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Behavioral Differences Between Native And Exotic Invertebrate Prey Affect Susceptibility To Predation By A Native Amphibian Predator, Zachary Cava 2016 State University of New York College at Buffalo

Behavioral Differences Between Native And Exotic Invertebrate Prey Affect Susceptibility To Predation By A Native Amphibian Predator, Zachary Cava

Biology Theses

Invasive species threaten global biodiversity via mechanisms that include altering the dynamics and structure of native food webs. Whereas much research has focused on how exotic species respond to native predators, less is known about how native predators are affected by invasive prey. Here I investigate the response of a rare and threatened native predator—the Eastern Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) to a high-profile invasive crayfish species, Orconectes rusticus. Hellbenders have declined throughout much of their range, and although the potential for exotic predators (i.e. sport fish) to negatively impact C. alleganiensis has been addressed, effects of exotic prey on ...


"Beyond Words," Yes, But Also Beyond Numbers, Fred L. Bookstein 2016 University of Washington - Seattle Campus

"Beyond Words," Yes, But Also Beyond Numbers, Fred L. Bookstein

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Safina’s fascinating series of fifty separate feuilletons tries to bridge a painful Methodenstreit in contemporary ethology mainly by an accumulation of anecdotes. Some deal with his own dogs, but most derive from reading or conversing with observers of a wider range of social mammals including elephants, wolves, apes, and whales. In spite of the many interruptions by travesties of the academic lifestyle and its literature, there is a point to be made, concerning the centrality of evidence about cooperative behavior styles, especially aspects of child-rearing, for the understanding of “what animals think and feel.” But Safina’s argument would ...


Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew C. Leach, Karl A. Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John P. Gluck, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens 2016 Tufts University

Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew C. Leach, Karl A. Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John P. Gluck, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

Pain and distress are central topics in legislation, regulations, and standards regarding the use of animals in research. However, in practice, pain has received greatly increased attention in recent years, while attention to distress has lagged far behind, especially for distress that is not induced by pain. A contributing factor is that there is less information readily available on distress, including practical information on its recognition, assessment and alleviation.

This chapter attempts to help fill that void by reversing the usual pattern and giving greater attention to distress than to pain. In addition, we also bypass the pain versus distress ...


The Importance Of Ants In Cave Ecology, With New Records And Behavioral Observations Of Ants In Arizona Caves, Robert B. Pape 2016 University of Arizona

The Importance Of Ants In Cave Ecology, With New Records And Behavioral Observations Of Ants In Arizona Caves, Robert B. Pape

International Journal of Speleology

The importance of ants as elements in cave ecology has been mostly unrecognized. A global list of ant species recorded from caves, compiled from a review of existing literature, is presented. This paper also reviews what is currently known about ants occurring in Arizona (USA) caves. The diversity and distribution represented in these records suggests ants are relatively common cave visitors (trogloxenes). A general utilization of caves by ants within both temperate and tropical latitudes may be inferred from this combined evidence. Observations of ant behavior in Arizona caves demonstrate a low level and sporadic, but persistent, use of these ...


Range-Wide Patterns Of Geographic Variation In Songs Of Golden-Crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia Atricapilla), Daizaburo Shizuka, M Ross Lein, Glen Chilton 2016 University of Chicago

Range-Wide Patterns Of Geographic Variation In Songs Of Golden-Crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia Atricapilla), Daizaburo Shizuka, M Ross Lein, Glen Chilton

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Discrete geographic variation, or dialects, in songs of songbirds arise as a consequence of complex interactions between ecology and song learning. Four of the five species of Zonotrichia sparrows, including the model species White-crowned Sparrow (Z. leucophrys), have been studied with respect to the causes and consequences of geographic variation in song. Within White-crowned Sparrows, subspecies that migrate farther have larger range size of dialects. Here, we assessed geographic patterns of song variation in the fifth species of this genus, the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Z. atricapilla). We analyzed field-recorded songs from 2 sampling periods (1996–1998 and 2006–2013) covering most ...


The North American Grouse: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The North American Grouse: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

The ten currently recognized species of grouse in North America have played an important role in America’s history, from the famous but ill-fated heath hen, a primary source of meat for the earliest New England immigrants, to the ruffed grouse, currently one of the most abundant and soughtafter upland game birds in more than 40 states and provinces. This book summarizes the ecology, reproductive biology, and social behavior of all ten of the extant North American grouse species. It also describes the current status of grouse populations, some of which are perilously close to extinction. The social behavior of ...


Animal Pain, Bernard E. Rollin 2016 Colorado State University - Fort Collins

Animal Pain, Bernard E. Rollin

Bernard Rollin, Ph.D.

Some time ago, I received a telephone call from an eminent primatologist asking me to give the keynote address at a scientific seminar on animal pain. My first response was to express surprise that they were inviting a philosopher. His reply was remarkable, if only for its rarity among scientists: "The truly interesting and important issues concerning pain in animals are not scientific ones," he said. "They are moral, philosophical, and conceptual ones. And the total failure of science to engage or even acknowledge these issues discredits biomedical science and weakens its conceptual base." I hope to show you that ...


Stopover Ecology Of Ruby-Throated Hummingbirds (Archilochus Colubris) During Autumn Migration, Theodore Joseph Zenzal Jr 2016 University of Southern Mississippi

Stopover Ecology Of Ruby-Throated Hummingbirds (Archilochus Colubris) During Autumn Migration, Theodore Joseph Zenzal Jr

Dissertations

The Ruby-throated Hummingbird (Archilochus colubris) is one of the smallest Nearctic-Neotropical migrants and the only species of hummingbird that breeds in Eastern North America, yet few studies have investigated the biology of Ruby-throated Hummingbirds when they stopover during migration. Given their small size, high metabolism, aggression, and specialized diet, hummingbirds may represent a migrant that operates on the physiological edge. Therefore it is important to understand the factors that influence their stopover as well as the decision to resume migration. Towards this end, Ruby-throated Hummingbirds were captured during autumn migration along the northern coast of the Gulf of Mexico to ...


Connecting The Physiological And Behavioral Response To Heat Stress On A Warming Planet, Anastasia Kalyta 2016 Chapman University

Connecting The Physiological And Behavioral Response To Heat Stress On A Warming Planet, Anastasia Kalyta

Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters

Intertidal communities are considered good models of the biological effects of climate change on ecosystems, as their resident organisms are subjected to heat spells during daytime low tides. The increasing heat exposure can elicit behavioral as well as physiological responses in intertidal organisms. We studied the relationship between these responses to heat stress in the blue-banded hermit crab, Pagurus samuelis, by inducing a “heat shock” with elevated water temperature of 29 °C for 2.5 h. The behavioral effect of heat-shock was quantified using a 30-minute feeding assay, measuring the mass of a standard squid pellet consumed by individual hermit ...


Discrete But Variable Structure Of Animal Societies Leads To The False Perception Of A Social Continuum, Dustin R. Rubenstein, Carlos A. Botero, Eileen A. Lacey 2016 Washington University in St. Louis

Discrete But Variable Structure Of Animal Societies Leads To The False Perception Of A Social Continuum, Dustin R. Rubenstein, Carlos A. Botero, Eileen A. Lacey

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Animal societies are typically divided into those in which reproduction within a group is monopolized by a single female versus those in which it is shared among multiple females. It remains controversial, however, whether these two forms of social structure represent distinct evolutionary outcomes or endpoints along a continuum of reproductive options. To address this issue and to determine whether vertebrates and insects exhibit the same patterns of variation in social structure, we examined the demographic and reproductive structures of 293 species of wasps, ants, birds and mammals. Using phylogenetically informed comparative analyses, we found strong evidence indicating that not ...


Comparative Evolutionary Approach To Pain Perception In Fishes, Culum Brown 2016 Macquarie University

Comparative Evolutionary Approach To Pain Perception In Fishes, Culum Brown

Culum Brown

Arguments against the fact that fish feel pain repeatedly appear even in the face of growing evidence that they do. The standards used to judge pain perception keep moving as the hurdles are repeatedly cleared by novel research findings. There is undoubtedly a vested commercial interest in proving that fish do not feel pain, so the topic has a half-life well past its due date. Key (2016) reiterates previous perspectives on this topic characterised by a black-or-white view that is based on the proposed role of the human cortex in pain perception. I argue that this is incongruent with our ...


Nocturnal Foraging Enhanced By Enlarged Secondary Eyes In A Net-Casting Spider, Jay A. Stafstrom, Eileen A. Hebets 2016 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Nocturnal Foraging Enhanced By Enlarged Secondary Eyes In A Net-Casting Spider, Jay A. Stafstrom, Eileen A. Hebets

Eileen Hebets Publications

Animals that possess extreme sensory structures are predicted to have a related extreme behavioral function. This study focuses on one such extreme sensory structure—the posterior median eyes of the net-casting spider Deinopis spinosa. Although past research has implicated the importance of vision in the nocturnal foraging habits of Deinopis, no direct link between vision in the enlarged eyes and nocturnal foraging has yet been made. To directly test the hypothesis that the enlarged posterior median eyes facilitate visually based nocturnal prey capture, we conducted repeated-measures, visual occlusion trials in both natural and laboratory settings. Our results indicate that D ...


The Role Of Hearing In The Brown Anole (Anolis Sagrei, Polychrotidae): A Behavioral Perspective, Lisa Ragan Cantwell 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

The Role Of Hearing In The Brown Anole (Anolis Sagrei, Polychrotidae): A Behavioral Perspective, Lisa Ragan Cantwell

Doctoral Dissertations

All animals are likely to encounter a predator during their lifetime. Prey can reduce their risk of predation by recognizing dangerous situations and modifying their behavior accordingly. Many animals are known to utilize auditory predator cues to assess risk. However, lizards have historically been assumed to emphasize vision to assess risk because most species do not vocalize and, therefore, do not themselves communicate using sound. I conducted a field experiment to investigate the ability of the brown anole (Anolis sagrei, Polychrotidae) to 1) use auditory cues to evaluate predation risk and 2) distinguish between threatening and non-threatening avian calls (Chapter ...


Psychological Aspects Of Slaughter: Reactions Of College Students To Killing And Butchering Cattle And Hogs, Harold A. Herzog Jr., Sandy McGee 2016 Mars Hill College

Psychological Aspects Of Slaughter: Reactions Of College Students To Killing And Butchering Cattle And Hogs, Harold A. Herzog Jr., Sandy Mcgee

Harold Herzog

This study examined the reactions of college students involved in slaughtering cattle and hogs as part of their jobs on a college work crew. The 27 students were surveyed on attitudes containing items toward slaughtering animals and toward different uses of animals. Nineteen were later interviewed. Some aspects of slaughtering were reported to be more bothersome than others. There was a relationship between the amount of experience of the subjects in slaughtering and also their general attitudes toward various uses of animals and their responses to several of the items on the questionnaire. The perceived benefits of the slaughtering experience ...


A Systems Approach To Animal Communication, Eileen A. Hebets, Andrew B. Barron, Christopher N. Balakrishnan, Mark E. Hauber, Paul H. Mason, Kim L. Hoke 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

A Systems Approach To Animal Communication, Eileen A. Hebets, Andrew B. Barron, Christopher N. Balakrishnan, Mark E. Hauber, Paul H. Mason, Kim L. Hoke

Eileen Hebets Publications

Why animal communication displays are so complex and how they have evolved are active foci of research with a long and rich history. Progress towards an evolutionary analysis of signal complexity, however, has been constrained by a lack of hypotheses to explain similarities and/or differences in signalling systems across taxa. To address this, we advocate incorporating a systems approach into studies of animal communication—an approach that includes comprehensive experimental designs and data collection in combination with the implementation of systems concepts and tools. A systems approach evaluates overall display architecture, including how components interact to alter function, and ...


A Comparison Of The Singing Activity Of Carolina Wrens (Thryothorus Ludovicianus)) In Urban And Rural Settings, Shannon Trimboli 2016 Western Kentucky University

A Comparison Of The Singing Activity Of Carolina Wrens (Thryothorus Ludovicianus)) In Urban And Rural Settings, Shannon Trimboli

Shannon Trimboli

As the earth’s landscape becomes increasingly urbanized, local wildlife must adapt to urban conditions or migrate to areas that are more rural. Urban wildlife face challenges such as direct loss of habitat, competition with non-native species, disturbance due to anthropogenic noise, and micro-climatic changes. Factors such as temperature, relative humidity, and noise affect the acoustical environment and may affect the ability of many animals, including birds, to communicate.

Understanding how urbanization affects birds’ singing behavior is critical because singing often plays a vital role in attracting mates and defending territories. In addition, as global climate change occurs it will ...


Benefits Of Size Dimorphism And Copulatory Silk Wrapping In The Sexually Cannibalistic Nursery Web Spider, Pisaurina Mira, Alissa G. Anderson, Eileen Hebets 2016 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Benefits Of Size Dimorphism And Copulatory Silk Wrapping In The Sexually Cannibalistic Nursery Web Spider, Pisaurina Mira, Alissa G. Anderson, Eileen Hebets

Eileen Hebets Publications

In sexually cannibalistic animals, male fitness is influenced not only by successful mate acquisition and egg fertilization, but also by avoiding being eaten. In the cannibalistic nursery web spider, Pisaurina mira, the legs of mature males are longer in relation to their body size than those of females, and males use these legs to aid in wrapping a female’s legs with silk prior to and during copulation. We hypothesized that elongated male legs and silk wrapping provide benefits to males, in part through a reduced likelihood of sexual cannibalism. To test this, we paired females of random size with ...


Amblypygids: Model Organisms For The Study Of Arthropod Navigation Mechanisms In Complex Environments?, Daniel D. Wiegmann, Eileen A. Hebets, Wulfila Gronenberg, Jacob M. Graving, Verner P. Bingman 2016 Bowling Green State University - Main Campus

Amblypygids: Model Organisms For The Study Of Arthropod Navigation Mechanisms In Complex Environments?, Daniel D. Wiegmann, Eileen A. Hebets, Wulfila Gronenberg, Jacob M. Graving, Verner P. Bingman

Eileen Hebets Publications

Navigation is an ideal behavioral model for the study of sensory system integration and the neural substrates associated with complex behavior. For this broader purpose, however, it may be profitable to develop new model systems that are both tractable and sufficiently complex to ensure that information derived from a single sensory modality and path integration are inadequate to locate a goal. Here, we discuss some recent discoveries related to navigation by amblypygids, nocturnal arachnids that inhabit the tropics and sub-tropics. Nocturnal displacement experiments under the cover of a tropical rainforest reveal that these animals possess navigational abilities that are reminiscent ...


The Behavioral Ecology Of Amblypygids, Kenneth J. Chapin, Eileen A. Hebets 2016 University of California, Los Angeles

The Behavioral Ecology Of Amblypygids, Kenneth J. Chapin, Eileen A. Hebets

Eileen Hebets Publications

Arachnologists have uncovered tantalizing details about amblypygid behavioral ecology—the study of the fitness consequences of their behavior. Thus, it is the aim of this review to position Amblypygi as a useful system in which to investigate the principles of animal behavioral ecology. We synthesize amblypygid habitat preference and navigation modalities; predator, prey, parasite, parasitoid, cannibal, and commensal interactions; resource contests and territoriality; mating systems and mate choice; parental investment and sociality; and genetics and genomics as they relate to behavioral ecology. We present ideas for future research in each of these areas and discuss future directions for Amblypygi behavioral ...


Absence Of Mate Choice And Postcopulatory Benefits In A Species With Extreme Sexual Size Dimorphism, Marie-Claire Chelini, Eileen A. Hebets 2016 University of Nebraska–Lincoln

Absence Of Mate Choice And Postcopulatory Benefits In A Species With Extreme Sexual Size Dimorphism, Marie-Claire Chelini, Eileen A. Hebets

Eileen Hebets Publications

Most hypotheses related to the evolution of female-biased extreme sexual size dimorphism (SSD) attribute the differences in the size of each sex to selection for reproduction, either through selection for increased female fecundity or selection for male increased mobility and faster development. Very few studies, however, have tested for direct fitness benefits associated with the latter – small male size. Mecaphesa celer is a crab spider with extreme SSD, whose males are less than half the size of females and often weigh 10 times less. Here, we test the hypotheses that larger size in females and smaller size in males are ...


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