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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Modulating The Innate Immune Response To Electrospun Scaffolds And Polymer Degradative Byproducts, Daniel Abebayehu Jan 2017

Modulating The Innate Immune Response To Electrospun Scaffolds And Polymer Degradative Byproducts, Daniel Abebayehu

Theses and Dissertations

Implanted biomaterials often induce inflammation that frequently leads to the foreign body response, fibrosis, and the failure of the implant. Thus, it is important to evaluate how cells interact with materials to promote a more regenerative response. It is critical to determine how to modulate the response of tissue resident innate immune cells, as they are among the first cells to interact with implanted materials. Among tissue resident innate immune cells are mast cells, which are inflammatory sentinels that degranulate and orchestrate the fate of other cell populations, such as monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes. Mast cells have also been reported ...


Development Of An Electrospun And 3d Printed Cellular Delivery Device For Dermal Wound Healing, Ryan M. Clohessy Jan 2017

Development Of An Electrospun And 3d Printed Cellular Delivery Device For Dermal Wound Healing, Ryan M. Clohessy

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research was to develop a system of individualized medicine that could be applied to dermal wounds serving as a wound dressing and synthetic extracellular matrix while delivering stem cells to the wound bed. First, fabrication parameters for electrospinning polymer fibers were determined. This involved evaluating fiber morphology with respect to polymer selection and solution concentration. Next, construct fabrication was examined to produce an integrated void space, or cargo area, suitable to maintain stem cells. In vitro studies to ensure stem cell viability and phenotype were conducted, and results supported the notion that cells could be administered ...


Novel Small Airway Model Using Electrospun Decellularized Lung Extracellular Matrix, Bethany M. Young Jan 2016

Novel Small Airway Model Using Electrospun Decellularized Lung Extracellular Matrix, Bethany M. Young

Theses and Dissertations

Chronic respiratory diseases affects many people worldwide with little known about the mechanisms diving the pathology, making it difficult to find a cure. Improving the understanding of smooth muscle and extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction is key to developing a remedy to this leading cause of death. With currently no relevant or controllable in vivo or in vitro model to investigate diseased and normal interactions of small airway components, the development of a physiologically relevant in vitro model with comparable cell attachment, signaling, and organization is necessary to develop new treatments for airway disease. The goal of this study is to ...


Peracetic Acid: A Practical Agent For Sterilizing Heat-Labile Polymeric Tissue-Engineering Scaffolds, William R. Trahan Jan 2015

Peracetic Acid: A Practical Agent For Sterilizing Heat-Labile Polymeric Tissue-Engineering Scaffolds, William R. Trahan

Theses and Dissertations

Advanced biomaterials and sophisticated processing technologies aim to fabricate tissue-engineering scaffolds that can predictably interact within a biological environment at a cellular level. Sterilization of such scaffolds is at the core of patient safety and is an important regulatory issue that needs to be addressed prior to clinical translation. In addition, it is crucial that meticulously engineered micro- and nano- structures are preserved after sterilization. Conventional sterilization methods involving heat, steam and radiation are not compatible with engineered polymeric systems because of scaffold degradation and loss of architecture. Using electrospun scaffolds made from polycaprolactone (PCL), a low melting polymer, and ...


Peracetic Acid Sterilization Of Electrospun Polycaprolactone Scaffolds, Suyog Yoganarasimha Jan 2015

Peracetic Acid Sterilization Of Electrospun Polycaprolactone Scaffolds, Suyog Yoganarasimha

Theses and Dissertations

Sterilization of tissue engineered scaffolds is an important regulatory issue and is at the heart of patient safety. With the introduction of new biomaterials and micro/nano structured scaffolds, it is critical that the mode of sterilization preserve these built-in features. Conventional sterilization methods are not optimal for engineered polymeric systems and hence alternate systems need to be identified and validated. PCL is polyester with a low melting point (heat labile), susceptible to hydrolysis and is popular in tissue engineering. Electrospinning generates some nanoscale features within the scaffold, the integrity of which can be affected by sterilization method. Chapter 1 ...


Mammary Epithelial Cells Cultured Onto Non-Woven Nanofiber Electrospun Silk-Based Biomaterials To Engineer Breast Tissue Models, Yas Maghdouri-White Apr 2014

Mammary Epithelial Cells Cultured Onto Non-Woven Nanofiber Electrospun Silk-Based Biomaterials To Engineer Breast Tissue Models, Yas Maghdouri-White

Theses and Dissertations

Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer affecting women in the world today. To better understand breast cancer initiation and progression modeling biological tissue under physiological conditions is essential. Indeed, breast cancer involves complex interactions between mammary epithelial cells and the stroma, both extracellular matrix (ECM) and cells including adipocytes (fat tissue) and fibroblasts (connective tissue). Therefore, the engineering of in vitro three-dimensional (3D) systems of breast tissues allows a deeper understanding of the complex cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions involved during breast tissue development and cancer initiation and progression. Furthermore, such 3D systems may provide a ...


Tissue Engineering Scaffold Fabrication And Processing Techniques To Improve Cellular Infiltration, Casey Grey Jan 2014

Tissue Engineering Scaffold Fabrication And Processing Techniques To Improve Cellular Infiltration, Casey Grey

Theses and Dissertations

Electrospinning is a technique used to generate scaffolds composed of nano- to micron-sized fibers for use in tissue engineering. This technology possesses several key weaknesses that prevent it from adoption into the clinical treatment regime. One major weakness is the lack of porosity exhibited in most electrospun scaffolds, preventing cellular infiltration and thus hosts tissue integration. Another weakness seen in the field is the inability to physically cut electrospun scaffolds in the frontal plane for subsequent microscopic analysis (current electrospun scaffold analysis is limited to sectioning in the cross-sectional plane). Given this it becomes extremely difficult to associate spatial scaffold ...


Integrated Fiber Electrospinning: Creating Spatially Complex Electrospun Scaffolds With Minimal Delamination, Casey Grey Aug 2012

Integrated Fiber Electrospinning: Creating Spatially Complex Electrospun Scaffolds With Minimal Delamination, Casey Grey

Theses and Dissertations

Tissue engineering scaffolds come in many shapes and sizes, however, due to difficulty manufacturing the microstructure architecture required in tissue engineering, most scaffolds are architecturally non-dynamic in nature. Because the microstructural architecture of all biological tissues is inherently complicated, non-dynamic tissue engineering scaffolds tend to be a poor platform for tissue regeneration. The current method for manufacturing dynamic tissue engineering scaffolds involves electrospinning successive layers of different fibers, an approach that exhibits no fiber transition between layers and subsequent delamination problems. In this study we aim to address the design challenges of tissue engineering scaffolds through our novel integrated fiber ...


Preparation And Characterization Of A Self-Crimp Side-By-Side Bicomponent Electrospun Material, Yang Han Aug 2012

Preparation And Characterization Of A Self-Crimp Side-By-Side Bicomponent Electrospun Material, Yang Han

Theses and Dissertations

Bicomponent composite fibers have been widely used in the textile industry and are gaining increasing attention on biomedical applications. In this research, polycaprolactone/poly (lactic acid) side-by-side bicomponent fibers were created for the application of a biodegradable scaffold. The side-by-side structure endowed the fiber with self-crimps when it was processed under certain conditions. This material was produced by electrospinning and collected on a high speed rotating mandrel to get highly oriented fibers. A mechanical stretch at the same direction was done followed by a wet heat treatment for polymer retraction. Crimped fibers were demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy. The quantitative ...


Regeneration Of Electrospun Bioresorbable Vascular Grafts: A Phenomenon Associated With Vascular Graft Properties And Macrophage Phenotypes (M1/M2), Koyal Garg Jan 2012

Regeneration Of Electrospun Bioresorbable Vascular Grafts: A Phenomenon Associated With Vascular Graft Properties And Macrophage Phenotypes (M1/M2), Koyal Garg

Theses and Dissertations

Macrophages (MФ) and mast cells are important cell types in the context of tissue remodeling and regeneration. Mast cells participate in the early stages of wound healing and modulate the acute inflammatory responses to biomaterials. Mast cells can secrete a myriad of different cytokines by the process of degranulation; the process of regulated secretion in which preformed contents stored in their granules are rapidly released by exocytosis. Some of these cytokines such as IL-4, IL-13 and TNF-α can modulate the MФ phenotype. Macrophages (MΦ) are innate immune cells, crucial for tissue homeostasis, presentation of foreign and self-antigens following infection/injury ...


Tissue Engineering An Acellular Bioresorbable Vascular Graft To Promote Regeneration, Patricia Wolfe Nov 2011

Tissue Engineering An Acellular Bioresorbable Vascular Graft To Promote Regeneration, Patricia Wolfe

Theses and Dissertations

Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field that aims to restore, maintain, or improve diseased or damaged tissues. Electrospinning has become one of the most popular means to fabricate a scaffold for various tissue engineering applications as the process is extremely versatile and inexpensive. The ability for electrospinning to consistently create nanofibrous structures capable of mimicking the native extracellular matrix (ECM) is the basis behind why this technique is so successful in tissue engineering. Cardiovascular disease has been the leading cause of death in the United States for over 100 years, and because of this, the need for coronary artery replacements ...


Silk Fibroin-Based Scaffolds For Tissue Engineering Applications, Jennifer Mccool Jul 2011

Silk Fibroin-Based Scaffolds For Tissue Engineering Applications, Jennifer Mccool

Theses and Dissertations

This study focused on the comparison of the electrospun silk scaffolds to the electrospun silk fibroin gel scaffolds. Moreover, this study examined the differences in cross-linking effects of genipin and methanol as well as solvents on the mechanical properties and cell compatibility of the scaffolds. Silk scaffolds were electrospun from an aqueous solution or 1,1,1,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) without genipin, immediately after 8 % (wt) genipin was added to the solution, and 18 hours after genipin blended with the solution. Uniaxial tensile testing determined that the silk scaffolds electrospun from water exhibit a higher modulus and peak stress than ...


Mineralization Potential Of Electrospun Pdo-Nha-Fibrinogen Scaffolds Intended For Cleft Palate Repair, Isaac Rodriguez Apr 2010

Mineralization Potential Of Electrospun Pdo-Nha-Fibrinogen Scaffolds Intended For Cleft Palate Repair, Isaac Rodriguez

Theses and Dissertations

The overall goal of this study was to identify mineralized scaffolds which can serve as potential alternatives to bone graft substitutes intended for cleft palate repair. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the role of fibrinogen (Fg) and nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) in enhancing mineralization potential of polydioxanone (PDO) electrospun scaffolds. Scaffolds were fabricated by blending PDO:nHA:Fg in the following weight ratios: 100:0:0, 50:25:25, 50:50:0, 50:0:50, 0:0:100 and 0:50:50. Scaffolds were immersed in different simulated body fluids for 5 and 14 days to induce mineralization ...


Automated Methods For Fiber Diameter Measurement Of Fibrous Scaffolds, Anna Bulysheva Dec 2009

Automated Methods For Fiber Diameter Measurement Of Fibrous Scaffolds, Anna Bulysheva

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this work was to develop an automated method of measuring fiber diameters of electrospun scaffolds from scanning electron microscopy images of these scaffolds. Several automated methods were developed and evaluated by comparison to known values and data obtained via the standard manual method. Simulated images with known diameters were used as test images to evaluate the accuracy of each measurement technique. Eight scanning electron microscopy images were also used for the evaluation of the automated methods compared to the standard manual method. All diameter measurements were made in pixels. Five new automated methods coded in MATLAB were ...


Preparation And Characterization Of An Electrospun Gelatin/Dendrimer Hybrid Nanofiber Dressing, Alicia P. Smith-Freshwater Aug 2009

Preparation And Characterization Of An Electrospun Gelatin/Dendrimer Hybrid Nanofiber Dressing, Alicia P. Smith-Freshwater

Theses and Dissertations

A novel dendritic wound dressing was designed and characterized for its potential to treat chronic wounds. Comprised of gelatin, dendrimer, synthetic polymer and antibiotics, the dressing was electrospun to mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). Gelatin is biocompatible, biodegradable, non-toxic, and easily available. The antibiotic, doxycycline, has the ability to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases. Matrix metalloproteinases, which occur in excess in chronic wounds, degrade the reconstituted ECM. Starburst™ polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer G3.5, which provides a versatile and structurally controlled architecture to construct nanomedicine, was covalently bonded to the gelatin backbone and electrospun into nanofibers with gelatin, doxycycline and stabilizing polymers ...


Fabrication And Characterization Of Bioactive, Composite Electrospun Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Intended For Cleft Palate Repair, Parthasarathy Madurantakam Jul 2009

Fabrication And Characterization Of Bioactive, Composite Electrospun Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Intended For Cleft Palate Repair, Parthasarathy Madurantakam

Theses and Dissertations

Tissue Engineering is a scientific discipline that aims to regenerate tissues and organs that are diseased, lost or congenitally absent. It encompasses the use of suitable synthetic equivalents of native extracellular matrix that may or may not be supplemented with cells or relevant growth factors. Such scaffolds are designed to reside at the site of implantation for a variable period of time during which they induce the regeneration of native tissue. During this time, they also provide a template for new cells to attach, infiltrate, differentiate into appropriate phenotype and eventually restore function of the concerned tissue. Among the factors ...


Tissue Engineering Cellularized Silk-Based Ligament Analogues, Scott Sell Jun 2009

Tissue Engineering Cellularized Silk-Based Ligament Analogues, Scott Sell

Theses and Dissertations

The resurgence, and eventual rise to prominence in the field of tissue engineering, that electrospinning has experienced over the last decade speaks to the simplicity and adaptability of the process. Electrospinning has been used for the fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds intended for use in nearly every part of the human body: blood vessel, cartilage, bone, skin, nerve, connective tissue, etc. Diverse as the aforementioned tissues are in both form and function, electrospinning has found a niche in the repair of each due to its capacity to consistently create non-woven structures of fibers ranging from nano-to-micron size in diameter. These ...


Structural And Functional Considerations In The Design Of Collagen-Based Electrospun Scaffolds, Chantal Ayres Apr 2009

Structural And Functional Considerations In The Design Of Collagen-Based Electrospun Scaffolds, Chantal Ayres

Theses and Dissertations

Electrospinning can be used to selectively process a variety of natural and synthetic polymers into highly porous scaffolds composed of nano-to-micron diameter fibers. This process shows great potential as a gateway to the development of physiologically relevant tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study we examine the structural and functional considerations regarding electrospun scaffolds for dermal template applications using novel quantification techniques. In order to characterize scaffold structure, a technique utilizing the fast Fourier transform was developed to systematically quantify fiber alignment and evaluate how different electrospinning parameters impact the structure and material properties of an electrospun scaffold. Gelatin was suspended ...


Angiogenic Potential Of Human Macrophages On Electrospun Bioresorbable Vascular Grafts, Koyal Garg Nov 2008

Angiogenic Potential Of Human Macrophages On Electrospun Bioresorbable Vascular Grafts, Koyal Garg

Theses and Dissertations

The aim of this study was to investigate macrophage interactions with electrospun scaffolds and quantify the expression of vital angiogenic growth factors in vitro. This study will further help in evaluating the potential of these electrospun constructs as vascular grafts for tissue repair and regeneration in situ. Human peripheral blood macrophages were seeded in serum free media on electrospun (10 mm) discs of polydioxanone (PDO), elastin and PDO:elastin blends (50:50, 70:30 and 90:10). The growth factor secretion was analyzed by ELISA. Macrophages produced high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and acidic fibroblast growth factor ...


Design Of An Electrospun Type Ii Collagen Scaffold For Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering, Catherine Pemble Barnes Jan 2007

Design Of An Electrospun Type Ii Collagen Scaffold For Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering, Catherine Pemble Barnes

Theses and Dissertations

Traumatic defects in articular cartilage can lead to joint disease and disability including osteoarthritis. Because cartilage is unable to regenerate when injured, the field of tissue engineering holds promise in restoring functional tissue. In this research, type II collagen was electrospun, cross-linked, and tested as scaffolds for supporting chondrocyte growth. The mechanical, biochemical, and histological characteristics of the engineered tissue were assessed as a function of the electrospinning solution concentration (i.e. scaffold fiber diameter and pore properties) and as a function of the time in culture (evaluated at 2, 4, and 6 weeks). Fiber diameter had a linear relationship ...


Determination Of The Mechanical Properties Of Electrospun Gelatin Based On Polymer Concentration And Fiber Alignment, Leander Taylor Iii Jan 2006

Determination Of The Mechanical Properties Of Electrospun Gelatin Based On Polymer Concentration And Fiber Alignment, Leander Taylor Iii

Theses and Dissertations

The process of electrospinning has given the field of tissue engineering insight into many aspects of tissue engineered scaffolds, including how factors such as fiber diameter and porosity are affected by polymer concentration. However, the affects of fiber alignment upon the material properties of electrospun scaffolds remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine how the material properties of electrospun gelatin scaffolds are affected by changes in fiber alignment and starting gelatin concentration. Gelatin scaffolds, with starting concentrations of 80, 100, and 130mg/m1, were electrospun onto a target mandrel rotating at various speeds. Samples of each scaffold ...


Electrospinning As A Processing Method For Electroactive Polymers And Composites, Kristin Joy Pawlowski Jan 2004

Electrospinning As A Processing Method For Electroactive Polymers And Composites, Kristin Joy Pawlowski

Theses and Dissertations

Electrospinning was examined for its potential to create functional materials. Three distinct electroactive materials were electrospun into fibers and fiber mats and then characterized with the intent of determining their utility in aerospace and biomedical applications such as micro-air vehicles and the cardiovascular system. Electrospun Graft Elastomers demonstrated potential as actuators, as electromechanical strain testing showed comparable response to the film form of this material. Further improvement of electroactive response was realized with high dielectric inclusions and fiber orientation. Electrospin processing imparted piezoelectric properties to the fibers of poly(vinylidene fluoride). Differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy indicated a degree ...