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Courtship Behavior, Communication, And Copulation In Tigrosa Annexa, Samuel White 2018 Murray State University

Courtship Behavior, Communication, And Copulation In Tigrosa Annexa, Samuel White

Scholars Week

The evolution of multimodal communication, where signalers use multiple signal components in multiple sensory modalities, has become the subject of investigation by many researchers. Signaling puts males at risk of predation, so why do males of some species evolve extra signals that may increase this risk? In some wolf spider species, males incorporate many visual and vibrational signals into a display that they use to attract a female for mating. Female spiders are often aggressive toward courting males and so the male display also functions to decrease the odds of cannibalism. Female wandering spiders deposit silk containing pheromones that communicate ...


35 - Changes In Female Humpback Whale (Megaptera Novaeangliae) Surface Feeding Behavior Through Stages Of Maternal Care And Reproduction, Eman Khwaja 2018 Agnes Scott College

35 - Changes In Female Humpback Whale (Megaptera Novaeangliae) Surface Feeding Behavior Through Stages Of Maternal Care And Reproduction, Eman Khwaja

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

North Atlantic Humpback Whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) are a solitary species that are found on their major feeding ground Stellwagen Bank Marine Sanctuary from March to November each year. Humpback whales in this region display five different feeding behaviors, including kick feeding, group feeding, bubble feeding, lunge feeding. Based on these behaviors it was observed that there are differences in feeding behavior between females that have a calf and females that do not have a calf, especially in group feeding. In this study we sought to determine if pregnancy or the presence of a calf influenced group and individual feeding behavior ...


6 - Influence Of Human Disturbance And Marsh Vegetation On Fiddler Crab Retreat Behavior, Forrest Collins 2018 Georgia Southern University

6 - Influence Of Human Disturbance And Marsh Vegetation On Fiddler Crab Retreat Behavior, Forrest Collins

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Uca pugilator, the sand fiddler crab, is found distributed throughout the southeastern coastal region of North America. They are foragers of detritus found within intertidal substrates, and have a few natural predators that range from raccoons to various species of shore birds. In response to a predator’s presence, fiddler crabs often retreat into nearby burrows. Reemergence time after predator exposure is influenced by crab size, sex, and tidal location. However, it is unclear how this behavior varies with human disturbances and vegetation zones. The purpose of this study was to examine these factors at two sites in Savannah, Georgia ...


Japanese Beetles’ Feeding On Milkweed Flowers May Compromise Efforts To Restore Monarch Butterfly Habitat, Adam M. Baker, Daniel A. Potter 2018 University of Kentucky

Japanese Beetles’ Feeding On Milkweed Flowers May Compromise Efforts To Restore Monarch Butterfly Habitat, Adam M. Baker, Daniel A. Potter

Entomology Faculty Publications

The eastern North American migratory population of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) is in serious decline. Habitat restoration, including adding millions of host plants to compensate for loss of milkweed in US cropland, is a key part of the international conservation strategy to return this iconic butterfly to sustainable status. We report here that Popillia japonica, a polyphagous, invasive beetle, aggregates and feeds on flowers of Asclepias syriaca, the monarch’s most important larval food plant, reducing fruiting and seed set by >90% and extensively damaging milkweed umbels in the field. The beetle’s ongoing incursion into the monarch’s key ...


Models Of Conflict And Voluntary Cooperation Between Individuals In Non-Egalitarian Social Groups, Cody Koykka 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Models Of Conflict And Voluntary Cooperation Between Individuals In Non-Egalitarian Social Groups, Cody Koykka

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis broadly investigates the evolution of voluntary cooperative behaviour among individuals in conflict in non-egalitarian social groups. This work is partitioned into three sections. In the first section, we explore the emergence of non-egalitarian social groups to better understand the evolutionary incentives for voluntary participation in groups with unequal distributions of resources. In the second section, we study several scenarios in which genetically related individuals with unequal control over resources cooperate despite being in conflict. The evolution of parent-offspring conflict over provisioning, offspring signals, and alloparental care are each addressed in this section. In the last section, we investigate ...


Differential Spring Migration In The White-Throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia Albicollis), Andrew T. Beauchamp 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Differential Spring Migration In The White-Throated Sparrow (Zonotrichia Albicollis), Andrew T. Beauchamp

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Differential migration timing between distinct classes of individuals is commonly observed in songbirds, however, the underlying behavioural mechanisms of differential timing are still uncertain for most species. My research applied a suite of advanced techniques to examine differential migration timing (by sex and morph) and its underlying behavioural mechanisms (refuelling rate, stopover duration, and wintering latitude) in spring migrating White-throated Sparrows (Zonotrichia albicollis) at a key stopover site. Protandry was the only form of differential migration timing observed, with males arriving at stopover on average 11 days earlier than females. Males and females had similar refuelling rate, stopover duration, and ...


Territorial Behavior In Southern Red-Backed And Ozark Zigzag Salamanders: Effects Of Sex, Species, And Ownership, Colton Savage Lynn 2018 Missouri State University

Territorial Behavior In Southern Red-Backed And Ozark Zigzag Salamanders: Effects Of Sex, Species, And Ownership, Colton Savage Lynn

MSU Graduate Theses

Territorial disputes are common among terrestrial woodland salamanders (genus Plethodon). Males and females of both Ozark zigzag (P. angusticlavius) and southern red-backed (P. serratus) salamanders are territorial, but differing costs and benefits between sexes may influence the expression of territorial behavior. I compared the competitive and exploratory behavior of males and females of both species in laboratory experiments. Competitive behavior was assessed through staged contests between same-sex, same-sized conspecifics. There were no differences between males and females for territory owners (residents). Female intruders were more aggressive than male intruders, spending more time in and performing higher grades of the All ...


The Population Ecology And Behavior Of The Cave Salamander, Eurycea Lucifuga (Rafinesque, 1822)., Joseph Gavin Bradley 2018 University of Louisville

The Population Ecology And Behavior Of The Cave Salamander, Eurycea Lucifuga (Rafinesque, 1822)., Joseph Gavin Bradley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Cave Salamander, Eurycea lucifuga (Rafinesque, 1822), is a little-known species, yet a common inhabitant of caves in the eastern United States. Salamanders are often important components of ecological communities and ecosystems, influencing critical processes such as nutrient cycling and community composition through their predation on invertebrates. Cave-dwelling salamanders such as E. lucifuga may thus appreciably influence the relatively simple ecosystems and communities of caves. Any such influence may be particularly important because these habitats and the organisms that reside in them are often of conservation concern. I used non-invasive methods to study the demographics, movements, and habitat selection of ...


The Usefulness Of Gps Telemetry To Study Wolf Circadian And Social Activity, Samuel B. Merrill, L. David Mech 2018 New England Environmental Finance Center

The Usefulness Of Gps Telemetry To Study Wolf Circadian And Social Activity, Samuel B. Merrill, L. David Mech

USGS Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

This study describes circadian and social movement patterns of 9 wolves and illustrates capabilities and limitations of Global Positioning System (GPS) telemetry for analysis of animal activity patterns. Wolves were studied at the Camp Ripley National Guard Training Site in Little Falls, Minnesota, and were captured via helicopter net-gunning. All study wolves showed nocturnal movement patterns regardless of time of year. One wolf's movement pattern switched to diurnal when he conducted an extraterritorial foray from his natal territory. All data sets with GPS intervals <1 hour (n=4) showed crepuscular movement peaks. We identified patterns of den visitation and attendance, estimated minimum distances traveled and minimum rates of movement, and observed that GPS location intervals may affect perceived rates of wolf travel. Global Positioning System telemetry was useful in determining when pack members were traveling together or apart and how long a breeding female wolf spent near her pups (e.g., 0-month-old pups were left unattended by their mother for as long as 17 days).


Competition Among Three Forensically Important Blow Fly Species (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Phormia Regina, Lucilia Sericata, And Chrysomya Rufifacies, Amber MacInnis 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Competition Among Three Forensically Important Blow Fly Species (Diptera: Calliphoridae): Phormia Regina, Lucilia Sericata, And Chrysomya Rufifacies, Amber Macinnis

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

The aim of this study was to use interspecific competition between three species of blow flies (Diptera: Calliphoridae) to determine if interspecific competition might explain the successional patterns. A replacement series model was used for three species of blowflies: Phormia regina, Lucilia sericata, and Chrysomya rufifacies. A total of 20 maggots were used for each treatment and the proportion of each species was varied. The graphic evidence and the relative crowding coefficient of P. regina versus L. sericata indicated a significant competitive advantage of P. regina. One of the life history traits of L. sericata is that it oviposits on ...


Development Of On-Shore Behavior Among Polar Bears (Ursus Maritimus) In The Southern Beaufort Sea: Inherited Or Learned?, Kate M. Lillie, Eric M. Gese, Todd C. Atwood, Sarah A. Sonsthagen 2018 Utah State University

Development Of On-Shore Behavior Among Polar Bears (Ursus Maritimus) In The Southern Beaufort Sea: Inherited Or Learned?, Kate M. Lillie, Eric M. Gese, Todd C. Atwood, Sarah A. Sonsthagen

Wildland Resources Faculty Publications

Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are experiencing rapid and substantial changes to their environment due to global climate change. Polar bears of the southern Beaufort Sea (SB) have historically spent most of the year on the sea ice. However, recent reports from Alaska indicate that the proportion of the SB subpopulation observed on-shore during late summer and early fall has increased. Our objective was to investigate whether this on-shore behavior has developed through genetic inheritance, asocial learning, or through social learning. From 2010 to 2013, genetic data were collected from SB polar bears in the fall via hair snags and remote ...


Insects With Similar Social Complexity Show Convergent Patterns Of Adaptive Molecular Evolution, Kathleen A. Dogantzis, Brock A. Harpur, André Rodrigues, Laura Beani, Amy L. Toth, Amro Zayed 2018 York University

Insects With Similar Social Complexity Show Convergent Patterns Of Adaptive Molecular Evolution, Kathleen A. Dogantzis, Brock A. Harpur, André Rodrigues, Laura Beani, Amy L. Toth, Amro Zayed

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Eusociality has independently evolved multiple times in the hymenoptera, but the patterns of adaptive molecular evolution underlying the evolution and elaboration of eusociality remain uncertain. Here, we performed a population genomics study of primitively eusocial Polistes (paper wasps), and compared their patterns of molecular evolution to two social bees; Bombus (bumblebees), and Apis (honey bees). This species triad allowed us to study molecular evolution across a gradient of social complexity (Polistes < Bombus < Apis) and compare species pairs that have similar (i.e. Polistes and Bombus) or different (i.e. Polistes and Apis) life histories, while controlling for phylogenetic distance. We ...


Wildlife Carcass Disposal, Stephen M. Vantassel, Mark A. King 2018 Wildlife Control Consultant, LLC Lewistown, Montana

Wildlife Carcass Disposal, Stephen M. Vantassel, Mark A. King

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Many wildlife management situations require the disposal of animal carcasses. These can include the lethal removal of wildlife to resolve damage or conflicts, as well as clean-up after mortalities caused by vehicle collisions, disease, oil spills (Figure 1) or other natural disasters. Carcasses must be disposed of properly to protect public sensitivities, the environment, and public health. Improper disposal of carcasses can result in public outrage, site contamination, injury to animals and people, and the attraction of other animals that may lead to wildlife damage issues. Concern over ground water contamination and disease transmission from improper carcass disposal has resulted ...


Wildlife Translocation, Michael T. Mengak 2018 University of Georgia

Wildlife Translocation, Michael T. Mengak

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Many people enjoy wildlife. It enriches their lives in many ways. Nationwide, Americans spend over $144 billion annually on fishing, hunting, and wildlife-watching activities. However, wildlife is not always welcome in or near homes, buildings, or other property and can cause significant damage or health and safety issues (Figure 1). In one study, 42% of urban residents reported experiencing a wildlife problem during the previous year and more than half of them said their attempts to resolve the problem were unsuccessful. Many people who experience a wildlife conflict prefer to resolve the issue without harming the offending animal. Of the ...


Investigations Of Biotremors In The Veiled Chameleon (Chamaeleo Calyptratus), Kathryn C. Laslie 2018 Western Kentucky University

Investigations Of Biotremors In The Veiled Chameleon (Chamaeleo Calyptratus), Kathryn C. Laslie

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

While substrate-borne vibrations are utilized by different reptile species, true conspecific communication via biotremors has not yet been demonstrated in reptiles. This study follows a preliminary report that the veiled chameleon (Chamaeleo calyptratus) could produce biotremors in communicative contexts. I tested chameleon behavioral sensitivity to vibrations by placing them on a dowel attached to a shaker emitting vibrations of 25, 50, 150, 300, and 600 Hz and then measured their changes in velocity before and after the stimulus. I then paired chameleons in various social contexts [anthropogenic disturbance (human disruption of animal); dominance (malemale; female-female C. calyptratus); courtship (male-female C ...


An Evaluation Of Deterrent Methods Utilized To Prevent Crop Raiding By African Elephants (Loxodonta Africana) In The Kasigau Wildlife Corridor, Kenya, Rebecca Lynn Von Hagen 2018 Western Kentucky University

An Evaluation Of Deterrent Methods Utilized To Prevent Crop Raiding By African Elephants (Loxodonta Africana) In The Kasigau Wildlife Corridor, Kenya, Rebecca Lynn Von Hagen

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Escalating human elephant conflict (HEC) continues to be a contributing factor

towards elephant decline, and crop raiding is the most common form of negative

human-elephant interactions. For communities that cannot reverse or prevent crop

raiding, it is necessary to contain HEC events through deterrent measures. Few

deterrent measures exist that combine practicality and affordability while also

preventing habituation by elephants. This project focused on comparing the efficacy of

deterrent methods to assess which was the most successful at preventing elephants

from entering crops in the farming community of Sasenyi, Kenya. In this paired-control

study, four deterrent methods were evaluated: acacia ...


Diel Predator Activity Drives A Dynamic Landscape Of Fear, Michel T. Kohl, Daniel R. Stahler, Matthew C. Metz, James D. Forester, Matthew J. Kauffman, Nathan Varley, P. J. White, Douglas W. Smith, Daniel R. MacNulty 2018 Utah State University

Diel Predator Activity Drives A Dynamic Landscape Of Fear, Michel T. Kohl, Daniel R. Stahler, Matthew C. Metz, James D. Forester, Matthew J. Kauffman, Nathan Varley, P. J. White, Douglas W. Smith, Daniel R. Macnulty

Ecology Center Publications

A “landscape of fear” (LOF) is a map that describes continuous spatial variation in an animal's perception of predation risk. The relief on this map reflects, for example, places that an animal avoids to minimize risk. Although the LOF concept is a potentially unifying theme in ecology that is often invoked to explain the ecological and conservation significance of fear, little is known about the daily dynamics of an LOF. Despite theory and data to the contrary, investigators often assume, implicitly or explicitly, that an LOF is a static consequence of a predator's mere presence within an ecosystem ...


Comparative Analysis Of Foraging Behavior And Bite Mechanics Reveals Complex Functional Diversity Among Caribbean Parrotfishes, Thomas C. Adam, Alain Duran, Corinne E. Fuchs, Madelyn V. Roycroft, Maria C. Rojas, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Deron E. Burkepile 2018 University of California, Santa Barbara

Comparative Analysis Of Foraging Behavior And Bite Mechanics Reveals Complex Functional Diversity Among Caribbean Parrotfishes, Thomas C. Adam, Alain Duran, Corinne E. Fuchs, Madelyn V. Roycroft, Maria C. Rojas, Benjamin I. Ruttenberg, Deron E. Burkepile

Benjamin Ruttenberg

Parrotfishes are a diverse group of herbivores that can influence benthic community dynamics and ecosystem function on coral reefs. Different species and size classes of parrotfishes vary in their feeding ecology and can impact reef ecosystems in distinct ways. We documented differences in the feeding ecology of 9 species of parrotfishes in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary (FKNMS). Many of the key differences can be summarized by assigning species to functional groups (e.g. scrapers, excavators, croppers, macroalgae browsers), which are differentially responsible for carrying out specific ecological processes. For example, we found that Sparisoma viride, Scarus coelestinus, Sc ...


The Exploration Of Neuronal Responses To Auditory Stimuli In The Dragonflies, Anax Junius And Aeshna Constricta, Brian Shaw 2018 Union College - Schenectady, NY

The Exploration Of Neuronal Responses To Auditory Stimuli In The Dragonflies, Anax Junius And Aeshna Constricta, Brian Shaw

Honors Theses

To date there is no published evidence that dragonflies (Odonata), have a nervous system equipped to process auditory stimuli. Even with considerable research on these creatures due to their specialized vision and flight mechanics, there is no evidence that dragonflies have ears or even auditory neurons. Last year student Andrew Hamlin and Professor Robert Olberg recorded neuronal responses in the dragonfly to auditory stimuli of 100-2000Hz sounds (Olberg and Hamlin, unpublished). This year our research was aimed at understanding a sensory modality that was previously unknown in dragonflies, the sense of hearing. In order to investigate this question we used ...


Altered Spring Phenology Of North American Freshwater Turtles And The Importance Of Representative Populations, Fredric J. Janzen, Luke A. Hoekstra, Ronald J. Brooks, David M. Carroll, J. Whitfield Gibbons, Judith L. Greene, John B. Iverson, Jacqueline D. Litzgus, Edwin D. Michael, Steven G. Parren, Willem M. Roosenburg, Gabriel F. Strain, John K. Tucker, Gordon R. Ultsch 2018 Iowa State University

Altered Spring Phenology Of North American Freshwater Turtles And The Importance Of Representative Populations, Fredric J. Janzen, Luke A. Hoekstra, Ronald J. Brooks, David M. Carroll, J. Whitfield Gibbons, Judith L. Greene, John B. Iverson, Jacqueline D. Litzgus, Edwin D. Michael, Steven G. Parren, Willem M. Roosenburg, Gabriel F. Strain, John K. Tucker, Gordon R. Ultsch

Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology Publications

Globally, populations of diverse taxa have altered phenology in response to climate change. However, most research has focused on a single population of a given taxon, which may be unrepresentative for comparative analyses, and few long‐term studies of phenology in ectothermic amniotes have been published. We test for climate‐altered phenology using long‐term studies (10–36 years) of nesting behavior in 14 populations representing six genera of freshwater turtles (Chelydra, Chrysemys, Kinosternon,Malaclemys, Sternotherus, and Trachemys). Nesting season initiation occurs earlier in more recent years, with 11 of the populations advancing phenology. The onset of nesting for nearly ...


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