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Thin-Film Sensor For Fatigue Crack Sensing And Monitoring In Steel Bridges Under Varying Crack Propagation Rates And Random Traffic Loads, Xiangxiong Kong, Jian Li, Caroline Bennett, William Collins, Simon Laflamme, Hongki Jo 2019 University of Kansas

Thin-Film Sensor For Fatigue Crack Sensing And Monitoring In Steel Bridges Under Varying Crack Propagation Rates And Random Traffic Loads, Xiangxiong Kong, Jian Li, Caroline Bennett, William Collins, Simon Laflamme, Hongki Jo

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

Fatigue cracks are critical structural concerns for steel highway bridges, and fatigue initiation and propagation activity continues undetected between physical bridge inspections. Monitoring fatigue crack activity between physical inspections can provide far greater reliability in structural performance and can be used to prevent excessive damage and repair costs. In this paper, a thin-film strain sensor, called a soft elastomeric capacitor (SEC) sensor, is evaluated for sensing and monitoring fatigue cracks in steel bridges. The SEC is a flexible and mechanically robust strain sensor, capable of monitoring strain over large structural surfaces. By deploying multiple SECs in the form of dense ...


Efficacy Of Multi-Threshold Null Convention Logic In Low-Power Applications, Brent Bell 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Efficacy Of Multi-Threshold Null Convention Logic In Low-Power Applications, Brent Bell

Theses and Dissertations

In order for an asynchronous design paradigm such as Multi-Threshold NULL Convention Logic (MTNCL) to be adopted by industry, it is important for circuit designers to be aware of its advantages and drawbacks especially with respect to power usage. The power tradeoff between MTNCL and synchronous designs depends on many different factors including design type, circuit size, process node, and pipeline granularity. Each of these design dimensions influences the active power and the leakage power comparisons. This dissertation analyzes the effects of different design dimensions on power consumption and the associated rational for these effects. Results show that while MTNCL ...


Cmos Radioactive Isotope Identification With Multichannel Analyzer And Embedded Neural Network, Samuel Murray 2018 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Cmos Radioactive Isotope Identification With Multichannel Analyzer And Embedded Neural Network, Samuel Murray

Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research from Electrical & Computer Engineering

A radiation detection and identification system is designed and implemented to perform gamma ray spectroscopy on radioactive sources and identify which isotopes are present in the sources. A multichannel analyzer is implemented on an ASIC to process the signal produced from gamma rays detected by a scintillator and photomultiplier tube and to quantize the gamma ray energies to build a histogram. A fast, low memory embedded neural network is implemented on a microcontroller ASIC to identify the isotopes present in the gamma ray histogram produced by the multichannel analyzer in real time.

Advisors: Sina Balkir and Michael Homan


Input Space Dependent Controller For Civil Structures Exposed To Multi-Hazard Excitations, Liang Cao, Simon Laflamme, Jonathan Hong, Jacob Dodson 2018 Lehigh University

Input Space Dependent Controller For Civil Structures Exposed To Multi-Hazard Excitations, Liang Cao, Simon Laflamme, Jonathan Hong, Jacob Dodson

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

A challenge in the control of civil structures exposed to multiple types of hazards is in the tuning of control parameters to ensure a prescribed level of performance under substantially different excitation dynamics, which could be considered as largely uncertain. A solution is to leverage data driven control algorithms, which, in their adaptive formulation, can self-tune to uncertain environments. The authors have recently proposed a new type of data-driven controller, termed input space dependent controller (ISDC), that has the particularity to adapt its input space in real-time to identify key measurements that represent the essential dynamics of the system. Previous ...


Arm Mke1xf Mcu Replatform, Nathan Hong, Derek Lung, Japsimran Singh, Bevin Tang 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Arm Mke1xf Mcu Replatform, Nathan Hong, Derek Lung, Japsimran Singh, Bevin Tang

Computer Engineering

After Cal Poly Racing’s electrical team began to hit the technical limits of the ADC and other I/O features of the current 8-bit Atmel AT90 microcontroller unit, it became clear that an upgrade was due. This replatforming project takes the functionalities of the old, 8-bit architecture, and aims to provide a 32-bit version using the ARM MKE1xF MCU. With the idea of having a working PCB as a stretch goal, the scope of the library development was limited to enable base functionality. Thus, the only libraries developed were for the Timer, ADC, SPI, UART, and CAN. Additionally, this ...


Metrology Computer Redesign, Natalie Lizama, Melinda Ong, Mitchell Aiken 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Metrology Computer Redesign, Natalie Lizama, Melinda Ong, Mitchell Aiken

Electrical Engineering

No abstract provided.


Portable High-Definition Audio Spectrum Analyzer, Alex Zahn, Jamie Corr 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Portable High-Definition Audio Spectrum Analyzer, Alex Zahn, Jamie Corr

Electrical Engineering

The Portable High-definition Audio Spectrum Analyzer (PHASA) allows the user to visualize the audio frequency spectrum of an incoming line-level stereo audio signal. Upon pressing the touch screen spectrum graph, the PHASA displays the corresponding frequency and volume levels as well as crosshairs at the touched location. The PHASA features multiple left/right channel display modes— Left channel only, right channel only, both channels simultaneously, and the average between the two channels. The PHASA features multiple resolution display modes (standard-resolution and high-resolution) and multiple dynamics display modes (standard dynamics, averaging, and peak/hold). The PHASA accepts input audio via a ...


Genetic Algorithm Amplifier Biasing System (Gaabs): Genetic Algorithm For Biasing On Differential Analog Amplifiers, Sean Whalen 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Genetic Algorithm Amplifier Biasing System (Gaabs): Genetic Algorithm For Biasing On Differential Analog Amplifiers, Sean Whalen

Computer Engineering

Genetic Algorithm Amplifier Biasing System (GAABS) - Senior Project Analysis

Summary of Functional Requirements

This project integrates LTSpice with a python script that runs a genetic algorithm to bias a differential amplifier. The system biases the amplifier with 2 different voltages, the base voltage for the PNP BJTs of the active loads and a voltage controlling the current of the current sink. The project runs via a python script, gets data from LTSpice’s command line call, and iteratively runs until the system is biased to achieve the greatest gain on an arbitrary input voltage.

Primary Constraints

Some of the main ...


Differential Power Analysis In-Practice For Hardware Implementations Of The Keccak Sponge Function, Nathaniel Graff 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Differential Power Analysis In-Practice For Hardware Implementations Of The Keccak Sponge Function, Nathaniel Graff

Master's Theses and Project Reports

The Keccak Sponge Function is the winner of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) competition to develop the Secure Hash Algorithm-3 Standard (SHA-3). Prior work has developed reference implementations of the algorithm and described the structures necessary to harden the algorithm against power analysis attacks which can weaken the cryptographic properties of the hash algorithm. This work demonstrates the architectural changes to the reference implementation necessary to achieve the theoretical side channel-resistant structures, compare their efficiency and performance characteristics after synthesis and place-and-route when implementing them on Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs), publish the resulting implementations under the ...


Low Latency Intrusion Detection In Smart Grids, Israel Zairi Akingeneye 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Low Latency Intrusion Detection In Smart Grids, Israel Zairi Akingeneye

Theses and Dissertations

The transformation of traditional power grids into smart grids has seen more new technologies such as communication networks and smart meters (sensors) being integrated into the physical infrastructure of the power grids. However, these technologies pose new vulnerabilities to the cybersecurity of power grids as malicious attacks can be launched by adversaries to attack the smart meters and modify the measurement data collected by these meters. If not timely detected and removed, these attacks may lead to inaccurate system state estimation, which is critical to the system operators for control decisions such as economic dispatch and other related functions.

This ...


General Design Procedure For Free And Open-Source Hardware For Scientific Equipment, Shane W. Oberloier, Joshua M. Pearce 2018 Michigan Technological University

General Design Procedure For Free And Open-Source Hardware For Scientific Equipment, Shane W. Oberloier, Joshua M. Pearce

Joshua M. Pearce

Distributed digital manufacturing of free and open-source scientific hardware (FOSH) used for scientific experiments has been shown to in general reduce the costs of scientific hardware by 90–99%. In part due to these cost savings, the manufacturing of scientific equipment is beginning to move away from a central paradigm of purchasing proprietary equipment to one in which scientists themselves download open-source designs, fabricate components with digital manufacturing technology, and then assemble the equipment themselves. This trend introduces a need for new formal design procedures that designers can follow when targeting this scientific audience. This study provides five steps in ...


Crack Detection In Rc Structural Components Using A Collaborative Data Fusion Approach Based On Smart Concrete And Large-Area Sensors, Austin Downey, Antonella D'Alessandro, Filippo Ubertini, Simon Laflamme 2018 Iowa State University

Crack Detection In Rc Structural Components Using A Collaborative Data Fusion Approach Based On Smart Concrete And Large-Area Sensors, Austin Downey, Antonella D'Alessandro, Filippo Ubertini, Simon Laflamme

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Conference Presentations and Proceedings

Recent advances in the fields of nanocomposite technologies have enabled the development of highly scalable, low-cost sensing solution for civil infrastructures. This includes two sensing technologies, recently proposed by the authors, engineered for their high scalability, low-cost and mechanical simplicity. The first sensor consists of a smart-cementitious material doped with multi-wall carbon nanotubes, which has been demonstrated to be suitable for monitoring its own deformations (strain) and damage state (cracks). Integrated to a structure, this smart cementitious material can be used for detecting damage or strain through the monitoring of its electrical properties. The second sensing technology consists of a ...


Capacitance-Based Wireless Strain Sensor Development, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Jian Xu, Hongki Jo, Jian Li, Xiangxiong Kong, William Collins, Caroline Bennett, Simon Laflamme 2018 University of Arizona

Capacitance-Based Wireless Strain Sensor Development, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Jian Xu, Hongki Jo, Jian Li, Xiangxiong Kong, William Collins, Caroline Bennett, Simon Laflamme

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Conference Presentations and Proceedings

A capacitance based large-area electronics strain sensor, termed soft elastomeric capacitor (SEC) has shown various advantages in infrastructure sensing. The ability to cover large area enables to reflect mesoscale structural deformation, highly stretchable, easy to fabricate and low-cost feature allow full-scale field application for civil structure. As continuing efforts to realize full-scale civil infrastructure monitoring, in this study, new sensor board has been developed to implement the capacitive strain sensing capability into wireless sensor networks. The SEC has extremely low-level capacitance changes as responses to structural deformation; hence it requires high-gain and low-noise performance. For these requirements, AC (alternating current ...


Dense Capacitive Sensor Array For Monitoring Distortion-Induced Fatigue Cracks In Steel Bridges, Xiangxiong Kong, Jian Li, William Collins, Caroline Bennett, Hongki Jo, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Simon Laflamme 2018 University of Kansas

Dense Capacitive Sensor Array For Monitoring Distortion-Induced Fatigue Cracks In Steel Bridges, Xiangxiong Kong, Jian Li, William Collins, Caroline Bennett, Hongki Jo, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Simon Laflamme

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Conference Presentations and Proceedings

Distortion-induced fatigue cracks caused by differential deflections between adjacent girders are common issues for steel girder bridges built prior to the mid-1980s in the United States. Monitoring these fatigue cracks is essential to ensure bridge structural integrity. Despite various level of success of crack monitoring methods over the past decades, monitoring distortion-induced fatigue cracks is still challenging due to the complex structural joint layout and unpredictable crack propagation paths. Previously, the authors proposed soft elastomeric capacitor (SEC), a large-size flexible capacitive strain sensor, for monitoring in-plane fatigue cracks. The crack growth can be robustly identified by extracting the crack growth ...


Strain Monitoring In Masonry Structures Using Smart Bricks, Andrea Meoni, Antonella D'Alessandro, Austin Downey, Simon Laflamme, Filippo Ubertini 2018 University of Perugia

Strain Monitoring In Masonry Structures Using Smart Bricks, Andrea Meoni, Antonella D'Alessandro, Austin Downey, Simon Laflamme, Filippo Ubertini

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Conference Presentations and Proceedings

Monitoring a building’s structural performance is critical for the identification of incipient damages and the optimization of maintenance programs. The characteristics and spatial deployment of any sensing system plays an essential role in the reliability of the monitored data and, therefore, on the actual capability of the monitoring system to reveal early-stage structural damage. A promising strategy for enhancing the quality of a structural health monitoring system is the use of sensors fabricated using materials exhibiting similar mechanical properties and durability as those of the construction materials. Based on this philosophy, the authors have recently proposed the concept of ...


Memory-Aware Scheduling For Fixed Priority Hard Real-Time Computing Systems, Gustavo A. Chaparro-Baquero 2018 Florida International University

Memory-Aware Scheduling For Fixed Priority Hard Real-Time Computing Systems, Gustavo A. Chaparro-Baquero

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As a major component of a computing system, memory has been a key performance and power consumption bottleneck in computer system design. While processor speeds have been kept rising dramatically, the overall computing performance improvement of the entire system is limited by how fast the memory can feed instructions/data to processing units (i.e. so-called memory wall problem). The increasing transistor density and surging access demands from a rapidly growing number of processing cores also significantly elevated the power consumption of the memory system. In addition, the interference of memory access from different applications and processing cores significantly degrade ...


Introduction To State Estimation Of High-Rate System Dynamics, Jonathan Hong, Simon Laflamme, Jacob Dodson, Bryan Joyce 2018 Iowa State University

Introduction To State Estimation Of High-Rate System Dynamics, Jonathan Hong, Simon Laflamme, Jacob Dodson, Bryan Joyce

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

Engineering systems experiencing high-rate dynamic events, including airbags, debris detection, and active blast protection systems, could benefit from real-time observability for enhanced performance. However, the task of high-rate state estimation is challenging, in particular for real-time applications where the rate of the observer’s convergence needs to be in the microsecond range. This paper identifies the challenges of state estimation of high-rate systems and discusses the fundamental characteristics of high-rate systems. A survey of applications and methods for estimators that have the potential to produce accurate estimations for a complex system experiencing highly dynamic events is presented. It is argued ...


Randomized Routing On Fat-Trees, Ronald I. Greenberg, Charles E. Leiserson 2018 Loyola University Chicago

Randomized Routing On Fat-Trees, Ronald I. Greenberg, Charles E. Leiserson

Ronald Greenberg

Fat-trees are a class of routing networks for hardware-efficient parallel computation. This paper presents a randomized algorithm for routing messages on a fat-tree. The quality of the algorithm is measured in terms of the load factor of a set of messages to be routed, which is a lower bound on the time required to deliver the messages. We show that if a set of messages has load factor lambda on a fat-tree with n processors, the number of delivery cycles (routing attempts) that the algorithm requires is O(lambda + lg n lg lg n) with probability 1-O(1/n). The ...


The Fat-Pyramid And Universal Parallel Computation Independent Of Wire Delay, Ronald I. Greenberg 2018 Loyola University Chicago

The Fat-Pyramid And Universal Parallel Computation Independent Of Wire Delay, Ronald I. Greenberg

Ronald Greenberg

This paper shows that a fat-pyramid of area Θ(A) requires only O(log A) slowdown to simulate any competing network of area A under very general conditions. The result holds regardless of the processor size (amount of attached memory) and number of processors in the competing networks as long as the limitation on total area is met. Furthermore, the result is valid regardless of the relationship between wire length and wire delay. We especially focus on elimination of the common simplifying assumption that unit time suffices to traverse a wire regardless of its length, since the assumption becomes more ...


Randomized Routing On Fat-Trees, Ronald I. Greenberg 2018 Selected Works

Randomized Routing On Fat-Trees, Ronald I. Greenberg

Ronald Greenberg

Fat-trees are a class of routing networks for hardware-efficient parallel computation. This paper presents a randomized algorithm for routing messages on a fat-tree. The quality of the algorithm is measured in terms of the load factor of a set of messages to be routed, which is a lower bound on the time required to deliver the messages. We show that if a set of messages has load factor lambda on a fat-tree with n processors, the number of delivery cycles (routing attempts) that the algorithm requires is O(lambda+lgnlglgn) with probability 1-O(1/n). The ...


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