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What Have Long-Term Field Studies Taught Us About Population Dynamics?, Beth A. Reinke, David A. W. Miller, Fredric J. Janzen 2019 Pennsylvania State University

What Have Long-Term Field Studies Taught Us About Population Dynamics?, Beth A. Reinke, David A. W. Miller, Fredric J. Janzen

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Long-term studies have been crucial to the advancement of population biology, especially our understanding of population dynamics. We argue that this progress arises from three key characteristics of long-term research. First, long-term data are necessary to observe the heterogeneity that drives most population processes. Second, long-term studies often inherently lead to novel insights. Finally, long-term field studies can serve as model systems for population biology, allowing for theory and methods to be tested under well-characterized conditions. We illustrate these ideas in three long-term field systems that have made outsized contributions to our understanding of population ecology, evolution, and conservation biology ...


What Have Long-Term Field Studies Taught Us About Population Dynamics?, Beth A. Reinke, David A. W. Miller, Fredric J. Janzen 2019 Pennsylvania State University

What Have Long-Term Field Studies Taught Us About Population Dynamics?, Beth A. Reinke, David A. W. Miller, Fredric J. Janzen

Fredric Janzen

Long-term studies have been crucial to the advancement of population biology, especially our understanding of population dynamics. We argue that this progress arises from three key characteristics of long-term research. First, long-term data are necessary to observe the heterogeneity that drives most population processes. Second, long-term studies often inherently lead to novel insights. Finally, long-term field studies can serve as model systems for population biology, allowing for theory and methods to be tested under well-characterized conditions. We illustrate these ideas in three long-term field systems that have made outsized contributions to our understanding of population ecology, evolution, and conservation biology ...


Physiological Status Of Male And Female Popillia Japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Affects Mating And Grouping Behavior, Natasha Tigreros, Rashmi Jadhav, Katelyn A. Kowles, Britto P. Nathan, Paul Switzer 2019 Eastern Illinois University

Physiological Status Of Male And Female Popillia Japonica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Affects Mating And Grouping Behavior, Natasha Tigreros, Rashmi Jadhav, Katelyn A. Kowles, Britto P. Nathan, Paul Switzer

Britto P. Nathan

Because mating may be costly, sexually active males or females are predicted to be in relatively good physiological condition and may preferentially direct their mating behavior toward relatively high-quality mates. We tested this hypothesis in Japanese beetles (Popillia japonica Newman), a pest species in which males and females may be either isolated or in aggregations while feeding on host plants. We examined male size and lipid content and female size and egg load with respect to both their pairing status and whether they were isolated or in aggregations. Males that were paired had the highest lipid levels, and single, isolated ...


Age Structure Of Horn Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Populations Estimated By Pterin Concentrations, E. S. Krafsur, A. L. Rosales, J. F. Robison-Cox, J. P. Turner 2019 Iowa State University

Age Structure Of Horn Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Populations Estimated By Pterin Concentrations, E. S. Krafsur, A. L. Rosales, J. F. Robison-Cox, J. P. Turner

Elliot Krafsur

Pterins accumulate in the head capsules of horn flies, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), as a linear function of time and temperature. Pterin concentrations were used to estimate chronological ages and to establish correlations between chronological age and ovarian development and reproductive success in 12 horn fly populations in 1988 and 1989. Male ages were estimated spectrofluorometrically. There were statistically significant differences between years in population age structure measured by pterins. Survival rates estimated from pterin concentration distributions were consistent with a one-parameter exponential model with constant survival rate. Mean daily survival rates were 0.81 for females and 0.84 ...


Performance Of The Nzi And Other Traps For Biting Flies In North America, S. Mihok, D. A. Carlson, E. S. Krafsur, L. D. Foil 2019 U.S. Department of Agriculture

Performance Of The Nzi And Other Traps For Biting Flies In North America, S. Mihok, D. A. Carlson, E. S. Krafsur, L. D. Foil

Elliot Krafsur

The performance of Nzi traps for tabanids (Tabanus similis Macquart, T. quinquevittatus Wiedemann, Chrysops aberransPhilip, C. univittatus Macquart, C. cincticornis Walker, Hybomitra lasiophthalma (Macquart)), stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans Linnaeus) (Diptera: Muscidae) and mosquitoes (Aedes) (Diptera: Culicidae) was investigated at various sites in Canada (Ontario, Alberta) and USA (Iowa, Florida, Louisiana). Traps made from selected fabrics, insect nettings and hand-dyed blue cotton were compared to the African design to provide practical recommendations for temperate environments. Comparisons of substituted materials showed that trap performance was optimal only when traps were made from appropriate fabrics in the colours produced by either copper phthalocyanine ...


Space Use And Movement Of Urban Bobcats, Julie K. Young, Julie M. Golla, John P. Draper, Derek Broman, Terry Blankenship, Richard Heilbrun 2019 Utah State University

Space Use And Movement Of Urban Bobcats, Julie K. Young, Julie M. Golla, John P. Draper, Derek Broman, Terry Blankenship, Richard Heilbrun

Julie Young

Global urbanization is rapidly changing the landscape for wildlife species that must learn to persist in declining wild spacing, adapt, or risk extinction. Many mesopredators have successfully exploited urban niches, and research on these species in an urban setting offers insights into the traits that facilitate their success. In this study, we examined space use and activity patterns from GPS-collared bobcats (Lynx rufus) in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, Texas, USA. We found that bobcats select for natural/agricultural features, creeks, and water ways and there is greater home-range overlap in these habitats. They avoid roads and are less likely ...


Traffic Noise And Sexual Selection: Studies Of Anthropogenic Impact On Bird Songs And Undergraduate Student Reasoning Of Evolutionary Mechanisms, Sarah Spier 2019 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Traffic Noise And Sexual Selection: Studies Of Anthropogenic Impact On Bird Songs And Undergraduate Student Reasoning Of Evolutionary Mechanisms, Sarah Spier

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Humans have transformed much of the natural landscape and are continuing to do so at an accelerated rate, compromising natural areas that serve as important habitat for many species. Roads impact much of the environment as they fragment habitat and introduce traffic noise into the acoustic environment, deferentially affecting wildlife in roadside habitat. I explored how traffic noise affects the detection of birds based on whether their vocalizations were masked by traffic noise. Masked species detection was not affected by an increase in traffic noise amplitude, while there was a negative effect of traffic noise amplitude on unmasked species detection ...


Solar Eclipse Has Little Discernible Effect On Bat Activity, Michael J. Bender, Sara Robertson 2019 University of North Georgia

Solar Eclipse Has Little Discernible Effect On Bat Activity, Michael J. Bender, Sara Robertson

Georgia Journal of Science

N/A - Research Note


Approachability To A Human In Gilts Divergently Selected For Feed Efficiency, Johanna Sholar, Jessica D. Colpoys, Nicholas K. Gabler, Aileen F. Keating, Suzanne T. Millman, Janice Siegford, Anna K. Johnson 2019 Iowa State University

Approachability To A Human In Gilts Divergently Selected For Feed Efficiency, Johanna Sholar, Jessica D. Colpoys, Nicholas K. Gabler, Aileen F. Keating, Suzanne T. Millman, Janice Siegford, Anna K. Johnson

Aileen Keating

The objective of this study was to evaluate approachability of gilts divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) to a novel human. Twenty low-RFI and 19 high-RFI gilts were tested using a human approach test. Testing occurred over two consecutive weeks between 1300 and 1900 hours. Gilts were tested individually within a 4.9 x 2.4 m test arena. Throughout the test, latency to first enter, duration of time spent, and frequency of entrances within 1 m and 0.5 m of the human were recorded. These results suggest that divergent selection for RFI did not alter gilt approach ...


Tourism And African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Behavior In Zambezi National Park, Zimbabwe, Brigit Rooney 2019 Western Kentucky University

Tourism And African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana) Behavior In Zambezi National Park, Zimbabwe, Brigit Rooney

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

As charismatic megafauna and a flagship species, African elephants (Loxodonta africana) are vital to the African tourist economy. Conversely, high levels of wildlife tourism can induce behavioral shifts that push desired animals into less frequented areas and disrupt natural behaviors. In order to examine this trade-off, tourism levels and African elephant behaviors were studied in Zambezi National Park (ZNP) near Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe. Over the course of 14 weeks, in-person observations and camera traps in ZNP were used to collect geographic, demographic, and behavioral data from elephant sightings. As a proxy for human presence, geo-locational data were collected for each ...


Effect Of Sleep Loss On Executive Function And Baseline Corticosterone Levels In An Arctic-Breeding Songbird, The Lapland Longspur (Calcarius Lapponicus), Brett Hodinka 2019 Western Kentucky University

Effect Of Sleep Loss On Executive Function And Baseline Corticosterone Levels In An Arctic-Breeding Songbird, The Lapland Longspur (Calcarius Lapponicus), Brett Hodinka

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Sleep is a fundamental and essential component of vertebrate life, although its exact function remains unknown. Animals that are deprived of sleep typically show reduced neurobiological performance, health, and in some cases, survival. However, a number of animals exhibit adaptations that permit them to carry out normal activities even when sleep is restricted or deprived. Lapland longspurs (Calcarius lapponicus), arctic-breeding passerine birds, exhibit around-the-clock activity during their short breeding season, with an inactive period of only 3–4 h/day (71°N). Whether these birds suffer behavioral and physiological costs associated with acute sleep loss (SL) is unknown. To assess ...


Documenting Marine Mammal Behavior And Evaluating The Benefits And Consequences Of Viewing Marine Mammals In Southcentral Alaska, Lauren E. McCaslin 2019 Western Kentucky University

Documenting Marine Mammal Behavior And Evaluating The Benefits And Consequences Of Viewing Marine Mammals In Southcentral Alaska, Lauren E. Mccaslin

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Marine mammals are in a precarious conservation position because of anthropogenic impacts and historic perceptions that they are a consumable commodity. In light of changing abiotic conditions, further evaluation is needed on the habitat use, behavior, and interactions among marine mammals. Conservation legislation has helped protect species, but the greatest ground swelling may be the advent of the commercial whale watching industry. The feeding grounds in Alaskan waters have made this area a prime tourism location, and these nutrient-rich waters have resulted in a confluence of marine mammal species, including the appealing and abundant humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) that may ...


Sex-Specific Personalities In The Purple Marsh Crab, Jillian Sterman, Jessica Barton, Panagiota Delmedico, Samantha Sweeney 2019 DePaul University

Sex-Specific Personalities In The Purple Marsh Crab, Jillian Sterman, Jessica Barton, Panagiota Delmedico, Samantha Sweeney

DePaul Discoveries

Animals are considered to possess personalities when individuals differ in behavior, and these differences are consistent between situations. Several studies have identified personalities in diverse groups but less is known about personality variation between the sexes. In this study, we examined variation in two key personality traits (boldness, activity) in female and male purple marsh crabs (Sesarma reticulatum) using a semi-field approach. Specifically, we measured boldness and activity on two consecutive days using the same behavioral assays during each time point. Consistency (personality) was determined using Kendall’s coefficient of concordance based on Spearman correlation coefficients for each behavior. The ...


If Jeremiah Is Going To Stay, He Needs To Change His Tone: Reframing Apocalyptic Discourse, Bernard Kondenar 2019 Lake Forest College

If Jeremiah Is Going To Stay, He Needs To Change His Tone: Reframing Apocalyptic Discourse, Bernard Kondenar

Inter-Text: An Undergraduate Journal for Social Sciences and Humanities

No abstract provided.


Do Local Environmental Factors And Lunar Cycle Influence Timing And Synchrony Of Oviposition Of A Turtle With Strict Nocturnal Nesting?, Tibisay Escalona, Nicole Valenzuela, Dean C. Adams 2019 University of Porto

Do Local Environmental Factors And Lunar Cycle Influence Timing And Synchrony Of Oviposition Of A Turtle With Strict Nocturnal Nesting?, Tibisay Escalona, Nicole Valenzuela, Dean C. Adams

Nicole Valenzuela

Timing of nesting affects fitness of oviparous animals living in seasonal environments, and females may cue on environmental factors for their nesting behavior, but these relationships are understudied in tropical turtles. Here, the timing and synchrony of egg-laying relative to environmental factors were examined in the South American freshwater turtle Podocnemis unifilis on 11 nesting beaches during three nesting seasons. Daily measurements included number of nests laid, rainfall, river level, air temperature, and the phase of the lunar cycle (full moon, last quarter, new moon and first quarter). Results confirmed that P. unifilis nested at night and revealed that females ...


Do Local Environmental Factors And Lunar Cycle Influence Timing And Synchrony Of Oviposition Of A Turtle With Strict Nocturnal Nesting?, Tibisay Escalona, Nicole Valenzuela, Dean C. Adams 2019 University of Porto

Do Local Environmental Factors And Lunar Cycle Influence Timing And Synchrony Of Oviposition Of A Turtle With Strict Nocturnal Nesting?, Tibisay Escalona, Nicole Valenzuela, Dean C. Adams

Dean C. Adams

Timing of nesting affects fitness of oviparous animals living in seasonal environments, and females may cue on environmental factors for their nesting behavior, but these relationships are understudied in tropical turtles. Here, the timing and synchrony of egg-laying relative to environmental factors were examined in the South American freshwater turtle Podocnemis unifilis on 11 nesting beaches during three nesting seasons. Daily measurements included number of nests laid, rainfall, river level, air temperature, and the phase of the lunar cycle (full moon, last quarter, new moon and first quarter). Results confirmed that P. unifilis nested at night and revealed that females ...


Space Use And Movement Of Urban Bobcats, Julie K. Young, Julie M. Golla, John P. Draper, Derek Broman, Terry Blankenship, Richard Heilbrun 2019 Utah State University

Space Use And Movement Of Urban Bobcats, Julie K. Young, Julie M. Golla, John P. Draper, Derek Broman, Terry Blankenship, Richard Heilbrun

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Global urbanization is rapidly changing the landscape for wildlife species that must learn to persist in declining wild spacing, adapt, or risk extinction. Many mesopredators have successfully exploited urban niches, and research on these species in an urban setting offers insights into the traits that facilitate their success. In this study, we examined space use and activity patterns from GPS-collared bobcats (Lynx rufus) in the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, Texas, USA. We found that bobcats select for natural/agricultural features, creeks, and water ways and there is greater home-range overlap in these habitats. They avoid roads and are less likely ...


Response To Conspecific Alarm Cues By Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma Maculatum) Larvae, Katlyn M. Gardner 2019 Missouri State University

Response To Conspecific Alarm Cues By Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma Maculatum) Larvae, Katlyn M. Gardner

MSU Graduate Theses

Detection of predators early in a predation sequence may allow prey to increase their probability of survival by taking evasive action. For aquatic species in ephemeral ponds visibility is often limited, so predation risk assessment via chemical cues can be useful. Most mole salamanders of the genus Ambystoma breed in vernal ponds, and larvae suffer high mortality rates due in part to high levels of predation. I tested whether larvae can assess predation risk by detecting chemicals (alarm cues) released from the skin of damaged conspecifics, and, if so, what factors influence the response to this alarm cue. Field-caught spotted ...


Territorial Behavior Of The Ozark Zigzag Salamander, Plethodon Angusticlavius, Altered By Mode Of Predator Cue And Sex Of Intruder, Sarah E. Heimbach 2019 Missouri State University

Territorial Behavior Of The Ozark Zigzag Salamander, Plethodon Angusticlavius, Altered By Mode Of Predator Cue And Sex Of Intruder, Sarah E. Heimbach

MSU Graduate Theses

Territorial defense in many species must be balanced with trade-offs in activities such as reproduction and predator avoidance. Adjusting behavior based on current assessments of predation risk and the cost of maintaining or gaining a territory is one way that individuals can balance trade-offs to maximize fitness. I conducted two experiments to determine how Ozark zigzag salamanders, Plethodon angusticlavius, adjust their territorial behavior-based predation risk. First, I tested whether male and female territorial intruders changed their competitive behavior according to whether predation risk is assessed via unimodal (chemical) or multimodal (chemical + physical) cues. Females and males responded differently to unimodal ...


Recovery Of Domestic Behaviors By A Parasitic Ant (Formica Subintegra) In The Absence Of Its Host (Formica Subsericea), Amber Nichole Hunter 2019 Missouri State University

Recovery Of Domestic Behaviors By A Parasitic Ant (Formica Subintegra) In The Absence Of Its Host (Formica Subsericea), Amber Nichole Hunter

MSU Graduate Theses

Dulosis is a type of social parasitism in which a parasitic ant has become dependent on captured workers (hosts) of a closely related species. Dulosis can be either facultative or obligate depending on the degree of dependence on host workers. As parasites become more specialized over evolutionary time, their domestic abilities degenerate until they become unable to survive without the host. However, the ‘lost’ behaviors may display some degree of recovery when host workers are unavailable to do the tasks. The Formica sanguinea group consists of 12 species of parasitic ants, which are all traditionally considered to be facultative parasites ...


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