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Input Space Dependent Controller For Civil Structures Exposed To Multi-Hazard Excitations, Liang Cao, Simon Laflamme, Jonathan Hong, Jacob Dodson 2018 Lehigh University

Input Space Dependent Controller For Civil Structures Exposed To Multi-Hazard Excitations, Liang Cao, Simon Laflamme, Jonathan Hong, Jacob Dodson

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

A challenge in the control of civil structures exposed to multiple types of hazards is in the tuning of control parameters to ensure a prescribed level of performance under substantially different excitation dynamics, which could be considered as largely uncertain. A solution is to leverage data driven control algorithms, which, in their adaptive formulation, can self-tune to uncertain environments. The authors have recently proposed a new type of data-driven controller, termed input space dependent controller (ISDC), that has the particularity to adapt its input space in real-time to identify key measurements that represent the essential dynamics of the system. Previous ...


Low Latency Intrusion Detection In Smart Grids, Israel Zairi Akingeneye 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Low Latency Intrusion Detection In Smart Grids, Israel Zairi Akingeneye

Theses and Dissertations

The transformation of traditional power grids into smart grids has seen more

new technologies such as communication networks and smart meters (sensors)

being integrated into the physical infrastructure of the power grids.

However, these technologies pose new vulnerabilities to the cybersecurity of power grids

as malicious attacks can be launched by adversaries to attack the smart meters and

modify the measurement data collected by these meters. If not timely detected and removed,

these attacks may lead to inaccurate system state estimation, which is critical to the system operators

for control decisions such as economic dispatch and other related functions.

This ...


Crack Detection In Rc Structural Components Using A Collaborative Data Fusion Approach Based On Smart Concrete And Large-Area Sensors, Austin Downey, Antonella D'Alessandro, Filippo Ubertini, Simon Laflamme 2018 Iowa State University

Crack Detection In Rc Structural Components Using A Collaborative Data Fusion Approach Based On Smart Concrete And Large-Area Sensors, Austin Downey, Antonella D'Alessandro, Filippo Ubertini, Simon Laflamme

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Conference Presentations and Proceedings

Recent advances in the fields of nanocomposite technologies have enabled the development of highly scalable, low-cost sensing solution for civil infrastructures. This includes two sensing technologies, recently proposed by the authors, engineered for their high scalability, low-cost and mechanical simplicity. The first sensor consists of a smart-cementitious material doped with multi-wall carbon nanotubes, which has been demonstrated to be suitable for monitoring its own deformations (strain) and damage state (cracks). Integrated to a structure, this smart cementitious material can be used for detecting damage or strain through the monitoring of its electrical properties. The second sensing technology consists of a ...


Dense Capacitive Sensor Array For Monitoring Distortion-Induced Fatigue Cracks In Steel Bridges, Xiangxiong Kong, Jian Li, William Collins, Caroline Bennett, Hongki Jo, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Simon Laflamme 2018 University of Kansas

Dense Capacitive Sensor Array For Monitoring Distortion-Induced Fatigue Cracks In Steel Bridges, Xiangxiong Kong, Jian Li, William Collins, Caroline Bennett, Hongki Jo, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Simon Laflamme

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Conference Presentations and Proceedings

Distortion-induced fatigue cracks caused by differential deflections between adjacent girders are common issues for steel girder bridges built prior to the mid-1980s in the United States. Monitoring these fatigue cracks is essential to ensure bridge structural integrity. Despite various level of success of crack monitoring methods over the past decades, monitoring distortion-induced fatigue cracks is still challenging due to the complex structural joint layout and unpredictable crack propagation paths. Previously, the authors proposed soft elastomeric capacitor (SEC), a large-size flexible capacitive strain sensor, for monitoring in-plane fatigue cracks. The crack growth can be robustly identified by extracting the crack growth ...


Capacitance-Based Wireless Strain Sensor Development, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Jian Xu, Hongki Jo, Jian Li, Xiangxiong Kong, William Collins, Caroline Bennett, Simon Laflamme 2018 University of Arizona

Capacitance-Based Wireless Strain Sensor Development, Jong-Hyun Jeong, Jian Xu, Hongki Jo, Jian Li, Xiangxiong Kong, William Collins, Caroline Bennett, Simon Laflamme

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Conference Presentations and Proceedings

A capacitance based large-area electronics strain sensor, termed soft elastomeric capacitor (SEC) has shown various advantages in infrastructure sensing. The ability to cover large area enables to reflect mesoscale structural deformation, highly stretchable, easy to fabricate and low-cost feature allow full-scale field application for civil structure. As continuing efforts to realize full-scale civil infrastructure monitoring, in this study, new sensor board has been developed to implement the capacitive strain sensing capability into wireless sensor networks. The SEC has extremely low-level capacitance changes as responses to structural deformation; hence it requires high-gain and low-noise performance. For these requirements, AC (alternating current ...


Strain Monitoring In Masonry Structures Using Smart Bricks, Andrea Meoni, Antonella D'Alessandro, Austin Downey, Simon Laflamme, Filippo Ubertini 2018 University of Perugia

Strain Monitoring In Masonry Structures Using Smart Bricks, Andrea Meoni, Antonella D'Alessandro, Austin Downey, Simon Laflamme, Filippo Ubertini

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Conference Presentations and Proceedings

Monitoring a building’s structural performance is critical for the identification of incipient damages and the optimization of maintenance programs. The characteristics and spatial deployment of any sensing system plays an essential role in the reliability of the monitored data and, therefore, on the actual capability of the monitoring system to reveal early-stage structural damage. A promising strategy for enhancing the quality of a structural health monitoring system is the use of sensors fabricated using materials exhibiting similar mechanical properties and durability as those of the construction materials. Based on this philosophy, the authors have recently proposed the concept of ...


Introduction To State Estimation Of High-Rate System Dynamics, Jonathan Hong, Simon Laflamme, Jacob Dodson, Bryan Joyce 2018 Iowa State University

Introduction To State Estimation Of High-Rate System Dynamics, Jonathan Hong, Simon Laflamme, Jacob Dodson, Bryan Joyce

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

Engineering systems experiencing high-rate dynamic events, including airbags, debris detection, and active blast protection systems, could benefit from real-time observability for enhanced performance. However, the task of high-rate state estimation is challenging, in particular for real-time applications where the rate of the observer’s convergence needs to be in the microsecond range. This paper identifies the challenges of state estimation of high-rate systems and discusses the fundamental characteristics of high-rate systems. A survey of applications and methods for estimators that have the potential to produce accurate estimations for a complex system experiencing highly dynamic events is presented. It is argued ...


Randomized Routing On Fat-Trees, Ronald I. Greenberg, Charles E. Leiserson 2018 Loyola University Chicago

Randomized Routing On Fat-Trees, Ronald I. Greenberg, Charles E. Leiserson

Ronald Greenberg

Fat-trees are a class of routing networks for hardware-efficient parallel computation. This paper presents a randomized algorithm for routing messages on a fat-tree. The quality of the algorithm is measured in terms of the load factor of a set of messages to be routed, which is a lower bound on the time required to deliver the messages. We show that if a set of messages has load factor lambda on a fat-tree with n processors, the number of delivery cycles (routing attempts) that the algorithm requires is O(lambda + lg n lg lg n) with probability 1-O(1/n). The ...


The Fat-Pyramid And Universal Parallel Computation Independent Of Wire Delay, Ronald I. Greenberg 2018 Loyola University Chicago

The Fat-Pyramid And Universal Parallel Computation Independent Of Wire Delay, Ronald I. Greenberg

Ronald Greenberg

This paper shows that a fat-pyramid of area Θ(A) requires only O(log A) slowdown to simulate any competing network of area A under very general conditions. The result holds regardless of the processor size (amount of attached memory) and number of processors in the competing networks as long as the limitation on total area is met. Furthermore, the result is valid regardless of the relationship between wire length and wire delay. We especially focus on elimination of the common simplifying assumption that unit time suffices to traverse a wire regardless of its length, since the assumption becomes more ...


Randomized Routing On Fat-Trees, Ronald I. Greenberg 2018 Selected Works

Randomized Routing On Fat-Trees, Ronald I. Greenberg

Ronald Greenberg

Fat-trees are a class of routing networks for hardware-efficient parallel computation. This paper presents a randomized algorithm for routing messages on a fat-tree. The quality of the algorithm is measured in terms of the load factor of a set of messages to be routed, which is a lower bound on the time required to deliver the messages. We show that if a set of messages has load factor lambda on a fat-tree with n processors, the number of delivery cycles (routing attempts) that the algorithm requires is O(lambda+lgnlglgn) with probability 1-O(1/n). The ...


Universal Wormhole Routing, Ronald I. Greenberg, Hyeong-Cheol Oh 2018 Selected Works

Universal Wormhole Routing, Ronald I. Greenberg, Hyeong-Cheol Oh

Ronald Greenberg

In this paper, we examine the wormhole routing problem in terms of the “congestion” c and “dilation” d for a set of packet paths. We show, with mild restrictions, that there is a simple randomized algorithm for routing any set of P packets in O(cdη+cLηlogP) time with high probability, where L is the number of flits in a packet, and η=min{d,L}; only a constant number of flits are stored in each queue at any time. Using this result, we show that a fat-tree network of area Θ(A) can simulate wormhole routing on any network ...


Single-Layer Channel Routing And Placement With Single-Sided Nets, Ronald I. Greenberg, Jau-Der Shih 2018 Selected Works

Single-Layer Channel Routing And Placement With Single-Sided Nets, Ronald I. Greenberg, Jau-Der Shih

Ronald Greenberg

This paper considers the optimal offset, feasible offset, and optimal placement problems for a more general form of single-layer VLSI channel routing than has usually been considered in the past. Most prior works require that every net has exactly one terminal on each side of the channel. As long as only one side of the channel contains multiple terminals of the same net, we provide linear-time solutions to all three problems. Such results are implausible if the placement of terminals is entirely unrestricted; in fact, the size of the output for the feasible offset problem may be Ω(n^2 ...


On The Difficulty Of Manhattan Channel Routing, Ronald I. Greenberg, Joseph JaJa, Sridhar Krishnamurthy 2018 Loyola University Chicago

On The Difficulty Of Manhattan Channel Routing, Ronald I. Greenberg, Joseph Jaja, Sridhar Krishnamurthy

Ronald Greenberg

We show that channel routing in the Manhattan model remains difficult even when all nets are single-sided. Given a set of n single-sided nets, we consider the problem of determining the minimum number of tracks required to obtain a dogleg-free routing. In addition to showing that the decision version of the problem isNP-complete, we show that there are problems requiring at least d+Omega(sqrt(n)) tracks, where d is the density. This existential lower bound does not follow from any of the known lower bounds in the literature.


On The Area Of Hypercube Layouts, Ronald I. Greenberg, Lee Guan 2018 Selected Works

On The Area Of Hypercube Layouts, Ronald I. Greenberg, Lee Guan

Ronald Greenberg

This paper precisely analyzes the wire density and required area in standard styles for the hypercube. It shows that the most natural, regular layout of a hypercube of N^2 nodes in the plane, in a NxN grid arrangement, uses floor(2N/3)+1 horizontal wiring tracks for each row of nodes. (In the process, we see that the number of tracks per row can be reduced by 1 with a less regular design, as can also be seen from an independent argument of Bezrukov et al.) This paper also gives a simple formula for the wire density at any ...


Minimum Separation For Single-Layer Channel Routing, Ronald I. Greenberg, F. Miller Maley 2018 Loyola University Chicago

Minimum Separation For Single-Layer Channel Routing, Ronald I. Greenberg, F. Miller Maley

Ronald Greenberg

We present a linear-time algorithm for determining the minimum height of a single-layer routing channel. The algorithm handles single-sided connections and multiterminal nets. It yields a simple routability test for single-layer switchboxes, correcting an error in the literature.


Mulch: A Multi-Layer Channel Router Using One, Two, And Three Layer Partitions, Ronald I. Greenberg, Alex T. Ishii, Alberto L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli 2018 Loyola University Chicago

Mulch: A Multi-Layer Channel Router Using One, Two, And Three Layer Partitions, Ronald I. Greenberg, Alex T. Ishii, Alberto L. Sangiovanni-Vincentelli

Ronald Greenberg

Chameleon, a channel router for three layers of interconnect, has been implemented to accept specification of an arbitrary number of layers. Chameleon is based on a strategy of decomposing the multilayer problem into two- and three-layer problems in which one of the layers is reserved primarily for vertical wire runs and the other layer(s) for horizontal runs. In some situations, however, it is advantageous to consider also layers that allow the routing of entire nets, using both horizontal and vertical wires. MulCh is a multilayer channel router that extends the algorithms of Chameleon in this direction. MulCh can route ...


Minimizing Channel Density With Movable Terminals, Ronald I. Greenberg, Jau-Der Shih 2018 Loyola University Chicago

Minimizing Channel Density With Movable Terminals, Ronald I. Greenberg, Jau-Der Shih

Ronald Greenberg

We give algorithms to minimize density for channels with terminals that are movable subject to certain constraints. The main cases considered are channels with linear order constraints, channels with linear order constraints and separation constraints, channels with movable modules containing fixed terminals, and channels with movable modules and terminals. In each case, previous results for running time and space are improved by a factor of L/lg n and L , respectively, where L is the channel length and n is the number of terminals.


Minimizing Channel Density With Movable Terminals, Ronald I. Greenberg, Jau-Der Shih 2018 Selected Works

Minimizing Channel Density With Movable Terminals, Ronald I. Greenberg, Jau-Der Shih

Ronald Greenberg

We give algorithms to minimize density for VLSI channel routing problems with terminals that are movable subject to certain constraints. The main cases considered are channels with linear order constraints, channels with linear order constraints and separation constraints, channels with movable modules containing fixed terminals, and channels with movable modules and terminals. In each case, we improve previous results for running time and space by a factor of L/\lgn and L, respectively, where L is the channel length, and n is the number of terminals.


Parallel Algorithms For Single-Layer Channel Routing, Ronald I. Greenberg, Shih-Chuan Hung, Jau-Der Shih 2018 Selected Works

Parallel Algorithms For Single-Layer Channel Routing, Ronald I. Greenberg, Shih-Chuan Hung, Jau-Der Shih

Ronald Greenberg

We provide efficient parallel algorithms for the minimum separation, offset range, and optimal offset problems for single-layer channel routing. We consider all the variations of these problems that have linear-time sequential solutions rather than limiting attention to the ``river-routing'' context, where single-sided connections are disallowed. For the minimum separation problem, we obtain O(lgN) time on a CREW PRAM or O(lgN/lglgN) time on a CRCW PRAM, both with optimal work (processor-time product) of O(N), where N is the number of terminals. For the offset range problem, we obtain the same time and processor bounds as long as ...


Parallel Algorithms For Single-Layer Channel Routing, Ronald I. Greenberg, Shih-Chuan Hung, Jau-Der Shih 2018 Selected Works

Parallel Algorithms For Single-Layer Channel Routing, Ronald I. Greenberg, Shih-Chuan Hung, Jau-Der Shih

Ronald Greenberg

We provide efficient parallel algorithms for the minimum separation, offset range, and optimal offset problems for single-layer channel routing. We consider all the variations of these problems that are known to have linear- time sequential solutions rather than limiting attention to the "river-routing" context, where single-sided connections are disallowed. For the minimum separation problem, we obtain O(lgN) time on a CREW PRAM or O(lgN / lglgN) time on a (common) CRCW PRAM, both with optimal work (processor- time product) of O(N), where N is the number of terminals. For the offset range problem, we obtain the same time ...


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