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Articles 1 - 19 of 19

Full-Text Articles in Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering

Predicting Tgf-Β-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Using Data Assimilation, Mario J. Mendez, Matthew J. Hoffman, Elizabeth M. Cherry, Dr. Christopher Lemmon, Seth Weinberg May 2019

Predicting Tgf-Β-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Using Data Assimilation, Mario J. Mendez, Matthew J. Hoffman, Elizabeth M. Cherry, Dr. Christopher Lemmon, Seth Weinberg

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Designing Biomimetic Implant Surfaces To Promote Osseointegration Under Osteoporotic Conditions By Revitalizing Mechanisms Coupling Bone Resorption To Formation, Ethan M. Lotz Jan 2019

Designing Biomimetic Implant Surfaces To Promote Osseointegration Under Osteoporotic Conditions By Revitalizing Mechanisms Coupling Bone Resorption To Formation, Ethan M. Lotz

Theses and Dissertations

In cases of compromised bone remodeling like osteoporosis, insufficient osseointegration occurs and results in implant failure. Implant retention relies on proper secondary fixation, which is developed during bone remodeling. This process is disrupted in metastatic bone diseases like osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is characterized low bone mass and bone strength resulting from either accelerated osteoclast-mediated bone resorption or impaired osteoblast-mediated bone formation. These two processes are not independent phenomena. In fact, osteoporosis can be viewed as a breakdown of the cellular communication connecting bone resorption to bone formation. Because bone remodeling occurs at temporally generated specific anatomical sites and at different times ...


Eralpha Isoforms Modulate The Tumorigenicity Of 24r,25(Oh)2d3 In Estrogen-Responsive Cancer, Anjali Verma Jan 2019

Eralpha Isoforms Modulate The Tumorigenicity Of 24r,25(Oh)2d3 In Estrogen-Responsive Cancer, Anjali Verma

Theses and Dissertations

Over 200,000 cases of breast cancer are diagnosed every year. Nearly 20% of these patients supplement their diets with some form of vitamin D. This high frequency of vitamin D supplement use may be due in part to research suggesting that cancer patients with higher serum vitamin D3 levels have better prognoses than patients with low serum vitamin D3. However, double-blind clinical trials on the efficacy of vitamin D3 supplementation in breast cancer have been inconclusive. A recent meta-analysis showed evidence of reduced cancer recurrence in patients taking vitamin D3 supplements who had ‘estrogen receptor ...


Modeling Pharmaceutical Inhibition Of Glucose-Stimulated Renin-Angiotensin System In Kidneys, Ashlee N. Ford Versypt, Minu R. Pilvankar, Hui Ling Yong May 2018

Modeling Pharmaceutical Inhibition Of Glucose-Stimulated Renin-Angiotensin System In Kidneys, Ashlee N. Ford Versypt, Minu R. Pilvankar, Hui Ling Yong

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Nuclear Rupture In Progeria Expressing Cells, Kranthidhar Bathula Jan 2018

Nuclear Rupture In Progeria Expressing Cells, Kranthidhar Bathula

Theses and Dissertations

Cells regularly take on various types of force in the body. They have structures that are able to mediate, transfer and respond to the forces. A mutation in force regulating proteins such as lamin in the nucleus or the KASH domain which connects the nucleus to the cytoskeleton of the cell can cause catastrophic events to occur. The aims of this study were to better understand the response of the nucleus when structural proteins are mutated or are not present while under force. Progeria, a rare disease where an additional farnesyl group is attached to lamin was used in this ...


Using Crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid (Ha) And Collagen Scaffolds With Sustained Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (Bdnf) Release For Post-Sci Nerve Regeneration, Panth Doshi Jan 2018

Using Crosslinked Hyaluronic Acid (Ha) And Collagen Scaffolds With Sustained Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (Bdnf) Release For Post-Sci Nerve Regeneration, Panth Doshi

Undergraduate Research Posters

Traumatic events resulting in spinal cord injuries (SCIs) often leave people paralyzed or with partial loss of motor function. The physical disabilities arising from traumatic events prevent people from functioning at the same level as pre-injury. My work aims to identify a plausible method to overcome the inhibitory post-SCI environment and to regenerate nervous tissue in order to restore neural function and, subsequently, motor function. I identified components of a new, hypothetical nerve scaffold based on the immune response after SCIs and the efficacy of currently used scaffolds for nerve regeneration. Hyaluronic acid (HA) polymer scaffolds and collagen-based scaffolds are ...


Exogenous Fniii 12-14 Regulates Tgf-Β1-Induced Markers, Hilmi M. Humeid Jan 2018

Exogenous Fniii 12-14 Regulates Tgf-Β1-Induced Markers, Hilmi M. Humeid

Theses and Dissertations

The extracellular matrix protein Fibronectin (FN) plays an important role in cell contractility, differentiation, growth, adhesion, and migration. The 12th -14th Type III repeats of FN (FNIII 12-14), also referred to as the Heparin-II domain, comprise a highly promiscuous growth factor (GF) binding region. This binding domain aids in cellular signaling initiated from the ECM. Additionally, FN has the ability to assemble into fibrils under certain conditions, mostly observed during cell contractile processes such as those that initiate due to upregulation of Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-β1) [1], [2]. Previous work from our lab has shown that self-assembly of ...


Fibronectin Mechanics And Signaling In Tgf-Β1-Induced Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition, Lauren Griggs Jan 2018

Fibronectin Mechanics And Signaling In Tgf-Β1-Induced Epithelial To Mesenchymal Transition, Lauren Griggs

Theses and Dissertations

Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is a dynamic process by which a distinct change in the phenotype and function of epithelial cells render them as mesenchymal cells. Characteristics of mesenchymal cells include the ability to invade, increased migratory kinetics and heightened resistance to apoptosis. Therefore, there is a strong need to fully understand the mechanism for the induction of EMT in pathological conditions such as carcinoma progression. Recent advances highlight two pivotal contributors, soluble growth factor (gf) signals, and mechanical signals, in the process. However, to date, no clear mechanism exists linking the two in epithelial transdifferentiation. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 ...


Modulating The Innate Immune Response To Electrospun Scaffolds And Polymer Degradative Byproducts, Daniel Abebayehu Jan 2017

Modulating The Innate Immune Response To Electrospun Scaffolds And Polymer Degradative Byproducts, Daniel Abebayehu

Theses and Dissertations

Implanted biomaterials often induce inflammation that frequently leads to the foreign body response, fibrosis, and the failure of the implant. Thus, it is important to evaluate how cells interact with materials to promote a more regenerative response. It is critical to determine how to modulate the response of tissue resident innate immune cells, as they are among the first cells to interact with implanted materials. Among tissue resident innate immune cells are mast cells, which are inflammatory sentinels that degranulate and orchestrate the fate of other cell populations, such as monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes. Mast cells have also been reported ...


Development And Validation Of A Novel Resonant Energy Transfer (Fret) Biosensor To Measure Tensile Forces At The Linc Complex In Live Cells, Paul Arsenovic Jan 2017

Development And Validation Of A Novel Resonant Energy Transfer (Fret) Biosensor To Measure Tensile Forces At The Linc Complex In Live Cells, Paul Arsenovic

Theses and Dissertations

There is a large body of evidence supporting the theory that cell physiology largely depends on the mechanical properties of its surroundings or micro-environment. More recently studies have shown that changes to intra-cellular mechanical properties can also have a meaningful impact on cell function and in some cases lead to the progression of ailments or disease. For example, small changes to the protein sequence of a structural nuclear envelope protein called lamin-A is known to cause a variety of neurological and musculoskeletal diseases referred to as laminopathies. Currently, there is little incite into how these mutations lead to disease progression ...


Development Of An Electrospun And 3d Printed Cellular Delivery Device For Dermal Wound Healing, Ryan M. Clohessy Jan 2017

Development Of An Electrospun And 3d Printed Cellular Delivery Device For Dermal Wound Healing, Ryan M. Clohessy

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research was to develop a system of individualized medicine that could be applied to dermal wounds serving as a wound dressing and synthetic extracellular matrix while delivering stem cells to the wound bed. First, fabrication parameters for electrospinning polymer fibers were determined. This involved evaluating fiber morphology with respect to polymer selection and solution concentration. Next, construct fabrication was examined to produce an integrated void space, or cargo area, suitable to maintain stem cells. In vitro studies to ensure stem cell viability and phenotype were conducted, and results supported the notion that cells could be administered ...


Role Of E-Cadherin Force In The Spatial Regulation Of Cell Proliferation, Abhinav Mohan Jan 2016

Role Of E-Cadherin Force In The Spatial Regulation Of Cell Proliferation, Abhinav Mohan

Theses and Dissertations

Cell proliferation and contact inhibition play a major role in maintaining epithelial cell homeostasis. A hallmark of epithelial cells is strong cell-cell junctions. These junctions include E-Cadherin, a type of adherens junction that is critical for both barrier function and contact inhibition. Prior experiments by other groups have shown that adherens junctions are subject to mechanical tension. Externally applied forces (e.g. stretch) results in changes in E-Cadherin forces that coordinate proliferation. My current work tests the hypothesis that E-Cadherin forces mediate the spatial regulation of cell proliferation even in the absence of externally applied forces.


Characterization Of Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) Blends And Fabrication Of Soft Micropillar Arrays For Force Detection, Thomas J. Petet Jr Jan 2016

Characterization Of Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) Blends And Fabrication Of Soft Micropillar Arrays For Force Detection, Thomas J. Petet Jr

Theses and Dissertations

Diseases involving fibrosis cause tens of thousands of deaths per year in the US alone. These diseases are characterized by a large amount of extracellular matrix, causing stiff abnormal tissues that may not function correctly. To take steps towards curing these diseases, a fundamental understanding of how cells interact with their substrate and how mechanical forces alter signaling pathways is vital. Studying the mechanobiology of cells and the interaction between a cell and its extracellular matrix can help explain the mechanisms behind stem cell differentiation, cell migration, and metastasis. Due to the correlation between force, extracellular matrix assembly, and substrate ...


Novel Small Airway Model Using Electrospun Decellularized Lung Extracellular Matrix, Bethany M. Young Jan 2016

Novel Small Airway Model Using Electrospun Decellularized Lung Extracellular Matrix, Bethany M. Young

Theses and Dissertations

Chronic respiratory diseases affects many people worldwide with little known about the mechanisms diving the pathology, making it difficult to find a cure. Improving the understanding of smooth muscle and extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction is key to developing a remedy to this leading cause of death. With currently no relevant or controllable in vivo or in vitro model to investigate diseased and normal interactions of small airway components, the development of a physiologically relevant in vitro model with comparable cell attachment, signaling, and organization is necessary to develop new treatments for airway disease. The goal of this study is to ...


Primary Cilia Mechanotransduction And Microtubule Stability In Mechanically Stretched Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells, Monika Rassi Radhika Jan 2015

Primary Cilia Mechanotransduction And Microtubule Stability In Mechanically Stretched Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells, Monika Rassi Radhika

Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study is to investigate the role of microtubule based organelle, the primary cilia in lung adenocarcinoma by i) Quantifying the presence of primary cilia in several Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) cell lines in response to mechanical stimuli, ii) Attempting to determine the role of primary cilia in cell migration, iii) Investigating the effects of Paclitaxel(Taxol) resistance in lung cancer cells, iv) Analyzing the response of lung cancer cells to Smoothened Inhibitors and v) Determining the effects of Transforming Growth Factor Beta-1(TGF-β1) induced Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition(EMT) in lung cancer cells. To ...


Ex Vivo Dna Cloning, Adam B. Fisher Jan 2015

Ex Vivo Dna Cloning, Adam B. Fisher

Theses and Dissertations

Genetic engineering of microbes has developed rapidly along with our ability to synthesize DNA de novo. Yet, even with decreasing DNA synthesis costs there remains a need for inexpensive, rapid and reliable methods for assembling synthetic DNA into larger constructs or combinatorial libraries. While technological advances have resulted in powerful techniques for in vitro and in vivo assembly of DNA, each suffers inherent disadvantages. Here, an ex vivo DNA cloning suite using crude cellular lysates derived from E. coli is demonstrated to amplify and assemble DNA containing small sequence homologies. Further, the advantages of an ex vivo approach are leveraged ...


Fluorescent Biosensors To Measure Endothelial Cell Responses To Fluid Shear Stress, Natalie Noll Jan 2015

Fluorescent Biosensors To Measure Endothelial Cell Responses To Fluid Shear Stress, Natalie Noll

Undergraduate Research Posters

The response of endothelial cells, innermost layer of blood vessels, to blood flow is thought to be critical in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis in the human body is non-random and is highly correlated to vessel sites which experience oscillatory and reversing blood flow. Endothelial cells (ECs), the inner most cell layer of blood vessels are highly responsive to the drag force from blood flow, known as shear stress. To study endothelial cell responses to shear stress we used a parallel plate flow chamber in which we exposed endothelial cells to defined fluid shear stress. Using fluorescence resonance ...


Analysis And Modeling Of The Roles Of Actin-Myosin Interactions In Bladder Smooth Muscle Biomechanics, Seyed Omid Komariza Jan 2014

Analysis And Modeling Of The Roles Of Actin-Myosin Interactions In Bladder Smooth Muscle Biomechanics, Seyed Omid Komariza

Theses and Dissertations

Muscle mechanical behavior potentially plays an important role in some of the most common bladder disorders. These include overactive bladder, which can involve involuntary contractions during bladder filling, and impaired contractility or underactive bladder, which may involve weak or incomplete contractions during voiding. Actin-myosin cross-bridges in detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) are responsible for contracting and emptying the bladder. The total tension produced by muscle is the sum of its preload and active tensions. Studies suggest that actin-myosin cross-links are involved in adjustable preload stiffness (APS), which is characterized by a preload tension curve that can be shifted along the length ...


Tissue Engineering Scaffold Fabrication And Processing Techniques To Improve Cellular Infiltration, Casey Grey Jan 2014

Tissue Engineering Scaffold Fabrication And Processing Techniques To Improve Cellular Infiltration, Casey Grey

Theses and Dissertations

Electrospinning is a technique used to generate scaffolds composed of nano- to micron-sized fibers for use in tissue engineering. This technology possesses several key weaknesses that prevent it from adoption into the clinical treatment regime. One major weakness is the lack of porosity exhibited in most electrospun scaffolds, preventing cellular infiltration and thus hosts tissue integration. Another weakness seen in the field is the inability to physically cut electrospun scaffolds in the frontal plane for subsequent microscopic analysis (current electrospun scaffold analysis is limited to sectioning in the cross-sectional plane). Given this it becomes extremely difficult to associate spatial scaffold ...