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The Effects Of Sexual Dimorphism On Toxic Prey Avoidance In The Chinese Praying Mantis, Tenodera Sinensis, Sophie Podgorski, Emma Swartz, Tisa Steinmeyer, Kayla I. Miller Ph.D. 2018 Marian University

The Effects Of Sexual Dimorphism On Toxic Prey Avoidance In The Chinese Praying Mantis, Tenodera Sinensis, Sophie Podgorski, Emma Swartz, Tisa Steinmeyer, Kayla I. Miller Ph.D.

Undergraduate Research Symposium (URS)

  • This experiment strives to investigate if sex based behaviors in praying mantid feeding habits hold true when sexual dimorphism is not obvious in juvenile mantids
  • Sensitivity to bitter tastes provides an important means for animals to detect various toxic compounds in food (Wooding et al.2006).
  • In predators, taste sensitivity also allows animals to exploit nutritious but toxic food sources by monitoring the consumption of compounds that may cause illness or death (Wooding et al. 2006).
  • Studies on the Chinese praying mantis, Tenodera sinensis, show that the mantids will wipe their mouths, shake, and reject bitter tasting toxic prey when ...


Fall Migration And Winter Habitat Use Of Northern Saw-Whet Owls (Aegolius Acadicus) In The Ozark Highlands, Mitchell L. Pruitt 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Fall Migration And Winter Habitat Use Of Northern Saw-Whet Owls (Aegolius Acadicus) In The Ozark Highlands, Mitchell L. Pruitt

Theses and Dissertations

Studying movement ecology is important not only in understanding the distribution of a species, but in understanding the magnitude of migration through certain regions, as well as explaining regional differences in demographics. The Northern Saw-whet Owl (Aegolius acadicus) is a small, migratory forest owl found throughout much of North America. Despite being captured widely during fall migration, the species’ movement ecology is poorly understood. Exploratory studies outside the saw-whet owl’s normal range have successfully captured the species during fall migration. In the Ozark Highlands ecoregion of the central United States, their status has been considered vagrant during fall and ...


Effect Of Macrograzers (Campostoma Spp. And Faxonius Spp.) On Periphyton In Ozark Streams With Considerations Given To Macrograzer Biomass, Phosphorus, And Season: Mensurative And Manipulative Studies, Kayla R. Sayre 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effect Of Macrograzers (Campostoma Spp. And Faxonius Spp.) On Periphyton In Ozark Streams With Considerations Given To Macrograzer Biomass, Phosphorus, And Season: Mensurative And Manipulative Studies, Kayla R. Sayre

Theses and Dissertations

Nutrient and benthic algal biomass relationships can guide numeric nutrient criteria development in lotic systems. However, herbivorous macrograzers may confound this relationship by reducing the slope of the positive relationship between nutrients and periphyton biomass in streams. I conducted a mensurative field study to determine if stoneroller and crayfish abundance related to algal biomass at varying nutrient concentrations and manipulated macrograzer presence with electrical exclosures in streams to examine macrograzer effects on algal biomass and understand whether these effects on periphyton varied with total phosphorus (TP) or season. Macrograzer density was quantified across a TP gradient (n=15 streams; range ...


Safety, Stephen M. Vantassel, Brenda K. Osthus 2018 Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC Lewistown, Montana

Safety, Stephen M. Vantassel, Brenda K. Osthus

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Wildlife damage management (WDM) is an exciting field with many opportunities to provide solutions to the complex issues involved in human-wildlife interactions. In addition, WDM wildlife control operators (WCO) face a variety of threats to their physical well-being. Injuries can result from misused (Figure 1), faulty, or poorly maintained equipment, inexperience, mishandled wildlife, harsh weather, and dangerous situations, such as electrical lines. The goals of this publication are to: * Develop an awareness of safety issues and adopt a mindset of “Safety First”, * Review the major safety threats that WCOs face, * Provide basic information for WCOs to protect themselves, and * List ...


A Tale Of Two Butterflies: The Effect Of Larval Social Environment And Circadian Rhythms On Mating Behavior In Bicyclus Anynana And Heliconius Hewitsoni, Deonna Nicole Robertson 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Tale Of Two Butterflies: The Effect Of Larval Social Environment And Circadian Rhythms On Mating Behavior In Bicyclus Anynana And Heliconius Hewitsoni, Deonna Nicole Robertson

Theses and Dissertations

Two key components of mate choice research focus on: 1) who an organism mates with, which may be influenced by any number of factors from sexual ornamentation to male-male competition; and, 2) when an organism courts, be it daily, monthly, or seasonally. Both aspects are especially important for gregarious species as mistakes in either can incur high costs to overall fitness. My research focuses on using butterflies to explore kin recognition from the larval stage and its possible impacts on adult mate choice and if courtship is circadian in Heliconius hewitsoni. My first experiment concerned kin recognition. When inbred, Bicyclus ...


Hitchhiker's Guide To Migration: Effects Of Experimental Parasitic Infection And Other Immune Challenges On Migratory Traits Of Sparrows, Tosha R. Kelly 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Hitchhiker's Guide To Migration: Effects Of Experimental Parasitic Infection And Other Immune Challenges On Migratory Traits Of Sparrows, Tosha R. Kelly

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Seasonal migration exposes animals to a variety of habitats and parasites, and if infected migratory birds migrate successfully there is great potential for birds to transport infectious diseases long distances. Our current understanding of whether birds contribute to the spread of disease relies upon observational field studies that are limited in their ability to discern cause from effect. Using captive and field-based experiments for my doctoral research, I answered three research questions: (1) are nocturnal migratory restlessness (Zugunruhe) and body condition affected by mounting an acute phase immune response during migration; (2) what are the impacts of parasitic infection on ...


Courtship Behavior, Communication, And Copulation In Tigrosa Annexa, Samuel White 2018 Murray State University

Courtship Behavior, Communication, And Copulation In Tigrosa Annexa, Samuel White

Scholars Week

The evolution of multimodal communication, where signalers use multiple signal components in multiple sensory modalities, has become the subject of investigation by many researchers. Signaling puts males at risk of predation, so why do males of some species evolve extra signals that may increase this risk? In some wolf spider species, males incorporate many visual and vibrational signals into a display that they use to attract a female for mating. Female spiders are often aggressive toward courting males and so the male display also functions to decrease the odds of cannibalism. Female wandering spiders deposit silk containing pheromones that communicate ...


Habitat Segregation Between Brown Bears And Gray Wolves In A Human-Dominated Landscape, Cyril Milleret, Andrés Ordiz, Guillaume Chapron, Harry Peter Andreassen, Jonas Kindberg, Johan Månsson, Aimee Tallian, Petter Wabakken, Camilla Wikenros, Barbara Zimmermann, Jon E. Swenson, Håkan Sand 2018 Norwegian University of Life Sciences

Habitat Segregation Between Brown Bears And Gray Wolves In A Human-Dominated Landscape, Cyril Milleret, Andrés Ordiz, Guillaume Chapron, Harry Peter Andreassen, Jonas Kindberg, Johan Månsson, Aimee Tallian, Petter Wabakken, Camilla Wikenros, Barbara Zimmermann, Jon E. Swenson, Håkan Sand

Ecology Center Publications

Identifying how sympatric species belonging to the same guild coexist is a major question of community ecology and conservation. Habitat segregation between two species might help reduce the effects of interspecific competition and apex predators are of special interest in this context, because their interactions can have consequences for lower trophic levels. However, habitat segregation between sympatric large carnivores has seldom been studied. Based on monitoring of 53 brown bears (Ursus arctos) and seven sympatric adult gray wolves (Canis lupus) equipped with GPS collars in Sweden, we analyzed the degree of interspecific segregation in habitat selection within their home ranges ...


35 - Changes In Female Humpback Whale (Megaptera Novaeangliae) Surface Feeding Behavior Through Stages Of Maternal Care And Reproduction, Eman Khwaja 2018 Agnes Scott College

35 - Changes In Female Humpback Whale (Megaptera Novaeangliae) Surface Feeding Behavior Through Stages Of Maternal Care And Reproduction, Eman Khwaja

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

North Atlantic Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) are a solitary species that are found on their major feeding ground Stellwagen Bank Marine Sanctuary from March to November each year. Humpback whales in this region display five different feeding behaviors, including kick feeding, group feeding, bubble feeding, lunge feeding. Based on these behaviors it was observed that there are differences in feeding behavior between females that have a calf and females that do not have a calf, especially in group feeding. In this study we sought to determine if pregnancy or the presence of a calf influenced group and individual feeding behavior ...


6 - Influence Of Human Disturbance And Marsh Vegetation On Fiddler Crab Retreat Behavior, Forrest Collins 2018 Georgia Southern University

6 - Influence Of Human Disturbance And Marsh Vegetation On Fiddler Crab Retreat Behavior, Forrest Collins

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Uca pugilator, the sand fiddler crab, is found distributed throughout the southeastern coastal region of North America. They are foragers of detritus found within intertidal substrates, and have a few natural predators that range from raccoons to various species of shore birds. In response to a predator’s presence, fiddler crabs often retreat into nearby burrows. Reemergence time after predator exposure is influenced by crab size, sex, and tidal location. However, it is unclear how this behavior varies with human disturbances and vegetation zones. The purpose of this study was to examine these factors at two sites in Savannah, Georgia ...


Examining Patterns In Nest Predation Using Artificial Nests, Victoria L. Simonsen 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Examining Patterns In Nest Predation Using Artificial Nests, Victoria L. Simonsen

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The use of artificial nests to study the predation of avian nests has faced disregard by ecologists due to inconsistencies found between the survival rates of real and artificial nests across studies and reviews. The negative perception of artificial nests providing an inconsistent assessment of survival has thus fostered the perception that artificial nests are a secondary option to be used to overcome logistical hurdles associated with achieving sufficient sample sizes in systems where study species are rare or elusive, or as merely a preliminary method to study predation across gradients. We argue that the greatest mistake ecologists have made ...


The Effect Of Shelter Availability On Foraging In Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar), Christian A. Therrien 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Effect Of Shelter Availability On Foraging In Atlantic Salmon (Salmo Salar), Christian A. Therrien

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Shelter is an environmental feature that provides protection from danger and its use is an important anti-predator behavior for juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). However, how shelter availability influences the foraging of these fish in the wild is not well documented. I predicted that juvenile Atlantic salmon would alter their foraging behavior in a low shelter environment and that this effect would differ between individuals from two populations that are targeted for reintroduction into Lake Ontario. I measured the foraging activity of juvenile Atlantic salmon from the two populations while they were held in pens in a Lake Ontario tributary ...


Japanese Beetles’ Feeding On Milkweed Flowers May Compromise Efforts To Restore Monarch Butterfly Habitat, Adam M. Baker, Daniel A. Potter 2018 University of Kentucky

Japanese Beetles’ Feeding On Milkweed Flowers May Compromise Efforts To Restore Monarch Butterfly Habitat, Adam M. Baker, Daniel A. Potter

Entomology Faculty Publications

The eastern North American migratory population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) is in serious decline. Habitat restoration, including adding millions of host plants to compensate for loss of milkweed in US cropland, is a key part of the international conservation strategy to return this iconic butterfly to sustainable status. We report here that Popillia japonica, a polyphagous, invasive beetle, aggregates and feeds on flowers of Asclepias syriaca, the monarch’s most important larval food plant, reducing fruiting and seed set by >90% and extensively damaging milkweed umbels in the field. The beetle’s ongoing incursion into the monarch’s key ...


Models Of Conflict And Voluntary Cooperation Between Individuals In Non-Egalitarian Social Groups, Cody Koykka 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Models Of Conflict And Voluntary Cooperation Between Individuals In Non-Egalitarian Social Groups, Cody Koykka

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis broadly investigates the evolution of voluntary cooperative behaviour among individuals in conflict in non-egalitarian social groups. This work is partitioned into three sections. In the first section, we explore the emergence of non-egalitarian social groups to better understand the evolutionary incentives for voluntary participation in groups with unequal distributions of resources. In the second section, we study several scenarios in which genetically related individuals with unequal control over resources cooperate despite being in conflict. The evolution of parent-offspring conflict over provisioning, offspring signals, and alloparental care are each addressed in this section. In the last section, we investigate ...


Differential Spring Migration In The White-Throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia Albicollis), Andrew T. Beauchamp 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Differential Spring Migration In The White-Throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia Albicollis), Andrew T. Beauchamp

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Differential migration timing between distinct classes of individuals is commonly observed in songbirds, however, the underlying behavioural mechanisms of differential timing are still uncertain for most species. My research applied a suite of advanced techniques to examine differential migration timing (by sex and morph) and its underlying behavioural mechanisms (refuelling rate, stopover duration, and wintering latitude) in spring migrating White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) at a key stopover site. Protandry was the only form of differential migration timing observed, with males arriving at stopover on average 11 days earlier than females. Males and females had similar refuelling rate, stopover duration, and ...


The Population Ecology And Behavior Of The Cave Salamander, Eurycea Lucifuga (Rafinesque, 1822)., Joseph Gavin Bradley 2018 University of Louisville

The Population Ecology And Behavior Of The Cave Salamander, Eurycea Lucifuga (Rafinesque, 1822)., Joseph Gavin Bradley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Cave Salamander, Eurycea lucifuga (Rafinesque, 1822), is a little-known species, yet a common inhabitant of caves in the eastern United States. Salamanders are often important components of ecological communities and ecosystems, influencing critical processes such as nutrient cycling and community composition through their predation on invertebrates. Cave-dwelling salamanders such as E. lucifuga may thus appreciably influence the relatively simple ecosystems and communities of caves. Any such influence may be particularly important because these habitats and the organisms that reside in them are often of conservation concern. I used non-invasive methods to study the demographics, movements, and habitat selection of ...


Territorial Behavior In Southern Red-Backed And Ozark Zigzag Salamanders: Effects Of Sex, Species, And Ownership, Colton Savage Lynn 2018 Missouri State University

Territorial Behavior In Southern Red-Backed And Ozark Zigzag Salamanders: Effects Of Sex, Species, And Ownership, Colton Savage Lynn

MSU Graduate Theses

Territorial disputes are common among terrestrial woodland salamanders (genus Plethodon). Males and females of both Ozark zigzag (P. angusticlavius) and southern red-backed (P. serratus) salamanders are territorial, but differing costs and benefits between sexes may influence the expression of territorial behavior. I compared the competitive and exploratory behavior of males and females of both species in laboratory experiments. Competitive behavior was assessed through staged contests between same-sex, same-sized conspecifics. There were no differences between males and females for territory owners (residents). Female intruders were more aggressive than male intruders, spending more time in and performing higher grades of the All ...


The Usefulness Of Gps Telemetry To Study Wolf Circadian And Social Activity, Samuel B. Merrill, L. David Mech 2018 New England Environmental Finance Center

The Usefulness Of Gps Telemetry To Study Wolf Circadian And Social Activity, Samuel B. Merrill, L. David Mech

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

This study describes circadian and social movement patterns of 9 wolves and illustrates capabilities and limitations of Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry for analysis of animal activity patterns. Wolves were studied at the Camp Ripley National Guard Training Site in Little Falls, Minnesota, and were captured via helicopter net-gunning. All study wolves showed nocturnal movement patterns regardless of time of year. One wolf's movement pattern switched to diurnal when he conducted an extraterritorial foray from his natal territory. All data sets with GPS intervals <1 hour (n=4) showed crepuscular movement peaks. We identified patterns of den visitation and attendance, estimated minimum distances traveled and minimum rates of movement, and observed that GPS location intervals may affect perceived rates of wolf travel. Global Positioning System telemetry was useful in determining when pack members were traveling together or apart and how long a breeding female wolf spent near her pups (e.g., 0-month-old pups were left unattended by their mother for as long as 17 days).


Competition Among Three Forensically Important Blow Fly Species (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Phormia Regina, Lucilia Sericata, And Chrysomya Rufifacies, Amber MacInnis 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Competition Among Three Forensically Important Blow Fly Species (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Phormia Regina, Lucilia Sericata, And Chrysomya Rufifacies, Amber Macinnis

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The aim of this study was to use interspecific competition between three species of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to determine if interspecific competition might explain the successional patterns. A replacement series model was used for three species of blowflies: Phormia regina, Lucilia sericata, and Chrysomya rufifacies. A total of 20 maggots were used for each treatment and the proportion of each species was varied. The graphic evidence and the relative crowding coefficient of P. regina versus L. sericata indicated a significant competitive advantage of P. regina. One of the life history traits of L. sericata is that it oviposits on ...


Development Of On-Shore Behavior Among Polar Bears (Ursus Maritimus) In The Southern Beaufort Sea: Inherited Or Learned?, Kate M. Lillie, Eric M. Gese, Todd C. Atwood, Sarah A. Sonsthagen 2018 Utah State University

Development Of On-Shore Behavior Among Polar Bears (Ursus Maritimus) In The Southern Beaufort Sea: Inherited Or Learned?, Kate M. Lillie, Eric M. Gese, Todd C. Atwood, Sarah A. Sonsthagen

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are experiencing rapid and substantial changes to their environment due to global climate change. Polar bears of the southern Beaufort Sea (SB) have historically spent most of the year on the sea ice. However, recent reports from Alaska indicate that the proportion of the SB subpopulation observed on-shore during late summer and early fall has increased. Our objective was to investigate whether this on-shore behavior has developed through genetic inheritance, asocial learning, or through social learning. From 2010 to 2013, genetic data were collected from SB polar bears in the fall via hair snags and remote ...


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