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Effect Of Adult Chemical Cues On Molting Of Fiddler Crab Megalopae In Low Salinity Seawater, Sydney Rilum 2018 University of San Diego

Effect Of Adult Chemical Cues On Molting Of Fiddler Crab Megalopae In Low Salinity Seawater, Sydney Rilum

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Three species of fiddler crabs, Uca minax, U. pugnax, and U. pugilator, are commonly found in estuaries along the Atlantic coast, each with distinct adult habitats differing in salinity and sediment grain size. Prior research has found evidence for larvae exhibiting selective settlement; however, the degree to which and the method by which they choose their species-appropriate habitat to settle in is still unknown. Additionally, a recent study determined that chemical cues from adult crabs stimulate molting in field-caught fiddler crab megalopae, as previously determined in lab-reared megalopae; however, in 35 ppt seawater, few U. minax molted. This study tested ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


‘Preferred’ Stimulus Of A Whole Model Visual System, Olivier Penacchio, Julie M. Harris 2018 University of St Andrews

‘Preferred’ Stimulus Of A Whole Model Visual System, Olivier Penacchio, Julie M. Harris

MODVIS Workshop

No abstract provided.


Secrets Of A Rare Bird: Breeding Behavior Of The Gray-Breasted Flycatcher (Lathrotriccus Griseipectus) In Ecuador, William Harris Kirkpatrick 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Secrets Of A Rare Bird: Breeding Behavior Of The Gray-Breasted Flycatcher (Lathrotriccus Griseipectus) In Ecuador, William Harris Kirkpatrick

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

The Tumbesian region of southwestern Ecuador and northwestern Peru is home to a large number of endemic bird species. Many of these species are threatened with extinction, and little is known about their basic biology. Thus, information regarding natural history of species in the region is needed to guide conservation management. We studied the reproductive biology of the Gray-breasted Flycatcher, Lathrotriccus griseipectus, a small Tyrannid that lives in the Tumbesian region. Due to habitat destruction, the range size of L. griseipectus has dwindled and the species is now listed as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List. We used a mounted ...


Seasonal Variation In Physiology Challenges The Notion Of Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) As A Forest-Adapted Species, Erin G. Wessling, Tobias Deschner, Roger Mundry, Jill D. Pruetz, Roman M. Wittig, Hjalmar S. Kühl 2018 Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology

Seasonal Variation In Physiology Challenges The Notion Of Chimpanzees (Pan Troglodytes Verus) As A Forest-Adapted Species, Erin G. Wessling, Tobias Deschner, Roger Mundry, Jill D. Pruetz, Roman M. Wittig, Hjalmar S. Kühl

World Languages and Cultures Publications

Savanna-mosaic habitats are thought to represent exceptional circumstances for chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and owing to the virtues of their habitat as well as peripheral biogeographic location, they are often regarded as marginal to the chimpanzee ecological niche. If these habitats are marginal, then we should expect that chimpanzees living in these habitats demonstrate physiological consequences of the extremity of this environment. We therefore compared seasonal variation in physiological responses to climatic and ecological factors in chimpanzees inhabiting Fongoli, a savanna-mosaic habitat at the margins of the chimpanzee range with chimpanzees from Taï National Park, a lowland rainforest centrally located within ...


Just Wrestle: How We Evolved Through Rough And Tumble Play, Rafe Kelley, Beth Kelley 2018 Evolve Move Play

Just Wrestle: How We Evolved Through Rough And Tumble Play, Rafe Kelley, Beth Kelley

Journal of Evolution and Health

No abstract provided.


Diel Rhythmicity Found In Behavior But Not Biogenic Amine Levels In The Funnel-Web Spider Agelenopsis Pennsylvanica (Araneae, Agelenidae), Alexander E. DeMarco 2018 East Tennessee State University

Diel Rhythmicity Found In Behavior But Not Biogenic Amine Levels In The Funnel-Web Spider Agelenopsis Pennsylvanica (Araneae, Agelenidae), Alexander E. Demarco

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Quantifying individual differences in behavior and the extent that behavior is influenced by circadian control is of paramount importance in behavioral ecology. In addition, the proximate mechanisms underlying behavior are also critical in order to obtain a more complete picture of how behavior evolves. Biogenic amines (BAs) are simple nitrogenous compounds derived from amino acids and have been consistently and extensively linked to behavior. For this study, we analyzed temporal patterns of BAs in relation to the antipredator (boldness) and aggressive behavior in female Agelenopsis pennsylvanica, a funnel-web spider. Using HPLC-ED, we compared behavioral responses to temporal patterns of octopamine ...


Gulls, Martin S. Lowney, Scott F. Beckerman, Scott C. Barras, Thomas W. Seamans 2018 USDA, Wildlife Services

Gulls, Martin S. Lowney, Scott F. Beckerman, Scott C. Barras, Thomas W. Seamans

Wildlife Damage Management Technical Series

Abundant gull (Figure 1) populations in North America have led to a variety of conflicts with people. Gulls cause damage at aquaculture facilities and other properties, and often collide with aircraft. Their use of structures on and near water results in excessive amounts of bird droppings on boats and docks. Their presence near outdoor dining establishments, swimming beaches, and recreational sites can lead to negative interactions with people. Large amounts of gull fecal material pollutes water and beaches resulting in drinking water contamination and swim bans. A combination of dispersal techniques, exclusion and limited lethal control may reduce damage to ...


Modified Landscapes, Esther Nooner 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Modified Landscapes, Esther Nooner

Theses and Dissertations

Modified Landscapes is a body of work that reflects serious thought regarding Nature and its future. My personal experience and beliefs are at the core of why I believe this subject to be of great importance and why it will sustain many artists’ investigations for the time to come. The influences that informed this process are explored through experiences I had traveling, reading and exploring the photograph as a material object. The manipulation of the photograph is meant to question the beautiful, untouched scene and break the Romantic gaze that is historically tied to representations of Nature and insist upon ...


Evolutionary Competition As Religion: A Religio-Biological Model Of The Maori And Vaisnava Sahajiya Traditions, Benjamin Highland 2018 College of William and Mary

Evolutionary Competition As Religion: A Religio-Biological Model Of The Maori And Vaisnava Sahajiya Traditions, Benjamin Highland

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Within the modern field of Religious Studies, there exists an epistemological divide between structuralist and post-structuralist thought. Structuralists seek to find underlying and universally applicable knowledge about religion, while post-structuralists argue that traditions must be studied within their own specific geographic, temporal, and cultural contexts. In an aim to reconcile these two disparate paradigms, I introduce the Religio-Biological Model and apply it to two distinct religious traditions: the Maori and the Vaisnava Sahajiya. Drawing from both religious and biological theory (specifically multilevel selection theory), this thesis seeks to create an interdisciplinary framework for the future study of religion that cohesively ...


Avian Foraging Response To Jack Pine (Pinus Banksiana) Volatile Chemicals, Katie Bjornen 2018 Northern Michigan University

Avian Foraging Response To Jack Pine (Pinus Banksiana) Volatile Chemicals, Katie Bjornen

All NMU Master's Theses

Birds benefit trees and other plants by removing herbivores that damage the plant and impede its growth. They can significantly increase the growth and biomass of the trees by foraging on the herbivores that harm plants, and the prey items eaten in turn benefits foraging birds by providing sustenance. This interaction becomes complex when tree volatile chemical communication is added. Trees regularly release volatile organic chemicals (referred to as VOCs) as part of metabolism. The particular VOCs released by a tree can depend on several factors, including water availability, time of year, and damage type (e.g., mechanical damage or ...


Wildlife In A Premier African Protected Area Do Not Perceive Ecotourists As Predators, Badru Mugerwa 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Wildlife In A Premier African Protected Area Do Not Perceive Ecotourists As Predators, Badru Mugerwa

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Researchers have reported that the presence of ecotourists may displace or disturb wildlife with potentially adverse effects, and may be a more serious problem if wildlife perceive ecotourists as predators. I used a playback experiment to test if wildlife at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, perceive ecotourists as predators. I contrasted wildlife behavioural responses to vocalizations that simulate those of ecotourists to those of local predators (positive controls; dogs and the extirpated native apex predator, leopard) and a non-predator (negative control; insects). Using responses from 14 mammal species, I show that wildlife do not perceive ecotourists as predators, responding no ...


Determining The Physiological And Behavioral Methods Of Salinity Tolerance In Corbicula Fluminea, John Warren Roden III 2018 East Tennessee State University

Determining The Physiological And Behavioral Methods Of Salinity Tolerance In Corbicula Fluminea, John Warren Roden Iii

Appalachian Student Research Forum

While a significant degree of salinity tolerance has been observed in the bivalve mollusk species Corbicula fluminea, the physiological and behavioral responses to changes in salinity by these organisms are not completely understood. It was hypothesized that Corbicula would initially avoid any salinity stress behaviorally through valve closure, but would eventually have to open to dispel anaerobic waste products and deal with the salinity. To explore this, Corbicula were collected and put through a series of experiments at salinity exposures of 0, 2.5, and 5.0ppt, with tissue water content and hemolymph osmolality being measured. After an initial 96-hour ...


The Impact Of Invasive Lionfish On The Feeding Performance Of Endemic Spotted Scorpionfish, Nathaniel Zbasnik 2018 Western Kentucky University

The Impact Of Invasive Lionfish On The Feeding Performance Of Endemic Spotted Scorpionfish, Nathaniel Zbasnik

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Invasive species, such as the red lionfish, Pterois volitans, are damaging many ecosystems around the world by out-competing native species. However, little work has been done to determine if P. volitans have a direct influence on the feeding performance of native species with which they compete. This study examines the feeding performance in terms of suction pressure, kinematic timing, and excursion distances of spotted scorpionfish, Scorpaena plumieri. Through multiple trials it was examined how S. plumieri modulate their kinematic behavior in response to P. volitans and a conspecific. The creation of a smaller buccal cavity and a decrease in time ...


The Effect Of Physical Stress Signals On Conspecific Interactions In Green-And-Black Poison Frogs (Dendrobates Auratus), Gabriella E. Chan, Maxwell A. Kenyon, Summer Ngo, Lee B. Kats 2018 Pepperdine University

The Effect Of Physical Stress Signals On Conspecific Interactions In Green-And-Black Poison Frogs (Dendrobates Auratus), Gabriella E. Chan, Maxwell A. Kenyon, Summer Ngo, Lee B. Kats

Seaver College Research And Scholarly Achievement Symposium

Amphibian declines have been a major focus of the scientific community for nearly three decades. Many studies describe the leading causes of amphibian decline related to disease, with chytridiomycosis as the most notable example. However, little is known about behavioral conspecific interactions among ill or stressed amphibians, particularly neotropical species. Previous observational research on poison frogs determined that stressed Dendrobates auratus flip onto their backs in a reaction that is similar to fainting in other species. In this study, we examine conspecific interactions of green-and-black poison frogs (D. auratus) with “healthy” and “sick” model frogs, in order to determine a ...


Olfactory Learning Capabilities Of Paraphrynus Laevifrons, John Perez 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Olfactory Learning Capabilities Of Paraphrynus Laevifrons, John Perez

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Amblypygids, a species of nocturnal arachnids from the tropics and subtropics are incredibly intelligent and are able to not only navigate through difficult tropical terrain but also, it is believed, possess olfactory learning capabilities that aid in navigation and recollection of environments. It is hypothesized that through sensitive olfactory receptors on their antenniform legs and highly developed mushroom bodies, Amblypygi can not only learn smells but also learn to associate smells with certain stimuli such as a crevice to take refuge in. To test this hypothesis, Paraphrynus laevifrons, a species of amplypygid was subjected to four different learning treatment groups ...


Search Behavior And Selection Of Innate Chemosensory Cues By Cabbage White (Pieris Rapae) Larvae, Victoria Fliehr, Sarah Thompson, Erin Baumgartner 2018 Western Oregon University

Search Behavior And Selection Of Innate Chemosensory Cues By Cabbage White (Pieris Rapae) Larvae, Victoria Fliehr, Sarah Thompson, Erin Baumgartner

PURE Insights

Chemoreception of the cues that allow a caterpillar to locate and select a specific host plant reflects evolutionary constraints. In a stable environment, the evolution of innate preferences for specific host plants can increase feeding efficiency through stimulus filtering in a noisy environment. However, food choice plasticity, including the learning of new food cues, can allow survival when a population is faced with a changing environment. We used the caterpillars of cabbage whites, Pieris rapae, to test the hypothesis that preference for innate food cues would be stronger than for learned food cues. P. rapae caterpillars have sensitivity to a ...


Personality In California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus) And Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina): Methodological Convergence And Species-Specific Emotional Repertoires., Amber de Vere 2018 The University of Southern Mississippi

Personality In California Sea Lions (Zalophus Californianus) And Harbor Seals (Phoca Vitulina): Methodological Convergence And Species-Specific Emotional Repertoires., Amber De Vere

Dissertations

Despite the wide acceptance of animal personality as a valid area of study, research on marine mammal personality remains remarkably scarce. What literature does exist predominantly focuses on bottlenose dolphins (Frick, 2016; Highfill & Kuczaj, 2007; Kuczaj, Highfill & Byerly, 2012; Lilley, de Vere, Yeatre & Kuczaj, 2018; Moreno, Highfill & Kuczaj, 2017). There is also strong evidence for individual differences in grey seals (Robinson et al., 2015; Twiss & Franklin, 2010; Twiss, Culloch & Pomeroy, 2011; Twiss, Cairns, Culloch, Richards & Pomeroy, 2012), and preliminary research has provided evidence of broad personality factors in pinniped species using behavioral coding (de Vere, Lilley & Highfill, 2017) and trait rating methods (Ciardelli, Weiss, Powell & Reiss, 2017). Several aspects of personality are not well documented across many taxa, including age-related patterns, the species-relevance of emotional trait words, potential issues associated with the non-human Dominance factor, and the convergent validity of multiple methods. The current study therefore aimed to address these issues in two pinniped species, California sea lions and harbor seals, and provides the first cross-method validation of personality dimensions in these taxa. There was some evidence that pinniped trainers could reliably rate the emotional states experienced by these species. Trait rating assessments produced three personality factors for each species; these exhibited good cross-method convergence in California sea lions, but not harbor seals. Dominance rankings were correlated with one behavioral and one rating factor in each species, although this was somewhat confounded by the extremely close correspondence of dominance and age.


The Major Histocompatibility Complex In Song Sparrows: Immunity, Signals, And Mate Choice, Joel W.G. Slade 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Major Histocompatibility Complex In Song Sparrows: Immunity, Signals, And Mate Choice, Joel W.G. Slade

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In recent years, sexual selection theory has redefined genetic quality to consider not only additive genetic effects on fitness but also non-additive genetic effects, such as heterozygote advantage or disadvantage. In jawed vertebrates, the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) gene family has been shown to exhibit both additive and non-additive genetic effects on fitness. MHC gene products are involved in initiating adaptive immune responses, and MHC genotype determines the range of pathogens to which an individual can respond. Therefore, parasite-mediated selection at MHC may favour locally-adapted, rare, or particular combination of alleles. Because heterozygote advantage at MHC is widespread, sexual selection ...


Eight-Legged Encounters—Arachnids, Volunteers, And Art Help To Bridge The Gap Between Informal And Formal Science Learning, Eileen Hebets, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Pawl Tisdale, Patricia Wonch Hill 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Eight-Legged Encounters—Arachnids, Volunteers, And Art Help To Bridge The Gap Between Informal And Formal Science Learning, Eileen Hebets, Melissa Welch-Lazoritz, Pawl Tisdale, Patricia Wonch Hill

Eileen Hebets Publications

Increased integration and synergy between formal and informal learning environments is proposed to provide multiple benefits to science learners. In an effort to better bridge these two learning contexts, we developed an educational model that employs the charismatic nature of arachnids to engage the public of all ages in science learning; learning that aligns with the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS Disciplinary Core Ideas associated with Biodiversity and Evolution). We created, implemented, and evaluated a family-focused, interactive science event—Eight-Legged Encounters (ELE)—which encompasses more than twenty modular activities. Volunteers facilitated participant involvement at each activity station and original artwork ...


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