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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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Virginia Commonwealth University

2016

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Articles 1 - 30 of 33

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Using Mathematical Modeling To Unmask The Concealed Nature Of Long Qt-3 Syndrome, Steven Poelzing, Amara Greer-Short, Seth H. Weinberg May 2016

Using Mathematical Modeling To Unmask The Concealed Nature Of Long Qt-3 Syndrome, Steven Poelzing, Amara Greer-Short, Seth H. Weinberg

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Pressure Relationships Of Inspired Air Into The Human Lung Bifurcations, Parya Aghasafari, Israr Ibrahim, Ramana Pidaparti May 2016

Pressure Relationships Of Inspired Air Into The Human Lung Bifurcations, Parya Aghasafari, Israr Ibrahim, Ramana Pidaparti

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Mechanical Loading Attenuates Radiation-Induced Bone Loss In Bone Marrow Transplanted Mice, Peter M. Govey, Yue Zhang, Henry J. Donahue Jan 2016

Mechanical Loading Attenuates Radiation-Induced Bone Loss In Bone Marrow Transplanted Mice, Peter M. Govey, Yue Zhang, Henry J. Donahue

Biomedical Engineering Publications

Exposure of bone to ionizing radiation, as occurs during radiotherapy for some localized malignancies and blood or bone marrow cancers, as well as during space travel, incites dose-dependent bone morbidity and increased fracture risk. Rapid trabecular and endosteal bone loss reflects acutely increased osteoclastic resorption as well as decreased bone formation due to depletion of osteoprogenitors. Because of this dysregulation of bone turnover, bone’s capacity to respond to a mechanical loading stimulus in the aftermath of irradiation is unknown. We employed a mouse model of total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation simulating treatment of hematologic cancers, hypothesizing that ...


Novel Osteogenic Ti-6al-4v Device For Restoration Of Dental Function In Patients With Large Bone Deficiencies: Design, Development And Implementation, David J. Cohen, A Cheng, A. Kahn, M. Aviram, Alexander J. Whitehead, Sharon Hyzy, Ryan M. Clohessy, Barbara D. Boyan, Zvi Schwartz Jan 2016

Novel Osteogenic Ti-6al-4v Device For Restoration Of Dental Function In Patients With Large Bone Deficiencies: Design, Development And Implementation, David J. Cohen, A Cheng, A. Kahn, M. Aviram, Alexander J. Whitehead, Sharon Hyzy, Ryan M. Clohessy, Barbara D. Boyan, Zvi Schwartz

Biomedical Engineering Publications

Custom devices supporting bone regeneration and implant placement are needed for edentulous patients with large mandibular deficiencies where endosteal implantation is not possible. We developed a novel subperiosteal titanium-aluminum-vanadium bone onlay device produced by additive manufacturing (AM) and post-fabrication osteogenic micro-/nano-scale surface texture modification. Human osteoblasts produced osteogenic and angiogenic factors when grown on laser-sintered nano-/micro-textured surfaces compared to smooth surfaces. Surface-processed constructs caused higher bone-to-implant contact, vertical bone growth into disk pores (microCT and histomorphometry), and mechanical pull-out force at 5 and 10 w on rat calvaria compared to non surface-modified constructs, even when pre-treating the bone ...


24r,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Protects Against Articular Cartilage Damage Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection In Male Rats, Barbara D. Boyan, Sharon L. Hyzy, Qingfen Pan, Kayla M. Scott, Richard D. Coutts, Robert Healey, Zvi Schwartz Jan 2016

24r,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Protects Against Articular Cartilage Damage Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Transection In Male Rats, Barbara D. Boyan, Sharon L. Hyzy, Qingfen Pan, Kayla M. Scott, Richard D. Coutts, Robert Healey, Zvi Schwartz

Biomedical Engineering Publications

Osteoarthritis (OA) in humans is associated with low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25 (OH)D3]. In vitamin D replete rats, radiolabeled 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25 (OH)2D3] accumulates in articular cartilage following injection of [3 H]-25(OH)D3. Previously, we showed that 24R,25(OH)2D3 blocks chondrocyte apoptosis via phospholipase D and p53, suggesting a role for 24R,25(OH)2D3 in maintaining cartilage health. We examined the ability of 24R,25(OH)2D3 to prevent degenerative changes in articular cartilage in an OAlike environment and the potential mechanisms involved. In vitro, rat articular chondrocytes were treated with ...


Design Of A Drug Delivery System Through The Gastrointestinal Tract, Kaixin Chen, Adel Husayni, Kayvon Mobarakeh, Ankit Soni Jan 2016

Design Of A Drug Delivery System Through The Gastrointestinal Tract, Kaixin Chen, Adel Husayni, Kayvon Mobarakeh, Ankit Soni

Capstone Design Expo Posters

Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) afflicts an estimated 5.3 million individuals and is the sixth leading cause of death in America. The drug delivery method of interest is an orally administered sustained-release delivery system that addresses the needs of the associated patient population. By augmenting drug delivery with a higher effective payload per dose compared to current methods, drug efficacy and bioavailability would improve. This will result in a decrease of the overall cost for medication as a greater percentage of the administered drug will be viable.

This design addresses the release of AD drug from the drug delivery system ...


Catheter Attachment Device For Prevention Of Urinary Tract Infection, Ashleigh Mccormick, Brittany Allen, Karolina Stumbraite, Kevin Ball Jan 2016

Catheter Attachment Device For Prevention Of Urinary Tract Infection, Ashleigh Mccormick, Brittany Allen, Karolina Stumbraite, Kevin Ball

Capstone Design Expo Posters

Hospital-acquired infections are costly occurrences that cause patients physical discomfort, have dangerous immune consequences, and cost healthcare providers hundreds of millions of dollars every year in liability fees and negligence charges. Catheter associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI) are the most common class of hospital-acquired infection, affecting over half a million patients in U.S. hospitals alone every year.The CAUTI-Guard team has designed a silver-coated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) plug device that helps prevent CAUTI through its action as a physical and chemical block. The device slides along standard urinary catheters and helps block the migration of infectious material into the urethra ...


Improved Device For Passive Foot Dorsiflexion For Prevention Of Dvt, Stephen Vinoba, Nigal Shah, Shreya Vatsala, Jawahar Baddula Jan 2016

Improved Device For Passive Foot Dorsiflexion For Prevention Of Dvt, Stephen Vinoba, Nigal Shah, Shreya Vatsala, Jawahar Baddula

Capstone Design Expo Posters

Postoperative patients are often too fatigued to walk around and often lay in bed for extended periods of time. This could lead to the development of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). DVT is a condition where blood accumulates in the veins instead of being pushed back to the heart. This can cause the formation of blood clots that can eventually lead to pulmonary embolism resulting in death. DVT is a condition that affects about 900,000 people in the United States. Since it is such a prevalent condition, it is important to develop methods of prevention for this condition.

The aim ...


Mri Hip Joint Traction Device, Rawan Alfadly, Carla Gomez, Sara Um Jan 2016

Mri Hip Joint Traction Device, Rawan Alfadly, Carla Gomez, Sara Um

Capstone Design Expo Posters

Radiologists commonly use contrast agents to improve resolution and acuity when employing MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging). Introducing MRI contrast agents to the tissue in the innermost part of the femoroacetabular joint is extremely difficult because the anatomy prevents the contrast agents from infiltrating those surfaces. Therefore, getting the ideal image resolution and making diagnosis of the hip is difficult. The objective was to design a product that would successfully distract one hip joint while also stabilizing the patient’s pelvis to improve visualization so that physicians are able to better diagnose the hip. The deliverables included a preliminary model that ...


Small Animal Thermal Support Device: Thermoregulation System For Scireq Flexivent Chamber, Alexander Dickey, Ashkhan Hojati, Matthew James, Kathleen Vermillera Jan 2016

Small Animal Thermal Support Device: Thermoregulation System For Scireq Flexivent Chamber, Alexander Dickey, Ashkhan Hojati, Matthew James, Kathleen Vermillera

Capstone Design Expo Posters

During ventilation induced lung injury (VILI) experiments, anesthetized mice lose the ability to regulate their core body temperature. Without maintaining homeostasis, the experimental data may be compromised due to changes in the rodent’s internal functions. Traditional heating techniques utilize a water circulation heating system that is unable to fit inside flexiVent ventilator testing chambers. The objective of this project is to design and build an automatic thermoregulatory feedback system to regulate the core body temperature of a mouse inside individual testing chambers throughout the duration of the experiment. The project deliverables include a functioning prototype that achieves safe and ...


Pulmonary Patency Stent, Kranthidhar Bathula, Suraj Kandalam, Akhil Kolluri, Roshni Malik Jan 2016

Pulmonary Patency Stent, Kranthidhar Bathula, Suraj Kandalam, Akhil Kolluri, Roshni Malik

Capstone Design Expo Posters

Patients with malignancies in the central airways often experience significant breathing difficulties due to occlusion of the airways. One common palliative treatment option for this is a stent placement procedure. While patients often experience immediate symptom relief, long term use can result in the formation of granulation tissue, causing restenosis of the airway. The objective of this project is to design and prototype a modification to the Boston Scientific Ultraflex partially-covered stent in order to reduce granulation tissue and maintain airway patency. Deliverables include the detailed design, a working prototype, and supporting data. The main product specifications include effectiveness in ...


Minimizing Loss Of Balance And Falls With Personal Walkers, Michael Berger, Galen Kellner, David Le, Anthony Renninger Jan 2016

Minimizing Loss Of Balance And Falls With Personal Walkers, Michael Berger, Galen Kellner, David Le, Anthony Renninger

Capstone Design Expo Posters

Falls within the Older Adult community lead to roughly 734,000 hospital admissions annually with 87% attributed to walker use. In order to reduce the amount of falls due to walker use our objective was to create a system that detects an increased likelihood of a fall occurring, notifies the user of improper positioning, and can intervene by application of an automatic braking system to stabilize the walker; effectively training the user to have a more proper walking form and posture reducing the risk of a fall. In order to accomplish this goal, final deliverables included a working prototype and ...


Sensing Movement In Endotracheal Tubes, Mary Anisa Kannan, Krista Powell, Navami Ravindra, Tiffany Wong Jan 2016

Sensing Movement In Endotracheal Tubes, Mary Anisa Kannan, Krista Powell, Navami Ravindra, Tiffany Wong

Capstone Design Expo Posters

The objective of this project was to develop a device that would better secure endotracheal tubes (ETT), measure unwanted displacement, and notify caretakers when a dangerous amount of displacement has occurred. The project deliverables were as follows: a detailed design, a prototype, and a final demonstration of the prototype which shows successful ability to carry out the objectives stated above. The device needs to be small in size, expensive, flexible to allow for regular cleaning, yet strong enough to withstand stress. The final design consists of a small bite block holder and head straps to secure the device. The device ...


Marsupialization Catheter, Hamdi Abdeen, Ananya Mishra, Lucas Olson, Jacqueline Pinderski Jan 2016

Marsupialization Catheter, Hamdi Abdeen, Ananya Mishra, Lucas Olson, Jacqueline Pinderski

Capstone Design Expo Posters

A significant issue among oral and maxillofacial surgeons is the treatment of cysts within the jaw. Cysts develop at random and in most cases asymptomatically. Therefore, they may reach enormous sizes before being diagnosed. Large cysts can cause severe damage to teeth and the surrounding bone. Doctors treat small cysts by surgically removing them. However, this approach is not ideal for large cysts due to the risk of surgical complications, the high expenses incurred, and the fact that it is often undesired by the patient. Current treatments include surgically opening the cyst and either suturing the tissue open or placing ...


Suture Trainer: Improving Tissue Handling Technique, Albara Elshaer, Sindora Baddam, Veronica Peterkin, Millie Shah Jan 2016

Suture Trainer: Improving Tissue Handling Technique, Albara Elshaer, Sindora Baddam, Veronica Peterkin, Millie Shah

Capstone Design Expo Posters

Tissue handling is fundamental to performing mechanical tasks of suturing and surgery on live humans and animals. While the mechanics of suturing can be taught, there is no available simulation product designed to specifically teach tissue handling skills. It is important as a future medical professional to gain better tissue handling skills in order to prevent unnecessary injury to the tissue via scarring. The suture trainer focuses on providing feedback in order to standardize tissue handling technique in order to prevent poor habits from developing. Our project deliverables included a model, working prototype, and test data collected from practicing physicians ...


A Tilting System For Powered Wheelchairs, Liam Cornwall, Brandon Heath, Justin Mcdaniel, Alexander Stevenson Jan 2016

A Tilting System For Powered Wheelchairs, Liam Cornwall, Brandon Heath, Justin Mcdaniel, Alexander Stevenson

Capstone Design Expo Posters

The objective of our project is to create a wheelchair platform that can tilt a power wheelchair and its user back into a nearhorizontal position. The purpose of this is to allow a dentist to work on the patient in the manner and position with which they are most accustomed.

The device currently used by our sponsor, The Virginia Home, is the Versatilt platform. The Versatilt is capable of lifting a maximum weight of 750 lbs. and tilting patients back, up to 65 degrees. However, the platform is too small to accept the power wheelchairs used by the majority of ...


Iv Pole For Cardiac Surgery, Sindhu Marampudi, Natalie Noll, Madison Nowak, Rachel Wilbur Jan 2016

Iv Pole For Cardiac Surgery, Sindhu Marampudi, Natalie Noll, Madison Nowak, Rachel Wilbur

Capstone Design Expo Posters

IV lines and pumps need to be transported from the operating room to patient recovery with the patient after cardiac procedures. During this process, the weight of the IV pumps and the small wheels on the IV pole can cause the IV pole to become unbalanced and fall or bend due to the load. Due to a decrease in slack in IV lines to minimize IV line tangling, when an IV pole falls, this can result in the IV lines being torn out of the patient that can lead to blood loss and other injuries. In addition, IV bags and ...


Low Cost Sterilization, Karima Abutaleb, Mahreen Azam, Eric Lara, Sarah Tracy Jan 2016

Low Cost Sterilization, Karima Abutaleb, Mahreen Azam, Eric Lara, Sarah Tracy

Capstone Design Expo Posters

The lack of proper surgical tool sterilization is an increasing issue in developing countries. Inadequate sterilization leads to disease transmission, infection and even death. While autoclaves, the current golden standard for sterilization, are effective, they are often rendered useless after breaking as the cost to repair and maintain them is incredibly high. This leads to the dependence on insufficient techniques such as the use of diluted bleach. Diluted bleach, while effective for disinfection, leads to the destruction of surgical tools over time, does not destroy spores, and is unsustainable, as it loses potency over time which leads to its otherwiseunnecessary ...


Prediction Device To Reduce Falls In The Elderly, Keegan Zacharie, Aaron Corbin, Joseph Switzer Jan 2016

Prediction Device To Reduce Falls In The Elderly, Keegan Zacharie, Aaron Corbin, Joseph Switzer

Capstone Design Expo Posters

Complications arising from accidental falls are one of the leading causes of death among the elderly, with over 25,000 fatalities annually in the U.S.; a third of the elder population falls each year and a fifth of falls cause serious injury. We intended to mitigate these risks by producing a device capable of anticipating falls using biostatistical data.

Deliverables for our design included: An integrated accelerometer and pulse monitor to assess changes in motion and the physiological state of the wearer, a programmed algorithm capable of processing this data, and a mount to attach components to the patient ...


Role Of E-Cadherin Force In The Spatial Regulation Of Cell Proliferation, Abhinav Mohan Jan 2016

Role Of E-Cadherin Force In The Spatial Regulation Of Cell Proliferation, Abhinav Mohan

Theses and Dissertations

Cell proliferation and contact inhibition play a major role in maintaining epithelial cell homeostasis. A hallmark of epithelial cells is strong cell-cell junctions. These junctions include E-Cadherin, a type of adherens junction that is critical for both barrier function and contact inhibition. Prior experiments by other groups have shown that adherens junctions are subject to mechanical tension. Externally applied forces (e.g. stretch) results in changes in E-Cadherin forces that coordinate proliferation. My current work tests the hypothesis that E-Cadherin forces mediate the spatial regulation of cell proliferation even in the absence of externally applied forces.


An Injectable Stem Cell Delivery System For Treatment Of Musculoskeletal Defects, Shirae Leslie Jan 2016

An Injectable Stem Cell Delivery System For Treatment Of Musculoskeletal Defects, Shirae Leslie

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research was to develop a system of injectable hydrogels to deliver stem cells to musculoskeletal defects, thereby allowing cells to remain at the treatment site and secrete soluble factors that will facilitate tissue regeneration. First, production parameters for encapsulating cells in microbeads were determined. This involved investigating the effects of osmolytes on alginate microbead properties, and the effects of alginate microbead cell density, alginate microbead density, and effects of osteogenic media on microencapsulated cells. Although cells remained viable in the microbeads, alginate does not readily degrade in vivo for six months. Therefore, a method to incorporate ...


Efficiency Evaluation Of A Magnetically Driven Multiple Disk Centrifugal Blood Pump, Kayla H. Moody Jan 2016

Efficiency Evaluation Of A Magnetically Driven Multiple Disk Centrifugal Blood Pump, Kayla H. Moody

Theses and Dissertations

Heart failure is expected to ail over 8 million people in America by 2030 leaving many in need of cardiac replacement. To accommodate this large volume of people, ventricular assist devices (VADs) are necessary to provide mechanical circulatory support. Current VADs exhibit issues such as thrombosis and hemolysis caused by large local pressure drops and turbulent flow within the pump. Multiple disk centrifugal pumps (MDCPs) use shearing and centrifugal forces to produce laminar flow patterns and eliminate large pressure drops within the pump which greatly reduce risks that are in current VADs. The MDCP has a shaft drive system (SDS ...


The Molecular And Mechanical Mechanisms Of The Age-Associated Increase In The Severity Of Experimental Ventilator Induced Lung Injury, Joseph Ames Herbert Jan 2016

The Molecular And Mechanical Mechanisms Of The Age-Associated Increase In The Severity Of Experimental Ventilator Induced Lung Injury, Joseph Ames Herbert

Theses and Dissertations

Abstract

Background

The majority of patients requiring mechanical ventilation are over the age of 65 and advanced age is known to increase the severity of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and mortality. However, the mechanisms which predispose aging ventilator patients to increased mortality rates are not fully understood.

Pulmonary edema is a hallmark of VILI and the severity of edema increases with age. Ventilation with conservative fluid management decreases mortality rates in acute respiratory distress (ARDS) patients, but has not been investigated in VILI. We hypothesized that age-associated increases in pulmonary edema promote age-related increases in ventilator-associated mortality. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER ...


In-House Fabrication Of Multi-Sized Polystyrene Microcarriers For Neural Stem Cell Expansion, Jessica Forrester Jan 2016

In-House Fabrication Of Multi-Sized Polystyrene Microcarriers For Neural Stem Cell Expansion, Jessica Forrester

Theses and Dissertations

The clinical demand for neural stem cells drives the need for a reproducible method used to generate a large quantity of well-characterized cells to support regenerative therapies. Microcarriers are currently being used as a scaffold for stem cell culture to aid in this expansion process because they provide a larger surface area while also requiring fewer cell passages compared to monolayer culture. The main objective of this project was to investigate how human neural stem cell attachment, proliferation, and multipotency would respond to three-dimensional (3D) culture using peptide-coated microcarriers of varying diameters. In this study, multi-sized polystyrene microcarriers were fabricated ...


Improved Capability Of A Computational Foot/Ankle Model Using Artificial Neural Networks, Ruchi D. Chande Jan 2016

Improved Capability Of A Computational Foot/Ankle Model Using Artificial Neural Networks, Ruchi D. Chande

Theses and Dissertations

Computational joint models provide insight into the biomechanical function of human joints. Through both deformable and rigid body modeling, the structure-function relationship governing joint behavior is better understood, and subsequently, knowledge regarding normal, diseased, and/or injured function is garnered. Given the utility of these computational models, it is imperative to supply them with appropriate inputs such that model function is representative of true joint function. In these models, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) or Computerized Tomography (CT) scans and literature inform the bony anatomy and mechanical properties of muscle and ligamentous tissues, respectively. In the case of the latter, literature ...


Providing Support For An Interdisciplinary Research Group With A Multidisciplinary Informationist Team: Is It Effective?, Margaret Henderson, Karen Gau, Julie A. Arendt, Martha Roseberry, John Cyrus Jan 2016

Providing Support For An Interdisciplinary Research Group With A Multidisciplinary Informationist Team: Is It Effective?, Margaret Henderson, Karen Gau, Julie A. Arendt, Martha Roseberry, John Cyrus

VCU Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Background

Three subject librarians and a data librarian, representing three departments and two libraries at a university, were awarded an NLM Informationist Supplement to support an interdisciplinary Research Group with an NIH grant. The Informationist Team developed a model to utilize the skills of multiple librarians to support the increasing number of interdisciplinary and interprofessional research groups at the university. Librarians routinely attended lab meetings and shared notes with each other to monitor researcher needs.

Methods

The Informationist Team regularly provided support for literature searches, creating search alerts, bibliographic citation management and sharing, and data management to an interdisciplinary Research ...


Characterization Of Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) Blends And Fabrication Of Soft Micropillar Arrays For Force Detection, Thomas J. Petet Jr Jan 2016

Characterization Of Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) Blends And Fabrication Of Soft Micropillar Arrays For Force Detection, Thomas J. Petet Jr

Theses and Dissertations

Diseases involving fibrosis cause tens of thousands of deaths per year in the US alone. These diseases are characterized by a large amount of extracellular matrix, causing stiff abnormal tissues that may not function correctly. To take steps towards curing these diseases, a fundamental understanding of how cells interact with their substrate and how mechanical forces alter signaling pathways is vital. Studying the mechanobiology of cells and the interaction between a cell and its extracellular matrix can help explain the mechanisms behind stem cell differentiation, cell migration, and metastasis. Due to the correlation between force, extracellular matrix assembly, and substrate ...


An Investigation Of Kinetic Visual Biofeedback On Dynamic Stance Symmetry, Trisha J. Massenzo Jan 2016

An Investigation Of Kinetic Visual Biofeedback On Dynamic Stance Symmetry, Trisha J. Massenzo

Theses and Dissertations

The intent of the following research is to utilize task-specific, constraint-induced therapies and apply towards dynamic training for symmetrical balance. Modifications to an elliptical trainer were made to both measure weight distributions during dynamic stance as well as provide kinetic biofeedback through a man-machine interface. Following a review of the background, which includes research from several decades that are seminal to current studies, a design review is discussed to cover the design of the modified elliptical (Chapter 2).

An initial study was conducted in a healthy sample population in order to determine the best visual biofeedback representation by comparing different ...


In Vitro Visualization Of Pediatric Sized Mechanical Heart Valve Performance Using Aortic Root Model In Mock Circulatory Loop, Sarah Lederer Jan 2016

In Vitro Visualization Of Pediatric Sized Mechanical Heart Valve Performance Using Aortic Root Model In Mock Circulatory Loop, Sarah Lederer

Theses and Dissertations

Congenital heart valve disease is one of the most common abnormalities in children, with common valve defects being aortic stenosis, mitral stenosis, and valvular regurgitation. Although adult sized mechanical heart valve (MHV) replacements are widely studied and utilized, there are currently no FDA approved prosthetic heart valves available for the pediatric population. This is due to a variety of reasons such as a limited patient pool for clinical trials, limited valve sizes, and complex health histories in children. Much like adult sized mechanical heart valves, potential complications with pediatric heart valve replacements include thrombosis, blood damage due to high shear ...


A Computational Study Of Curvature In The Outflow Graft Of A Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device, Laura Patterson Jan 2016

A Computational Study Of Curvature In The Outflow Graft Of A Continuous Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device, Laura Patterson

Theses and Dissertations

Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are an increasingly utilized therapy for end-stage heart failure. Thrombosis within the graft from the pump to the aorta has been documented, but is poorly researched. This study examines the effect of graft geometry, as measured by radius of curvature, bend angle, and diameter, on thrombogenic flow patterns within the graft for a range of flow conditions. It also examines the effect blood properties, including viscosity and density, on these flow patterns. The results indicated that radius of curvature had a powerful effect on thrombogenic flow patterns. Flowrate and bend angle were also influential. The ...