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Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Synthesis And Characterization Of Clickable Dendrimer Hydrogels For Ocular Drug Delivery, Jingfei Tian Apr 2014

Synthesis And Characterization Of Clickable Dendrimer Hydrogels For Ocular Drug Delivery, Jingfei Tian

Theses and Dissertations

Topical medication is a standard treatment for glaucoma. However, frequent dosing makes the therapy inconvenient and patient unfriendly. There is a great need to develop new topical formulations that provide long lasting noninvasive drug release. In this thesis, novel clickable dendrimer hydrogels for anti-glaucoma drug delivery were synthesized and characterized. Polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers have been widely applied for drug delivery. The physical characteristics they possess include monodispersity, water solubility, encapsulation ability, and a large number of surface groups. Polycationic PAMAM dendrimer G3 was surface modified with alkyne-PEG5-acid and then reacted with polyethylene glycol bisazide (PEG-BA, 1100 gmol-1) through click chemistry ...


Mammary Epithelial Cells Cultured Onto Non-Woven Nanofiber Electrospun Silk-Based Biomaterials To Engineer Breast Tissue Models, Yas Maghdouri-White Apr 2014

Mammary Epithelial Cells Cultured Onto Non-Woven Nanofiber Electrospun Silk-Based Biomaterials To Engineer Breast Tissue Models, Yas Maghdouri-White

Theses and Dissertations

Breast cancer is one of the most common types of cancer affecting women in the world today. To better understand breast cancer initiation and progression modeling biological tissue under physiological conditions is essential. Indeed, breast cancer involves complex interactions between mammary epithelial cells and the stroma, both extracellular matrix (ECM) and cells including adipocytes (fat tissue) and fibroblasts (connective tissue). Therefore, the engineering of in vitro three-dimensional (3D) systems of breast tissues allows a deeper understanding of the complex cell-cell and cell-ECM interactions involved during breast tissue development and cancer initiation and progression. Furthermore, such 3D systems may provide a ...


Impaired Bone Formation In Pdia3 Deficient Mice, Yun Wang, Alexandr Nizkorodov, Kelsie Riemenschneider, Christopher S. D. Lee, Rene Olivares-Navarrete, Zvi Schwartz, Barbara D. Boyan Jan 2014

Impaired Bone Formation In Pdia3 Deficient Mice, Yun Wang, Alexandr Nizkorodov, Kelsie Riemenschneider, Christopher S. D. Lee, Rene Olivares-Navarrete, Zvi Schwartz, Barbara D. Boyan

Biomedical Engineering Publications

1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1α,25(OH)2D3] is crucial for normal skeletal development and bone homeostasis. Protein disulfide isomerase family A, member 3 (PDIA3) mediates 1α,25(OH)2D3initiated-rapid membrane signaling in several cell types. To understand its role in regulating skeletal development, we generated Pdia3-deficient mice and examined the physiologic consequence of Pdia3-disruption in embryos and Pdia3+/− heterozygotes at different ages. No mice homozygous for the Pdia3-deletion were found at birth nor were there embryos after E12.5, indicating that targeted disruption of the Pdia3 gene resulted in early embryonic lethality.Pdia3-deficiency also resulted in ...


Rock Inhibitor Is Not Required For Embryoid Body Formation From Singularized Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Giuseppe Pettinato, Wendy S. Vanden Berg-Foels, Ning Zhang, Xuejun Wen Jan 2014

Rock Inhibitor Is Not Required For Embryoid Body Formation From Singularized Human Embryonic Stem Cells, Giuseppe Pettinato, Wendy S. Vanden Berg-Foels, Ning Zhang, Xuejun Wen

Biomedical Engineering Publications

We report a technology to form human embryoid bodies (hEBs) from singularized human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) without the use of the p160 rho-associated coiled-coil kinase inhibitor (ROCKi) or centrifugation (spin). hEB formation was tested under four conditions: +ROCKi/+spin, +ROCKi/-spin, -ROCKi/+spin, and -ROCKi/-spin. Cell suspensions of BG01V/hOG and H9 hESC lines were pipetted into non-adherent hydrogel substrates containing defined microwell arrays. hEBs of consistent size and spherical geometry can be formed in each of the four conditions, including the -ROCKi/-spin condition. The hEBs formed under the -ROCKi/-spin condition differentiated to develop the three ...


A Novel Myoelectric Training Device For Upper Limb Prostheses, Ryan Clingman, Peter Pidcoe Jan 2014

A Novel Myoelectric Training Device For Upper Limb Prostheses, Ryan Clingman, Peter Pidcoe

Biomedical Engineering Publications

A training system intended for myoelectric prosthetic hands for upper limb amputees was developed to assist in learning myoelectric control schemes and training muscle isolation. The trainer allowed a user to operate a remote controlled car by use of a control scheme commonly used in myoelectric prosthetic hands. The trainer was designed to be easy for therapists to use and more engaging for the user than current methods of signal training. Preliminary testing of the trainer was conducted with eight nonamputee adult volunteers. The results indicated that the trainer could be a useful tool for myoelectric training in upper limb ...


Novel Technologies For The Detection And Mitigation Of Drowsy Driving, Samuel Lawoyin Jan 2014

Novel Technologies For The Detection And Mitigation Of Drowsy Driving, Samuel Lawoyin

Theses and Dissertations

In the human control of motor vehicles, there are situations regularly encountered wherein the vehicle operator becomes drowsy and fatigued due to the influence of long work days, long driving hours, or low amounts of sleep. Although various methods are currently proposed to detect drowsiness in the operator, they are either obtrusive, expensive, or otherwise impractical. The method of drowsy driving detection through the collection of Steering Wheel Movement (SWM) signals has become an important measure as it lends itself to accurate, effective, and cost-effective drowsiness detection. In this dissertation, novel technologies for drowsiness detection using Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs ...


Analysis And Modeling Of The Roles Of Actin-Myosin Interactions In Bladder Smooth Muscle Biomechanics, Seyed Omid Komariza Jan 2014

Analysis And Modeling Of The Roles Of Actin-Myosin Interactions In Bladder Smooth Muscle Biomechanics, Seyed Omid Komariza

Theses and Dissertations

Muscle mechanical behavior potentially plays an important role in some of the most common bladder disorders. These include overactive bladder, which can involve involuntary contractions during bladder filling, and impaired contractility or underactive bladder, which may involve weak or incomplete contractions during voiding. Actin-myosin cross-bridges in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) are responsible for contracting and emptying the bladder. The total tension produced by muscle is the sum of its preload and active tensions. Studies suggest that actin-myosin cross-links are involved in adjustable preload stiffness (APS), which is characterized by a preload tension curve that can be shifted along the length ...


Tissue Engineering Scaffold Fabrication And Processing Techniques To Improve Cellular Infiltration, Casey Grey Jan 2014

Tissue Engineering Scaffold Fabrication And Processing Techniques To Improve Cellular Infiltration, Casey Grey

Theses and Dissertations

Electrospinning is a technique used to generate scaffolds composed of nano- to micron-sized fibers for use in tissue engineering. This technology possesses several key weaknesses that prevent it from adoption into the clinical treatment regime. One major weakness is the lack of porosity exhibited in most electrospun scaffolds, preventing cellular infiltration and thus hosts tissue integration. Another weakness seen in the field is the inability to physically cut electrospun scaffolds in the frontal plane for subsequent microscopic analysis (current electrospun scaffold analysis is limited to sectioning in the cross-sectional plane). Given this it becomes extremely difficult to associate spatial scaffold ...


Multifunctional Skin-Like Electronics For Quantitative, Clinical Monitoring Of Cutaneous Wound Healing, Yoshiaki Hattori, Leo Falgout, Woosik Lee, Sung-Young Jung, Emily Poon, Jung Woo Lee, Ilyoun Na, Amelia Geisler, Divya Sadhwani, Yihui Zhang, Yewang Su, Xiaoqi Wang, Zhuangjian Liu, Jing Xia, Huanyu Cheng, R. Chad Webb, Andrew P. Bonifas, Philip Won, Jae-Woong Jeong, Kyung-In Jang, Young Min Song, Beatrice Nardone, Michael Nodzenski, Jonathan A. Fan, Yonggang Huang, Dennis P. West, Amy S. Paller, Murad Alam, Woon-Hong Yeo, John. A. Rogers Jan 2014

Multifunctional Skin-Like Electronics For Quantitative, Clinical Monitoring Of Cutaneous Wound Healing, Yoshiaki Hattori, Leo Falgout, Woosik Lee, Sung-Young Jung, Emily Poon, Jung Woo Lee, Ilyoun Na, Amelia Geisler, Divya Sadhwani, Yihui Zhang, Yewang Su, Xiaoqi Wang, Zhuangjian Liu, Jing Xia, Huanyu Cheng, R. Chad Webb, Andrew P. Bonifas, Philip Won, Jae-Woong Jeong, Kyung-In Jang, Young Min Song, Beatrice Nardone, Michael Nodzenski, Jonathan A. Fan, Yonggang Huang, Dennis P. West, Amy S. Paller, Murad Alam, Woon-Hong Yeo, John. A. Rogers

Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Publications

Non-invasive, biomedical devices have the potential to provide important, quantitative data for the assessment of skin diseases and wound healing. Traditional methods either rely on qualitative visual and tactile judgments of a professional and/or data obtained using instrumentation with forms that do not readily allow intimate integration with sensitive skin near a wound site. Here, an electronic sensor platform that can softly and reversibly laminate perilesionally at wounds to provide highly accurate, quantitative data of relevance to the management of surgical wound healing is reported. Clinical studies on patients using thermal sensors and actuators in fractal layouts provide precise ...


The Effect Of Simultaneous, Irrelevant Auditory And Visual Stimuli On A Forced-Attention Dichotic Listening Test, Keri Davis Jan 2014

The Effect Of Simultaneous, Irrelevant Auditory And Visual Stimuli On A Forced-Attention Dichotic Listening Test, Keri Davis

Theses and Dissertations

Many of the studies examining cognitive control during selective attention across different sensory modalities conflict. This study was designed to study the effect of an irrelevant visual stimulus and an auditory distraction of backward speech on a forced attention dichotic listening test. I predicted that the visual stimulus and backward speech would not have a significant effect on the ear advantage. The results showed that all subjects were able to force their attention to the ear regardless of the visual or auditory distracters. In addition, I found that an irrelevant visual stimulus affects auditory attention more so in the left ...


Novel 3d Head And Neck Cancer Model To Evaluate Chemotherapeutic Efficacy, Kelly Morgan Jan 2014

Novel 3d Head And Neck Cancer Model To Evaluate Chemotherapeutic Efficacy, Kelly Morgan

Theses and Dissertations

HNSCC accounts for 7 percent of all new cancer occurrences. Despite currently available treatments, there continues to be a high mortality and recurrence rate in HNSCC. Well over 50 percent of all cancer patients receive chemotherapy as a standard treatment. However, only 5 percent of these cases have been shown to help with treatment of the disease. Formerly, two options were available for drug testing: in vivo animal models, and in vitro two-dimensional models. While in vivo models remain the most representative, their use is burdened by high costs, time constraints, and ethical concerns. 2D models are simple to use ...


Development Of A Compact, Low-Cost Wireless Device For Biopotential Acquisition, Graham Kelly Jan 2014

Development Of A Compact, Low-Cost Wireless Device For Biopotential Acquisition, Graham Kelly

Theses and Dissertations

A low-cost circuit board design is presented, which in one embodiment is smaller than a credit card, for biopotential (EMG, ECG, or EEG) data acquisition, with a focus on EEG for brain-computer interface applications. The device combines signal conditioning, low-noise and high-resolution analog-to-digital conversion of biopotentials, user motion detection via accelerometer and gyroscope, user-programmable digital pre-processing, and data transmission via Bluetooth communications. The full development of the device to date is presented, spanning three embodiments. The device is presented both as a functional data acquisition system and as a template for further development based on its publicly-available schematics and computer-aided ...


Design And Validation Of A Computational Model For Study Of Scapholunate Joint Kinematics, Edward J. Tremols Jan 2014

Design And Validation Of A Computational Model For Study Of Scapholunate Joint Kinematics, Edward J. Tremols

Theses and Dissertations

As computational power has increased, computational modeling has become a very promising tool to model the biomechanics of complex joint systems. Musculoskeletal computational models have become more complex when compared to original iterations which utilized a number of simplifications. This thesis utilized a three-dimensional computational model of the wrist joint structure to investigate scapholunate kinematics. The model accurately represented the bony anatomy of the wrist and hand and represented soft tissue structures such as ligaments, tendons, and other surrounding tissues. Creation of the model was done using commercially available computer-aided design and medical image processing software, and utilized the rigid ...


Android-Based Smartphone Application Simulation And Systematic Design To Reduce Medication Administration Error In Prehospital Emergency Care., Natalie Vazquez Jan 2014

Android-Based Smartphone Application Simulation And Systematic Design To Reduce Medication Administration Error In Prehospital Emergency Care., Natalie Vazquez

Theses and Dissertations

Since 1999 when the report To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System was released, medical errors have come into focus (Kohn, 2000). In an effort to reduce medication administration errors in prehospital emergency care, an android-based smartphone application simulation was created. The app has components including QR barcode scanning, text to speech for medication cross-checking, weight-based medication dose calculations, and time stamped medication data wirelessly transferring to a database in real-time. Color standard identification was implemented, aiding to a designed systematic process for patient treatment to reduce medication errors. Direct observation was performed of emergency patient calls with ...