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The Usefulness Of Gps Telemetry To Study Wolf Circadian And Social Activity, Samuel B. Merrill, L. David Mech 2018 New England Environmental Finance Center

The Usefulness Of Gps Telemetry To Study Wolf Circadian And Social Activity, Samuel B. Merrill, L. David Mech

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

This study describes circadian and social movement patterns of 9 wolves and illustrates capabilities and limitations of Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry for analysis of animal activity patterns. Wolves were studied at the Camp Ripley National Guard Training Site in Little Falls, Minnesota, and were captured via helicopter net-gunning. All study wolves showed nocturnal movement patterns regardless of time of year. One wolf's movement pattern switched to diurnal when he conducted an extraterritorial foray from his natal territory. All data sets with GPS intervals <1 hour (n=4) showed crepuscular movement peaks. We identified patterns of den visitation and attendance, estimated minimum distances traveled and minimum rates of movement, and observed that GPS location intervals may affect perceived rates of wolf travel. Global Positioning System telemetry was useful in determining when pack members were traveling together or apart and how long a breeding female wolf spent near her pups (e.g., 0-month-old pups were left unattended by their mother for as long as 17 days).


Insects With Similar Social Complexity Show Convergent Patterns Of Adaptive Molecular Evolution, Kathleen A. Dogantzis, Brock A. Harpur, André Rodrigues, Laura Beani, Amy L. Toth, Amro Zayed 2018 York University

Insects With Similar Social Complexity Show Convergent Patterns Of Adaptive Molecular Evolution, Kathleen A. Dogantzis, Brock A. Harpur, André Rodrigues, Laura Beani, Amy L. Toth, Amro Zayed

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Eusociality has independently evolved multiple times in the hymenoptera, but the patterns of adaptive molecular evolution underlying the evolution and elaboration of eusociality remain uncertain. Here, we performed a population genomics study of primitively eusocial Polistes (paper wasps), and compared their patterns of molecular evolution to two social bees; Bombus (bumblebees), and Apis (honey bees). This species triad allowed us to study molecular evolution across a gradient of social complexity (Polistes < Bombus < Apis) and compare species pairs that have similar (i.e. Polistes and Bombus) or different (i.e. Polistes and Apis) life histories, while controlling for phylogenetic distance. We ...


Wildlife Carcass Disposal, Stephen M. Vantassel, Mark A. King 2018 Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC Lewistown, Montana

Wildlife Carcass Disposal, Stephen M. Vantassel, Mark A. King

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Many wildlife management situations require the disposal of animal carcasses. These can include the lethal removal of wildlife to resolve damage or conflicts, as well as clean-up after mortalities caused by vehicle collisions, disease, oil spills (Figure 1) or other natural disasters. Carcasses must be disposed of properly to protect public sensitivities, the environment, and public health. Improper disposal of carcasses can result in public outrage, site contamination, injury to animals and people, and the attraction of other animals that may lead to wildlife damage issues. Concern over ground water contamination and disease transmission from improper carcass disposal has resulted ...


Wildlife Translocation, Michael T. Mengak 2018 University of Georgia

Wildlife Translocation, Michael T. Mengak

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Many people enjoy wildlife. It enriches their lives in many ways. Nationwide, Americans spend over $144 billion annually on fishing, hunting, and wildlife-watching activities. However, wildlife is not always welcome in or near homes, buildings, or other property and can cause significant damage or health and safety issues (Figure 1). In one study, 42% of urban residents reported experiencing a wildlife problem during the previous year and more than half of them said their attempts to resolve the problem were unsuccessful. Many people who experience a wildlife conflict prefer to resolve the issue without harming the offending animal. Of the ...


Diel Predator Activity Drives A Dynamic Landscape Of Fear, Michel T. Kohl, Daniel R. Stahler, Matthew C. Metz, James D. Forester, Matthew J. Kauffman, Nathan Varley, P. J. White, Douglas W. Smith, Daniel R. MacNulty 2018 Utah State University

Diel Predator Activity Drives A Dynamic Landscape Of Fear, Michel T. Kohl, Daniel R. Stahler, Matthew C. Metz, James D. Forester, Matthew J. Kauffman, Nathan Varley, P. J. White, Douglas W. Smith, Daniel R. Macnulty

Ecology Center Publications

A “landscape of fear” (LOF) is a map that describes continuous spatial variation in an animal's perception of predation risk. The relief on this map reflects, for example, places that an animal avoids to minimize risk. Although the LOF concept is a potentially unifying theme in ecology that is often invoked to explain the ecological and conservation significance of fear, little is known about the daily dynamics of an LOF. Despite theory and data to the contrary, investigators often assume, implicitly or explicitly, that an LOF is a static consequence of a predator's mere presence within an ecosystem ...


Comparative Analysis Of Foraging Behavior And Bite Mechanics Reveals Complex Functional Diversity Among Caribbean Parrotfishes, Thomas C. Adam, Alain Duran, Corinne E. Fuchs, Madelyn V. Roycroft, Maria C. Rojas, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Deron E. Burkepile 2018 University of California, Santa Barbara

Comparative Analysis Of Foraging Behavior And Bite Mechanics Reveals Complex Functional Diversity Among Caribbean Parrotfishes, Thomas C. Adam, Alain Duran, Corinne E. Fuchs, Madelyn V. Roycroft, Maria C. Rojas, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Deron E. Burkepile

Benjamin Ruttenberg

Parrotfishes are a diverse group of herbivores that can influence benthic community dynamics and ecosystem function on coral reefs. Different species and size classes of parrotfishes vary in their feeding ecology and can impact reef ecosystems in distinct ways. We documented differences in the feeding ecology of 9 species of parrotfishes in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS). Many of the key differences can be summarized by assigning species to functional groups (e.g. scrapers, excavators, croppers, macroalgae browsers), which are differentially responsible for carrying out specific ecological processes. For example, we found that Sparisoma viride, Scarus coelestinus, Sc ...


Altered Spring Phenology Of North American Freshwater Turtles And The Importance Of Representative Populations, Fredric J. Janzen, Luke A. Hoekstra, Ronald J. Brooks, David M. Carroll, J. Whitfield Gibbons, Judith L. Greene, John B. Iverson, Jacqueline D. Litzgus, Edwin D. Michael, Steven G. Parren, Willem M. Roosenburg, Gabriel F. Strain, John K. Tucker, Gordon R. Ultsch 2018 Iowa State University

Altered Spring Phenology Of North American Freshwater Turtles And The Importance Of Representative Populations, Fredric J. Janzen, Luke A. Hoekstra, Ronald J. Brooks, David M. Carroll, J. Whitfield Gibbons, Judith L. Greene, John B. Iverson, Jacqueline D. Litzgus, Edwin D. Michael, Steven G. Parren, Willem M. Roosenburg, Gabriel F. Strain, John K. Tucker, Gordon R. Ultsch

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Globally, populations of diverse taxa have altered phenology in response to climate change. However, most research has focused on a single population of a given taxon, which may be unrepresentative for comparative analyses, and few long‐term studies of phenology in ectothermic amniotes have been published. We test for climate‐altered phenology using long‐term studies (10–36 years) of nesting behavior in 14 populations representing six genera of freshwater turtles (Chelydra, Chrysemys, Kinosternon,Malaclemys, Sternotherus, and Trachemys). Nesting season initiation occurs earlier in more recent years, with 11 of the populations advancing phenology. The onset of nesting for nearly ...


The Exploration Of Neuronal Responses To Auditory Stimuli In The Dragonflies, Anax Junius And Aeshna Constricta, Brian Shaw 2018 Union College - Schenectady, NY

The Exploration Of Neuronal Responses To Auditory Stimuli In The Dragonflies, Anax Junius And Aeshna Constricta, Brian Shaw

Honors Theses

To date there is no published evidence that dragonflies (Odonata), have a nervous system equipped to process auditory stimuli. Even with considerable research on these creatures due to their specialized vision and flight mechanics, there is no evidence that dragonflies have ears or even auditory neurons. Last year student Andrew Hamlin and Professor Robert Olberg recorded neuronal responses in the dragonfly to auditory stimuli of 100-2000Hz sounds (Olberg and Hamlin, unpublished). This year our research was aimed at understanding a sensory modality that was previously unknown in dragonflies, the sense of hearing. In order to investigate this question we used ...


Effect Of Adult Chemical Cues On Molting Of Fiddler Crab Megalopae In Low Salinity Seawater, Sydney Rilum 2018 University of San Diego

Effect Of Adult Chemical Cues On Molting Of Fiddler Crab Megalopae In Low Salinity Seawater, Sydney Rilum

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Three species of fiddler crabs, Uca minax, U. pugnax, and U. pugilator, are commonly found in estuaries along the Atlantic coast, each with distinct adult habitats differing in salinity and sediment grain size. Prior research has found evidence for larvae exhibiting selective settlement; however, the degree to which and the method by which they choose their species-appropriate habitat to settle in is still unknown. Additionally, a recent study determined that chemical cues from adult crabs stimulate molting in field-caught fiddler crab megalopae, as previously determined in lab-reared megalopae; however, in 35 ppt seawater, few U. minax molted. This study tested ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


‘Preferred’ Stimulus Of A Whole Model Visual System, Olivier Penacchio, Julie M. Harris 2018 University of St Andrews

‘Preferred’ Stimulus Of A Whole Model Visual System, Olivier Penacchio, Julie M. Harris

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Social Play Predicts Docility In Juvenile Ground Squirrels, James Hurst-Hopf, Scott L. Nunes 2018 University of San Francisco

Social Play Predicts Docility In Juvenile Ground Squirrels, James Hurst-Hopf, Scott L. Nunes

Undergraduate Honors Theses

We evaluated the hypothesis that social play behavior influences the development of temperament in young animals, using docility as a measure of temperament. We observed the play behavior of juvenile Belding’s ground squirrels (Urocitellus beldingi) during the developmental period in which play primarily occurs, and conducted behavioral tests measuring docility at the beginning and end of the play interval. Tests involved handling squirrels and recording their responses. Body mass was a reliable predictor of docility at the beginning of the play period. Rates of social play and maximum distances traveled from the natal burrow during the play interval were ...


Secrets Of A Rare Bird: Breeding Behavior Of The Gray-Breasted Flycatcher (Lathrotriccus Griseipectus) In Ecuador, William Harris Kirkpatrick 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Secrets Of A Rare Bird: Breeding Behavior Of The Gray-Breasted Flycatcher (Lathrotriccus Griseipectus) In Ecuador, William Harris Kirkpatrick

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

The Tumbesian region of southwestern Ecuador and northwestern Peru is home to a large number of endemic bird species. Many of these species are threatened with extinction, and little is known about their basic biology. Thus, information regarding natural history of species in the region is needed to guide conservation management. We studied the reproductive biology of the Gray-breasted Flycatcher, Lathrotriccus griseipectus, a small Tyrannid that lives in the Tumbesian region. Due to habitat destruction, the range size of L. griseipectus has dwindled and the species is now listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. We used a mounted ...


Seasonal Variation In Physiology Challenges The Notion Of Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) As A Forest-Adapted Species, Erin G. Wessling, Tobias Deschner, Roger Mundry, Jill D. Pruetz, Roman M. Wittig, Hjalmar S. Kühl 2018 Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

Seasonal Variation In Physiology Challenges The Notion Of Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) As A Forest-Adapted Species, Erin G. Wessling, Tobias Deschner, Roger Mundry, Jill D. Pruetz, Roman M. Wittig, Hjalmar S. Kühl

World Languages and Cultures Publications

Savanna-mosaic habitats are thought to represent exceptional circumstances for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and owing to the virtues of their habitat as well as peripheral biogeographic location, they are often regarded as marginal to the chimpanzee ecological niche. If these habitats are marginal, then we should expect that chimpanzees living in these habitats demonstrate physiological consequences of the extremity of this environment. We therefore compared seasonal variation in physiological responses to climatic and ecological factors in chimpanzees inhabiting Fongoli, a savanna-mosaic habitat at the margins of the chimpanzee range with chimpanzees from Taï National Park, a lowland rainforest centrally located within ...


Just Wrestle: How We Evolved Through Rough And Tumble Play, Rafe Kelley, Beth Kelley 2018 Evolve Move Play

Just Wrestle: How We Evolved Through Rough And Tumble Play, Rafe Kelley, Beth Kelley

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Diel Rhythmicity Found In Behavior But Not Biogenic Amine Levels In The Funnel-Web Spider Agelenopsis Pennsylvanica (Araneae, Agelenidae), Alexander E. DeMarco 2018 East Tennessee State University

Diel Rhythmicity Found In Behavior But Not Biogenic Amine Levels In The Funnel-Web Spider Agelenopsis Pennsylvanica (Araneae, Agelenidae), Alexander E. Demarco

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Quantifying individual differences in behavior and the extent that behavior is influenced by circadian control is of paramount importance in behavioral ecology. In addition, the proximate mechanisms underlying behavior are also critical in order to obtain a more complete picture of how behavior evolves. Biogenic amines (BAs) are simple nitrogenous compounds derived from amino acids and have been consistently and extensively linked to behavior. For this study, we analyzed temporal patterns of BAs in relation to the antipredator (boldness) and aggressive behavior in female Agelenopsis pennsylvanica, a funnel-web spider. Using HPLC-ED, we compared behavioral responses to temporal patterns of octopamine ...


Modified Landscapes, Esther Nooner 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Modified Landscapes, Esther Nooner

Theses and Dissertations

Modified Landscapes is a body of work that reflects serious thought regarding Nature and its future. My personal experience and beliefs are at the core of why I believe this subject to be of great importance and why it will sustain many artists’ investigations for the time to come. The influences that informed this process are explored through experiences I had traveling, reading and exploring the photograph as a material object. The manipulation of the photograph is meant to question the beautiful, untouched scene and break the Romantic gaze that is historically tied to representations of Nature and insist upon ...


Avian Foraging Response To Jack Pine (Pinus Banksiana) Volatile Chemicals, Katie Bjornen 2018 Northern Michigan University

Avian Foraging Response To Jack Pine (Pinus Banksiana) Volatile Chemicals, Katie Bjornen

All NMU Master's Theses

Birds benefit trees and other plants by removing herbivores that damage the plant and impede its growth. They can significantly increase the growth and biomass of the trees by foraging on the herbivores that harm plants, and the prey items eaten in turn benefits foraging birds by providing sustenance. This interaction becomes complex when tree volatile chemical communication is added. Trees regularly release volatile organic chemicals (referred to as VOCs) as part of metabolism. The particular VOCs released by a tree can depend on several factors, including water availability, time of year, and damage type (e.g., mechanical damage or ...


Gulls, Martin S. Lowney, Scott F. Beckerman, Scott C. Barras, Thomas W. Seamans 2018 USDA, Wildlife Services

Gulls, Martin S. Lowney, Scott F. Beckerman, Scott C. Barras, Thomas W. Seamans

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Abundant gull (Figure 1) populations in North America have led to a variety of conflicts with people. Gulls cause damage at aquaculture facilities and other properties, and often collide with aircraft. Their use of structures on and near water results in excessive amounts of bird droppings on boats and docks. Their presence near outdoor dining establishments, swimming beaches, and recreational sites can lead to negative interactions with people. Large amounts of gull fecal material pollutes water and beaches resulting in drinking water contamination and swim bans. A combination of dispersal techniques, exclusion and limited lethal control may reduce damage to ...


The Effects Of Habitat And Connectivity On Tropical Ant Ecology And Behavior., Benjamin Jacob Adams 2018 University of Louisville

The Effects Of Habitat And Connectivity On Tropical Ant Ecology And Behavior., Benjamin Jacob Adams

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation explores the role that physical connections among and within habitats play in determining the local diversity and behaviors of cursorial organisms. Understanding the processes that regulate local community assembly and that contribute to the maintenance of species diversity is a cornerstone of community ecology. Ants are a useful model for studies of local communities because they are abundant and fulfill a variety of ecological roles. Chapter one of the dissertation examines the how lianas (woody vines) function as connective structures among tree crowns and how these connections affect arboreal ant community structure within a tropical forest canopy. Trees ...


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