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Polymer-Based Thermoelectric Devices, Stuart W. Hilsmier, Edward P. Tomlinson, Bryan Boudouris 2014 Purdue University

Polymer-Based Thermoelectric Devices, Stuart W. Hilsmier, Edward P. Tomlinson, Bryan Boudouris

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Currently, over 50% of all energy generated in the US is lost as waste heat, and thermoelectric generators offer a promising means to recoup some of this energy, if their efficiency is improved. While organic thermoelectric materials lack the efficiency of their inorganic counterparts, they are composed of highly abundant resources and have low temperature processing conditions. Recently, a new class of redox-active polymers, radical polymers, has exhibited high electrical conductivity in an entirely amorphous medium. In addition, these radical polymers have a simple synthetic scheme and can be highly tunable to provide desired electrical properties. In this study, the ...


Developing Compact Models For Passive Devices On Ibm 45nm Cmos Soi Technology, Yufei Feng, Yanfei Shen, Saeed Mohammadi 2014 Purdue University

Developing Compact Models For Passive Devices On Ibm 45nm Cmos Soi Technology, Yufei Feng, Yanfei Shen, Saeed Mohammadi

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The standard IBM 45 nm technology is widely adopted for industrial and academic purpose by integrates circuit designers. Original models provided by foundry are not accurate, which might cause inaccuracy in circuit simulations. Equivalent circuit models, using RLC elements to simulate electrical component, will effectively deliver their electrical performance. This study consists of four steps to construct these models. First, Cadence Virtuoso, the commercial circuit design software was used to run simulations and extract data for different device parameters. Second, analyzing tools, like Microsoft Excel or Matlab, are used to analyze the extracted data. Then, equations are written for each ...


Implications Of Rough Dielectric Surfaces On Charging-Adjusted Actuation Of Rf-Mems, Sambit Palit, Xin Xu, Arvind Raman, Muhammad Ashraful Alam 2014 Purdue University

Implications Of Rough Dielectric Surfaces On Charging-Adjusted Actuation Of Rf-Mems, Sambit Palit, Xin Xu, Arvind Raman, Muhammad Ashraful Alam

Birck and NCN Publications

Actuation voltage shifts due to dielectric charging is a leading reliability concern in Radio-Frequency Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (RF-MEMS) capacitive switches. The inability to correlate dielectric surface roughness to charge accumulation makes predictive design difficult. We apply a sophisticated dielectric charging model on representative surfaces based on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) data, and show that there are significant, but predictable actuation voltage shifts due to surface roughness. The results suggest that surface roughness should be considered for accurate lifetime predictions, and simple metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors may serve as a useful test structure for this phenomenon.


Health Risks Caused By Wireless Technologies, DurreeShahwar ZafarAhmed, Qurrat-ul-Ain ZafarAhmed 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Health Risks Caused By Wireless Technologies, Durreeshahwar Zafarahmed, Qurrat-Ul-Ain Zafarahmed

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

There are many health issues related to the use of cellular phones, wireless local area networks, and other devices that emit electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some of these systems have become a part of our daily lives and many of us are in direct or indirect contact for extended period of times with these devices. However, the general public is unaware of the health risks associated with the use of these devices. Our research covers studies done by individuals as well as organizations on the harmful effects on the health of people from these devices and their claims. We also present ...


Wave-Shaped Mask Of Fabricating Nano-Scaled Structure, Fang-Tzu Chuang 2014 SelectedWorks

Wave-Shaped Mask Of Fabricating Nano-Scaled Structure, Fang-Tzu Chuang

Fang-Tzu Chuang

A wave-shaped mask for fabricating a nano-scale structure is disclosed. The wave-shaped mask comprises an elastomeric transparent substrate having an upper surface and a lower surface, and a light-penetrable thin film layer disposed on the upper surface of the elastomeric transparent substrate. The upper surface of the elastomeric transparent substrate and the light-penetrable thin film layer are in a periodic wave shape, and the lower surface of the elastomeric transparent substrate is in a plate shape.


Characterization And Testing Of A 5.8 Kv Sic Pin Diode For Electric Space Propulsion Applications, Alexandra Toftul 2014 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Characterization And Testing Of A 5.8 Kv Sic Pin Diode For Electric Space Propulsion Applications, Alexandra Toftul

Electrical Engineering Theses and Dissertations

Inductive Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (IPPTs) are a type of in-space propulsion that has multiple advantages over conventional chemical propulsion for long-duration, deep space missions. Existing IPPT prototypes utilize spark gap switches, however these are subject to corrosion problems that make them unreliable for long-term use. Recent advances in solid state switching technology have opened up a variety of switching options that could provide greater reliability, controllability, and increased energy efficiency. Taking advantage of this, a novel thruster drive circuit topology containing a high-power silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) and series fast recovery diode (FRD) is proposed that is expected to increase ...


Low Loss Configuration For Integrated Pin-Schottky Limiters, Chin-Leong Lim 2014 SelectedWorks

Low Loss Configuration For Integrated Pin-Schottky Limiters, Chin-Leong Lim

Chin-Leong Lim

Compared to the PIN diode limiter, the Schottky-PIN limiter improves receiver protection, but has a higher insertion loss. Low cost, plastic packaged diodes can further worsen the loss. Diode stacking, mesa diode construction, and isolating the Schottky diode with a high-impedance quarter wave line or a directional coupler can reduce loss, but detrimentally raises the limiting threshold and/or adds bulk or cost. The PIN-Schottky limiter’s insertion loss can be improved by integrating the diodes’ parasitic capacitances into a low pass ladder network, but this solution requires the PIN diode to have two anode connections. Recently, the PIN-Schottky limiter ...


In-Line Microfluidic Particle Preconcentrator And Detector For Continuous Flow Monitoring, Quan Yuan 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

In-Line Microfluidic Particle Preconcentrator And Detector For Continuous Flow Monitoring, Quan Yuan

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation presents the design and prototyping of three in-line microfluidic devices for continuous monitoring of particulate flows. The three devices are AC electrokinetic (ACEK) and acoustic sample preconcentration techniques for resettable particle enrichment, and an in-line somatic cell counter for mastitis monitoring.

For the ACEK preconcentrator, ACEK is a new and promising technique to manipulate micro/bio-fluid and particles. There are many advantages over other techniques, such as low applied voltage, low cost, portability and notable biocompatibility of lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device. We successfully developed a 3D multi-level electrode platform to extract bioparticles via AC electroosmosis (ACEO) and negative Dielectrophoresis ...


Method Of Fabricating Wave-Shaped Mask For Photolithography And Exposure Method Of Fabricating Nano-Scaled Structure Using The Wave-Shaped Mask, Fang-Tzu Chuang 2014 SelectedWorks

Method Of Fabricating Wave-Shaped Mask For Photolithography And Exposure Method Of Fabricating Nano-Scaled Structure Using The Wave-Shaped Mask, Fang-Tzu Chuang

Fang-Tzu Chuang

A method of fabricating wave-shaped mask is disclosed. The method of fabricating wave-shaped mask comprises the steps of providing an elastomeric transparent substrate comprising an upper surface and a lower surface, applying a stable force to the elastomeric transparent substrate for deforming the elastomeric transparent substrate, forming a light-penetrable thin film layer on the upper surface of the elastomeric transparent substrate, and removing the force applying to the elastomeric transparent substrate, whereby the upper surface of the elastomeric transparent substrate and the light-penetrable thin film layer are in a periodic wave shape and the lower surface of the elastomeric transparent ...


Electrical Breakdown In Polymers For Beol Applications: Dielectric Heating And Humidity Effects, Sambit Palit, Muhammad Ashraful Alam 2014 Purdue University

Electrical Breakdown In Polymers For Beol Applications: Dielectric Heating And Humidity Effects, Sambit Palit, Muhammad Ashraful Alam

Birck and NCN Publications

Polymer dielectrics may be used as low-k BEOL dielectrics, however, premature electrical breakdown due to high electric fields, high frequencies and ambient humidity conditions have restricted its widespread adoption. In this study, we show that dielectric heating is the primary AC degradation mechanism in polymer dielectrics, and develop an analytical model that is consistent with measured trends in stress tests under both AC and DC electric fields. We also study the effect of exposure to ambient relative humidity on the lifetime of polymer dielectrics.


Rapid Battery Exchange Safety And Sensing, Ben John Froelich, Isaac Sungjin Kim 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Rapid Battery Exchange Safety And Sensing, Ben John Froelich, Isaac Sungjin Kim

Electrical Engineering

The Rapid Battery Exchange system (RBX) swaps batteries in an electric van, allowing almost continuous operation of the vehicle. The RBX system is designed and built by The Cal Poly Electric Vehicle Engineering Club (EVEC). The system includes the exchange ramp, two battery packs, and the electric “G-Van.” While the vehicle drives using one of the battery packs, the other pack charges in the exchange ramp. When the van’s battery depletes, it drives onto the ramp and swaps the dead battery for the charged one, and the process repeats.

The RBX battery pack safety and sensing project divides into ...


Low Voltage Cmos Sar Adc Design, Ryan Hunt 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Low Voltage Cmos Sar Adc Design, Ryan Hunt

Electrical Engineering

This project centers on the design of a single ended 10-bit successive approximation register analog to digital converter (SAR ADC for short) that easily interfaces to a micro-controller, such as an Arduino. With micro-controller interfacing in mind, the universal data transfer technique of SPI proved an easy way to communicate between the ADC and the micro-controller. The ADC has a range of 1V (highest code value) to 0V (lowest code value) and operates from a single voltage rail value of 1.8V. Typical SPI clock speeds run on the order of 2MHz and with a 10-bit ADC this means a ...


Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Semiconducting Boron Carbide Thin Films On Silicon, Thomas Gregory Wulz 2014 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition Of Semiconducting Boron Carbide Thin Films On Silicon, Thomas Gregory Wulz

Masters Theses

Boron carbide thin films were grown on the (100) plane of n-type silicon in a low pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system from the thermal decomposition of boron trichloride and methane reactant gases with hydrogen as a carrier gas. Boron trichloride to methane molar ratio was 5, while the boron trichloride to hydrogen molar ratio was 3.5. Thin film deposition was carried out at 900 degrees Celsius at 25 Torr. The thin films were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), and current-voltage characteristics. The crystallography ...


Designing High Thermal Conductive Materials Using Artificial Evolution, Michael Davies 2014 Iowa State University

Designing High Thermal Conductive Materials Using Artificial Evolution, Michael Davies

Symposium on Undergraduate Research and Creative Expression

There is a growing need for efficient and effective methods of heat dissipation. One driving force for this need is computer processors. As the processor grows faster and more powerful, it requires more electricity to perform tasks which results in high amounts of heat generated. Designing materials with high thermal-conductivity can enable heat dissipation to allow faster and more powerful computers. Creating such materials is often a trial-and-error process by which several material composites are tested for desirable thermal conductivity. In this research, we employed the use of a genetic algorithm, which mimics the process of evolution through natural selection ...


Investigation Of Degradation Effects Due To Gate Stress In Gan-On-Si High Electron Mobility Transistors Through Analysis Of Low Frequency Noise, Michael Curtis Meyer Masuda 2014 California Polytechnic State University

Investigation Of Degradation Effects Due To Gate Stress In Gan-On-Si High Electron Mobility Transistors Through Analysis Of Low Frequency Noise, Michael Curtis Meyer Masuda

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Gallium Nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) have superior performance characteristics compared to Silicon (Si) and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs) based transistors. GaN is a wide bandgap semiconductor which allows it to operate at higher breakdown voltages and power. Unlike traditional semiconductor devices, the GaN HEMT channel region is undoped and relies on the piezoelectric effect created at the GaN and Aluminum Gallium Nitride (AlGaN) heterojunction to create a conduction channel in the form of a quantum well known as the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Because the GaN HEMTs are undoped, these devices have higher electron mobility crucial for ...


An Experimental Investigation Of Hot Switching Contact Damage In Rf Mems Switches, Anirban Basu 2014 Northeastern University

An Experimental Investigation Of Hot Switching Contact Damage In Rf Mems Switches, Anirban Basu

Electrical Engineering Dissertations

RF MEMS switches have been shown to have better performance than their solid state counterparts on account of their low insertion loss and high isolation. Despite their superiority, these switches suffer from several reliability issues which limit their lifetime when compared with p-i-n diodes and GaAs FET switches. One of the major reliability issues is the reduction in lifetime of these switches when switched under hot switching conditions i.e. when a DC voltage or RF signal is applied across the contact while it is switching from an off to on position or vice versa. In this work, contact damage ...


A Multi-Physics Computational Approach To Simulating Thz Photoconductive Antennas With Comparison To Measured Data And Fabrication Of Samples, Darren Ray Boyd 2014 University of Kentucky

A Multi-Physics Computational Approach To Simulating Thz Photoconductive Antennas With Comparison To Measured Data And Fabrication Of Samples, Darren Ray Boyd

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

The frequency demands of radiating systems are moving into the terahertz band with potential applications that include sensing, imaging, and extremely broadband communication. One commonly used method for generating and detecting terahertz waves is to excite a voltage-biased photoconductive antenna with an extremely short laser pulse. The pulsed laser generates charge carriers in a photoconductive substrate which are swept onto the metallic antenna traces to produce an electric current that radiates or detects a terahertz band signal. Therefore, analysis of a photoconductive antenna requires simultaneous solutions of both semiconductor physics equations (including drift-diffusion and continuity relations) and Maxwell’s equations ...


Switched-Capacitor Voltage Doubler Design Using 0.5 Μm Technology, Hanfeng Wang 2014 Rochester Institute of Technology

Switched-Capacitor Voltage Doubler Design Using 0.5 Μm Technology, Hanfeng Wang

Theses

While integrated circuit (IC) power management has been an eternal topic for chip designers, inductor based DC-DC converters have been dominant in the field for years. However, because of the natures of inductors: large electro-magnetic interference, high coupling noise, and difficult silicon fabrication process, they are not favorable to on-chip solutions. Switched-capacitor (SC) DC-DC converters, which adopt capacitors for their energy storage components, have become increasingly popular among both the academia and the industry, because, apparently, they avoid the drawbacks of the inductor counterparts, and can be directly implemented on-chip without additional fabrication process.

In this paper, we will investigate ...


Physical Design Of A Smart Camera With Integrated Digital Pixel Sensors Using A 0.13Μm 8-Layer Metal Cmos Process, Mahir K. Gharzai 2013 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Physical Design Of A Smart Camera With Integrated Digital Pixel Sensors Using A 0.13Μm 8-Layer Metal Cmos Process, Mahir K. Gharzai

Electrical Engineering Theses and Dissertations

The design of cameras has historically kept imagery and computational circuitry isolated in an attempt to maximize image quality by improving pixel pitch and routing density. Although this technique has worked in creating high density arrays of pixels for large resolution imagers, it has never been able to achieve high framerate computational operations.

A radical approach is introduced to solve this dilemma by creating compact, low- power pixel elements with built-in analog-to-digital converters that directly interface with digital logic. These pixels are capable of integrating alongside logic cells and to create an array of pixels inside the processor that can ...


Max Operation In Statistical Static Timing Analysis On The Non-~Gaussian Variation Sources For Vlsi Circuits, Abu M. Baker 2013 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Max Operation In Statistical Static Timing Analysis On The Non-~Gaussian Variation Sources For Vlsi Circuits, Abu M. Baker

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

As CMOS technology continues to scale down, process variation introduces significant uncertainty in power and performance to VLSI circuits and significantly affects their reliability. If this uncertainty is not properly handled, it may become the bottleneck of CMOS technology improvement. As a result, deterministic analysis is no longer conservative and may result in either overestimation or underestimation of the circuit delay. As we know that Static-Timing Analysis (STA) is a deterministic way of computing the delay imposed by the circuits design and layout. It is based on a predetermined set of possible events of process variations, also called corners of ...


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