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Migrations Under Biased Perception: The Distribution Of Specialists And Generalists In A Heterogeneous Landscape With Variably Discounted Resources, Jonathan T. Rowell, Garrett M. Street, Igor Erovenko 2016 University of North Carolina at Greensboro

Migrations Under Biased Perception: The Distribution Of Specialists And Generalists In A Heterogeneous Landscape With Variably Discounted Resources, Jonathan T. Rowell, Garrett M. Street, Igor Erovenko

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Using Citizen Science And Remote Sensing Data To Model Hummingbird Migration, Sarah R. Supp, Laura J. Graham, Frank A. La Sorte, Tina A. Cormier, Gil Bohrer, Donald Powers, Susan Wethington, Kevin Guay, Patrick Jantz, Scott Goetz, Catherine H. Graham 2016 University of Maine

Using Citizen Science And Remote Sensing Data To Model Hummingbird Migration, Sarah R. Supp, Laura J. Graham, Frank A. La Sorte, Tina A. Cormier, Gil Bohrer, Donald Powers, Susan Wethington, Kevin Guay, Patrick Jantz, Scott Goetz, Catherine H. Graham

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Models And Methods In Cultural And Social Evolution, Elliot G. Aguilar 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Models And Methods In Cultural And Social Evolution, Elliot G. Aguilar

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Chapter 1 The mathematical study of genealogies has yielded important insights in population biology, such as the ability to estimate the time to the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of a sample of genetic sequences or of a group of individuals. Here we introduce a model of cultural genealogies that is a step toward answering similar questions for cultural traits. In our model individuals can inherit from a variable, potentially large number of ancestors, rather than from a fixed, small number of ancestors (one or two) as is typical of genetic evolution. We first show that, given a sample of ...


Emotions In Goats: Mapping Physiological, Behavioural And Vocal Profiles, Elodie F. Briefer, Federico Tettamanti, Alan G. McElligott 2016 Queen Mary University of London

Emotions In Goats: Mapping Physiological, Behavioural And Vocal Profiles, Elodie F. Briefer, Federico Tettamanti, Alan G. Mcelligott

Elodie Mandel-Briefer, Ph.D.

Emotions are important because they enable the selection of appropriate behavioural decisions in response to external or internal events. Techniques for understanding and assessing animal emotions, and particularly positive ones, are lacking. Emotions can be characterized by two dimensions: their arousal (bodily excitation) and their valence (negative or positive). Both dimensions can affect emotions in different ways. It is thus crucial to assess their effects on biological parameters simultaneously, so that accurate indicators of arousal and valence can be identified. To find convenient and noninvasive tools to assess emotions in goats, Capra hircus, we measured physiological, behavioural and vocal responses ...


From Thinking Selves To Social Selves, Judith Benz-Schwarzburg 2016 Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna

From Thinking Selves To Social Selves, Judith Benz-Schwarzburg

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

I argue that Rowlands’s concept of pre-reflective self-awareness offers a way to understand animals as Social Selves. It does so because it departs from the orthodox conception of self-awareness, which is both egocentric and logocentric. Instead, its focus is on the relation between consciousness and a person’s lived body, her actions and goals. Characterizing persons as pre-reflectively self-aware beings in Rowlands’s sense offers a much more useful conceptual tool to interpret social behaviour in animals.


What Do We Owe Animals As Persons?, Judith Benz-Schwarzburg 2016 Messerli Research Institute, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna

What Do We Owe Animals As Persons?, Judith Benz-Schwarzburg

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Rowlands (2016) concentrates strictly on the metaphysical concept of person, but his notion of animal personhood bears a moral dimension (Monsó, 2016). His definition of pre-reflective self-awareness has a focus on sentience and on the lived body of a person as well as on her implicit awareness of her own goals. Interestingly, these also play a key role in animal welfare science, as well as in animal rights theories that value the interests of animals. Thus, Rowlands’s concept shows connectivity with both major fields of animal ethics. His metaphysical arguments might indeed contain a strong answer to the question ...


Blackbirds, Richard A. Dolbeer, George M. Linz 2016 U.S. Department of Agriculture, Wildlife Services, Sandusky, OH

Blackbirds, Richard A. Dolbeer, George M. Linz

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

The term blackbird loosely refers to a diverse group of about 10 species of North American birds that belong to the avian family Icteridae. The most common species include: Red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) Common grackle (Quiscalus quiscula) Great-tailed grackle (Quiscalus mexicanus) Brown-headed cowbird (Molothrus ater) Yellow-headed blackbird (Xanthocephalus xanthocephalus) Brewer’s blackbird (Euphagus cyanocephalus) Rusty blackbird (Euphagus carolinus) In addition to blackbirds, this family includes orioles, meadowlarks, and bobolinks.

Human-Wildlife Conflicts 1 Damage Identification 3 Management Methods 4 Economics 7 Species Overview 8 Legal Status 11 Glossary & Key Words 12 Resources 13 Appendices

Damage Prevention and Control Methods for Blackbirds ...


Double-Crested Cormorants, Brian S. Dorr, Kristi L. Sullivan, Paul D. Curtis, Richard Chipman, Russell D. McCullough 2016 USDA/WS/National Wildlife Research Center

Double-Crested Cormorants, Brian S. Dorr, Kristi L. Sullivan, Paul D. Curtis, Richard Chipman, Russell D. Mccullough

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

The history of conflict between double-crested cormorants (Figure 1) and human interest in fisheries is long and convoluted. Following a low point in the 1970s, populations of cormorants expanded in North America, as did concerns about impacts on fisheries. By the late 1990s, natural resource agencies in 27 states reported losses of free-ranging fish stocks to cormorants. Agencies in 10 states, ranging from the Southwest to the Northeast, considered cormorant predation to be of moderate to major concern to fishery management.

Overall, double-crested cormorants are not major consumers of commercial and sportfish species. However, exceptions have been recorded at specific ...


Bird Dispersal Techniques, Thomas W. Seamans, Allen L. Gosser 2016 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Bird Dispersal Techniques, Thomas W. Seamans, Allen L. Gosser

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Conflicts between humans and birds likely have existed since agricultural practices began. Paintings from ancient Greek, Egyptian, and Roman civilizations depict birds attacking crops. In Great Britain, recording of efforts at reducing bird damage began in the 1400s, with books on bird control written in the 1600s. Even so, the problem persists. Avian damage to crops remains an issue today, but we also are concerned with damage to homes, businesses, and aircraft, and the possibility of disease transmission from birds to humans or livestock. Successful dispersal techniques should capitalize on bird sensory capabilities. If birds cannot perceive the dispersal technique ...


Geese, Ducks And Coots, John L. Cummings 2016 National Wildlife Research Center

Geese, Ducks And Coots, John L. Cummings

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Canada geese, snow geese, ducks, and American coots all have been implicated in agricultural crop and turf damage. Canada geese and snow geese that graze on winter wheat and rye crops can reduce subsequent grain and vegetative yields. Canada geese also cause serious damage to sprouting soybeans in spring and to standing cornfields in the autumn. The most common damage to agricultural resources associated with geese results from consumption of crops. Other impacts involve unacceptable accumulations of feces in pastures, trampling of emerging crops, and increased erosion and runoff from fields where the cover crop has been grazed. Canada geese ...


Behavioral Differences Between Native And Exotic Invertebrate Prey Affect Susceptibility To Predation By A Native Amphibian Predator, Zachary Cava 2016 State University of New York College at Buffalo

Behavioral Differences Between Native And Exotic Invertebrate Prey Affect Susceptibility To Predation By A Native Amphibian Predator, Zachary Cava

Biology Theses

Invasive species threaten global biodiversity via mechanisms that include altering the dynamics and structure of native food webs. Whereas much research has focused on how exotic species respond to native predators, less is known about how native predators are affected by invasive prey. Here I investigate the response of a rare and threatened native predator—the Eastern Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) to a high-profile invasive crayfish species, Orconectes rusticus. Hellbenders have declined throughout much of their range, and although the potential for exotic predators (i.e. sport fish) to negatively impact C. alleganiensis has been addressed, effects of exotic prey on ...


Gang Behavior At Carcasses In Wintering Striated Caracaras (Phalcoboenus Australis) In The Falkland Islands, Anna Rose Autilio 2016 Boise State University

Gang Behavior At Carcasses In Wintering Striated Caracaras (Phalcoboenus Australis) In The Falkland Islands, Anna Rose Autilio

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Avian scavengers perform vital ecosystem services by removing waste and by slowing disease. Yet few details are known about the purpose or purposes of social interactions near carcasses and their role in the physical depletion of carcasses (Gangoso et al. 2013). The globally Near-Threatened Striated Caracara is a social scavenging falconid that relies on seabird colonies for food during the breeding season in the Falkland Islands, a principal stronghold in its range. The birds have been persecuted as livestock pests since the late 1800s. Although the population is now protected and remains stable, it does not appear to be growing ...


The North American Geese: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The North American Geese: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

The eight currently recognized species of North American geese are part of a familiar group of birds collectively called waterfowl, all of which are smaller than swans and generally larger than ducks. They include the most popular of our aquatic gamebirds, with several million shot each year by sport hunters. Our two most abundant waterfowl, the Canada goose and snow goose, have populations collectively totaling about 15 million individuals. Like swans, the lifelong pairbonding of geese, their familial care, and prolonged social attachment to their offspring are legendary. Their seasonal migratory flights sometimes span thousands of miles, and the sight ...


"Beyond Words," Yes, But Also Beyond Numbers, Fred L. Bookstein 2016 University of Washington - Seattle Campus

"Beyond Words," Yes, But Also Beyond Numbers, Fred L. Bookstein

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Safina’s fascinating series of fifty separate feuilletons tries to bridge a painful Methodenstreit in contemporary ethology mainly by an accumulation of anecdotes. Some deal with his own dogs, but most derive from reading or conversing with observers of a wider range of social mammals including elephants, wolves, apes, and whales. In spite of the many interruptions by travesties of the academic lifestyle and its literature, there is a point to be made, concerning the centrality of evidence about cooperative behavior styles, especially aspects of child-rearing, for the understanding of “what animals think and feel.” But Safina’s argument would ...


Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew C. Leach, Karl A. Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John P. Gluck, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens 2016 Tufts University

Resolving Animal Distress And Pain: Principles And Examples Of Good Practice In Various Fields Of Research, Alicia Karas, Matthew C. Leach, Karl A. Andrutis, Kathleen Conlee, John P. Gluck, Andrew N. Rowan, Martin L. Stephens

Martin Stephens, Ph.D.

Pain and distress are central topics in legislation, regulations, and standards regarding the use of animals in research. However, in practice, pain has received greatly increased attention in recent years, while attention to distress has lagged far behind, especially for distress that is not induced by pain. A contributing factor is that there is less information readily available on distress, including practical information on its recognition, assessment and alleviation.

This chapter attempts to help fill that void by reversing the usual pattern and giving greater attention to distress than to pain. In addition, we also bypass the pain versus distress ...


Vocal Flexibility And Regional Variation In Free-Tailed Bat Song, Israel Salazar 2016 Florida International University

Vocal Flexibility And Regional Variation In Free-Tailed Bat Song, Israel Salazar

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

While much work has been done on regional vocal variation in birds, relatively few studies have found evidence of similar variation in mammalian vocalizations. This study quantifies individual, colonial, and regional level variation in T. brasiliensis songs in the southeastern United States. Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) are among a handful of mammals that produce complex, hierarchically structured vocalizations. Their songs are composed of multiple syllables that are combined into three phrases that vary in number and order across renditions. Tadarida brasiliensis songs showed considerable amount of variation, and differed significantly between locations in terms of syllable structure and song ...


Proximate And Evolutionary Causes Of Sexual Size Dimorphism In The Crab Spider Mecaphesa Celer, Marie Claire Chelini 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Proximate And Evolutionary Causes Of Sexual Size Dimorphism In The Crab Spider Mecaphesa Celer, Marie Claire Chelini

Dissertations and Theses in Biological Sciences

Animal species’ body sizes result from the balance between selection for survival and selection for reproduction. In species with sexual size dimorphism (SSD), this balance differs between females and males, resulting in distinct sizes despite similar constraints. I used an integrative approach to understand how sexual section, and differences in developmental trajectories and metabolic physiology, resulted in the female biased SSD of the crab spider Mecaphesa celer (Thomisidae). SSD in spiders is often assumed to be a consequence of selection for early male maturation, which should provide males with additional mating opportunities. My results allow us to discard mate choice ...


The Importance Of Ants In Cave Ecology, With New Records And Behavioral Observations Of Ants In Arizona Caves, Robert B. Pape 2016 University of Arizona

The Importance Of Ants In Cave Ecology, With New Records And Behavioral Observations Of Ants In Arizona Caves, Robert B. Pape

International Journal of Speleology

The importance of ants as elements in cave ecology has been mostly unrecognized. A global list of ant species recorded from caves, compiled from a review of existing literature, is presented. This paper also reviews what is currently known about ants occurring in Arizona (USA) caves. The diversity and distribution represented in these records suggests ants are relatively common cave visitors (trogloxenes). A general utilization of caves by ants within both temperate and tropical latitudes may be inferred from this combined evidence. Observations of ant behavior in Arizona caves demonstrate a low level and sporadic, but persistent, use of these ...


Range-Wide Patterns Of Geographic Variation In Songs Of Golden-Crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia Atricapilla), Daizaburo Shizuka, M Ross Lein, Glen Chilton 2016 University of Chicago

Range-Wide Patterns Of Geographic Variation In Songs Of Golden-Crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia Atricapilla), Daizaburo Shizuka, M Ross Lein, Glen Chilton

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Discrete geographic variation, or dialects, in songs of songbirds arise as a consequence of complex interactions between ecology and song learning. Four of the five species of Zonotrichia sparrows, including the model species White-crowned Sparrow (Z. leucophrys), have been studied with respect to the causes and consequences of geographic variation in song. Within White-crowned Sparrows, subspecies that migrate farther have larger range size of dialects. Here, we assessed geographic patterns of song variation in the fifth species of this genus, the Golden-crowned Sparrow (Z. atricapilla). We analyzed field-recorded songs from 2 sampling periods (1996–1998 and 2006–2013) covering most ...


The North American Grouse: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The North American Grouse: Their Biology And Behavior, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

The ten currently recognized species of grouse in North America have played an important role in America’s history, from the famous but ill-fated heath hen, a primary source of meat for the earliest New England immigrants, to the ruffed grouse, currently one of the most abundant and soughtafter upland game birds in more than 40 states and provinces. This book summarizes the ecology, reproductive biology, and social behavior of all ten of the extant North American grouse species. It also describes the current status of grouse populations, some of which are perilously close to extinction. The social behavior of ...


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