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An Investigation Into The Role Of Energy And Symmetry At Epitaxial Interfaces, Gabriel A. Devenyi 2014 McMaster University

An Investigation Into The Role Of Energy And Symmetry At Epitaxial Interfaces, Gabriel A. Devenyi

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Epitaxy is a key technological process for the production of thin films and nanostructures for electronic and optoelectronic devices. The epitaxial process has been traditionally studied through the lens of lattice-matched and chemically similar material systems, specifically the III-V quaternary material systems. This work investigates the role energy and symmetry play at epitaxial interfaces for cases far different than those of typical epitaxy. In the realm of energy, the impact of chemically dissimilar epitaxial interfaces was investigated, specifically between semiconductors and oxides, noble metals and oxides, and polar-on-nonpolar epitaxy. For symmetry at epitaxial interfaces, the role of symmetry breaking, through ...


Surface Analysis Of Materials For Direct Wafer Bonding, Arif Ul Alam 2014 McMaster University

Surface Analysis Of Materials For Direct Wafer Bonding, Arif Ul Alam

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

Surface preparation and its exposure to different processing conditions is a key step in heterogeneous integration of electronics, photonics, fluidics and/or mechanical components for More-than-Moore applications. Therefore, it is critical to understand how various processing and environmental conditions affect the surface properties of bonding substrates. In this thesis, the effects of oxygen reactive-ion etching (O2 RIE) plasma followed by storage in ambient and 98% relative humidity on some key surface properties such as roughness, water contact angle, hardness, and the elemental and compositional states of three materials – silicon (Si), silicon dioxide (SiO2) and glass – are investigated to ...


An Experimental Investigation Of Hot Switching Contact Damage In Rf Mems Switches, Anirban Basu 2014 Northeastern University

An Experimental Investigation Of Hot Switching Contact Damage In Rf Mems Switches, Anirban Basu

Electrical Engineering Dissertations

RF MEMS switches have been shown to have better performance than their solid state counterparts on account of their low insertion loss and high isolation. Despite their superiority, these switches suffer from several reliability issues which limit their lifetime when compared with p-i-n diodes and GaAs FET switches. One of the major reliability issues is the reduction in lifetime of these switches when switched under hot switching conditions i.e. when a DC voltage or RF signal is applied across the contact while it is switching from an off to on position or vice versa. In this work, contact damage ...


Switched-Capacitor Voltage Doubler Design Using 0.5 Μm Technology, Hanfeng Wang 2014 Rochester Institute of Technology

Switched-Capacitor Voltage Doubler Design Using 0.5 Μm Technology, Hanfeng Wang

Theses

While integrated circuit (IC) power management has been an eternal topic for chip designers, inductor based DC-DC converters have been dominant in the field for years. However, because of the natures of inductors: large electro-magnetic interference, high coupling noise, and difficult silicon fabrication process, they are not favorable to on-chip solutions. Switched-capacitor (SC) DC-DC converters, which adopt capacitors for their energy storage components, have become increasingly popular among both the academia and the industry, because, apparently, they avoid the drawbacks of the inductor counterparts, and can be directly implemented on-chip without additional fabrication process.

In this paper, we will investigate ...


A Multi-Physics Computational Approach To Simulating Thz Photoconductive Antennas With Comparison To Measured Data And Fabrication Of Samples, Darren Ray Boyd 2014 University of Kentucky

A Multi-Physics Computational Approach To Simulating Thz Photoconductive Antennas With Comparison To Measured Data And Fabrication Of Samples, Darren Ray Boyd

Theses and Dissertations--Electrical and Computer Engineering

The frequency demands of radiating systems are moving into the terahertz band with potential applications that include sensing, imaging, and extremely broadband communication. One commonly used method for generating and detecting terahertz waves is to excite a voltage-biased photoconductive antenna with an extremely short laser pulse. The pulsed laser generates charge carriers in a photoconductive substrate which are swept onto the metallic antenna traces to produce an electric current that radiates or detects a terahertz band signal. Therefore, analysis of a photoconductive antenna requires simultaneous solutions of both semiconductor physics equations (including drift-diffusion and continuity relations) and Maxwell’s equations ...


Physical Design Of A Smart Camera With Integrated Digital Pixel Sensors Using A 0.13Μm 8-Layer Metal Cmos Process, Mahir K. Gharzai 2013 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Physical Design Of A Smart Camera With Integrated Digital Pixel Sensors Using A 0.13Μm 8-Layer Metal Cmos Process, Mahir K. Gharzai

Electrical Engineering Theses and Dissertations

The design of cameras has historically kept imagery and computational circuitry isolated in an attempt to maximize image quality by improving pixel pitch and routing density. Although this technique has worked in creating high density arrays of pixels for large resolution imagers, it has never been able to achieve high framerate computational operations.

A radical approach is introduced to solve this dilemma by creating compact, low- power pixel elements with built-in analog-to-digital converters that directly interface with digital logic. These pixels are capable of integrating alongside logic cells and to create an array of pixels inside the processor that can ...


In-Phase Coherently-Coupled Optically-Pumped Vecsel Array, Alec C. Sills, Gavin N. West, Eryn A. Fennig, Mike P. Grimshaw, Matthew T. Johnson, Manoj Kanskar, Kent D. Choquette, Paul O. Leisher 2013 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

In-Phase Coherently-Coupled Optically-Pumped Vecsel Array, Alec C. Sills, Gavin N. West, Eryn A. Fennig, Mike P. Grimshaw, Matthew T. Johnson, Manoj Kanskar, Kent D. Choquette, Paul O. Leisher

Faculty Publications - Physics and Optical Engineering

We report on an optically pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser array exhibiting coherent coupling. Imaging of the far field shows interference consistent with in-phase coherent coupling, and a majority of total power is present in the central on-axis lobe. The physical mechanism of operation is attributed to diffractive coupling, wherein a small portion of the light emitting from each emitter is shared with adjacent emitters of the array.


A Sige Bicmos Lvds Driver For Space-Borne Applications, Matthew Ian Laurence 2013 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

A Sige Bicmos Lvds Driver For Space-Borne Applications, Matthew Ian Laurence

Masters Theses

When designing an integrated circuit for use during an interstellar mission, certain precautions must be made. The electronics on any off-earth mission will be exposed to wide temperature swings and harmful radiation due to being outside of the Earth’s protective ionosphere. It is crucial that any data path present be immune to these detrimental effects.

The introduction of galactic radiation can not only cause the onboard electronics to fail due to device degradation and single event latchup but can also lead to background radiation being coupled into the signal path as unwanted noise, degrading the signal to noise ratio ...


Limiting And Transient Performances Of A Low Loss Pin-Schottky Limiter, Chin-Leong Lim 2013 SelectedWorks

Limiting And Transient Performances Of A Low Loss Pin-Schottky Limiter, Chin-Leong Lim

Chin-Leong Lim

The main cause of loss in the PIN-Schottky limiter is the diodes’ parasitic capacitances. Techniques to counter the parasitic capacitances include using bare chip, air cavity packaging, diode stacking, mesa construction, isolating the Schottky diode from the signal path and connecting the diodes to a low impedance node. But the aforementioned techniques either sacrifice cost, manufacturability, size, performances or thermal ruggedness. To reduce loss in the PIN-Schottky limiter, we re-configured its parasitics into a low pass ladder network. This paper reports on the new configuration’s changed large signal and transient performances. We observed improved isolation at 0.9 and ...


Max Operation In Statistical Static Timing Analysis On The Non-~Gaussian Variation Sources For Vlsi Circuits, Abu M. Baker 2013 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Max Operation In Statistical Static Timing Analysis On The Non-~Gaussian Variation Sources For Vlsi Circuits, Abu M. Baker

UNLV Theses/Dissertations/Professional Papers/Capstones

As CMOS technology continues to scale down, process variation introduces significant uncertainty in power and performance to VLSI circuits and significantly affects their reliability. If this uncertainty is not properly handled, it may become the bottleneck of CMOS technology improvement. As a result, deterministic analysis is no longer conservative and may result in either overestimation or underestimation of the circuit delay. As we know that Static-Timing Analysis (STA) is a deterministic way of computing the delay imposed by the circuits design and layout. It is based on a predetermined set of possible events of process variations, also called corners of ...


Role Of Atomic Variability In Dielectric Charging: A First-Principles-Based Multiscale Modeling Study, Ravi Pramod Kumar Vedula, Sambit Palit, Muhammad A. Alam, Alejandro Strachan 2013 Purdue University

Role Of Atomic Variability In Dielectric Charging: A First-Principles-Based Multiscale Modeling Study, Ravi Pramod Kumar Vedula, Sambit Palit, Muhammad A. Alam, Alejandro Strachan

Birck and NCN Publications

We present a dielectric charging model that combinesab initiocalculations of trap levels with a continuum-level transport model and apply it to interpret charging currents in amorphous silicon nitride. Density functional theory calculations on an ensemble of structures predict a distribution of electron trap levels up to 1.8 eV below the conduction band edge and provide insight into the physical trapping mechanisms. Incorporating this information in the continuum model, as opposed to the standard approach of a single adjustable trap level, not only leads to a more accurate description of experimental current transients in metal-insulator-metal capacitors, but also to a ...


In-Line Post-Process Scribing For Reducing Cell To Module Efficiency Gap In Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaics, Sourabh Dongaonkar, Muhammad A. Alam 2013 Purdue University

In-Line Post-Process Scribing For Reducing Cell To Module Efficiency Gap In Monolithic Thin-Film Photovoltaics, Sourabh Dongaonkar, Muhammad A. Alam

Birck and NCN Publications

The gap between cell and module efficiency is a major challenge for all photovoltaic (PV) technologies. For monolithic thin-film PV modules, a significant fraction of this gap has been attributed to parasitic shunts and other defects, distributed across the module. In this paper, we show that it is possible to contain or isolate these shunts using state-of-the-art laser scribing processes, after the fabrication of the series-connected module is finished. We discuss three alternatives, and quantify the performance gains for each technique. We demonstrate that using these techniques, it is possible to recover up to 50% of the power lost to ...


Mems Lab Simulation Tool, Oluwatosin D. Adeosun, Sambit Palit, Ankit Jain, Muhammad A. Alam 2013 Purdue University

Mems Lab Simulation Tool, Oluwatosin D. Adeosun, Sambit Palit, Ankit Jain, Muhammad A. Alam

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

MEMS actuators have multiple design applications. Understanding their behavior as well as the ability to predict their actuation characteristics and voltage response is important when designing these actuators. In order to know these devices will behave, designers have to solve multiple analytical equations and experiments that can be very time consuming. Over the course of the summer a tool was created on nanoHUB that will allow users to enter information about a MEMS actuator and provide the voltage response of the actuator. To create the tool, scaling equations were first provided for various geometry configurations and the equations were next ...


Assessing The Mvs Model For Nanotransistors, Siyang Liu, Xingshu Sun, Mark S. Lundstrom 2013 Purdue University

Assessing The Mvs Model For Nanotransistors, Siyang Liu, Xingshu Sun, Mark S. Lundstrom

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

A simple semi-empirical compact MOSFET model has been developed, which is called MIT virtual source (MVS) model. Compare to other model used in industry, MVS model requires only a few parameters, most of which can be directly obtained from experiment, and produce accurate results. One aim of this paper is to test the applicability of the MVS model to transistor made from MoS2 rather than silicon. Another target is to determine the sustainability of the MVS model under different transistor tests. To achieve these goals, the MVS model will be used to fit the experimental data on MoS2 ...


Thread Based Battery For Low Power E-Textile Applications, Pranav Laxmanan, Girish Chitnis, Rahim Rahimi, Babak Ziaie 2013 Purdue University

Thread Based Battery For Low Power E-Textile Applications, Pranav Laxmanan, Girish Chitnis, Rahim Rahimi, Babak Ziaie

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Textile electronic systems, or e-textiles, are on the rise but their utility is limited by its power demand. Potential applications include point-of-care diagnostic systems that would enable medical monitoring at the site of care. A small, inexpensive, and easy to use battery would enhance the capabilities of e-textile. Here we propose a thread based battery that attempts to satisfy these requirements. The thread based battery uses chemistry similar to an alkaline battery. The fabrication process involves patterning of current collector (silver epoxy or carbon ink) followed by zinc electroplating and manganese dioxide deposition. Thread present in between these two electrodes ...


An Ant-Based Sensor Measurement Data Gathering System, Bolun Zhang, Dimitrios Peroulis 2013 Purdue University

An Ant-Based Sensor Measurement Data Gathering System, Bolun Zhang, Dimitrios Peroulis

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Large-scale industries involved with a great amount of sensor measurements in their work are facing many challenges in data collection. Sensors are not on the same network; therefore each measurement has to be managed separately. Gathering all the measurement data to one terminal could be difficult. Once a measurement is obtained, it takes significant amount of time to process the data.The approaches our group takes here is to build a giant ANT wireless network that holds all the sensors’ measurements. To be more specific, every sensor has an ANT chip set up on its side. Each ANT chip is ...


Electrical Characterization And Optimization Of Gallium Arsenide Nanowire Ensemble Devices, Andrew Chia 2013 McMaster University

Electrical Characterization And Optimization Of Gallium Arsenide Nanowire Ensemble Devices, Andrew Chia

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

III-V nanowire (NW) ensemble devices were fabricated using novel approaches to address key NW optoelectronic issues concerning electrical contacts, doping, surface effects and underlying electrostatics physics.

NWs were first embedded in a filling medium, thus achieving low sheet resistance front contacts while preventing shunts. Various filling materials were assessed for porosity, surface roughness and thermal stability, giving Cyclotene as an ideal filing material. Sonication was also introduced as a novel method to achieve perfect planarization.

The presence of the Cyclotene also enabled the NWs to be characterized precisely and easily by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to give the NW ...


Unveiling Transient Behaviors In Heterostructure Nanowires, Jonathan P. Boulanger 2013 McMaster University

Unveiling Transient Behaviors In Heterostructure Nanowires, Jonathan P. Boulanger

Open Access Dissertations and Theses

GaAs/GaP heterostructure nanowires (NWs) were grown on GaAs(111)B and Si(111) substrates by gold (Au) assisted vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth in a molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) system. NW morphology and crystal structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Early results indicated substantial differences in the length and crystal structure of the GaAs/GaP heterostructures. Efforts to remove these inhomogeneities required an improved Au VLS seed deposition method as well as a better understanding of VLS growth across GaAs/GaP hetero-interfaces.

Experiments with GaAs/GaP heterostructures yielded the observation of changes in crystal ...


Balanced Uhf Lna Simplifies Cell Towers, Chin-Leong Lim 2013 SelectedWorks

Balanced Uhf Lna Simplifies Cell Towers, Chin-Leong Lim

Chin-Leong Lim

Cellular basestations' low noise amplifiers (LNA) must have input impedances that are closely matched to the antennas. Unfortunately, the amplifier devices cannot be conjugate matched without sacrificing their noise performances. Current solutions such as the isolator and the balanced LNA can satisfactorily solve the matching problem but at the expense of increased cost, weight and size. On the other hand, the confined space atop cellular towers makes the current solutions unattractive. To shrink the balanced LNA for cellular infrastructure service, we pair a highly integrated dual-amplifier MMIC with miniature multilayer couplers. This MMIC also achieves the distinction of being the ...


Geometrical Design Of Thin Film Photovoltaic Modules For Improved Shade Tolerance And Performance, Sourabh Dongaonkar, Muhammad A. Alam 2013 Purdue University

Geometrical Design Of Thin Film Photovoltaic Modules For Improved Shade Tolerance And Performance, Sourabh Dongaonkar, Muhammad A. Alam

Birck and NCN Publications

Partial shading in photovoltaic modules is an important reliability and performance concern for all photovoltaic technologies. In this paper, we show how cell geometry can be used as a design variable for improved shade tolerance and performance in monolithic thin film photovoltaic modules (TFPV). We use circuit simulations to illustrate the geometrical aspects of partial shading in typical monolithic TFPV modules with rectangular cells, and formulate rules for shade tolerant design. We show that the problem of partial shading can be overcome by modifying the cell shape and orientation, while preserving the module shape and output characteristics. We discuss two ...


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