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Electronic Desalting For Controlling The Ionic Environment In Droplet-Based Biosensing Platforms, Vikhram Vilasur Swaminathan, Piyush Dak, Bobby Reddy Jr, Eric Salm, Carlos Duarte-Guevara, Yu Zhong, Andrew Fischer, Yi-Shao Liu, Rashid Bashir 2015 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Electronic Desalting For Controlling The Ionic Environment In Droplet-Based Biosensing Platforms, Vikhram Vilasur Swaminathan, Piyush Dak, Bobby Reddy Jr, Eric Salm, Carlos Duarte-Guevara, Yu Zhong, Andrew Fischer, Yi-Shao Liu, Rashid Bashir

Birck and NCN Publications

The ability to control the ionic environment in saline waters and aqueous electrolytes is useful for desalination as well as electronic biosensing. We demonstrate a method of electronic desalting at micro-scale through on-chip micro electrodes. We show that, while desalting is limited in bulk solutions with unlimited availability of salts, significant desalting of ≥1 mM solutions can be achieved in sub-nanoliter volume droplets with diameters of ∼250 μm. Within these droplets, by using platinum-black microelectrodes and electrochemical surface treatments, we can enhance the electrode surface area to achieve >99% and 41% salt removal in 1 mM and 10 mM salt ...


Variable Attenuator Blends Dynamic Range, Linearity, Chin-Leong Lim 2015 Avago Technologies, Malaysia

Variable Attenuator Blends Dynamic Range, Linearity, Chin-Leong Lim

Chin-Leong Lim

A voltage variable attenuators (VVA) with compact dimensions and high linearity can be realized by connecting PIN diodes in the form of a π network. However this VVA's maximum frequency is limited to ~1 GHz because of signal leakage through the series diodes' parasitic capacitances. The ceiling frequency can significantly raised by resonating the parasitic capacitance with a parallel inductor. This technique has been previously demonstrated on a discrete design. To reduce component count and size, this work extends the technique to a standalone, highly-integrated module. This paper reports the performances achieved at 3.5 GHz.

The prototype's ...


Limiters Protect Adcs Without Adding Harmonics, Chin-Leong Lim 2015 Avago Technologies, Malaysia

Limiters Protect Adcs Without Adding Harmonics, Chin-Leong Lim

Chin-Leong Lim

High-speed Analogue to Digital Converters (ADC) are used for sampling at either the intermediate frequency (IF) or the radio frequency of wireless receivers. When the transmitter is nearby, the sampled signal can exceed the ADC’s maximum input level. So, amplitude limiting is necessary to prevent ADC damage or degradation. While automatic gain control is effective for controlling IF amplitude excursion in traditional single-carrier systems, it is not desirable in modern multi-carrier applications. One solution is to cap the IF amplitude excursion with a limiter. Unfortunately, a new problem is created – the strong non-linearity that is required of a good ...


Lna Integrates Fast Shutdown Function, Chin-Leong Lim 2014 Avago Technologies, Malaysia

Lna Integrates Fast Shutdown Function, Chin-Leong Lim

Chin-Leong Lim

To minimize dead time in time domain duplex (TDD) transceiver, reception should ideally commence as soon as transmission ends. However, the low noise amplifier (LNA), which is typically shutdown during transmission to prevent device damage and receiver overload, can exhibit a turn-on delay. In older implementations, the shutdown function is external to the LNA device. So, one way to reduce part count and to miniaturize this class of LNA is to integrate the LNA and shutdown function in a microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC). The integration also allows the shutdown circuit to be connected to the LNA at an optimum ...


Buck Converter, Bowen Liu 2014 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Buck Converter, Bowen Liu

Electrical Engineering

The recent sustainable energy growth triggered a huge power electronics demand, specifically related to power conversion. My senior project is a design of a buck converter which steps down the voltage from photovoltaic cells ranging from 5 to 40V to a rechargeable battery with 5V. This converter has a high enough power efficiency to effectively convert the energy harnessed from PV panels.


Energy Harvesting From Exercise Machines: Lt8705 Dc-Dc Conversion For Elliptical Trainers, Braden Burk, Raj Bhula, Nathan McKay 2014 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Energy Harvesting From Exercise Machines: Lt8705 Dc-Dc Conversion For Elliptical Trainers, Braden Burk, Raj Bhula, Nathan Mckay

Electrical Engineering

Cal Poly’s Energy Harvesting from Exercise Machines (EHFEM) program aims to power the grid using human energy harvested from exercise machines in its gym. Doing so could save the school money and increase the total supply of power available on the grid. This document belongs to one of many groups attempting to design a suitable DC-DC conversion system for an elliptical trainer using an LT8705 Four-Switch Buck-Boost converter. Past teams have built other converters and developed system compatibility characteristics such as filtering, safety, and stability for interfacing components. These teams fall into one of two departments in EHFEM: DC-DC ...


A Low-Power Approach For Front End Biological Signal Conditioning, Logan Smith Taylor 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

A Low-Power Approach For Front End Biological Signal Conditioning, Logan Smith Taylor

Masters Theses

In a lab-on-a-chip (LOC) application, the measurement of small analog signals such as local temperature variation often involves detection of very low-level signals in a noisy micro-scale environment. This is true for other biomedical monitoring systems as well. These systems observe various physiological parameters or electrochemical reactions that need to be tracked electrically. For temperature measurement pyroelectric transducers represent an efficient solution in terms of speed, sensitivity, and scale of integration, especially when prompt and accurate temperature monitoring is desired.

The ability to perform laboratory operations on a small scale using miniaturized LOC devices is a promising biosensing technique. The ...


Development And Modeling Of A Biosensor Platform Using Algan/Gan Hemt Devices, Fahmida Shaheen Tulip 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Development And Modeling Of A Biosensor Platform Using Algan/Gan Hemt Devices, Fahmida Shaheen Tulip

Doctoral Dissertations

The history of biosensors began in 1962 with the invention of enzyme electrodes by Leland C. Clark. Since then, biosensors have come a long way with simultaneous contributions in various fields such as biology, chemistry, material science, electronics, physics and VLSI. With the advancement in science and technology, smaller, more sensitive and dependable biosensors have become a reality. Still the need for cost-effective, sophisticated, reliable, robust biosensors that can be used to detect multiple types of biomolecules remains a technological challenge to be resolved.

The proposed AlGaN/GaN High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs) have excellent prospect to become the biosensor ...


A Fast-Converging Mppt Technique For Photovoltaic System Under Fast Varying Solar Irradiation And Load Resistance, Saad Mekhilef 2014 Department Of Electrical Engineering

A Fast-Converging Mppt Technique For Photovoltaic System Under Fast Varying Solar Irradiation And Load Resistance, Saad Mekhilef

Saad Mekhilef

Under fast varying solar irradiation and load resistance, a fast-converging maximum power point tracking system is required to ensure the photovoltaic system response rapidly with minimum power losses. Traditionally, maximum power point locus was used to provide such a fast response. However, the algorithm requires extra control loop or intermittent disconnection of the PV module. Hence, this paper proposes a simpler fast-converging maximum power point tracking technique, which excludes the extra control loop and intermittent disconnection. In the proposed algorithm, the relationship between the load line and the I–V curve is used with trigonometry rule to obtain the fast ...


Implications Of Rough Dielectric Surfaces On Charging-Adjusted Actuation Of Rf-Mems, Sambit Palit, Xin Xu, Arvind Raman, Muhammad Ashraful Alam 2014 Purdue University

Implications Of Rough Dielectric Surfaces On Charging-Adjusted Actuation Of Rf-Mems, Sambit Palit, Xin Xu, Arvind Raman, Muhammad Ashraful Alam

Birck and NCN Publications

Actuation voltage shifts due to dielectric charging is a leading reliability concern in Radio-Frequency Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (RF-MEMS) capacitive switches. The inability to correlate dielectric surface roughness to charge accumulation makes predictive design difficult. We apply a sophisticated dielectric charging model on representative surfaces based on Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) data, and show that there are significant, but predictable actuation voltage shifts due to surface roughness. The results suggest that surface roughness should be considered for accurate lifetime predictions, and simple metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitors may serve as a useful test structure for this phenomenon.


Hybrid Silicon Mode-Locked Laser With Improved Rf Power By Impedance Matching, Bassem M. Tossoun 2014 California Polytechnic State University - San Luis Obispo

Hybrid Silicon Mode-Locked Laser With Improved Rf Power By Impedance Matching, Bassem M. Tossoun

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The mode-locked laser diode (MLLD) finds a lot of use in applications such as ultra high-speed data processing and sampling, large-capacity optical fiber communications based on optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) systems. Integrating mode-locked lasers on silicon makes way for highly integrated silicon based photonic communication devices. The mode-locked laser being used in this thesis was built with Hybrid Silicon technology. This technology, developed by UC Santa Barbara in 2006, introduced the idea of wafer bonding a crystalline III- V layer to a Silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate, making integrated lasers in silicon chips possible.

Furthermore, all mode-locked lasers produce phase noise, which ...


In Situ Tem Study On The Microstructural Evolution During Electric Fatigue In 0.7pb(Mg1/3nb2/3)O3–0.3pbtio3 Ceramic, Hanzheng Guo, Xiaoli Tan, Shujun Zhang 2014 Iowa State University

In Situ Tem Study On The Microstructural Evolution During Electric Fatigue In 0.7pb(Mg1/3nb2/3)O3–0.3pbtio3 Ceramic, Hanzheng Guo, Xiaoli Tan, Shujun Zhang

Materials Science and Engineering Publications and Papers

In this work, we report an experimental technique with nanometer resolution to reveal the microstructural mechanism for electric fatigue in ferroelectrics. The electric field in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to directly visualize the domain evolution during the fatigue process in a 0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3–0.3PbTiO3 ceramic. The structure–property relationship was well demonstrated by combining the microscopic observations with corresponding dielectric, piezoelectric, and ferroelectric properties measured on bulk specimens. It was found that the domain switching capability was substantially suppressed after 103 cycles of bipolar fields, leading to an immobilized domain configuration thereafter ...


Health Risks Caused By Wireless Technologies, DurreeShahwar ZafarAhmed, Qurrat-ul-Ain ZafarAhmed 2014 Minnesota State University, Mankato

Health Risks Caused By Wireless Technologies, Durreeshahwar Zafarahmed, Qurrat-Ul-Ain Zafarahmed

Journal of Undergraduate Research at Minnesota State University, Mankato

There are many health issues related to the use of cellular phones, wireless local area networks, and other devices that emit electromagnetic radiation (EMR). Some of these systems have become a part of our daily lives and many of us are in direct or indirect contact for extended period of times with these devices. However, the general public is unaware of the health risks associated with the use of these devices. Our research covers studies done by individuals as well as organizations on the harmful effects on the health of people from these devices and their claims. We also present ...


Polymer-Based Thermoelectric Devices, Stuart W. Hilsmier, Edward P. Tomlinson, Bryan Boudouris 2014 Purdue University

Polymer-Based Thermoelectric Devices, Stuart W. Hilsmier, Edward P. Tomlinson, Bryan Boudouris

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Currently, over 50% of all energy generated in the US is lost as waste heat, and thermoelectric generators offer a promising means to recoup some of this energy, if their efficiency is improved. While organic thermoelectric materials lack the efficiency of their inorganic counterparts, they are composed of highly abundant resources and have low temperature processing conditions. Recently, a new class of redox-active polymers, radical polymers, has exhibited high electrical conductivity in an entirely amorphous medium. In addition, these radical polymers have a simple synthetic scheme and can be highly tunable to provide desired electrical properties. In this study, the ...


Developing Compact Models For Passive Devices On Ibm 45nm Cmos Soi Technology, Yufei Feng, Yanfei Shen, Saeed Mohammadi 2014 Purdue University

Developing Compact Models For Passive Devices On Ibm 45nm Cmos Soi Technology, Yufei Feng, Yanfei Shen, Saeed Mohammadi

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The standard IBM 45 nm technology is widely adopted for industrial and academic purpose by integrates circuit designers. Original models provided by foundry are not accurate, which might cause inaccuracy in circuit simulations. Equivalent circuit models, using RLC elements to simulate electrical component, will effectively deliver their electrical performance. This study consists of four steps to construct these models. First, Cadence Virtuoso, the commercial circuit design software was used to run simulations and extract data for different device parameters. Second, analyzing tools, like Microsoft Excel or Matlab, are used to analyze the extracted data. Then, equations are written for each ...


Wave-Shaped Mask Of Fabricating Nano-Scaled Structure, Fang-Tzu Chuang 2014 National Taiwan University

Wave-Shaped Mask Of Fabricating Nano-Scaled Structure, Fang-Tzu Chuang

Fang-Tzu Chuang

A wave-shaped mask for fabricating a nano-scale structure is disclosed. The wave-shaped mask comprises an elastomeric transparent substrate having an upper surface and a lower surface, and a light-penetrable thin film layer disposed on the upper surface of the elastomeric transparent substrate. The upper surface of the elastomeric transparent substrate and the light-penetrable thin film layer are in a periodic wave shape, and the lower surface of the elastomeric transparent substrate is in a plate shape.


Low Loss Configuration For Integrated Pin-Schottky Limiters, Chin-Leong Lim 2014 Avago Technologies, Malaysia

Low Loss Configuration For Integrated Pin-Schottky Limiters, Chin-Leong Lim

Chin-Leong Lim

Compared to the PIN diode limiter, the Schottky-PIN limiter improves receiver protection, but has a higher insertion loss. Low cost, plastic packaged diodes can further worsen the loss. Diode stacking, mesa diode construction, and isolating the Schottky diode with a high-impedance quarter wave line or a directional coupler can reduce loss, but detrimentally raises the limiting threshold and/or adds bulk or cost. The PIN-Schottky limiter’s insertion loss can be improved by integrating the diodes’ parasitic capacitances into a low pass ladder network, but this solution requires the PIN diode to have two anode connections. Recently, the PIN-Schottky limiter ...


In-Line Microfluidic Particle Preconcentrator And Detector For Continuous Flow Monitoring, Quan Yuan 2014 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

In-Line Microfluidic Particle Preconcentrator And Detector For Continuous Flow Monitoring, Quan Yuan

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation presents the design and prototyping of three in-line microfluidic devices for continuous monitoring of particulate flows. The three devices are AC electrokinetic (ACEK) and acoustic sample preconcentration techniques for resettable particle enrichment, and an in-line somatic cell counter for mastitis monitoring.

For the ACEK preconcentrator, ACEK is a new and promising technique to manipulate micro/bio-fluid and particles. There are many advantages over other techniques, such as low applied voltage, low cost, portability and notable biocompatibility of lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device. We successfully developed a 3D multi-level electrode platform to extract bioparticles via AC electroosmosis (ACEO) and negative Dielectrophoresis ...


Characterization And Testing Of A 5.8 Kv Sic Pin Diode For Electric Space Propulsion Applications, Alexandra Toftul 2014 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Characterization And Testing Of A 5.8 Kv Sic Pin Diode For Electric Space Propulsion Applications, Alexandra Toftul

Electrical Engineering Theses and Dissertations

Inductive Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (IPPTs) are a type of in-space propulsion that has multiple advantages over conventional chemical propulsion for long-duration, deep space missions. Existing IPPT prototypes utilize spark gap switches, however these are subject to corrosion problems that make them unreliable for long-term use. Recent advances in solid state switching technology have opened up a variety of switching options that could provide greater reliability, controllability, and increased energy efficiency. Taking advantage of this, a novel thruster drive circuit topology containing a high-power silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) and series fast recovery diode (FRD) is proposed that is expected to increase ...


Novel Configuration For Multilevel Dc-Link Three-Phase Five-Level Inverter, Saad Mekhilef 2014 Department Of Electrical Engineering

Novel Configuration For Multilevel Dc-Link Three-Phase Five-Level Inverter, Saad Mekhilef

Saad Mekhilef

new multilevel DC-link three-phase five-level voltage source inverter topology is introduced here. A multilevel DClink formed from single DC voltage supply and two cascaded half-bridge (CHB) power cells is connected to 12-switch threephase bridge in such a way that the proposed inverter produces five levels in the output voltage waveform. Compared to comparable inverters, such as symmetrical CHB and hybrid multilevel inverters, the proposed topology maximises the number of voltage levels and reduces the number of utilised DC voltage supplies, switches, gate driver circuits and installation area. A modified fundamental frequency modulation technique based on determination of switching states of ...


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