The Altruistic Self, 2017 Abilene Christian University
The Altruistic Self, Nathan Dougherty
Dialogue & Nexus
Altruism as a purely naturalistic phenomenon self-defeats the term altogether; however, theology also makes unsubstantiated claims that some behaviors are purely selfless. I will first define various conceptual forms of altruism and then offer explanations of the term from neurological, evolutionary and psychological investigations. Despite the position that altruism can be reduced to a fantastical impossibility bearing neither the arms of science nor theology, it is also a fallacy to separate it from a religiously derived supernatural altruism that carries no implications for the realm of morality.
A New Taxonomy Of Altruism In Terms Of Prosocial Behaviors, 2017 Abilene Christian University
A New Taxonomy Of Altruism In Terms Of Prosocial Behaviors, Kristin Kaiser
Dialogue & Nexus
The definition of altruism has been studied, explained, and even confused by many scholars in various fields. The term itself has been inappropriately used to describe prosocial behaviors that do not fall within the definition of altruism. An evaluation of Grant Ramsey’s taxonomy of altruism, which includes biological altruism, psychological altruism, and helping altruism, proves that it is not adequate in categorizing organism’s behaviors. A new taxonomy, with the branches of kin selection, reciprocity, and aesthetic altruism, is presented and explained to clarify the definition of altruism and alleviate confusion about how to describe prosocial behaviors. Both naming ...
Habitat Associations Of Secretive Marsh Birds In Iowa, 2017 Iowa State University
Habitat Associations Of Secretive Marsh Birds In Iowa, Tyler Harms, Stephen J. Dinsmore
Stephen J Dinsmore
Drastic losses of wetland habitats across North America over the past century have resulted in population declines of many marsh birds therefore emphasizing the need for proper management of remaining wetlands for the conservation of marsh birds. Our objective was to evaluate the probability of site occupancy of secretive marsh birds in Iowa in response to habitat variables at multiple scales. We conducted call-broadcast surveys for eight species of marsh birds at wetlands in Iowa from 16 May–15 July 2009 and from 20 April–10 July 2010. We utilized occupancy models in Program MARK to estimate site occupancy probability ...
Sustainability, Resiliance, And Dependency: The Great Plains Model, 2017 Iowa State University
Sustainability, Resiliance, And Dependency: The Great Plains Model, Sebastian Braun
Over the past 400 to 500 years, the Great Plains have seen a rapid succession of ecological regimes. The ecological historian Dan Flores has written that plains ecological history "centers around a series of ecological crashes and simplifications."1 This text attempts to give an overview of these successive ecological systems and to provide an analysis of the lessons in sustainability, resilience, and ideology offered by plains ecological history of the past few centuries. The plains, a semi-arid ecosystem, have "fewer of the safeguards built into more diverse systems."2 Because natural resources "in semi-arid countries are often set in ...
Family Living Sets The Stage For Cooperative Breeding And Ecological Resilience In Birds, 2017 Washington University in St. Louis
Family Living Sets The Stage For Cooperative Breeding And Ecological Resilience In Birds, Michael Griesser, Szymon M. Drobniak, Shinichi Nakagawa, Carlos A. Botero
Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations
Cooperative breeding is an extreme form of cooperation that evolved in a range of lineages, including arthropods, fish, birds, and mammals. Although cooperative breeding in birds is widespread and well-studied, the conditions that favored its evolution are still unclear. Based on phylogenetic comparative analyses on 3,005 bird species, we demonstrate here that family living acted as an essential stepping stone in the evolution of cooperative breeding in the vast majority of species. First, families formed by prolonging parent–offspring associations beyond nutritional independency, and second, retained offspring began helping at the nest. These findings suggest that assessment of the ...
Distance Of Nursery Pig Snout And Tails From A Human Observer During An Approachability Test, 2017 Iowa State University
Distance Of Nursery Pig Snout And Tails From A Human Observer During An Approachability Test, Shawna Weimar, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker, Thomas Fangman
Kenneth J Stalder
The objective of this experiment was to determine the distance of nursery pigs snout and tails from a human observer when classified as touched, orientated to the human or s not-orientated during a human-animal interaction test using a digital image collection methodology. A complete randomized experimental design was utilized in this study where the pen of pigs was the experimental unit. Two methods, a human observer and a digital image, were assigned within rooms to all pens. Two treatments were compared for snout and tail distance (n = 27). There was a difference in proximity between the observer’s index finger ...
Ecology, Evolution, And Sexual Selection In The Invasive, Globally Distributed Small Indian Mongoose (Urva Auropunctata), 2017 The Graduate Center, City University of New York
Ecology, Evolution, And Sexual Selection In The Invasive, Globally Distributed Small Indian Mongoose (Urva Auropunctata), M. Aaron Owen
All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects
Introduced species provide rare opportunities to test evolutionary hypotheses in situ by creating so-called natural experiments. Natural experiments are situations in nature that resemble laboratory studies by allowing for comparisons of a “control” group (i.e., a species’ native range) with “experimental” groups (i.e., a species’ introduced range). In particular, introduced animals allow us to investigate evolutionary dynamics in complex, long-lived organisms in ways that would otherwise be impossible in a laboratory setting. One such introduced animal is the small Indian mongoose (Urva auropunctata, formerly Herpestes auropunctatus). Native to South Asia, the small Indian mongoose’s introduction to more ...
Breeding Ecology And Habitat Use Of Unisexual Salamanders And Their Sperm-Hosts, Blue-Spotted Salamanders (Ambystoma Laterale), Kristine Hoffmann
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
Unsexual Salamanders within the Blue-Spotted Salamander Complex carry combinations of ambystomatid genomes (those of Blue-Spotted Salamanders, Ambystoma laterale, and Jefferson Salamanders, A. jeffersonianum in Maine). They are nearly all female, breed in wetlands, and use sperm of related species to reproduce. Little is known about their ecology to guide the conservation of this unique lineage. I examined breeding site occupancy, demographics, orientation, and terrestrial habitat selection of Unisexual Salamanders in comparison to Blue-Spotted Salamanders and other amphibians. I compared statistical tests of orientation to determine which was most appropriate for pitfall data.
Unisexual Salamander occupancy at breeding sites was positively ...
The Relationship Between Sex And Territorial Behavior In The San Cristóbal Lava Lizard (Microlophus Bivittatus), 2017 College of Saint Benedict/Saint John's University
The Relationship Between Sex And Territorial Behavior In The San Cristóbal Lava Lizard (Microlophus Bivittatus), Meghan N. Koenig
All College Thesis Program
The purpose of this study is to learn more about the territorial behavior of the San Cristóbal lava lizard (Microlophus bivittatus). It was hypothesized that, due to competition for mates, competition would be higher amid individuals of the same sex than between individuals that were opposite sexes. This hypothesis was not supported by the data collected, as females were observed interacting more with other females than other males but males were observed interacting more with females than other males. This is likely a result of a sex ratio of two females to one male and the territory structure of the ...
Breeding Stage And Parentage Affect Tameness In Common Loons, 2017 Chapman University
Breeding Stage And Parentage Affect Tameness In Common Loons, Mina Ibrahim
Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters
Tameness is a measure of tolerance towards human disturbance. As human disturbance and recreational activity are increasing, it is becoming more and more important to understand responses of species to this disturbance. Tameness has been shown to be influenced by an individuals characteristics and life history. Two possible determinants of tameness are breeding stage and parentage. We studied tameness in common loons (Gavia immer) specifically looking at the effects of breeding stage and parentage. Tameness was measured by flight initiation distance (FID), the distance at which a loon dove from an approaching human observer in a canoe. Loons with chicks ...
African Wild Dog, Lycaon Pictus, Coloration Patterns And Social Aggregation, 2017 CUNY Hunter College
African Wild Dog, Lycaon Pictus, Coloration Patterns And Social Aggregation, Ayong J. Kim
School of Arts & Sciences Theses
Packs of African wild dogs, Lycaon pictus, were analyzed for coloration patterns and social aggregation tendencies. Mapped locations determined if the coat patterns followed a geographic distribution that corresponded to Southern or Eastern phenotypic forms. Social aggregation tendencies were observed to determine grouping behavior presumably related to individuals’ roles.
Does Genotype Correlate With Phenotype? Evaluating Ruffed Lemur (Varecia Spp.) Color Vision Using Subject Mediated Automatic Remote Testing Apparatus (Smarta), Raymond Vagell
School of Arts & Sciences Theses
Ruffed lemur (Varecia spp.) color vision research was conducted using a multidisciplinary approach: psychophysics, genetic analysis, technology, and animal training. The behavioral manifestation of Varecia spp. trichromacy was shown using a touchscreen apparatus (SMARTA). Trichromats performed better than dichromats when discriminating red from green (G2 = 78.10, p < 0.001).
The Effect Of Boat Type On Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Trucatus) Behavior In The Mississippi Sound, 2017 University of Southern Mississippi
The Effect Of Boat Type On Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Trucatus) Behavior In The Mississippi Sound, Maria Zapetis
Increases in oceanic shipping are a global phenomenon, and a leading cause of concern for marine animal welfare. While it may be difficult to assess the effect of boat traffic on all species in all contexts, it is vital to report anthropogenic impacts where longitudinal data is available, and doubly so where a dearth of information exists. The purpose of this study is to describe how dolphin behavior changed in the presence of boats in the Mississippi Sound between 2006 and 2012, and more specifically, to detail how different boat types impacted dolphins’ behavioral states. This study is unique in ...
Lacuna: Transcendence Of The Human Body Through The Space Between, 2017 Dominican University of California
Lacuna: Transcendence Of The Human Body Through The Space Between, Anica Bottom
Honors Theses and Capstone Projects
This essay examines the author’s choreography, Lacuna, and research integral to its representation. During the choreographic process, experimentation of how the human body moves in relation to different architectural space was observed. In collaboration with the cast of dancers, cohesion of personal experiences in particular locations was evaluated: specifically, investigation of how environments has the ability to trigger habits or patterns of movement from both past and present experiences. A closer look at how the body responds on a visceral level to the physical and emotional sense of place is described. Although the choreographic piece, Lacuna, came to be ...
The North American Whistling-Ducks, Pochards, And Stifftails, 2017 University of Nebraska - Lincoln
The North American Whistling-Ducks, Pochards, And Stifftails, Paul A. Johnsgard
Although the 12 species representing three waterfowl tribes described in this volume are not closely related, they fortuitously provide an instructive example of adaptive evolutionary radiation within the much larger waterfowl lineage (the family Anatidae), especially as to their divergent morphologies, life histories, and social behaviors.
The whistling-ducks (Dendrocygna), with three known North American species, are notable for their permanent pair-bonds, extended biparental family care, and strong social cohesion. In contrast, males of the five typical pochards of North American diving ducks (Aythya) establish monogamous pair-bonds that are maintained only long enough to assure that the female’s eggs are ...
Comparison Of Self-Directed & Social Behaviors Amongst A Captive Group Of Mandrills (Mandrillus Sphinx), 2017 Kent State University - Kent Campus
Comparison Of Self-Directed & Social Behaviors Amongst A Captive Group Of Mandrills (Mandrillus Sphinx), Claire Thiele
Undergraduate Research Symposium
Mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx) are social and group-oriented primates. Like many primates, mandrills utilize self-directed and social behavior, but the function of these behaviors in this species is poorly understood. Broadening the knowledge of mandrill behavior could lead to more information on many other primate species including Homo sapiens. In this project the mandrills of the Cleveland Metroparks Zoo were observed to better understand the role of these behaviors. Each self-directed and social behavior of the four individuals on exhibit –Linus (α ♂), Woody (♂), Eebi (α ♀), and Zenani (♀)—was identified and compared to refine comprehension of the social hierarchies amongst a given ...
Blue Sucker Summer Utilization Distributions And Inter-Annual Fidelity To Summering Habitats, 2017 Nebraska Game and Parks Commission
Blue Sucker Summer Utilization Distributions And Inter-Annual Fidelity To Summering Habitats, J. David Adams, Casey L. Bergthold, Justin D. Haas, Mark A. Pegg, Gerald E. Mestl
Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies
Blue Sucker Cycleptus elongatus populations in the Missouri River are believed to be declining. The decline is most likely attributable to anthropogenic modifications including channelization and dam construction. We compared 2008 and 2009 summer use distribution (UD) for 21 blue suckers implanted with acoustic tags to better understand how blue suckers use the Missouri River. UDs are used to analyze space-use requirements based on the home range concept. The geometric mean 95% UD range was 1.9 river kilometers (RKM) in 2008 and 0.3 RKM in 2009, and differed statistically by year. The upper bound of the 2008 95 ...
Evolutionary Mismatch: Implications Far Beyond Diet And Exercise, 2017 Austin College Department of Biology and Program in Public Health
Evolutionary Mismatch: Implications Far Beyond Diet And Exercise, George M. Diggs Jr.
Journal of Evolution and Health
No abstract provided.
P31. Assessing The Long Term Effects Of Perceived Predation Risk On The Avian Brain, 2017 Western University
P31. Assessing The Long Term Effects Of Perceived Predation Risk On The Avian Brain, Lauren E. Witterick
Western Research Forum
Predators affect prey populations not only through direct killing, but also through the perception of predation risk. Responding to predator threats is critical for prey survival, however perceived predation risk can have lasting effects ranging from individual changes in neurobiology up to the population level. My research focuses on the lasting effects of predator ‘fear’ on the avian brain. I will be using auditory playbacks to manipulate predation risk in black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus) in acoustic isolation and brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) in large outdoor aviaries. Lasting behavioural changes have been found in black-capped chickadees one week after exposure to ...
Comparing Consistency Of Stress And Anxiety-Related Behaviors Across Time In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), 2017 University of Nebraska at Omaha
Comparing Consistency Of Stress And Anxiety-Related Behaviors Across Time In Zebrafish (Danio Rerio), Matthew R. Baker, Alex Goodman
Student Research and Creative Activity Fair
Animals are frequently faced with stressors in their environment that they must overcome to survive and reproduce. Across vertebrates, two distinct stress coping styles or ‘personalities’ have been observed known as proactive (bold) and reactive (shy). Animal personalities may be advantageous by limiting individual variation and balancing different trade-offs in unpredictable environments. When identifying animal personalities, behavioral phenotypes must be consistent and repeatable across contexts and time. Here we use selectively bred lines of shy and bold zebrafish, previously shown to have consistent divergent fear- and anxiety-related behaviors across contexts, to test the repeatability and consistency of these behaviors across ...