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Virginia Commonwealth University

Tissue engineering

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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

An Injectable Stem Cell Delivery System For Treatment Of Musculoskeletal Defects, Shirae Leslie Jan 2016

An Injectable Stem Cell Delivery System For Treatment Of Musculoskeletal Defects, Shirae Leslie

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research was to develop a system of injectable hydrogels to deliver stem cells to musculoskeletal defects, thereby allowing cells to remain at the treatment site and secrete soluble factors that will facilitate tissue regeneration. First, production parameters for encapsulating cells in microbeads were determined. This involved investigating the effects of osmolytes on alginate microbead properties, and the effects of alginate microbead cell density, alginate microbead density, and effects of osteogenic media on microencapsulated cells. Although cells remained viable in the microbeads, alginate does not readily degrade in vivo for six months. Therefore, a method to incorporate ...


Tissue Engineering An Acellular Bioresorbable Vascular Graft To Promote Regeneration, Patricia Wolfe Nov 2011

Tissue Engineering An Acellular Bioresorbable Vascular Graft To Promote Regeneration, Patricia Wolfe

Theses and Dissertations

Tissue engineering is an interdisciplinary field that aims to restore, maintain, or improve diseased or damaged tissues. Electrospinning has become one of the most popular means to fabricate a scaffold for various tissue engineering applications as the process is extremely versatile and inexpensive. The ability for electrospinning to consistently create nanofibrous structures capable of mimicking the native extracellular matrix (ECM) is the basis behind why this technique is so successful in tissue engineering. Cardiovascular disease has been the leading cause of death in the United States for over 100 years, and because of this, the need for coronary artery replacements ...


Development Of Physiologic Contact Models For Articular Surfaces, John Owen May 2011

Development Of Physiologic Contact Models For Articular Surfaces, John Owen

Theses and Dissertations

The superficial tangential zone (STZ) plays a significant role in normal articular cartilage’s ability to support loads and retain fluids. To date, tissue engineering efforts have not replicated normal STZ function in cartilage repairs. Finite element models were developed to examine the STZ’s role in normal and repaired articular surfaces under different contact conditions. Models were developed by incrementally adding improvements which culminated in contact loading of curved models by permeable and impermeable rigid surfaces and a normal cartilage layer. In the normal STZ, permeability was strain-dependent on volumetric strain; tension-compression nonlinearity modeled collagen behavior. Nonlinear geometry accounted ...


Effect Of Mechanical Stimulation On Mesenchymal Stem Cell Seeded Cartilage Constructs, Karin Wartella Jul 2010

Effect Of Mechanical Stimulation On Mesenchymal Stem Cell Seeded Cartilage Constructs, Karin Wartella

Theses and Dissertations

Cartilage tissue engineered constructs using mesenchymal stem cells were stimulated with 3 different stimulation algorithms to achieve characteristics mimicking the superficial tangential zone of articular cartilage. The stimulation algorithm of both compression and tension without an offset had the best properties out of all the evaluated groups.


Design Of An Electrospun Type Ii Collagen Scaffold For Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering, Catherine Pemble Barnes Jan 2007

Design Of An Electrospun Type Ii Collagen Scaffold For Articular Cartilage Tissue Engineering, Catherine Pemble Barnes

Theses and Dissertations

Traumatic defects in articular cartilage can lead to joint disease and disability including osteoarthritis. Because cartilage is unable to regenerate when injured, the field of tissue engineering holds promise in restoring functional tissue. In this research, type II collagen was electrospun, cross-linked, and tested as scaffolds for supporting chondrocyte growth. The mechanical, biochemical, and histological characteristics of the engineered tissue were assessed as a function of the electrospinning solution concentration (i.e. scaffold fiber diameter and pore properties) and as a function of the time in culture (evaluated at 2, 4, and 6 weeks). Fiber diameter had a linear relationship ...


Determination Of The Mechanical Properties Of Electrospun Gelatin Based On Polymer Concentration And Fiber Alignment, Leander Taylor Iii Jan 2006

Determination Of The Mechanical Properties Of Electrospun Gelatin Based On Polymer Concentration And Fiber Alignment, Leander Taylor Iii

Theses and Dissertations

The process of electrospinning has given the field of tissue engineering insight into many aspects of tissue engineered scaffolds, including how factors such as fiber diameter and porosity are affected by polymer concentration. However, the affects of fiber alignment upon the material properties of electrospun scaffolds remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to determine how the material properties of electrospun gelatin scaffolds are affected by changes in fiber alignment and starting gelatin concentration. Gelatin scaffolds, with starting concentrations of 80, 100, and 130mg/m1, were electrospun onto a target mandrel rotating at various speeds. Samples of each scaffold ...


Scaffold Permeability As A Means To Determine Fiber Diameter And Pore Size Of Electrospun Fibrinogen, Scott Allen Sell Jan 2006

Scaffold Permeability As A Means To Determine Fiber Diameter And Pore Size Of Electrospun Fibrinogen, Scott Allen Sell

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to construct a flowmeter that could accurately measure the hydraulic permeability of electrospun fibrinogen scaffolds, providing insight into the transport properties of electrospun scaffolds while making the measurement of their topographical features (fiber and pore size) more accurate. Three different concentrations of fibrinogen were used (100, 120, and 150mg/ml) to create scaffolds with three different fiber diameters and pore sizes. The fiber diameters and pore sizes of the electrospun scaffolds were analyzed through scanning electron microscopy and image analysis software. The permeability of each scaffold was measured and used to calculate permeability-based fiber ...