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Ecology Of Estuarine Birds: Differences In Desensitization Of Year-Round And Transient Species, Sarah Thomas 2021 Coastal Carolina University

Ecology Of Estuarine Birds: Differences In Desensitization Of Year-Round And Transient Species, Sarah Thomas

Honors Theses

Huntington Beach State Park in Murrells Inlet, SC, USA is considered a “hotspot” for birds, according to the eBird database (eBird, 2020). The park is also visited by approximately 300,000 people, annually (Hobdy, 2019). The causeway at the park is an area of high human and wildlife activity. Here, the differences in desensitization, or lack thereof, of year-round and transient bird species to the stimuli of vehicles and humans were determined. Multiple surveys of the birds at Huntington Beach State Park were conducted from 22nd September, 2019 to 13th June, 2020. Desensitization was quantified by use of a range ...


Predator-Prey Interactions Between Escherichia Coli Strains And Caenorhabditis Elegans At Various Temperatures And Resource Levels, Elizabeth Haynes Whitaker 2021 University of Mississippi

Predator-Prey Interactions Between Escherichia Coli Strains And Caenorhabditis Elegans At Various Temperatures And Resource Levels, Elizabeth Haynes Whitaker

Honors Theses

Predation is an important component of both evolutionary and ecological interactions across nature. The predator-prey relationship can be altered by differential species’ responses to changes in abiotic factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of temperature, resource levels, and their potential interactions using two strains of Escherichia coli prey and a Caenorhabditis elegans predator. It is concluded that an interaction exists between temperature and resource level on this predator-prey relationship however further testing must be done to confirm results due to contamination in the results.


Effect Of A Near-Zero Magnetic Field On Development And Flight Of Oriental Armyworm (Mythimna Separata), Meng-meng Yan, Lei Zhang, Yun-xia Cheng, Thomas W. Sappington, Wei-dong Pan, Xing-fu Jiang 2021 Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences

Effect Of A Near-Zero Magnetic Field On Development And Flight Of Oriental Armyworm (Mythimna Separata), Meng-Meng Yan, Lei Zhang, Yun-Xia Cheng, Thomas W. Sappington, Wei-Dong Pan, Xing-Fu Jiang

Entomology Publications

The geomagnetic field affects all living organisms on the Earth. In this study we investigated the developmental and behavioral effects of rearing Mythimna separata in a near-zero magnetic field (<500 nT) compared to the local geomagnetic field (approximately 50 µT). The near-zero magnetic field produced by a Helmholtz coil system significantly lengthened larval and pupal development durations, increased male longevity, and reduced pupal weight, female reproduction, and the relative expression level of the vitellogenin (Vg) gene in newly emerged females. Moreover, the near-zero magnetic field had a considerable negative effect on the mating ratio of M. separata adults. In addition, the moths in the near-zero magnetic field displayed less flight activity late in the night than those in the Earth's normal geomagnetic field, indicating that the flight rhythm of M. separata may be affected by the near-zero magnetic field. Reduction in magnetic field intensity may have negative effects on the development and flight of oriental armyworm, with consequent additional effects on its migration.


Taphonomy Of Late Jurassic (Tithonian) Morrison Formation Apatosaurus Sp. Vertebrae Found Associated With Teeth From Allosaurus Sp. And Ceratosaurus Sp., And Body Size Extrapolation From The Associated Theropod Teeth., Greg C. Agyan 2021 Utah State University

Taphonomy Of Late Jurassic (Tithonian) Morrison Formation Apatosaurus Sp. Vertebrae Found Associated With Teeth From Allosaurus Sp. And Ceratosaurus Sp., And Body Size Extrapolation From The Associated Theropod Teeth., Greg C. Agyan

All Graduate Plan B and other Reports

An Apatosaurus sp. locality from Dinosaur National Monument designated DNM-15 was excavated in 1985, and associated with two Allosaurus teeth and one Ceratosaurus tooth that were near one of the caudal vertebrae. The Ceratosaurus tooth was buried between an overlying rib and that same caudal vertebra. The caudal vertebrae of the DNM-15 Apatosaurus were intact and articulated, but the anterior skeleton was mostly absent, with a row of articulated sacral vertebrae in close association with a femur. Two other Allosaurus teeth were reported near the preserved ilium of the Apatosaurus, but they could not be located in the collections.

Field ...


Effects Of Artificial Enrichment For Captive Western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla) Activity Budgets, Angela Perretti, Rebecca Chancellor 2021 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Effects Of Artificial Enrichment For Captive Western Lowland Gorilla (Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla) Activity Budgets, Angela Perretti, Rebecca Chancellor

Anthropology & Sociology Student Work

The benefits of enrichment and proper husbandry protocols and their applicability in wildlife research have been important topics of zoological research. Examining activity budgets of various species throughout zoological facilities reap biological, educational and conservation benefits. We collected data on the behavioral responses of five western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) (1 adult male, 2 adult females, 2 infants/juveniles) to a novel climbing structure in the outdoor enclosure at the Philadelphia Zoo. Over a period of 53 nonconsecutive months, we conducted 30-minute focals with 2-minute scan samples on the gorillas (488 total observation hours). We recorded frequency of behaviors ...


Evaluating The Effects Of Temperature And Time Of Day On The Activity Of Captive Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla), Jennifer Ryan, William Volpe, Emily Mauser, Laura DeHart, Angela Perretti, Maddy Vandevere 2021 West Chester University of Pennsylvania

Evaluating The Effects Of Temperature And Time Of Day On The Activity Of Captive Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla Gorilla Gorilla), Jennifer Ryan, William Volpe, Emily Mauser, Laura Dehart, Angela Perretti, Maddy Vandevere

Anthropology & Sociology Student Work

Research on captive animals reaps substantial benefits for conservation, education, and enrichment efforts. As more species become displaced in their natural habitats, it is the job of the researcher to better understand how these animals behave in captivity. To contribute to these efforts, we have been observing the activity budgets of a group of captive western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) (1 adult male, 2 subadult males, 2 adult females, 2 infant/juveniles) at the Philadelphia Zoo. Over a period of 16 non-consecutive months, we conducted 30-minute focals with 2-minute scan samples on the gorillas (54.66 hours), recording time ...


Trophically-Acquired Herbicide Exposure In The Wolf Spider Pardosa Milvina (Araneae: Lycosidae), Grace Chamberlain 2021 Susquehanna University

Trophically-Acquired Herbicide Exposure In The Wolf Spider Pardosa Milvina (Araneae: Lycosidae), Grace Chamberlain

Senior Scholars Day

My senior research explores the effects of herbicides on the wolf spider Pardosa milvina. P. milvina were fed herbicide-tainted prey to see if there would be any changes in survival rate, weight gain or loss, and predatory behavior after consumption.


085— Success Of Batesian Mimicry In The Ant-Mimicking Spider Myrmarachne Formicaria, Niaomi VanAlstine, Julia Ophals 2021 SUNY Geneseo

085— Success Of Batesian Mimicry In The Ant-Mimicking Spider Myrmarachne Formicaria, Niaomi Vanalstine, Julia Ophals

GREAT Day

Myrmarachne formicaria (Salticidae) is an ant-mimicking spider which arrived in North America fairly recently, first noted in Ohio in 2001. It is important to understand how M. formicaria will impact other species as it spreads throughout North America. The goal of this study was to assess the success of Batesian mimicry used by the ant-mimicking spider in avoiding predation when in a staged encounter with another salticid spider. Myrmarachne formicaria mimic ants in the movement of their forelegs to resemble ant antennae, as well as bob their abdomen. The predator spiders were placed in a small petri dish with either ...


Conspecific Aggression Of Invasive Crayfish, P. Clarkii, In Response To Chemical Cues, Elyse Vetter, Elise DeArment, Audrey Fontes, Gary Bucciarelli, Lee Kats 2021 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, UCLA

Conspecific Aggression Of Invasive Crayfish, P. Clarkii, In Response To Chemical Cues, Elyse Vetter, Elise Dearment, Audrey Fontes, Gary Bucciarelli, Lee Kats

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Red Swamp Crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, have caused vast damage to the stream ecosystem of the Santa Monica Mountains, following their invasive introduction. Through their extensive eating habits, high levels of aggression, and responsiveness to environmental stimuli, P. clarkii have a tremendous impact on the success of native species in the Santa Monica Mountains. With exposure to chemical cues, crayfish are able to perceive threats and react accordingly. To determine the extent of such chemoreception, pairs of P. clarkii were tested in the laboratory for conspecific aggression in the presence of native newt, native frog, and conspecific alarm cues. The level ...


The Effects Of Symbiote Ostracods On Invasive Crayfish Behavior, Audrey Fontes, Elyse Vetter, Gary Bucciarelli, Lee Kats 2021 Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, UCLA

The Effects Of Symbiote Ostracods On Invasive Crayfish Behavior, Audrey Fontes, Elyse Vetter, Gary Bucciarelli, Lee Kats

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Invasive crayfish, Procambarus clarkii, are known to negatively impact the biodiversity of Santa Monica Mountain streams. Small symbiotes, ostracods, live on Procambarus clarkii in some local streams. However, their effect on the behaviour of invasive crayfish is unknown. We used an aqueous chlorobutanol solution to remove ostracods from crayfish. We paired control crayfish with those that had ostracods removed and scored aggressive interactions. Crayfish without ostracods were found to be significantly more aggressive towards crayfish with ostracods. When we compared feeding behavior, we found that crayfish without ostracods consumed food more quickly than control crayfish. We again subjected crayfish to ...


Ecology Of Patas Monkey (Erythrocebus Patas) In Buffer Zone Ranges, Old Oyo National Park, Nigeria, Shafiu Kilishi Halidu, Olaoluwa Ayodeji Adebayo, Jude Chikezie, Azeez Olalekan Ibrahim, Olushola Emmanuel Adedeji 2021 Federal College of Wildlife Management, Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, P. M. B. 268, New-Bussa, Niger State, Nigeria

Ecology Of Patas Monkey (Erythrocebus Patas) In Buffer Zone Ranges, Old Oyo National Park, Nigeria, Shafiu Kilishi Halidu, Olaoluwa Ayodeji Adebayo, Jude Chikezie, Azeez Olalekan Ibrahim, Olushola Emmanuel Adedeji

Journal of Bioresource Management

The buffer zones of Nigerian protected areas are poorly managed. Patas monkey (Erythrocebus patas) was studied in fact owing to its dearth of information on its ecology and existence in South-West Nigeria National Park. Therefore, it was necessary to examine E. patas spatial distribution and population structure in the Old Oyo National Park buffer zone ranges, situated in South-West Nigeria and as well know its dietary uptake alongside delineating its various activities. Observations were positioned on direct census methods. A total of 60 individuals of E. patas (23 female, 21 male, and 16 young individuals) were sighted within the study ...


Kleptoparasitic Hawk-Dove Games, Isabella H. Evans-Riester, Chasity T. Kay, Karina L. Ortiz-Suarez, Jan Rychtář, Dewey Taylor 2021 Virginia Commonwealth University

Kleptoparasitic Hawk-Dove Games, Isabella H. Evans-Riester, Chasity T. Kay, Karina L. Ortiz-Suarez, Jan Rychtář, Dewey Taylor

Spora: A Journal of Biomathematics

The Hawk-Dove game is a classical game-theoretical model of potentially aggressive animal conflicts. In this paper, we apply game theory to a population of foraging animals that may engage in stealing food from one another. We assume that the population is composed of two types of individuals, Hawks and Doves. Hawks try to escalate encounters into aggressive contests while Doves engage in non-aggressive displays between themselves or concede to aggressive Hawks. The fitness of each type depends upon various natural parameters, such as food density, the mean handling time of a food item, as well as the mean times of ...


S Is For Sandhill: A Crane Alphabet, Paul A. Johnsgard 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

S Is For Sandhill: A Crane Alphabet, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This is a book of cranes, from A to Z, written and illustrated by the world’s foremost authority on the 15 species of these wonderful and ancient birds. It is a book for all ages, and for all who love and marvel at the beauty, order, and variety of the natural world.

Cranes exhibit complex behavior, pair-bonding, and fascinating social interactions. They migrate huge distances, crossing continents, oceans, and mountains between their nesting and wintering areas. Seven of the world’s 15 crane species are listed as “vulnerable,” three as “endangered,” one as “critically endangered,” and only three as ...


Applying Ecological Theory To Amphibian Populations To Determine If Wood Frogs (Lithobates Sylvaticus) Are Ideal And Free When Selecting Breeding Habitat, Taylor M. Braunagel 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Applying Ecological Theory To Amphibian Populations To Determine If Wood Frogs (Lithobates Sylvaticus) Are Ideal And Free When Selecting Breeding Habitat, Taylor M. Braunagel

Masters Theses

Amphibian populations are declining globally due to a litany of factors including pollution, disease, climate change, and most importantly, habitat destruction. As most amphibian life histories involve their populations being recruitment limited, focusing on the mechanism behind breeding habitat selection will reveal useful cues that managers may use to increase abundance and breeding success. Though there are many theoretical models that describe the distribution of animals in response to a resource, the ideal free distribution (IFD) theory has not yet been applied to amphibian settling decisions. Through this application of the IFD, I have found that a population of wood ...


Anticipation Induces Polarized Collective Motion In Attraction Based Models, Daniel Strömbom, Alice Antia 2021 Lafayette College

Anticipation Induces Polarized Collective Motion In Attraction Based Models, Daniel Strömbom, Alice Antia

Northeast Journal of Complex Systems (NEJCS)

Moving animal groups are prime examples of natural complex systems. In most models of such systems each individual updates its heading based on the current positions and headings of its neighbors. However, recently, a number of models where the heading update instead is based on the future anticipated positions/headings of the neighbors have been published. Collectively these studies have established that including anticipation may have drastically different effects in different models. In particular, anticipation inhibits polarization in alignment-based models and in one alignment-free model, but promotes polarization in another alignment-free model. Indicating that our understanding of how anticipation affects ...


Population Fluctuation And Diurnal Time Budgeting Of White-Headed Duck (Oxyura Leucocephala) During Winter At Garaet Hadj Tahar (Skikda, North East Algerian), Merzoug Seyf Eddine, Abdi Soumia, Bara Mouslim, Houhamdi Moussa 2021 Department of Biology, Institute of Sciences and Technology, University Abdelhafid Boussouf, Mila Algeria

Population Fluctuation And Diurnal Time Budgeting Of White-Headed Duck (Oxyura Leucocephala) During Winter At Garaet Hadj Tahar (Skikda, North East Algerian), Merzoug Seyf Eddine, Abdi Soumia, Bara Mouslim, Houhamdi Moussa

Journal of Bioresource Management

This study was focused on the ecology and behavior of the White-headed Duck (Oxyura leucocephala) at Garaet Hadj Tahar (Guerbes-Sanhadja, North East of Algeria). Sampling was carried out during two wintering seasons (2017-2018 and 2018-2019). High number of this duck was recorded in 2018/19 (350 individuals). We observed two Oxyura population, the first sedentary, and the second, hosted the Garaet during the wintering season. Diurnal time budget was dominated by the comfort activities the sleeping with a rate of 39.13%. Following by swimming (37.76%), feeding (17.59%) grooming (4.58%), courtship ritual (0.56%) and flying (0 ...


Sex-Specific Variation Of Social Play In Wild Immature Tibetan Macaques, Macaca Thibetana, Tong Wang, Xi Wang, Paul A. Garber, Bing-Hua Sun, Lixing Sun, Dong-Po Xia, Jin-Hua Li 2021 Anhui University

Sex-Specific Variation Of Social Play In Wild Immature Tibetan Macaques, Macaca Thibetana, Tong Wang, Xi Wang, Paul A. Garber, Bing-Hua Sun, Lixing Sun, Dong-Po Xia, Jin-Hua Li

Biology Faculty Scholarship

Theories proposed to explain social play have centered on its function in establishing social relationships critical for adulthood, its function in developing motor skills needed to survive, and promoting cognitive development and social learning. In this study, we compared variations in social play among infant and juvenile male and female Macaca thibetana. Given that this species is characterized by female philopatry and male dispersal, we hypothesized that immature females use social play as a mechanism to develop bonds that persist through adulthood whereas immature males use play to develop social skills needed to successfully enter new groups. The results indicated ...


Effects Of Hierarchical Steepness On Grooming Patterns In Female Tibetan Macaques (Macaca Thibetana), Dong-Po Xia, Xi Wang, Paul A. garber, Bing-Hua Sun, Lori K. Sheeran, Lixing Sun, Jin-Hua Li 2021 Anhui University

Effects Of Hierarchical Steepness On Grooming Patterns In Female Tibetan Macaques (Macaca Thibetana), Dong-Po Xia, Xi Wang, Paul A. Garber, Bing-Hua Sun, Lori K. Sheeran, Lixing Sun, Jin-Hua Li

Anthropology and Museum Studies Faculty Scholarship

Hierarchical steepness, defined as status asymmetries among conspecifics living in the same group, is not only used as a main characteristic of animal social relationships, but also represents the degree of discrepancy between supply and demand within the framework of biological market theory. During September and December 2011, we studied hierarchical steepness by comparing variation in grooming patterns in two groups of Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), a primate species characterized by a linear dominance hierarchy. Using a focal sampling method, we collected behavioral data from two provisioned, free-ranging groups (YA1 and YA2) at Mt. Huangshan, China. We found that female ...


Sexual Interference Behaviors In Male Adult And Subadult Tibetan Macaques (Macaca Thibetana), Kui-Hai Pang, Amanda K. Rowe, Lori K. Sheeran, Dong-Po Xia, Lixing Sun, Jin-Hua Li 2021 Anhui University

Sexual Interference Behaviors In Male Adult And Subadult Tibetan Macaques (Macaca Thibetana), Kui-Hai Pang, Amanda K. Rowe, Lori K. Sheeran, Dong-Po Xia, Lixing Sun, Jin-Hua Li

Anthropology and Museum Studies Faculty Scholarship

Male nonhuman primate sexual interference, which includes copulation interruption and copulation harassment, has been related to reproductive success, but its significance has been challenging to test. Copulation interruption results in the termination of a copulation before ejaculation, whereas copulation harassment does not. We conducted this study using the all-occurrence behavior sampling method on sexual interference behaviors of seven adult and four subadult male Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana) in mating and non-mating seasons at Mt. Huangshan, China, from August 2016 to May 2017. Our results showed that males’ individual proportion of copulation interruption and harassment was higher during the mating season ...


Monitoring For Wolves, Jeff Hansen, Cat Urbigkit 2021 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services Mountain View, Wyoming

Monitoring For Wolves, Jeff Hansen, Cat Urbigkit

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Gray wolves (Canis lupus) and Mexican wolves (Canis lupus baileyi) once again roam across landscapes where they have been absent for decades (Figure 1). With wolf range expansion comes increased opportunities for conflicts when wolves harass or prey on domestic livestock or other animals. Wolves have relatively high reproductive and dispersal rates but detecting individual animals in low-density populations is difficult without a concerted monitoring effort. In fact, wolf presence in an area often is not known until there is a confirmed livestock depredation. Ranchers and wildlife damage management experts need not wait for livestock depredations to occur before wolves ...


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