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Using Modeling To Investigate Factors Driving Avian Diversity In Urban Ecosystems, Clay Bliznick 2021 Murray State University

Using Modeling To Investigate Factors Driving Avian Diversity In Urban Ecosystems, Clay Bliznick

Scholars Week

Anthropogenic influences have altered global landscapes considerably throughout the past two centuries, resulting in the decline of natural land cover types. Conversely, land cover types such as cropland and urban areas that are derived from human activities have experienced vast expansion. This landscape transition has serious implications for ecosystem services. To mitigate the loss of these services, it is necessary to maintain ecological integrity within these anthropogenically-influenced systems. Being able to support high biodiversity is an indicator of well-functioning ecosystems, thus quantifying biodiversity and assessing its contributing factors can be useful for developing management strategies in artificial environments. Our objective ...


S Is For Sandhill: A Crane Alphabet, Paul A. Johnsgard 2021 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

S Is For Sandhill: A Crane Alphabet, Paul A. Johnsgard

Zea E-Books

This is a book of cranes, from A to Z, written and illustrated by the world’s foremost authority on the 15 species of these wonderful and ancient birds. It is a book for all ages, and for all who love and marvel at the beauty, order, and variety of the natural world.

Cranes exhibit complex behavior, pair-bonding, and fascinating social interactions. They migrate huge distances, crossing continents, oceans, and mountains between their nesting and wintering areas. Seven of the world’s 15 crane species are listed as “vulnerable,” three as “endangered,” one as “critically endangered,” and only three as ...


The Insular Herpetofauna Of Mexico: Composition, Conservation, And Biogeographic Patterns, Juan Valentín Pliego‐Sánchez, Christopher Blair, Aníbal H. Díaz de la Vega‐Pérez, Víctor H. Jiménez‐Arcos 2021 Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

The Insular Herpetofauna Of Mexico: Composition, Conservation, And Biogeographic Patterns, Juan Valentín Pliego‐Sánchez, Christopher Blair, Aníbal H. Díaz De La Vega‐Pérez, Víctor H. Jiménez‐Arcos

Publications and Research

We compile a Mexican insular herpetofaunal checklist to estimate endemism, conservation status, island threats, net taxonomic turnover among six biogeographic provinces belonging to the Nearctic and Neotropical regions, and the relationships between island area and mainland distance versus species richness. We compile a checklist of insular herpetofaunal through performing a literature and collection review. We define the conservation status according to conservation Mexican law, the Red List of International Union for Conservation of Nature, and Environmental Vulnerability Scores. We determine threat percentages on islands according to the 11 major classes of threats to biodiversity. We estimate the net taxonomic turnover ...


Patterns And Mechanisms Of Intraspecific Trait Variation Across Thermal Gradients In A Marine Gastropod, Andrew R. Villeneuve 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Patterns And Mechanisms Of Intraspecific Trait Variation Across Thermal Gradients In A Marine Gastropod, Andrew R. Villeneuve

Masters Theses

As the earth’s climate changes due to anthropogenic emissions, it has increasingly become an imperative within the ecological community to understand existing species adaptations to climate change. Much focus has been paid to how a species might react to climate change, but the role of locally adapted traits and responsible environmental mechanisms have received less attention. Quantifying how sublethal (e.g. growth rates) and lethal (e.g. thermal tolerance) trait performance vary between populations can thus improve our understanding of how populations, and the entire species, will react to climate change. Here, I quantified the spatial patterns of performance ...


Applying Ecological Theory To Amphibian Populations To Determine If Wood Frogs (Lithobates Sylvaticus) Are Ideal And Free When Selecting Breeding Habitat, Taylor M. Braunagel 2021 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Applying Ecological Theory To Amphibian Populations To Determine If Wood Frogs (Lithobates Sylvaticus) Are Ideal And Free When Selecting Breeding Habitat, Taylor M. Braunagel

Masters Theses

Amphibian populations are declining globally due to a litany of factors including pollution, disease, climate change, and most importantly, habitat destruction. As most amphibian life histories involve their populations being recruitment limited, focusing on the mechanism behind breeding habitat selection will reveal useful cues that managers may use to increase abundance and breeding success. Though there are many theoretical models that describe the distribution of animals in response to a resource, the ideal free distribution (IFD) theory has not yet been applied to amphibian settling decisions. Through this application of the IFD, I have found that a population of wood ...


What’S The Buzz?, Christine L. Moskalik 2021 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy

What’S The Buzz?, Christine L. Moskalik

Teacher Resources

No abstract provided.


Seed Rain–Successional Feedbacks In Wet Tropical Forests, Nohemi Huanca Nuñez, Robin L. Chazdon, Sabrina E. Russo 2021 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Seed Rain–Successional Feedbacks In Wet Tropical Forests, Nohemi Huanca Nuñez, Robin L. Chazdon, Sabrina E. Russo

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Abstract

Tropical forest regeneration after abandonment of former agricultural land depends critically on the input of tree seeds, yet seed dispersal is increasingly disrupted in contemporary human-modified landscapes. Here, we introduce the concept of seed rain–successional feedbacks as a deterministic process in which seed rain is shaped by successional dynamics internal to a forest site and that acts to reinforce priority effects. We used a combination of time series and chronosequence approaches to investigate how the quantity and taxonomic and functional composition of seed rain change during succession and to evaluate the strength of seed rain–successional feedbacks, relative ...


Microhabitats In An Urban Greenspace: Function In The Beauty, Kalie Schultz 2021 Grand Valley State University

Microhabitats In An Urban Greenspace: Function In The Beauty, Kalie Schultz

Honors Projects

This project combines science with art, with a focus on microhabitats in a unique natural space in an urban area. It is set in the Highlands Nature Preserve and the mediums used are photography and digital illustration. The goal of the project is to bring the viewer in from a wide, landscape perspective into a more close and detailed perspective of the multiple microhabitats that exist in the nature preserve. It shows how beauty can be hiding in plain sight for anyone to see if they look close enough. It also aims to show how the beauty is not just ...


Small Mammals Killed In Discarded Bottles Along Roadsides In Central Nebraska, Owen J. Johnson, Keith Geluso 2021 NGPC

Small Mammals Killed In Discarded Bottles Along Roadsides In Central Nebraska, Owen J. Johnson, Keith Geluso

Transactions of the Nebraska Academy of Sciences and Affiliated Societies

Littered debris along roadways traps and kills small vertebrates. In Nebraska, at least 20 species of small mammals are small enough to enter openings of discarded bottles and cans. We surveyed roadsides for littered bottles and cans containing vertebrate remains in central parts of the state. We observed 459 bottles and 278 aluminum cans along 17.6 km of roadsides in Nebraska. Littered bottles contained 41 vertebrate remains representing nine taxa of small mammals. Glass bottles contained the majority of individuals, plastic bottles had a few individuals, and no vertebrate remains were detected in aluminum cans. Harvest mice (Reithrodontomys spp ...


Morph- And Sex-Specific Differences In Corticosterone Of The Arizona Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma Mavortium Nebulosum), Megan Zerger 2021 Murray State University

Morph- And Sex-Specific Differences In Corticosterone Of The Arizona Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma Mavortium Nebulosum), Megan Zerger

Scholars Week

Life history morph, sex, and body condition are traits that may influence stress within salamander populations because of differences in physiology and environmental conditions. Given widespread declines and the effects chronic stress can have on amphibian health, it is important to understand within-population drivers of stress and how population level variation may influence population viability. Thus, the objective of our study was to assess how corticosterone varies within the Arizona tiger salamander (Ambystoma mavortium nebulosum) population at the Mexican Cut Nature Preserve. We used a non-invasive skin swabbing method to collect baseline and elevated corticosterone from paedomorph (aquatic morph; N ...


Anticipation Induces Polarized Collective Motion In Attraction Based Models, Daniel Strömbom, Alice Antia 2021 Lafayette College

Anticipation Induces Polarized Collective Motion In Attraction Based Models, Daniel Strömbom, Alice Antia

Northeast Journal of Complex Systems (NEJCS)

Moving animal groups are prime examples of natural complex systems. In most models of such systems each individual updates its heading based on the current positions and headings of its neighbors. However, recently, a number of models where the heading update instead is based on the future anticipated positions/headings of the neighbors have been published. Collectively these studies have established that including anticipation may have drastically different effects in different models. In particular, anticipation inhibits polarization in alignment-based models and in one alignment-free model, but promotes polarization in another alignment-free model. Indicating that our understanding of how anticipation affects ...


Two New Species Of Palm-Leaf Skeletonizers (Lepidoptera: Pterolonchidae: Homaledra Busck), James E. Hayden 2021 Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services

Two New Species Of Palm-Leaf Skeletonizers (Lepidoptera: Pterolonchidae: Homaledra Busck), James E. Hayden

Insecta Mundi

Two species of palm-leaf skeletonizers (Lepidoptera: Pterolonchidae: Homaledra Busck) that are invasive in Florida, USA are newly described. Homaledra howardi new species is described from Florida and the Dominican Republic. Homaledra knudsoni new species is described from Florida, southern Texas, and Mexico. A lectotype is designated for Homaledra sabalella (Chambers). The three are diagnosed and com­pared with other congeners, and Homaledra is compared with other Pterolonchidae. The larvae of the three common species feed on epidermis of palm foliage, causing significant damage.

Se describen dos especies de palomillas de hojas de palma (Lepidoptera: Pterolonchidae: Homale­dra Busck) que son ...


A Catalogue Of The Cybocephalidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) Of The World, Trevor Randall Smith 2021 Florida State Collection of Arthropods

A Catalogue Of The Cybocephalidae (Coleoptera: Cucujoidea) Of The World, Trevor Randall Smith

Insecta Mundi

A world catalogue and bibliography of the family Cybocephalidae (Coleoptera) is presented. The catalogue contains 207 species within 16 genera. Each taxon is accompanied by a complete taxonomic his­tory, including a full annotated synonymy with original references cited. The reversal of the recent synonymy of Cybocephalus brevis Grouvelle over Cybocephalus minimus Grouvelle is proposed. Cybocephalus aeneus Reiche is removed from synonymy with Cybocephalus micans Reitter and considered incertae sedis.

The Cybocephalidae are a family of small predatory beetles found throughout the world (Smith 2020). While cybocephalids are typically extremely convex, shiny and dark in coloration, the defining characteristic of ...


The Strange Case Of Colophotia Miranda Olivier, 1886 (Coleoptera: Lampyridae: Luciolinae), Lesley Ballantyne, Wan F.A. Jusoh 2021 Charles Sturt University

The Strange Case Of Colophotia Miranda Olivier, 1886 (Coleoptera: Lampyridae: Luciolinae), Lesley Ballantyne, Wan F.A. Jusoh

Insecta Mundi

A single male specimen identified as Colophotia miranda Olivier (Coleoptera: Lampyridae: Lucio­linae) by Blair and housed in the Natural History Museum, London, is redescribed, and its identification and affinities explored.

Ernest Olivier, who first described Colophotia miranda in 1886, was then curator of insects at the Muséum natio­nale d’Histoire naturelle, Paris (MNHN). Effectively for lampyridologists he was the first in a narrow line of firefly taxonomists. Thanks to Olivier we have our first subfamily classifications, keys, catalogues and species descrip­tions; work that has undergone much revision and expansion in the last 100 years.

One of Olivier ...


Subsequent Spelling Ritchiei For Mnematium Ritchii Macleay, 1821 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeini) To Be Maintained For Prevailing Usage, Stefano Ziani 2021 GeoLab

Subsequent Spelling Ritchiei For Mnematium Ritchii Macleay, 1821 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeini) To Be Maintained For Prevailing Usage, Stefano Ziani

Insecta Mundi

The specific name in Mnematium ritchiei Macleay, 1821 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeini) is an incorrect subsequent spelling—the original spelling is ritchii—but, because of its prevailing usage here documented, is to be preserved.


Vertebrate Impact On A Newly Deployed Shoreline Stabilization Project By Wildlife Camera Analysis, Julia Rifenberg, Jason Litwak, Rebecca Fillyaw 2021 University of Central Florida

Vertebrate Impact On A Newly Deployed Shoreline Stabilization Project By Wildlife Camera Analysis, Julia Rifenberg, Jason Litwak, Rebecca Fillyaw

The Pegasus Review: UCF Undergraduate Research Journal

Living shoreline stabilization is a technique that utilizes plants and other natural elements to protect estuarine coasts. Research has provided minimal information about which vertebrate species utilize living shorelines post-deployment. For this project, ten wildlife cameras were placed along a living shoreline site in Canaveral National Seashore (CANA) to document which vertebrate species utilize the living shoreline and surrounding vegetation. This shoreline was stabilized with red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) and eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) shell bags in June 2019. The cameras, activated by motion sensors, remained at the site for five days a month for seven months (September 2019 - March ...


Rediscovery Of The Pallid Shiner, Hybopsis Amnis, In The Black River System Of Arkansas And Missouri Including Notes On Ecology And Life History, Daniel P. Morrill, Calvin R. Rezac, Ginny Adams, S. R. Adams, Robert Hrabik 2021 University of Central Arkansas

Rediscovery Of The Pallid Shiner, Hybopsis Amnis, In The Black River System Of Arkansas And Missouri Including Notes On Ecology And Life History, Daniel P. Morrill, Calvin R. Rezac, Ginny Adams, S. R. Adams, Robert Hrabik

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

The Pallid Shiner, Hybopsis amnis, is a rare and understudied minnow with little information about its ecology. This species is listed as a Species of Greatest Conservation Need (SGCN) throughout much of its range and is generally considered to be declining. It had not been detected in the Black River system of Missouri and Arkansas in over 75 years, or the state of Missouri in over 60 years. We sampled over 100 sites in the Black River system between 2017 and 2020 to assess temporal trends in fish assemblage structure and to update the status of SGCN species in this ...


Pando: Charismatic Megaflora And The Populus Paradox, Paul C. Rogers, Lance Oditt 2021 Utah State University

Pando: Charismatic Megaflora And The Populus Paradox, Paul C. Rogers, Lance Oditt

Aspen Bibliography

Within the field of landscape ecology, the Pando aspen grove on the Fishlake National Forest of Utah is legendary—and it is in danger of dying from hotter, drier temperatures and other threats. Pando is one of the largest and oldest known still-living organisms on Earth. Quaking aspen are an important tree species in Greater Yellowstone and the Rocky Mountain West. Enjoy this essay written by a scientist who studies Pando and a photographer who celebrates this arboreal mega-being.


The Effects Of Urbanization On Plant Biodiversity In Southeastern Virginia, Tess Hardesty 2021 Old Dominion University

The Effects Of Urbanization On Plant Biodiversity In Southeastern Virginia, Tess Hardesty

Undergraduate Research Symposium

This research project investigated the impacts of urbanization on plant species biodiversity within Southeastern Virginia. The hypothesized results of this research were if there was an increase in urbanization, then plant diversity would decrease. Plant biodiversity can increase the decomposition rates, pollination success, and biomass production of the area. Decreasing in plant biodiversity can increase the spread of pathogens through plant populations and increase herbivore damage. There was data compiled from SERNEC herbarium records of four counties, Accomack, Northampton, Norfolk, and Virginia Beach. Virginia Beach had the largest population increase, which was considered the measurement for urbanization in this study ...


Functions And Applications Of Multi-Tower Platform Of Qingyuan Forest Ecosystem Research Station Of Chinese Academy Of Sciences (Qingyuan Ker Towers), Jiaojun ZHU, Tian GAO, Lizhong YU, Fengyuan YU, Kai YANG, Deliang LU, Qiaoling YAN, Yirong SUN, Lifang LIU, Shuang XU, Jinxin ZHANG, Xiao ZHENG, Lining SONG 2021 Institute of Applied Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China Qingyuan Forest CERN, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016, China CAS-CSI Joint Laboratory of Research and Development for Monitoring Forest Fluxes of Trace Gases and Isotope Elements, Shenyang 110016, China

Functions And Applications Of Multi-Tower Platform Of Qingyuan Forest Ecosystem Research Station Of Chinese Academy Of Sciences (Qingyuan Ker Towers), Jiaojun Zhu, Tian Gao, Lizhong Yu, Fengyuan Yu, Kai Yang, Deliang Lu, Qiaoling Yan, Yirong Sun, Lifang Liu, Shuang Xu, Jinxin Zhang, Xiao Zheng, Lining Song

Bulletin of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Version)

The structure regulation and function optimizations of forest-ecosystems are fundamental and significant topics on ecology & management of forests. However, due to the limitations in theories and technologies to describe the three-dimensional forest structure for complex terrain and to precisely evaluate the structure-associated functions, these topics have been challenged by the complications in canopy structure and the urgencies in various societal demands towards forest ecosystem services. To face against the challenge, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) funded the "Multi-tower Platform for Monitoring the Structure and Function of Temperate Secondary Forest Ecosystems" (Qingyuan Ker Towers) as a corner-stone research infrastructure project for the field station network. Ker Towers were completed in 2019 by Qingyuan Forest CERN (Chinese Ecosystem Research Network) inside a distinctively-bounded and monitored-outlet watershed. The three towers, hydrology station networks, and forest plot arrays uniquely formed the Ker Towers research facilities as a synthesized platform. This platform was integrated with the light detection and ranging scanners for acquisition of holographic information on forest canopy structure, the advanced eddy covariance flux systems for the measurements of CO2/H2O, trace gases, and energy fluxes between the watershed forest systems and the atmosphere, and the hydrology station networks for observations of ground/underground water flows. All real-time data from the platform are streamed into a live data center. The platform including remote sensing technology, eddy covariance, biometry (or inventory), forest informatics and collaborative and interdisciplinary team prominently builds up multiple approaches and essential elements at different scales to fulfill comprehensive projects in response to national needs and international concerns as well. The Ker Towers team mainly focuses on the four tasks:(1) explore forest ecological principles for a new vision of holographic information in describing forest three-dimensional structure; (2) innovate theories and techniques to measure the fluxes of CO2/H2O/NOx and the other trace gases over complex forest terrains; (3) understand the response of carbon and nitrogen cycles in forest ecosystems to global change; and (4) demonstrate the hydrologic processes in forest ecosystems and its regulating mechanism. The four above tasks aim to provide fundamental data and theoretical support to to optimize and sustain forest functions through forest structure management. The ultimate objective of the platform is to deliver solutions for regional ...


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