Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Behavior and Ethology Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1445 Full-Text Articles 2145 Authors 281049 Downloads 108 Institutions

All Articles in Behavior and Ethology

Faceted Search

1445 full-text articles. Page 1 of 37.

The North American Quails, Partridges, And Pheasants, Paul A. Johnsgard 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

The North American Quails, Partridges, And Pheasants, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This book documents the biology of six species of New World quails that are native to North America north of Mexico (mountain, scaled, Gambel’s, California, and Montezuma quails, and the northern bobwhite), three introduced Old World partridges (chukar, Himalayan snowcock, and gray partridge), and the introduced common (ring-necked) pheasant. Collectively, quails, partridges, and pheasants range throughout all of the continental United States and the Canadian provinces. Two of the species, the northern bobwhite and ring-necked pheasant, are the most economically important of all North American upland game birds. All of the species are hunted extensively for sport and are ...


The Behavior Response Of Antlion Larvae To Alternating Magnetic Fields, Lindsey Wagner, Caleb L. Adams 2017 Radford University

The Behavior Response Of Antlion Larvae To Alternating Magnetic Fields, Lindsey Wagner, Caleb L. Adams

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Modeling Evolutionary Games Between Predators And Social Prey, Bill Mitchell 2017 Illinois State University

Modeling Evolutionary Games Between Predators And Social Prey, Bill Mitchell

Annual Symposium on Biomathematics and Ecology: Education and Research

No abstract provided.


Humans As Prey: Coping With Large Carnivore Attacks Using A Predator-Prey Interaction Perspective, Vincenzo Penteriani, Giulia Bombieri, José María Fedriani, José Vicente López-Bao, Pedro José Garrote, Luca Francesco Russo, María del Mar Delgado 2017 CSIC, Spain

Humans As Prey: Coping With Large Carnivore Attacks Using A Predator-Prey Interaction Perspective, Vincenzo Penteriani, Giulia Bombieri, José María Fedriani, José Vicente López-Bao, Pedro José Garrote, Luca Francesco Russo, María Del Mar Delgado

Human–Wildlife Interactions

The number of attacks on humans by large carnivores in North America is increasing. A better understanding the factors triggering such attacks is critical to mitigating the risk of future encounters in landscape where humans and large carnivore co-exist. Since 1955, of the 632 attacks on humans by large carnivores, 106 (17%) involved predation. We draw on concepts and empirical evidence from the Predator-Prey Interaction Theory to provide insights into how to reduce predatory attacks and, thus, improve human-large carnivore co-existence. Because large carnivore-caused mortality risks for humans are comparable to those shown by other mammal species in response to ...


Using Resident-Based Hazing Programs To Reduce Human-Coyote Conflicts In Urban Environments, Mary Ann Bonnell, Stewart W. Breck 2017 Jefferson County Open Space Department

Using Resident-Based Hazing Programs To Reduce Human-Coyote Conflicts In Urban Environments, Mary Ann Bonnell, Stewart W. Breck

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Abstract The concept of hazing (aversive conditioning) is often promoted as a tool for reducing human-coyote (Canis latrans) conflicts in urban environments. Little scientific evidence exists on the effectiveness of hazing, particularly hazing applied by residents (i.e., community-level hazing). Wildlife professionals question if residents will properly and consistently apply hazing techniques and if hazing impacts coyote behavior over short- and long-term periods. We describe two separate efforts designed to encourage residents to haze coyotes in the Denver Metro Area; a citizen-science program and an open space hazing trial. Both efforts were intended to be management techniques that either could ...


Evaluating Lethal And Nonlethal Management Options For Urban Coyotes, Stewart W. Breck, Sharon A. Poessel, Mary Ann Bonnell 2017 USDA/APHIS/WS National Wildlife Research Center

Evaluating Lethal And Nonlethal Management Options For Urban Coyotes, Stewart W. Breck, Sharon A. Poessel, Mary Ann Bonnell

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Human-coyote conflict in urban environments is a growing issue in cities throughout the United States with the primary problem being the development of problem individuals that are overly bold and aggressive with people and pets. Little research has focused on management options to deal with this conflict. We better define lethal and nonlethal management strategies associated with proactive and reactive management of coyotes with an emphasis on management of problem individuals. We then provide data from research in the Denver Metropolitan Area (DMA) that focused on reactive lethal removal of problem coyotes and reactive nonlethal hazing (i.e., community-level hazing ...


Coyote Attacks On Humans, 1970-2015: Coyote Attacks On Humans, 1970–2015: Implications For Reducing The Risks, Rex O. Baker, Robert M. Timm 2017 California Polytechnic State University

Coyote Attacks On Humans, 1970-2015: Coyote Attacks On Humans, 1970–2015: Implications For Reducing The Risks, Rex O. Baker, Robert M. Timm

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Beginning with the emerging pattern of urban and suburban coyotes (Canis latrans) attacking humans in southern California in the late 1970s, we analyzed information from reported attacks to better understand the factors contributing to changes in coyote behavior. We subsequently used updated data collected largely in urban and suburban environments in the United States and Canada during the past 30 years to develop strategies to reduce the risk of attacks. In the 1990s, increased incidents of coyote attacks were reported in states beyond California and in Canadian provinces. We documented 367 attacks on humans by coyotes from 1977 through 2015 ...


The Genetic And Environmental Basis For Chc Biosynthesis In Drosophila, Heather KE Ward 2017 The University of Western Ontario

The Genetic And Environmental Basis For Chc Biosynthesis In Drosophila, Heather Ke Ward

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) are produced by insects and primarily used to prevent desiccation. In Drosophila, certain compounds have secondary roles as infochemicals that may act during courtship to influence mate choice. Certain CHCs may stimulate courtship with heterospecifics or act to repel conspecifics. The CHC profile produced by an individual is the result of the interaction between its genetic background and the environment, though the genes that underlie species differences in CHC production and how the environment can modulate the abundance of individual compounds within a species is not well known. Here, candidate gene CG5946 was found to be involved ...


Characterizing The Scent And Chemical Composition Of Panthera Leo Marking Fluid Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Multidimensional Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Simone B. Soso, Jacek A. Koziel 2017 Iowa State University

Characterizing The Scent And Chemical Composition Of Panthera Leo Marking Fluid Using Solid-Phase Microextraction And Multidimensional Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry-Olfactometry, Simone B. Soso, Jacek A. Koziel

Simone B. Soso

Lions (Panthera leo) use chemical signaling to indicate health, reproductive status, and territorial ownership. To date, no study has reported on both scent and composition of marking fluid (MF) from P. leo. The objectives of this study were to: 1) develop a novel method for simultaneous chemical and scent identification of lion MF in its totality (urine + MF), 2) identify characteristic odorants responsible for the overall scent of MF as perceived by human panelists, and 3) compare the existing library of known odorous compounds characterized as eliciting behaviors in animals in order to understand potential functionality in lion behavior. Solid-phase ...


European Starlings, H. Jeffrey Homan, Ron J. Johnson, James R. Thiele, George M. Linz 2017 USDA National Wildlife Research Center

European Starlings, H. Jeffrey Homan, Ron J. Johnson, James R. Thiele, George M. Linz

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris, Figure 1) are an invasive species in the United States. The first recorded release of the birds was in 1890 in New York City’s Central Park. Because starlings easily adapt to a variety of habitats, nest sites and food sources, the birds spread quickly across the country. Today, there are about 150 million starlings in North America. Conflicts between people and starlings occur mostly in agricultural settings. Conflicts can occur during winter in urban and suburban environments, especially in business districts.

Starlings damage apples, blueberries, cherries, figs, grapes, peaches, and strawberries. Besides causing direct losses ...


Behavioural Mechanisms Of Protandrous Spring Migration In A Nearctic-Neotropical Songbird, Jessica E. Deakin 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Behavioural Mechanisms Of Protandrous Spring Migration In A Nearctic-Neotropical Songbird, Jessica E. Deakin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Most seasonally migrating songbirds have a protandrous migration pattern, meaning that males arrive to the breeding grounds before females. The proximate mechanisms that underlie this pattern are largely unknown for most species. In this thesis, I evaluate the behavioural mechanisms of protandry in the black-throated blue warbler (Setophaga caerulescens) using onset of migratory restlessness as a proxy for departure from the wintering grounds, migratory restlessness intensity as a proxy for motivation to fly, and stopover duration of radio-tagged birds. The onset of migratory restlessness and stopover duration was similar in both sexes. Males displayed higher intensity wing whirring than females ...


Mapping The Ecology Of Information: Hierarchical Habitat Selection By Nebraska Pheasant Hunters, Lyndsie Wszola 2017 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Mapping The Ecology Of Information: Hierarchical Habitat Selection By Nebraska Pheasant Hunters, Lyndsie Wszola

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Hunting regulations are assumed to moderate the effects of hunting consistently across a game population. A growing body of evidence suggests that hunter effort varies temporally and spatially, and that variation in effort at multiple spatial scales can affect game populations in unexpected ways. We set out to determine the causes of variation in hunting effort among ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) hunters at four spatial scales: among regions within the state of Nebraska, among sites within a given region, among access points at a given site, and among habitat patches within a site. At each scale, pheasant hunters used direct ...


Herons And Egrets, Michael D. Hoy 2017 USDA-APHIS-Wildlife Services

Herons And Egrets, Michael D. Hoy

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Human-Wildlife Conflicts

Landscapes -- Herons and egrets commonly cause damage at aquaculture facilities and recreational fishing waters where fish are held at high densities. In one study, on average wading birds consumed from 4 to 24 golden shiners per day at minnow production facilities in Arkansas. Great blue herons and great egrets commonly feed at catfish production facilities in Mississippi. The tendency for herons and egrets to congregate in large feeding flocks often leads to extensive loss of fish at aquaculture facilities. Fish-eating birds also can have an impact on intensively managed sport fisheries. Damage occurs when herons and egrets feed ...


Novel Bio-Logging Tool For Studying Fine-Scale Behaviors Of Marine Turtles In Response To Sound, Reny B. Tyson, Wendy Dow Piniak, Camila Domit, David Mann, Michael Hall, Douglas P. Nowacek, Mariana M. P. B. Fuentes 2017 Sarasota Dolphin Research Program

Novel Bio-Logging Tool For Studying Fine-Scale Behaviors Of Marine Turtles In Response To Sound, Reny B. Tyson, Wendy Dow Piniak, Camila Domit, David Mann, Michael Hall, Douglas P. Nowacek, Mariana M. P. B. Fuentes

Environmental Studies Faculty Publications

Increases in the spatial scale and intensity of activities that produce marine anthropogenic sound highlight the importance of understanding the impacts and effects of sound on threatened species such as marine turtles. Marine turtles detect and behaviorally respond to low-frequency sounds, however few studies have directly examined their behavioral responses to specific types or intensities of anthropogenic or natural sounds. Recent advances in the development of bio-logging tools, which combine acoustic and fine-scale movement measurements, have allowed for evaluations of animal responses to sound. Here, we describe these tools and present a case study demonstrating the potential application of a ...


The Altruistic Self, Nathan Dougherty 2017 Abilene Christian University

The Altruistic Self, Nathan Dougherty

Dialogue & Nexus

Altruism as a purely naturalistic phenomenon self-defeats the term altogether; however, theology also makes unsubstantiated claims that some behaviors are purely selfless. I will first define various conceptual forms of altruism and then offer explanations of the term from neurological, evolutionary and psychological investigations. Despite the position that altruism can be reduced to a fantastical impossibility bearing neither the arms of science nor theology, it is also a fallacy to separate it from a religiously derived supernatural altruism that carries no implications for the realm of morality.


A New Taxonomy Of Altruism In Terms Of Prosocial Behaviors, Kristin Kaiser 2017 Abilene Christian University

A New Taxonomy Of Altruism In Terms Of Prosocial Behaviors, Kristin Kaiser

Dialogue & Nexus

The definition of altruism has been studied, explained, and even confused by many scholars in various fields. The term itself has been inappropriately used to describe prosocial behaviors that do not fall within the definition of altruism. An evaluation of Grant Ramsey’s taxonomy of altruism, which includes biological altruism, psychological altruism, and helping altruism, proves that it is not adequate in categorizing organism’s behaviors. A new taxonomy, with the branches of kin selection, reciprocity, and aesthetic altruism, is presented and explained to clarify the definition of altruism and alleviate confusion about how to describe prosocial behaviors. Both naming ...


Sustainability, Resiliance, And Dependency: The Great Plains Model, Sebastian Braun 2017 Iowa State University

Sustainability, Resiliance, And Dependency: The Great Plains Model, Sebastian Braun

Sebastian Braun

Over the past 400 to 500 years, the Great Plains have seen a rapid succession of ecological regimes. The ecological historian Dan Flores has written that plains ecological history "centers around a series of ecological crashes and simplifications."1 This text attempts to give an overview of these successive ecological systems and to provide an analysis of the lessons in sustainability, resilience, and ideology offered by plains ecological history of the past few centuries. The plains, a semi-arid ecosystem, have "fewer of the safeguards built into more diverse systems."2 Because natural resources "in semi-arid countries are often set in ...


Family Living Sets The Stage For Cooperative Breeding And Ecological Resilience In Birds, Michael Griesser, Szymon M. Drobniak, Shinichi Nakagawa, Carlos A. Botero 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Family Living Sets The Stage For Cooperative Breeding And Ecological Resilience In Birds, Michael Griesser, Szymon M. Drobniak, Shinichi Nakagawa, Carlos A. Botero

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Cooperative breeding is an extreme form of cooperation that evolved in a range of lineages, including arthropods, fish, birds, and mammals. Although cooperative breeding in birds is widespread and well-studied, the conditions that favored its evolution are still unclear. Based on phylogenetic comparative analyses on 3,005 bird species, we demonstrate here that family living acted as an essential stepping stone in the evolution of cooperative breeding in the vast majority of species. First, families formed by prolonging parent–offspring associations beyond nutritional independency, and second, retained offspring began helping at the nest. These findings suggest that assessment of the ...


Distance Of Nursery Pig Snout And Tails From A Human Observer During An Approachability Test, Shawna Weimar, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker, Thomas Fangman 2017 Iowa State University

Distance Of Nursery Pig Snout And Tails From A Human Observer During An Approachability Test, Shawna Weimar, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker, Thomas Fangman

Kenneth J Stalder

The objective of this experiment was to determine the distance of nursery pigs snout and tails from a human observer when classified as touched, orientated to the human or s not-orientated during a human-animal interaction test using a digital image collection methodology. A complete randomized experimental design was utilized in this study where the pen of pigs was the experimental unit. Two methods, a human observer and a digital image, were assigned within rooms to all pens. Two treatments were compared for snout and tail distance (n = 27). There was a difference in proximity between the observer’s index finger ...


African Penguins Follow The Gaze Direction Of Conspecifics, Christian Nawroth, Livio Favaro 2017 The Animal Studies Repository

African Penguins Follow The Gaze Direction Of Conspecifics, Christian Nawroth, Livio Favaro

Christian Nawroth, Ph.D.

Gaze following is widespread among animals. However, the corresponding ultimate
functions may vary substantially. Thus, it is important to study previously
understudied (or less studied) species to develop a better understanding of the
ecological contexts that foster certain cognitive traits. Penguins (Family
Spheniscidae), despite their wide interspecies ecological variation, have previously
not been considered for cross-species comparisons. Penguin behaviour and
communication have been investigated over the last decades, but less is known on
how groups are structured, social hierarchies are established, and coordination for
hunting and predator avoidance may occur. In this article, we investigated how
African penguins (Spheniscus demersus ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress