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The Origins Of Morality, Paulina Sanchez 2017 Abilene Christian University

The Origins Of Morality, Paulina Sanchez

Dialogue & Nexus

In modern society, there exists a standard for moral conduct that seems to reign universal over many societies of people. Pinpointing the origins of morality, however, can become problematic because of how one approaches what morality is and what its purpose is in society. Psychologists may point out the social constructs and norms that allow for morality to unfold. Evolutionary biologists may give evidence of human-related species that have developed similar behavioral standards. A Christian theologian may look to scripture in explaining a Creator who ordained that all abide by the standards of conduct most pleasing to this deity. Which ...


The Altruistic Self, Nathan Dougherty 2017 Abilene Christian University

The Altruistic Self, Nathan Dougherty

Dialogue & Nexus

Altruism as a purely naturalistic phenomenon self-defeats the term altogether; however, theology also makes unsubstantiated claims that some behaviors are purely selfless. I will first define various conceptual forms of altruism and then offer explanations of the term from neurological, evolutionary and psychological investigations. Despite the position that altruism can be reduced to a fantastical impossibility bearing neither the arms of science nor theology, it is also a fallacy to separate it from a religiously derived supernatural altruism that carries no implications for the realm of morality.


A New Taxonomy Of Altruism In Terms Of Prosocial Behaviors, Kristin Kaiser 2017 Abilene Christian University

A New Taxonomy Of Altruism In Terms Of Prosocial Behaviors, Kristin Kaiser

Dialogue & Nexus

The definition of altruism has been studied, explained, and even confused by many scholars in various fields. The term itself has been inappropriately used to describe prosocial behaviors that do not fall within the definition of altruism. An evaluation of Grant Ramsey’s taxonomy of altruism, which includes biological altruism, psychological altruism, and helping altruism, proves that it is not adequate in categorizing organism’s behaviors. A new taxonomy, with the branches of kin selection, reciprocity, and aesthetic altruism, is presented and explained to clarify the definition of altruism and alleviate confusion about how to describe prosocial behaviors. Both naming ...


The Evolutionary Theodicy Problem, Houston Schoonmaker 2017 Abilene Christian University

The Evolutionary Theodicy Problem, Houston Schoonmaker

Dialogue & Nexus

Evolutionary theodicies attempt to explain how innocent suffering, death, and extinction seen throughout the evolutionary process of evolution can coincide with believing in a loving God. Since Darwin, scholars have questioned the importance of studying natural selection at such an intricate level. With the knowledge of natural selection, the fact that great suffering is witnessed across nature permits doubts in discussions regarding a benevolent God that created the universe. In this paper, I begin with background information about evolution, theodicy, and how they are related. I look at two major perspectives: the belief that evolution ameliorates the theodicy problem or ...


Neuroscience, Materialism, And The Soul: Limit Questions, Jeremy M. Aymard 2017 Abilene Christian University

Neuroscience, Materialism, And The Soul: Limit Questions, Jeremy M. Aymard

Dialogue & Nexus

In light of recent discoveries in neuroscience linking the mind to physical processes, Christian philosophers have resorted to a more materialistic view of the human person, using neuroscience as support for their view that an immaterial soul does not exist. In this essay, I will point out a major flaw in the logic for defending a materialistic view, argue that either a bipartite or tripartite view of the human person is more aligned with Scripture, and hopefully point towards a more reliable means for attaining truth regarding human nature and the soul.


Intelligent Design: Should We Teach It?, Sarah-Kate Oliver 2017 Abilene Christian University

Intelligent Design: Should We Teach It?, Sarah-Kate Oliver

Dialogue & Nexus

Belief about the origins of the universe and mankind is an important aspect of most world religions. While many ‘progressive’ Christians view the Genesis accounts of creation as mythical or allegorical, some ‘fundamentalist’ Christians claim it is a literal and historical account of the origins of life. The scientific community, on the other hand, views Darwin’s Theory of Evolution as the definitive explanation of the origin of all species on Earth including humans. As science has continued to line up behind evolution, it has been integrated into the public school curriculum. The question examined by this paper is: should ...


Sustainability, Resiliance, And Dependency: The Great Plains Model, Sebastian Braun 2017 Iowa State University

Sustainability, Resiliance, And Dependency: The Great Plains Model, Sebastian Braun

Sebastian Braun

Over the past 400 to 500 years, the Great Plains have seen a rapid succession of ecological regimes. The ecological historian Dan Flores has written that plains ecological history "centers around a series of ecological crashes and simplifications."1 This text attempts to give an overview of these successive ecological systems and to provide an analysis of the lessons in sustainability, resilience, and ideology offered by plains ecological history of the past few centuries. The plains, a semi-arid ecosystem, have "fewer of the safeguards built into more diverse systems."2 Because natural resources "in semi-arid countries are often set in ...


Family Living Sets The Stage For Cooperative Breeding And Ecological Resilience In Birds, Michael Griesser, Szymon M. Drobniak, Shinichi Nakagawa, Carlos A. Botero 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Family Living Sets The Stage For Cooperative Breeding And Ecological Resilience In Birds, Michael Griesser, Szymon M. Drobniak, Shinichi Nakagawa, Carlos A. Botero

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Cooperative breeding is an extreme form of cooperation that evolved in a range of lineages, including arthropods, fish, birds, and mammals. Although cooperative breeding in birds is widespread and well-studied, the conditions that favored its evolution are still unclear. Based on phylogenetic comparative analyses on 3,005 bird species, we demonstrate here that family living acted as an essential stepping stone in the evolution of cooperative breeding in the vast majority of species. First, families formed by prolonging parent–offspring associations beyond nutritional independency, and second, retained offspring began helping at the nest. These findings suggest that assessment of the ...


Hypogenic Versus Epigenic Subterranean Ecosystem: Lessons From Eastern Iberian Peninsula, Alberto Sendra, Policarp Garay, Vicente M. Ortuño, José D. Gilgado, Santiago Teruel, Ana Sofia P.S. Reboleira 2017 Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida, Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Spain

Hypogenic Versus Epigenic Subterranean Ecosystem: Lessons From Eastern Iberian Peninsula, Alberto Sendra, Policarp Garay, Vicente M. Ortuño, José D. Gilgado, Santiago Teruel, Ana Sofia P.S. Reboleira

Ana Sofia P.S. Reboleira

Over the last 40 years, hypogenic karst/caves have become well known and hypogene speleogenesis has been used to explain the formation of some of the largest subterranean maze caves. These hypogenic systems involve confined aquifers with upwards flow, responsible for their karstification. Such spaces begun and could be remain isolated from the surface and the contiguous subterranean habitats, including the shallow ones. We studied the invertebrate fauna and the geology/speleogenesis of two recently opened caves from Eastern Iberian Peninsula, which clearly showed features of hypogenic origin. Their scarce faunistic composition, formed by non cave-adapted fauna, is similar to ...


Cellular/Molecular Analysis Of Interspecies Sterile Male Hybrids In Drosophila, Rachelle L. Kanippayoor 2017 The Unviersity of Western Ontario

Cellular/Molecular Analysis Of Interspecies Sterile Male Hybrids In Drosophila, Rachelle L. Kanippayoor

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Over time, genetic differences can accumulate between populations that are geographically separated. This genetic divergence can lead to the evolution of reproductive isolating mechanisms that reduce gene flow between the populations and, upon secondary contact, result in distinct species. The process of speciation is, thus, what accounts for the multitude of species that contribute to the rich biodiversity on Earth. Interspecies hybrid sterility is a postzygotic isolating mechanism that affects the development of hybrids, rendering them sterile. A notable trend, known as Haldane's Rule, describes that heterogametic individual (e.g. males in Drosophila) are more susceptible to sterility than ...


, Brooke Love, Colleen O'Brien, Douglas Bulthuis 2017 Western Washington University

, Brooke Love, Colleen O'Brien, Douglas Bulthuis

Brooke Love

It has been suggested that photosynthetic activity of macrophytes in coastal areas can decrease pCO2 and may provide areas of refuge for organisms sensitive to ocean acidification. To assess the effect of a large eel grass meadow on water chemistry, discreet samples were collected hourly over several 24 hour cycles in Padilla Bay, WA. Calculated pCO2 ranged from less than 100 ppm to greater than 700 ppm, often over the course of only a few hours. Aragonite saturation, DIC and pH were also highly variable. These data, weather station data and in-situ sensors(Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve) were ...


Distance Of Nursery Pig Snout And Tails From A Human Observer During An Approachability Test, Shawna Weimar, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker, Thomas Fangman 2017 Iowa State University

Distance Of Nursery Pig Snout And Tails From A Human Observer During An Approachability Test, Shawna Weimar, Anna K. Johnson, Kenneth J. Stalder, Locke A. Karriker, Thomas Fangman

Kenneth J Stalder

The objective of this experiment was to determine the distance of nursery pigs snout and tails from a human observer when classified as touched, orientated to the human or s not-orientated during a human-animal interaction test using a digital image collection methodology. A complete randomized experimental design was utilized in this study where the pen of pigs was the experimental unit. Two methods, a human observer and a digital image, were assigned within rooms to all pens. Two treatments were compared for snout and tail distance (n = 27). There was a difference in proximity between the observer’s index finger ...


African Penguins Follow The Gaze Direction Of Conspecifics, Christian Nawroth, Livio Favaro 2017 The Animal Studies Repository

African Penguins Follow The Gaze Direction Of Conspecifics, Christian Nawroth, Livio Favaro

Christian Nawroth, Ph.D.

Gaze following is widespread among animals. However, the corresponding ultimate
functions may vary substantially. Thus, it is important to study previously
understudied (or less studied) species to develop a better understanding of the
ecological contexts that foster certain cognitive traits. Penguins (Family
Spheniscidae), despite their wide interspecies ecological variation, have previously
not been considered for cross-species comparisons. Penguin behaviour and
communication have been investigated over the last decades, but less is known on
how groups are structured, social hierarchies are established, and coordination for
hunting and predator avoidance may occur. In this article, we investigated how
African penguins (Spheniscus demersus ...


Costs Of Group Locomotion: How Infant-Carrying And Group Members Mediate Walking Speed Decisions In North American And East African Populations, Leah M. Bouterse 2017 Seattle Pacific University

Costs Of Group Locomotion: How Infant-Carrying And Group Members Mediate Walking Speed Decisions In North American And East African Populations, Leah M. Bouterse

Honors Projects

A major portion of humans’ activity-based energy expenditure is taken up by locomotion, particularly walking. Humans can offset the energetic expenditure of walking in numerous ways, both evolutionary (such as changes in body shape) and culturally. Behaviorally, people can choose to walk in a variety of ways, including alone or with a group, carrying loads, and walking quickly or more slowly. All of these behaviors have energetic outcomes and as such can be important windows into how populations and groups adjust to different constraints. While sex differences in speed of paired walkers have been established by others, the dynamics of ...


Toward Developing Models To Study The Disease, Ecology, And Evolution Of The Eye In Mollusca, Jeanne M. Serb 2017 Iowa State University

Toward Developing Models To Study The Disease, Ecology, And Evolution Of The Eye In Mollusca, Jeanne M. Serb

Jeanne M Serb

Several invertebrate systems have been developed to study various aspects of the eye and eye disease including Drosophila, Planaria, Platynereis, and most recently, the cubozoan jellyfish Tripedalia; however, molluscs, the second largest metazoan phylum, so far have been underrepresented in eye research. This is surprising as mollusc systems offer opportunities to study visual processes that may be altered by disease, vision physiology, development of the visual system, behavior, and evolution. Malacologists have labored for over a century as morphologists, systematists, physiologists, and ecologists in order to understand the structural and functional diversity in molluscs at all levels of biological organization ...


Trends In The Sand: Directional Evolution In The Shell Shape Of Recessing Scallops (Bivalvia: Pectinidae), Emma Sherratt, Alvin Alejandrino, Andrew C. Kraemer, Jeanne M. Serb, Dean C. Adams 2017 Iowa State University

Trends In The Sand: Directional Evolution In The Shell Shape Of Recessing Scallops (Bivalvia: Pectinidae), Emma Sherratt, Alvin Alejandrino, Andrew C. Kraemer, Jeanne M. Serb, Dean C. Adams

Jeanne M Serb

Directional evolution is one of the most compelling evolutionary patterns observed in macroevolution. Yet, despite its importance, detecting such trends in multivariate data remains a challenge. In this study, we evaluate multivariate evolution of shell shape in 93 bivalved scallop species, combining geometric morphometrics and phylogenetic comparative methods. Phylomorphospace visualization described the history of morphological diversification in the group; revealing that taxa with a recessing life habit were the most distinctive in shell shape, and appeared to display a directional trend. To evaluate this hypothesis empirically, we extended existing methods by characterizing the mean directional evolution in phylomorphospace for recessing ...


Introduction To The Symposium “Molluscan Models: Advancing Our Understanding Of The Eye”, Jeanne M. Serb 2017 Iowa State University

Introduction To The Symposium “Molluscan Models: Advancing Our Understanding Of The Eye”, Jeanne M. Serb

Jeanne M Serb

Since the time of Darwin, the eye has been a subject of evolutionary and comparative biologists alike who were intrigued by the structural complexity and morphological diversity of eyes in nature. Much of what we know about the eye—development, structure, physiology, and function—has been determined from only a handful of model organisms, specifically the mouse and the fly. One major phylum in particular, the Mollusca, has been underutilized in investigating the evolution and development of the eye. This is surprising as molluscs display a myriad of eye types, such as simple pit eyes without any apparatus to focus ...


Population Genetic Diversity In A Maize Reciprocal Recurrent Selection Program, Lori L. Hinze, Stephen Kresovich, Jason D. Nason, Kendall R. Lamkey 2017 United States Department of Agriculture

Population Genetic Diversity In A Maize Reciprocal Recurrent Selection Program, Lori L. Hinze, Stephen Kresovich, Jason D. Nason, Kendall R. Lamkey

Jason D Nason

The genetic structures of the Iowa Corn Borer Synthetic #1 (CB) and Iowa Stiff Stalk Synthetic (SS) maize (Zea mays L.) populations are important because these populations serve as the model for development of modern commercial hybrids. In 1949, CB and SS were used to start a reciprocal recurrent selection (RRS) breeding program at Iowa State University. This study was conducted to analyze more thoroughly the genetic diversity within this RRS program and illustrate how the RRS program has changed over time at the molecular level. The progress of this program was measured by analyzing the variation at 86 SSR ...


Phenotypic Plasticity Of Native Vs. Invasive Purple Loosestrife: A Two-State Multivariate Approach, Young Jin Chun, Michael L. Collyer, Kirk A. Moloney, Jason D. Nason 2017 Iowa State University

Phenotypic Plasticity Of Native Vs. Invasive Purple Loosestrife: A Two-State Multivariate Approach, Young Jin Chun, Michael L. Collyer, Kirk A. Moloney, Jason D. Nason

Jason D Nason

The differences in phenotypic plasticity between invasive (North American) and native (German) provenances of the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) were examined using a multivariate reaction norm approach testing two important attributes of reaction norms described by multivariate vectors of phenotypic change: the magnitude and direction of mean trait differences between environments. Data were collected for six life history traits from native and invasive plants using a split-plot design with experimentally manipulated water and nutrient levels. We found significant differences between native and invasive plants in multivariate phenotypic plasticity for comparisons between low and high water treatments within low ...


Analyses Of Pig Genomes Provide Insight Into Porcine Demography And Evolution, Martien A. M. Groenen, Alan Archibald, Hirohide Uenishi, Christopher K. Tuggle, Yasuhiro Takeuchi, Max F. Rothschild, Claire Rogel-Gaillard, Chankyu Park, Denis Milan, Hendrik-Jan Megens, Shengting Li, Denis M. Larkin, Heebal Kim, Laurent A. F. Frantz, Mario Caccamo, Hyeonju Ahn, Bronwen L. Aken, Anna Anselmo, Christian Anthon, Loretta Auvil, Bouabid Badaoui, Craig W. Beattie, Christian Bendixen, Daniel Berman, Frank Blecha, Jonas Blomberg, Lars Bolund, Mirte Bosse, Sara Botti, Zhan Bujie, Megan Bystrom, Boris Capitanu, Denise Carvalho-Silva, Patrick Chardon, Celine Chen, Ryan Cheng, Sang-Haeng Choi, William Chow, Richard C. Clark, Christopher Clee, Richard P. M. A. Crooijmans, Harry D. Dawson, Patrice Dehais, Fioravante De Sapio, Bert Dibbets, Nizar Drou, Zhi-Qiang Du, Kellye Eversole, Joao Fadista, Susan Fairley, Thomas Faraut, Geoffrey J. Faulkner, Katie E. Fowler, Merete Fredholm, Eric Fritz, James G. R. Gilbert, Elisabetta Giuffra, Jan Gorodkin, Darren K. Griffin, Jennifer L. Harrow, Alexander Hayward, Kerstin Howe, Zhiliang Hu, Sean J. Humphray, Toby Hunt, Henrik Hornshoj, Jin-Tae Jeon, Patric Jern, Matthew Jones, Jerzy Jurka, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Ronan Kapetanovic, Jaebum Kim, Jae-Hwan Kim, Kyu-Won Kim, Tae-Hun Kim, Greger Larson, Kyooyeol Lee, Kyung-Tai Lee, Richard Leggett, Harris A. Lewin, Yingrui Li, Wansheng Liu, Jane E. Loveland, Yao Lu, Joan K. Lunney, Jian Ma, Ole Madsen, Katherine Mann, Lucy Matthews, Stuart McLaren, Takeya Morozumi, Michael P. Murtaugh, Jitendra Narayan, Dinh Truong Nguyen, Peixiang Ni, Song-Jung Oh, Suneel K. Onteru, Frank Panitz, Eung-Woo Park, Hong-Seog Park, Geraldine Pascal, Yogesh Paudel, Miguel Perez-Enciso, Ricardo Ramirez-Gonzalez, James M. Reecy, Sandra Rodriguez-Zas, Gary A. Rohrer, Lauretta Rund, Yongming Sang, Kyle Schachtschneider, Joshua G. Schraiber, John Schwartz, Linda Scobie, Carol Scott, Stephen M. Searle, Bertrand Servin, Bruce R. Southey, Goran Sperber, Peter F. Stadler, Jonathan V. Sweedler, Hakim Tafer, Bo Thomsen, Rashmi Wali, Jian Wang, Jun Wang, Simon White, Xun Xu, Martine Yerle, Guojie Zhang, Jianguo Zhang, Jie Zhang, Shuhong Zhao, Jane Rogers, Carol Churcher, Lawrence B. Schook 2017 Wageningen University

Analyses Of Pig Genomes Provide Insight Into Porcine Demography And Evolution, Martien A. M. Groenen, Alan Archibald, Hirohide Uenishi, Christopher K. Tuggle, Yasuhiro Takeuchi, Max F. Rothschild, Claire Rogel-Gaillard, Chankyu Park, Denis Milan, Hendrik-Jan Megens, Shengting Li, Denis M. Larkin, Heebal Kim, Laurent A. F. Frantz, Mario Caccamo, Hyeonju Ahn, Bronwen L. Aken, Anna Anselmo, Christian Anthon, Loretta Auvil, Bouabid Badaoui, Craig W. Beattie, Christian Bendixen, Daniel Berman, Frank Blecha, Jonas Blomberg, Lars Bolund, Mirte Bosse, Sara Botti, Zhan Bujie, Megan Bystrom, Boris Capitanu, Denise Carvalho-Silva, Patrick Chardon, Celine Chen, Ryan Cheng, Sang-Haeng Choi, William Chow, Richard C. Clark, Christopher Clee, Richard P. M. A. Crooijmans, Harry D. Dawson, Patrice Dehais, Fioravante De Sapio, Bert Dibbets, Nizar Drou, Zhi-Qiang Du, Kellye Eversole, Joao Fadista, Susan Fairley, Thomas Faraut, Geoffrey J. Faulkner, Katie E. Fowler, Merete Fredholm, Eric Fritz, James G. R. Gilbert, Elisabetta Giuffra, Jan Gorodkin, Darren K. Griffin, Jennifer L. Harrow, Alexander Hayward, Kerstin Howe, Zhiliang Hu, Sean J. Humphray, Toby Hunt, Henrik Hornshoj, Jin-Tae Jeon, Patric Jern, Matthew Jones, Jerzy Jurka, Hiroyuki Kanamori, Ronan Kapetanovic, Jaebum Kim, Jae-Hwan Kim, Kyu-Won Kim, Tae-Hun Kim, Greger Larson, Kyooyeol Lee, Kyung-Tai Lee, Richard Leggett, Harris A. Lewin, Yingrui Li, Wansheng Liu, Jane E. Loveland, Yao Lu, Joan K. Lunney, Jian Ma, Ole Madsen, Katherine Mann, Lucy Matthews, Stuart Mclaren, Takeya Morozumi, Michael P. Murtaugh, Jitendra Narayan, Dinh Truong Nguyen, Peixiang Ni, Song-Jung Oh, Suneel K. Onteru, Frank Panitz, Eung-Woo Park, Hong-Seog Park, Geraldine Pascal, Yogesh Paudel, Miguel Perez-Enciso, Ricardo Ramirez-Gonzalez, James M. Reecy, Sandra Rodriguez-Zas, Gary A. Rohrer, Lauretta Rund, Yongming Sang, Kyle Schachtschneider, Joshua G. Schraiber, John Schwartz, Linda Scobie, Carol Scott, Stephen M. Searle, Bertrand Servin, Bruce R. Southey, Goran Sperber, Peter F. Stadler, Jonathan V. Sweedler, Hakim Tafer, Bo Thomsen, Rashmi Wali, Jian Wang, Jun Wang, Simon White, Xun Xu, Martine Yerle, Guojie Zhang, Jianguo Zhang, Jie Zhang, Shuhong Zhao, Jane Rogers, Carol Churcher, Lawrence B. Schook

James M Reecy

For 10,000 years pigs and humans have shared a close and complex relationship. From domestication to modern breeding practices, humans have shaped the genomes of domestic pigs. Here we present the assembly and analysis of the genome sequence of a female domestic Duroc pig (Sus scrofa) and a comparison with the genomes of wild and domestic pigs from Europe and Asia. Wild pigs emerged in South East Asia and subsequently spread across Eurasia. Our results reveal a deep phylogenetic split between European and Asian wild boars ~1 million years ago, and a selective sweep analysis indicates selection on genes ...


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