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Articles 1 - 16 of 16

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Oculomotor Control In Patients With Parkinson's Disease, George Gitchel Dec 2009

Oculomotor Control In Patients With Parkinson's Disease, George Gitchel

Theses and Dissertations

There have been few studies investigating the eye movement behavior of Parkinson’s disease patients during fixation. This study objectively measured the eye movements of 36 patients with Parkinson’s disease, and 20 age matched controls. Stimuli consisted of ten standardized text passages first organized by Miller and Coleman. In addition, subjects followed a randomly displaced step jump target motion. Pendular nystagmus was found in all Parkinson’s subjects, with an average frequency of 7.44 Hz. Saccadic peak velocity and duration along the main sequence were not statistically different from controls. A slower rate of reading was also noted ...


Automated Methods For Fiber Diameter Measurement Of Fibrous Scaffolds, Anna Bulysheva Dec 2009

Automated Methods For Fiber Diameter Measurement Of Fibrous Scaffolds, Anna Bulysheva

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this work was to develop an automated method of measuring fiber diameters of electrospun scaffolds from scanning electron microscopy images of these scaffolds. Several automated methods were developed and evaluated by comparison to known values and data obtained via the standard manual method. Simulated images with known diameters were used as test images to evaluate the accuracy of each measurement technique. Eight scanning electron microscopy images were also used for the evaluation of the automated methods compared to the standard manual method. All diameter measurements were made in pixels. Five new automated methods coded in MATLAB were ...


Mechanical Structures Resisting Anterior Instability In A Computational Glenohumeral Joint Model, Kevin Elmore Nov 2009

Mechanical Structures Resisting Anterior Instability In A Computational Glenohumeral Joint Model, Kevin Elmore

Theses and Dissertations

The glenohumeral joint is the most dislocated joint in the body due to the lack of bony constraints and dependence on soft tissue, primarily muscles and ligaments, to stabilize the joint. The goal of this study was to develop a computational model of the glenohumeral joint whereby joint behavior was dictated by articular contact, ligamentous constraints, muscle loading, and external perturbations. Validation of this computational model was achieved by comparing predicted results from the model to the results of a cadaveric experiment in which the relative contribution of muscles and ligaments to anterior joint stability was examined. The results showed ...


The Design And Validation Of A Computational Rigid Body Model Of The Elbow., Edward Spratley Oct 2009

The Design And Validation Of A Computational Rigid Body Model Of The Elbow., Edward Spratley

Theses and Dissertations

The use of computational modeling is an effective and inexpensive way to predict the response of complex systems to various perturbations. However, not until the early 1990s had this technology been used to predict the behavior of physiological systems, specifically the human skeletal system. To that end, a computational model of the human elbow joint was developed using computed topography (CT) scans of cadaveric donor tissue, as well as the commercially available software package SolidWorks™. The kinematic function of the joint model was then defined through 3D reconstructions of the osteoarticular surfaces and various soft-tissue constraints. The model was validated ...


Preparation And Characterization Of An Electrospun Gelatin/Dendrimer Hybrid Nanofiber Dressing, Alicia P. Smith-Freshwater Aug 2009

Preparation And Characterization Of An Electrospun Gelatin/Dendrimer Hybrid Nanofiber Dressing, Alicia P. Smith-Freshwater

Theses and Dissertations

A novel dendritic wound dressing was designed and characterized for its potential to treat chronic wounds. Comprised of gelatin, dendrimer, synthetic polymer and antibiotics, the dressing was electrospun to mimic the natural extracellular matrix (ECM). Gelatin is biocompatible, biodegradable, non-toxic, and easily available. The antibiotic, doxycycline, has the ability to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases. Matrix metalloproteinases, which occur in excess in chronic wounds, degrade the reconstituted ECM. Starburst™ polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimer G3.5, which provides a versatile and structurally controlled architecture to construct nanomedicine, was covalently bonded to the gelatin backbone and electrospun into nanofibers with gelatin, doxycycline and stabilizing polymers ...


The Use Of A Tri-Axial Accelerometer To Measure Changes In Lower Extremity Fatigue During Functional Activity, Kristin Morgan Aug 2009

The Use Of A Tri-Axial Accelerometer To Measure Changes In Lower Extremity Fatigue During Functional Activity, Kristin Morgan

Theses and Dissertations

In 2004, the National Collegiate Athletic Association reported ankle sprain as the most frequent injury in soccer, basketball, and volleyball players. Further research found an increased likelihood with fatigue. Measuring fatigue during functional activities has been a longstanding problem. In this study, changes in ankle biomechanics were measured using a tri-axial accelerometer embedded in the shoe as subjects (n=12) performed a fatiguing activity. Data were collected from the accelerometer and from established devices that are considered the industry gold standard. Several kinetic and kinematic accelerometer derived variables were highly correlated with these standards (r2>0.90) and were associated ...


Spatial Detection Of Multiple Movement Intentions From Sam-Filtered Single-Trial Meg For A High Performance Bci, Harsha Battapady Jul 2009

Spatial Detection Of Multiple Movement Intentions From Sam-Filtered Single-Trial Meg For A High Performance Bci, Harsha Battapady

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study is to test whether human intentions to sustain or cease movements in right and left hands can be decoded reliably from spatially filtered single trial magneto-encephalographic (MEG) signals. This study was performed using motor execution and motor imagery movements to achieve a potential high performance Brain-Computer interface (BCI). Seven healthy volunteers, naïve to BCI technology, participated in this study. Signals were recorded from 275-channel MEG and synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM) was employed as the spatial filter. The four-class classification for natural movement intentions was performed offline; Genetic Algorithm based Mahalanobis Linear Distance (GA-MLD) and direct-decision ...


Development Of An Electroencephalography-Based Brain-Computer Interface Supporting Two-Dimensional Cursor Control, Dandan Huang Jul 2009

Development Of An Electroencephalography-Based Brain-Computer Interface Supporting Two-Dimensional Cursor Control, Dandan Huang

Theses and Dissertations

This study aims to explore whether human intentions to move or cease to move right and left hands can be decoded from spatiotemporal features in non-invasive electroencephalography (EEG) in order to control a discrete two-dimensional cursor movement for a potential multi-dimensional Brain-Computer interface (BCI). Five naïve subjects performed either sustaining or stopping a motor task with time locking to a predefined time window by using motor execution with physical movement or motor imagery. Spatial filtering, temporal filtering, feature selection and classification methods were explored. The performance of the proposed BCI was evaluated by both offline classification and online two-dimensional cursor ...


Fabrication And Characterization Of Bioactive, Composite Electrospun Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Intended For Cleft Palate Repair, Parthasarathy Madurantakam Jul 2009

Fabrication And Characterization Of Bioactive, Composite Electrospun Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds Intended For Cleft Palate Repair, Parthasarathy Madurantakam

Theses and Dissertations

Tissue Engineering is a scientific discipline that aims to regenerate tissues and organs that are diseased, lost or congenitally absent. It encompasses the use of suitable synthetic equivalents of native extracellular matrix that may or may not be supplemented with cells or relevant growth factors. Such scaffolds are designed to reside at the site of implantation for a variable period of time during which they induce the regeneration of native tissue. During this time, they also provide a template for new cells to attach, infiltrate, differentiate into appropriate phenotype and eventually restore function of the concerned tissue. Among the factors ...


Computational Modeling Of The Helical Axis In The Human Knee--Detecting Changes In The Transverse Plane, Emily Carney Jul 2009

Computational Modeling Of The Helical Axis In The Human Knee--Detecting Changes In The Transverse Plane, Emily Carney

Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to build a helical axis algorithm capable of detecting changes in the helical axis intersection of the tibia and femur in human knees. This algorithm was designed and tested using three models: a multiplanar rigid body model, a mathematical model, and a cylinder model. The multiplanar rigid body model closely mimics knee movement without supporting ligamentous structures, thus the movement was unconstrained. In this model kinematic position data were collected using both MotionMonitor™ (MotionMonitor™ Version 7.7, Innovative Sports Training, Chicago, IL) and Vicon Nexus 1.3 software system (Oxford Metrics Group, Oxford, UK ...


Tissue Engineering Cellularized Silk-Based Ligament Analogues, Scott Sell Jun 2009

Tissue Engineering Cellularized Silk-Based Ligament Analogues, Scott Sell

Theses and Dissertations

The resurgence, and eventual rise to prominence in the field of tissue engineering, that electrospinning has experienced over the last decade speaks to the simplicity and adaptability of the process. Electrospinning has been used for the fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds intended for use in nearly every part of the human body: blood vessel, cartilage, bone, skin, nerve, connective tissue, etc. Diverse as the aforementioned tissues are in both form and function, electrospinning has found a niche in the repair of each due to its capacity to consistently create non-woven structures of fibers ranging from nano-to-micron size in diameter. These ...


Structural And Functional Considerations In The Design Of Collagen-Based Electrospun Scaffolds, Chantal Ayres Apr 2009

Structural And Functional Considerations In The Design Of Collagen-Based Electrospun Scaffolds, Chantal Ayres

Theses and Dissertations

Electrospinning can be used to selectively process a variety of natural and synthetic polymers into highly porous scaffolds composed of nano-to-micron diameter fibers. This process shows great potential as a gateway to the development of physiologically relevant tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study we examine the structural and functional considerations regarding electrospun scaffolds for dermal template applications using novel quantification techniques. In order to characterize scaffold structure, a technique utilizing the fast Fourier transform was developed to systematically quantify fiber alignment and evaluate how different electrospinning parameters impact the structure and material properties of an electrospun scaffold. Gelatin was suspended ...


Botulinum Toxin For Non-Surgical Lateral Release In Subjects With Patellofemoral Pain, Laura Maple Apr 2009

Botulinum Toxin For Non-Surgical Lateral Release In Subjects With Patellofemoral Pain, Laura Maple

Theses and Dissertations

Previous studies for treating Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS) are controversial regarding the effectiveness in alleviating anterior knee pain (AKP). The muscular imbalance between the vastus medialis oblique/vastus lateralis (VMO/VL) may be the underlying mechanical issue causing PFPS. It is hypothesized that Botox can decrease the force production capability of the lateral musculature mechanically similar to surgery. Strengthening the VMO while using Botox treatment can alleviating the muscular imbalance that occurs with subjects with PFPS. A double blind study, having all participants blinded and uninformed of the injection contents, was implemented to test this hypothesis testing three female subjects ...


Position Concordant - Haptic Mouse, Ravi Rastogi Feb 2009

Position Concordant - Haptic Mouse, Ravi Rastogi

Theses and Dissertations

Haptic mice, computer mice modified to have a tactile display, have been developed to enable access to computer graphics by individuals who are blind or visually impaired. Although these haptic mice are potentially very helpful and have been frequently used by the research community, there are some fundamental problems with the mouse, limiting its acceptance. In this paper we have identified the problems and have suggested solutions using one haptic mouse, the VT Player. We found that our modified VT Player showed significant improvement both in terms of the odds of obtaining a correct responses and the time to perform ...


A Binary Method For Simple And Accurate Two-Dimensional Cursor Control From Eeg With Minimal Subject Training, Turan A. Kayagil, Ou Bai, Craig S. Henriquez, Peter Lin, Stephen J. Furlani, Sherry Vorbach, Mark Hallett Jan 2009

A Binary Method For Simple And Accurate Two-Dimensional Cursor Control From Eeg With Minimal Subject Training, Turan A. Kayagil, Ou Bai, Craig S. Henriquez, Peter Lin, Stephen J. Furlani, Sherry Vorbach, Mark Hallett

Biomedical Engineering Publications

Background

Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) use electroencephalography (EEG) to interpret user intention and control an output device accordingly. We describe a novel BCI method to use a signal from five EEG channels (comprising one primary channel with four additional channels used to calculate its Laplacian derivation) to provide two-dimensional (2-D) control of a cursor on a computer screen, with simple threshold-based binary classification of band power readings taken over pre-defined time windows during subject hand movement.

Methods

We tested the paradigm with four healthy subjects, none of whom had prior BCI experience. Each subject played a game wherein he or she ...


Organ Motion And Image Guidance In Radiation Therapy, Jining Zhou Jan 2009

Organ Motion And Image Guidance In Radiation Therapy, Jining Zhou

Theses and Dissertations

Organ motion and inaccurate patient positioning may compromise radiation therapy outcome. With the aid of image guidance, it is possible to allow for a more accurate organ motion and motion control study, which could lead to the reduction of irradiated healthy tissues and possible dose escalation to the target volume to achieve better treatment results. The studies on the organ motion and image guidance were divided into the following four sections. The first, the interfractional setup uncertainties from day-to-day treatment and intrafractional internal organ motion within the daily treatment from five different anatomic sites were studied with Helical TomoTherapy unit ...