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Competition Between Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera) And Native Bees: An Investigation In Urban Community Gardens In St. Louis, Missouri, Owen Ireton 2022 University of Missouri, St. Louis

Competition Between Honey Bees (Apis Mellifera) And Native Bees: An Investigation In Urban Community Gardens In St. Louis, Missouri, Owen Ireton

Undergraduate Research Symposium

The European honey bee (Apis mellifera), is considered one of the worlds more important pollinator species and is often the focal species for bee conservation. However, lesser known native bees are equally, if not more valuable for pollination services. Native bees are better pollinators for native crop plants, but often must compete with honeybees for floral resources. There has been an increase in support for including honeybee hives in private and public spaces, but recent studies suggest that interactions between resident native bees and introduced honeybees can have long lasting and detrimental effects on population persistence. These interactions have been ...


Cross-Modal Perception Of Identity By Sound And Taste In Bottlenose Dolphins, Jason N. Bruck, Sam F. Walmsley, Vincent M. Janik 2022 Stephen F Austin State University

Cross-Modal Perception Of Identity By Sound And Taste In Bottlenose Dolphins, Jason N. Bruck, Sam F. Walmsley, Vincent M. Janik

Faculty Publications

While studies have demonstrated concept formation in animals, only humans are known to label concepts to use them in mental simulations or predictions. To investigate whether other animals use labels comparably, we studied cross-modal, individual recognition in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that use signature whistles as labels for conspecifics in their own communication. First, we tested whether dolphins could use gustatory stimuli and found that they could distinguish between water and urine samples, as well as between urine from familiar and unfamiliar individuals. Then, we paired playbacks of signature whistles of known animals with urine samples from either the same ...


Developing A Novel Place Preference Assay To Compare Drosophila Species Over Time, Martha M. Brinson 2022 University of Mississippi

Developing A Novel Place Preference Assay To Compare Drosophila Species Over Time, Martha M. Brinson

Honors Theses

Across phylogeny, integration of external factors, memory, and internal states of the organism dictate organismal behavior and mechanisms. The underlying genetic components can affect these behaviors such as in genomic changes arising from speciation. In this thesis, a new place preference assay was evaluated in the analysis and investigation of two species of Drosophila flies (D. melanogaster and D. simulans) to measure similarities and differences and their attraction to two different food substrates. Sleep and circadian measurements were also recorded during experimentation. The Drosophila Activity Monitor 5M (DAM5M) System and Sleep Circadian Analysis MATLAB Program (SCAMP) analysis were used in ...


Life After Death – Does Carcass Biodiversity Scale With Carcass Body Size?, Troy Warfield 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Life After Death – Does Carcass Biodiversity Scale With Carcass Body Size?, Troy Warfield

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Mammals play a large role in the ecosystems where some, especially large-bodied mammals, act as ecosystem engineers. Mammal carcasses, particularly those of large body mass act as a temporary island of dense nutrients that support other organisms, including other mammal species, for an extended period. Research in this field currently focuses on the link between mammal carcass size and nutrient availably or on non-mammalian size and biodiversity, but little is available on the correlation between mammal carcass size and its influence on ecosystem biodiversity. Here we ask, does the available biomass (i.e., body size) of the carcass affect its ...


Assessing The Long-Term Effects Of Natural Disturbance-Based Silvicultural On The Avian Assemblage At The Acadian Forest Ecosystem Research Program, Carl Pohlman 2022 University of Maine

Assessing The Long-Term Effects Of Natural Disturbance-Based Silvicultural On The Avian Assemblage At The Acadian Forest Ecosystem Research Program, Carl Pohlman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Active forest management alters the resources available to forest-obligate species. Large-scale intensive management practices where timber production is the primary objective can lead to notable ecological changes in forest ecosystems. A key concept of ecological forestry is to design forest management activities to emulate natural disturbance regimes as a way to maintain the ecological integrity of forests. The Acadian Forest Ecosystem Research Program (AFERP) was undertaken as an experimental demonstration of management reflective of the region’s disturbance regime, which typically produces small canopy gaps. AFERP includes nine research areas assigned to three silvicultural treatments: unharvested control, small gap (expanding-group ...


Habitat Preference Of F. Notatus And F. Olivaceus From A Reversed Hybrid Zone, Elizabeth Hart Williams 2022 The University of Southern Mississippi

Habitat Preference Of F. Notatus And F. Olivaceus From A Reversed Hybrid Zone, Elizabeth Hart Williams

Honors Theses

Understanding the mechanisms driving habitat preference throughout an organism’s life opens doors to the further understanding of the origins of diversity. Two species of minnow, Fundulus notatus and Fundulus olivaceus, are ideal for ecological research on habitat preference. Ordinarily, F. notatus and F. olivaceus display habitat preferences of downstream and upstream, respectively, with minimal coexistence at confluences. However, in some drainages, these preferences are flipped, like those in the Tombigbee River basin. Members of both species were collected from the Tombigbee River, tagged with species and sex specific colored elastomer marks, and placed in either a homogeneous control or ...


Use Of Intramodal Odor Cues In Shelter Recognition By An Amblypygid, Nathan Bostelman 2022 Bowling Green State University

Use Of Intramodal Odor Cues In Shelter Recognition By An Amblypygid, Nathan Bostelman

Honors Projects

Amblypygids are nocturnal arthropods which live in cluttered habitats and possess the ability to navigate home after displacements of up to ten meters. Homing amblypygids rely on olfactory and tactile information gathered by their antenniform legs to navigate successfully. Given that odor signals encountered in nature are complex and dynamic, navigation via olfaction presents unique challenges related to signal uncertainty. To understand how amblypygids perceive perceive complex odors and what they learn from them, individuals of the subtropical amblypygid P. marginemaculatus were trained to associate a blend of two odors with a shelter and tested on three treatments: the reinforced ...


Effect Of Diet On Window Collision Rate Among Bird Species, Amberlee Cook, Courtney Linkous, Sarah Guindre-Parker, Adam Betuel 2022 Kennesaw State University

Effect Of Diet On Window Collision Rate Among Bird Species, Amberlee Cook, Courtney Linkous, Sarah Guindre-Parker, Adam Betuel

Symposium of Student Scholars

Every year, over 500 million birds collide fatally with man-made structures, with window collisions playing a significant role in causing these deaths. Our research analyzes how a species’ diet can affect their rates of collision with windows. To explore this question, we analyzed the most common food sources of 87 species of birds from window collision data in metro Atlanta. Our results showed that 77% of species from window collisions (or 67 species) were primarily insectivorous. This reliance on insects as a food source could lead to a lifestyle that tends to bring these bird species in closer proximity to ...


Impact Of Fluctuating Insect Availability Levels On Parental Care Behavior In Insectivorous Birds, Cole Bourque 2022 Kennesaw State University

Impact Of Fluctuating Insect Availability Levels On Parental Care Behavior In Insectivorous Birds, Cole Bourque

Symposium of Student Scholars

Abstract Populations of aerially insectivorous birds are declining throughout North America. Urbanization may be indirectly contributing to this decline through its varying effects on populations of insects, an important food source in most insectivores' diet, especially those undergoing breeding efforts. How increasing urban sprawl and subsequent fluctuations in insect populations could impact various species at higher trophic levels is an important area of current study for future conservation endeavors. Certain habitats, with increased insect abundance, could facilitate higher provisioning rates and allow breeding parents to more effectively nourish their young. In addition, brooding and guarding behaviors in breeding birds may ...


First Reproductive Evidence For The Slender Glass Lizard (Ophisaurus Attenuatus) In Nebraska, Keith Geluso 2022 University of Nebraska—Kearney

First Reproductive Evidence For The Slender Glass Lizard (Ophisaurus Attenuatus) In Nebraska, Keith Geluso

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

The Slender Glass Lizard (Ophisaurus attenuatus) reproduces across parts of northern and central Kansas, but its distribution extends into southern Nebraska. In Nebraska, not a single aspect of reproductive activity has been reported for this species in the state. Herein, we report on the first documentation of reproduction in Nebraska. On 22 September 2021, we captured two hatchling Slender Glass Lizards at the Ash Grove Wildlife Management Area in Franklin County, Nebraska. We calculated that those individuals likely hatched around the first week of September. Presence and reproduction of Slender Glass Lizards at the study site likely was associated with ...


Movement Patterns Of The Shovelnose Guitarfish (Pseudobatos Productus) And California Bat Ray (Myliobatis Californica) In The Southern California Bight, Annabel Gong 2022 University of San Diego

Movement Patterns Of The Shovelnose Guitarfish (Pseudobatos Productus) And California Bat Ray (Myliobatis Californica) In The Southern California Bight, Annabel Gong

Theses

While the movement patterns of large elasmobranch species have been studied extensively, those of smaller, mesopredatory species remain understudied. The shovelnose guitarfish (Pseudobatos productus) and the California bat ray (Myliobatis californica) are among the least studied elasmobranchs in the Southern California Bight. This study quantified the broad- and fine-scale movement patterns of these species using passive acoustic telemetry. Twelve guitarfish were surgically implanted with coded acoustic transmitters at a known aggregation site off La Jolla (San Diego County), California, USA and tracked for 849.5 days each, on average. Six bat rays were also implanted here and tracked for 1143 ...


Alleviating Human-Elephant Conflict Through Deterrent Fences And Environmental Monitoring In Southern Kenya, Sophia Carmen Corde 2022 Western Kentucky University

Alleviating Human-Elephant Conflict Through Deterrent Fences And Environmental Monitoring In Southern Kenya, Sophia Carmen Corde

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Human-wildlife conflict is present across the world. In areas where human settlements overlap with elephant habitats, human-elephant conflict can result from crop raiding events, compromising farmers’ food and economic security, and putting humans and elephants in danger through farmer retaliation. Elephants raid crops primarily at night, when detection by humans is lowest, and during the dry season, as crops are developing towards harvest and natural forage quality drops. People living in these areas facing HEC have developed mitigation strategies to lessen the impacts and move towards coexistence. As a team member on the Elephants and Sustainable Agriculture in Kenya project ...


Bistability And Switching Behavior In Moving Animal Groups, Daniel Strömbom, Stephanie Nickerson, Catherine Futterman, Alyssa DiFazio, Cameron Costello, Kolbjørn Tunstrøm 2022 Lafayette College

Bistability And Switching Behavior In Moving Animal Groups, Daniel Strömbom, Stephanie Nickerson, Catherine Futterman, Alyssa Difazio, Cameron Costello, Kolbjørn Tunstrøm

Northeast Journal of Complex Systems (NEJCS)

Moving animal groups such as schools of fish and flocks of birds frequently switch between different group structures. Standard models of collective motion have been used successfully to explain how stable groups form via local interactions between individuals, but they are typically unable to produce groups that exhibit spontaneous switching. We are only aware of one model, constructed for barred flagtail fish that are known to rely on alignment and attraction to organize their collective motion, that has been shown to generate this type of behavior in 2D (or 3D). Interestingly, another species of fish, golden shiners, do exhibit switching ...


Environmental And Habitat Preferences Of The Algerian Hedgehog Atelerix Algirus(Lereboullet, 1842) In El Kala National Park (North-East Algeria), Sakraoui Rym, Boukheroufa Mehdi, Dadci Walid, Abdallah Khadidjawissal, Senaoui Charafeddine, Sakraoui Feriel, Benyacoub Slim 2022 Soil and Sustainable Development Laboratory, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Badji Mokhtar Annaba University BP 12, 23 200, Annaba, Algeria.

Environmental And Habitat Preferences Of The Algerian Hedgehog Atelerix Algirus(Lereboullet, 1842) In El Kala National Park (North-East Algeria), Sakraoui Rym, Boukheroufa Mehdi, Dadci Walid, Abdallah Khadidjawissal, Senaoui Charafeddine, Sakraoui Feriel, Benyacoub Slim

Journal of Bioresource Management

We conducted this study to identify the preferred habitat of Atelerix algirus in the National Park of El Kala (PNEK), through the analysis of the catches rates of the species combined to an ethno zoological survey carried out among the residents. The study was conducted between January 2010 and December 2011, in five localities of the Park, different by their useful areas (forests and agricultural land) and their degree of urbanization: Raml Souk, El Aioun, Berrihane, El Kala and Bougous. We also surveyed 57 residents of Berrihane locality. Our results identified the locality of Berrihane as the preferred area of ...


Behavioral And Physiological Effects Of Heavy Metals On Fish: A Review And Preliminary Results, Diana V. Morales 2022 CUNY Hunter College

Behavioral And Physiological Effects Of Heavy Metals On Fish: A Review And Preliminary Results, Diana V. Morales

Theses and Dissertations

Pollution, specifically heavy metal pollution, in various bodies of water has been a significant issue for decades. Research has been conducted on heavy metals and their effects on the environment, larger fish species, and humans since the 1970s (Skidmore, 1964; Adeniyi et al., 2007; Adeosun et al., 2015; Bawuro et al., 2018). It is known that zinc is a neurotoxin in some species and causes harm to the environment. It is also known that it causes harm to people if it is ingested or if they are exposed to it for long periods of time (Mahurpawar, 2015; Mizuno and Kawahara ...


Addition Of Inexpensive Lights To Aquatic Turtle Traps Improves Trapping Efficiency In Early Spring, Jenna B. Myers, Michael J. Bender, Maggie M. Woodall*, Jennifer L. Mook 2022 University of North Georgia

Addition Of Inexpensive Lights To Aquatic Turtle Traps Improves Trapping Efficiency In Early Spring, Jenna B. Myers, Michael J. Bender, Maggie M. Woodall*, Jennifer L. Mook

Georgia Journal of Science

Aquatic turtles are essential contributors to many freshwater ecosystems, but they face a myriad of threats, necessitating periodic monitoring of population status. Increasing turtle trapping efficiency has the potential to improve conservation efforts, particularly when population sizes are low or sampling conditions are suboptimal. In an effort to improve trapping efficiency, we added LED lights to turtle traps in an attempt to attract kinosternid turtles. Our investigation into the effectiveness of LED lights as an attractant was based on evidence suggesting that these turtles may forage using both visual and olfactory cues. Lights significantly increased captures of kinosternid turtles during ...


Toxical Effect Of Euphorbia Guyoniana Aqueous Extracts (Euphorbiaceae) On Mortality, Larval Development And Sexual Behavior Of Drosophila Melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Chabi Lila, Habbachi Wafa, Tahraoui Abdelkrim 2022 Faculty of Natural and Life Sciences and Earth Sciences. BP455 University of Ghardaia, Trans-Sahara Hwy, Bounoura 47000, Ghardaia, Algeria.

Toxical Effect Of Euphorbia Guyoniana Aqueous Extracts (Euphorbiaceae) On Mortality, Larval Development And Sexual Behavior Of Drosophila Melanogaster (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Chabi Lila, Habbachi Wafa, Tahraoui Abdelkrim

Journal of Bioresource Management

Euphorbia guyoniana (Boiss and Reut) is a plant of Euphorbiaceae family common throughout the northern Sahara and pre-desert regions. In traditional medicine, they are used in the treatment of various infections. Euphorbiaceae contain various chemical compounds families such as alkaloids, which give them a toxic effect. The toxic effects of seeds decoctions on mortality and development of 3rd instar larvae of Drosophila melanogaster are studied. A treatment by ingestion shows a good larvicidal activity of this extract. It was shown that the chemical compounds contained in the extract, act on the fly development cycle as most of pupae do not ...


Effects Of Experimental Malaria Infection On Migration Of Yellow-Rumped Warblers (Setophaga Coronata), Rebecca J. Howe 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Effects Of Experimental Malaria Infection On Migration Of Yellow-Rumped Warblers (Setophaga Coronata), Rebecca J. Howe

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The potential of migratory animals to spread infectious diseases depends on how infection affects movement. If infection delays or slows the speed of travel, transmission to uninfected individuals may be reduced. Whether and how malaria (Plasmodium spp.) affects bird migration has received little experimental research. I captured 40 actively-migrating Yellow-rumped Warblers (Setophaga coronata) at a migration stopover site and held them in captivity. I inoculated 25 with P. cathemerium while 15 received sham inoculations. After 12 days the birds were released. Six P. cathemerium-inoculated birds (24%) developed P. cathemerium infections after inoculation. I radio-tagged all birds, and used radio ...


The Evolution Of Quantitative Sensitivity, Margaret A H Bryer, Sarah E. Koopman, Jessica F. Cantlon, Steven T. Piantadosi, Evan L. MacLean, Joseph M. Baker, Michael J. Beran, Sarah M. Jones, Kerry E. Jordan, Salif Mahamane, Andreas Nieder, Bonnie M. Perdue, Friederike Range, Jeffrey R. Stevens, Masaki Tomonaga, Dorottya Ujfalussy, Jennifer Vonk 2022 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The Evolution Of Quantitative Sensitivity, Margaret A H Bryer, Sarah E. Koopman, Jessica F. Cantlon, Steven T. Piantadosi, Evan L. Maclean, Joseph M. Baker, Michael J. Beran, Sarah M. Jones, Kerry E. Jordan, Salif Mahamane, Andreas Nieder, Bonnie M. Perdue, Friederike Range, Jeffrey R. Stevens, Masaki Tomonaga, Dorottya Ujfalussy, Jennifer Vonk

Jeffrey Stevens Papers & Publications

The ability to represent approximate quantities appears to be phylogenetically widespread, but the selective pressures and proximate mechanisms favouring this ability remain unknown. We analysed quantity discrimination data from 672 subjects across 33 bird and mammal species, using a novel Bayesian model that combined phylogenetic regression with a model of number psychophysics and random effect components. This allowed us to combine data from 49 studies and calculate the Weber fraction (a measure of quantity representation precision) for each species. We then examined which cognitive, socioecological and biological factors were related to variance in Weber fraction. We found contributions of phylogeny ...


Ms Environmental Biology Capstone Project, Samantha Ortega 2022 Regis University

Ms Environmental Biology Capstone Project, Samantha Ortega

Regis University Student Publications

This project is presented in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Masters of Science in Environmental Biology at Regis University. Chapter 1 is a literature review that discusses the management implications of designing bird habitat on anthropogenic structures. Chapter 2 is a grant proposal to explore niche dominance by anthropophilic bird species in Denver, CO. Chapter 3 is a journal manuscript discussing how musth impacts captive bull Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) behavior at Denver Zoo. Finally, Chapter 4 is a stakeholder analysis for Northern Bobwhite recovery at Bridgestone-Firestone Centennial Wilderness Area, White County, Tennessee.


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