Hunting Returns, Raymond B. Hames 2016 Universit of Nebraska Lincoln

Changes In Male Hunting Returns, Raymond B. Hames

Anthropology Faculty Publications

Research on changes in male hunting among hunter-gatherers addresses two important issues in early human evolution: the nature of the family and trade-offs in mating and parenting effort as well as the development of embodied capital. In the hunter-gatherer literature, there is a debate about the function of male hunting that has implications for understanding the role males play in the evolution of the pair bond. The traditional model argues that male hunting and other economic activities are forms of male provisioning or parenting effort designed to enhance a man’s fitness through his wife’s reproduction and the survivorship ...


To Boldly Go: Boldness Predicts Behavior And Survivorship Of A Critical Prey Species, Zoe Katherine Tinkle 2016 Boise State University

To Boldly Go: Boldness Predicts Behavior And Survivorship Of A Critical Prey Species, Zoe Katherine Tinkle

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Understanding population dynamics is at the core of conservation biology. However, our understanding of the mechanisms driving population dynamics remains unclear in many cases. Animal behavior in response to biotic and abiotic stressors is an important driver of these population dynamics and varies both within- and among-individuals in a population. Consistent differences in behavior among individuals within a population are referred to as personality traits. Boldness, a personality trait representing the willingness of an individual to engage in risky behavior, may help predict individual and community-level consequences, such as survivorship. Here, we investigated the inter- and intra-individual variation in risk-taking ...


Swimming Mechanisms Of Temperate Forest Ants, Noah D. Gripshover, Evan M. Gora, Stephen P. Yanoviak 2016 University of Louisville

Swimming Mechanisms Of Temperate Forest Ants, Noah D. Gripshover, Evan M. Gora, Stephen P. Yanoviak

Posters-at-the-Capitol

Swimming Mechanisms of Temperate Forest Ants (Camponotus pennsylvanicus and Formica subsericea)

Noah D. Gripshover, Evan M. Gora, and Stephen P. Yanoviak

University of Louisville

Abstract

Environmental challenges shape the evolution of animal behavior and morphology. For wingless terrestrial invertebrates like ants, pools of water on the forest floor are particularly dangerous. Here we show that ants can overcome this obstacle using a modified gait to transverse the water surface. We compared the locomotor morphology and swimming performance of two arboreal ant species that are common in Kentucky (Camponotus pennsylvanicus and Formica subsericea). We defined performance as speed and efficiency (deviation ...


Inter- And Intra-Individual Variation In Predator-Related Behavioral Plasticity Expressed By Female Green Swordtails (Xiphophorus Hellerii), Rachael A. DiSciullo 2016 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Inter- And Intra-Individual Variation In Predator-Related Behavioral Plasticity Expressed By Female Green Swordtails (Xiphophorus Hellerii), Rachael A. Disciullo

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of one genotype to express multiple phenotypes under variable environments. Behavioral plasticity is a type of phenotypic plasticity in which individuals adjust behavior in response to changes in environment. Often, behavioral plasticity is studied at the level of the population, rather than at the level of the individual. Further, few studies have considered the effect of individual traits, such as size and age, on the expression of behavioral plasticity, or, how individual plasticity may be correlated across different contexts. In this study, we used female green swordtails (Xiphophorus hellerii) to test the effects of body ...


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