Dual-Display Laparoscopic Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging For Real-Time Surgical Assistance, 2018 George Washington University - School of Medicine and Health Sciences
Dual-Display Laparoscopic Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging For Real-Time Surgical Assistance, Jaepyeong Cha, Corey Zheng, Lung Wai Lau
Pediatrics Faculty Publications
Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) utilizes the speckle pattern of a laser to determine the blood flow in tissues. The current approaches for its use in a clinical setting require a camera system with a laser source on a separate optical axis making it unsuitable for minimally invasive surgery (MIS). With blood flow visualization, bowel viability, for example, can be determined. Thus, LSCI can be a valuable tool in gastrointestinal surgery. In this work, we develop the first-of-its-kind dual-display laparoscopic vision system integrating LSCI with a commercially available 10mm rigid laparoscope where the laser has the same optical axis as ...
Classification Of Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Plans, 2018 Illinois Mathematics and Science Academy
Classification Of Intensity-Modulated Proton Therapy Plans, Louise Gabrielle Lima '19, Alice Liu '19
Student Publications & Research
Proton radiotherapy is a form of radiation treatment that uses energized protons to break DNA, leading to cell death and killing cancers.
Direct Crystal Formation From Micronized Bone And Lactic Acid: The Writing On The Wall For Calcium-Containing Crystal Pathogenesis In Osteoarthritis?, Anna A. Bulysheva, Nardos Sori, Michael P. Francis
Pathological calcium-containing crystals accumulating in the joints, synovial fluid, and soft tissues are noted in most elderly patients, yet arthritic crystal formation remains idiopathic. Interestingly, elevated lactic acid and bone erosion are frequently among the comorbidities and clinical features of patients with highest incidence of crystal arthropathies. This work shows that bone particulates (modeling bone erosion) dissolve in lactic acid and directly generate crystals, possibly presenting a mechanism for crystal accumulation in osteoarthritis.
Methods and results
Micronized human bone (average particle size of 160 μm x 79 μm ) completely dissolved in lactic acid in 48 hours, and in synovial ...
Emerging Roles Of The Membrane Potential: Action Beyond The Action Potential, 2018 Old Dominion University
Emerging Roles Of The Membrane Potential: Action Beyond The Action Potential, Lina Abdul Kadir, Michael Stacey, Richard Barrett-Jolley
Whilst the phenomenon of an electrical resting membrane potential (RMP) is a central tenet of biology, it is nearly always discussed as a phenomenon that facilitates the propagation of action potentials in excitable tissue, muscle, and nerve. However, as ion channel research shifts beyond these tissues, it became clear that the RMP is a feature of virtually all cells studied. The RMP is maintained by the cell's compliment of ion channels. Transcriptome sequencing is increasingly revealing that equally rich compliments of ion channels exist in both excitable and non-excitable tissue. In this review, we discuss a range of critical ...
Pneumatospinning Of Collagen Microfibers From Benign Solvents, 2018 Old Dominion University
Pneumatospinning Of Collagen Microfibers From Benign Solvents, Seth Polk, Nardos Sori, Nick Thayer, Yas Maghdouri-White, Anna A. Bulysheva, Michael P. Francis
Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications
Introduction. Current collagen fiber manufacturing methods for biomedical applications, such as electrospinning and extrusion, have had limited success in clinical translation, partially due to scalability, cost, and complexity challenges. Here we explore an alternative, simplified and scalable collagen fiber formation method, termed 'pneumatospinning,' to generate submicron collagen fibers from benign solvents. Methods and results. Clinical grade type I atelocollagen from calf corium was electrospun or pneumatospun as sheets of aligned and isotropic fibrous scaffolds. Following crosslinking with genipin, the collagen scaffolds were stable in media for over a month. Pneumatospun collagen samples were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism ...
Consistent And Reproducible Cultures Of Large-Scale 3d Mammary Epithelial Structures Using An Accessible Bioprinting Platform, John A. Reid, Peter M. Mollica, Robert D. Bruno, Patrick C. Sachs
Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications
Background: Standard three-dimensional (3D) in vitro culture techniques, such as those used for mammary epithelial cells, rely on random distribution of cells within hydrogels. Although these systems offer advantages over traditional 2D models, limitations persist owing to the lack of control over cellular placement within the hydrogel. This results in experimental inconsistencies and random organoid morphology. Robust, high-throughput experimentation requires greater standardization of 3D epithelial culture techniques.
Methods: Here, we detail the use of a 3D bioprinting platform as an investigative tool to control the 3D formation of organoids through the "self-assembly" of human mammary epithelial cells. Experimental bioprinting procedures ...
No2- And No3- Enhance Cold Atmospheric Plasma Induced Cancer Cell Death By Generation Of Onoo-, 2018 Old Dominion University
No2- And No3- Enhance Cold Atmospheric Plasma Induced Cancer Cell Death By Generation Of Onoo-, Dehui Xu, Qingjie Cui, Yujing Xu, Zhijie Liu, Zeyu Chen, Wenjie Xia, Hao Zhang, Dingxin Liu, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong
Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) is a rapidly developed technology that has been widely applied in biomedicine especially in cancer treatment. Due to the generation of various active species in plasma, CAP could induce various tumor cells death and showed a promising potential in cancer therapy. To enhance the biological effects of gas plasma, changing the discharging parameters is the most commonly used method, yet increasing discharging power will lead to a higher possibility of simultaneously damage surrounding tissues. In this study, by adding nontoxic concentration of additional nitrite and nitrate in the medium, we found that anti-tumor effect of CAP ...
A Biomechanical And Physiological Signal Monitoring System For Four Degrees Of Upper Limb Movement, 2018 The University of Western Ontario
A Biomechanical And Physiological Signal Monitoring System For Four Degrees Of Upper Limb Movement, Allison R. Goldman
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
A lack of adherence to prescribed physical therapy regimens in improper healing results in poor outcomes for those affected by musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) of the upper limb. Societal and psychological barriers to proper adherence can be addressed through the system presented in this work consisting of the following components: an ambulatory biosignal acquisition sleeve, an electromyography (EMG) based motion repetition detection algorithm, and the design of a compatible capacitive EMG acquisition module.
The biosignal acquisition sleeve was untethered, unobtrusive to motion, contained only modular components, and collected biomechanical and physiological sensor data to form full motion profiles of the following ...
Voltage Effects On Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Mediated Contractions Of Airway Smooth Muscle, 2018 Old Dominion University
Voltage Effects On Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Mediated Contractions Of Airway Smooth Muscle, Iurii Semenov, Robert Brenner
Studies have shown that the activity of muscarinic receptors and their affinity to agonists are sensitive to membrane potential. It was reported that in airway smooth muscle (ASM) depolarization evoked by high K+ solution increases contractility through direct effects on M3 muscarinic receptors. In this study, we assessed the physiological relevance of voltage sensitivity of muscarinic receptors on ASM contractility. Our findings reveal that depolarization by high K+ solution induces contraction in intact mouse trachea predominantly through activation of acetylcholine release from embedded nerves, and to a lesser extent by direct effects on M3 receptors. We therefore devised a pharmacological ...
Moderate Heat Application Enhances The Efficacy Of Nanosecond Pulse Stimulation For The Treatment Of Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Chelsea M. Edelblute, Sigi Guo, Embo Yang, Chunqi Jiang, Karl Schoenbach, Richard Heller
Nanosecond pulse stimulation as a tumor ablation therapy has been studied for the treatment of various carcinomas in animal models and has shown a significant survival benefit. In the current study, we found that moderate heating at 43°C for 2 minutes significantly enhanced in vitro nanosecond pulse stimulation-induced cell death of KLN205 murine squamous cell carcinoma cells by 2.43-fold at 600 V and by 2.32-fold at 900 V, as evidenced by propidium iodide uptake. Furthermore, the ablation zone in KLN205 cells placed in a 3-dimensional cell-culture model and pulsed at a voltage of 900 V at 43 ...
Accurate Flexible Refinement Of Atomic Models Against Medium-Resolution Cryo-Em Maps Using Damped Dynamics, 2018 Old Dominion University
Accurate Flexible Refinement Of Atomic Models Against Medium-Resolution Cryo-Em Maps Using Damped Dynamics, Julio A. Kovacs, Vitold E. Galkin, Willy Wriggers
Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications
Background: Dramatic progress has recently been made in cryo-electron microscopy technologies, which now make possible the reconstruction of a growing number of biomolecular structures to near-atomic resolution. However, the need persists for fitting and refinement approaches that address those cases that require modeling assistance.
Methods: In this paper, we describe algorithms to optimize the performance of such medium-resolution refinement methods. These algorithms aim to automatically optimize the parameters that define the density shape of the flexibly fitted model, as well as the time-dependent damper cutoff distance. Atomic distance constraints can be prescribed for cases where extra containment of parts of ...
Development Of Image-Based Surgical Planning Software For Bone-Conduction Implants, 2018 The University of Western Ontario
Development Of Image-Based Surgical Planning Software For Bone-Conduction Implants, Carlos D. Salgado
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
The BONEBRIDGE bone-conduction device is used to treat conductive and mixed hearing losses. The size of its floating mass transducer (FMT) can preclude implantation in certain anatomies, necessitating comprehensive surgical planning. Current techniques are time consuming and difficult to transfer to the operating room. The objective of this thesis was to develop software for calculating skull thickness to the dura mater to find locations for the FMT and to the first air cells which guarantee sufficient bone for the implant screws to grasp. Temporal bone computed tomography (CT) images were segmented and processed and custom Matlab code was written to ...
Development Of An Emg-Based Muscle Health Model For Elbow Trauma Patients, 2018 The University of Western Ontario
Development Of An Emg-Based Muscle Health Model For Elbow Trauma Patients, Emma Farago
Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository
Musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions are a leading cause of pain and disability worldwide. Rehabilitation is critical for recovery from these conditions and for the prevention of long-term disability. Robot-assisted therapy has been demonstrated to provide improvements to stroke rehabilitation in terms of efficiency and patient adherence. However, there are no wearable robot-assisted solutions for patients with MSK injuries. One of the limiting factors is the lack of appropriate models that allow the use of biosignals as an interface input. Furthermore, there are no models to discern the health of MSK patients as they progress through their therapy.
This thesis describes the ...
Shaped 3d Microcarriers For Adherent Cell Culture And Analysis, 2018 University of California, Los Angeles
Shaped 3d Microcarriers For Adherent Cell Culture And Analysis, Chueh-Yu Wu, Daniel Stoecklein, Aditya Kommajosula, Jonathan Lin, Keegan Owsley, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Dino Di Carlo
Mechanical Engineering Publications
Standard tissue culture of adherent cells is known to poorly replicate physiology and often entails suspending cells in solution for analysis and sorting, which modulates protein expression and eliminates intercellular connections. To allow adherent culture and processing in flow, we present 3D-shaped hydrogel cell microcarriers, which are designed with a recessed nook in a first dimension to provide a tunable shear-stress shelter for cell growth, and a dumbbell shape in an orthogonal direction to allow for self-alignment in a confined flow, important for processing in flow and imaging flow cytometry. We designed a method to rapidly design, using the genetic ...
Developmental Steps For A Functional Three-Dimensional Cell Culture System For The Study Of Asymmetrical Division Of Neural Stem Cells, Martina Zamponi
Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations
Stem cells are a cell type present during and following development, which possess self- renewal properties, as well as the ability to differentiate into specific cells. Asymmetrical division is the cellular process that allows stem cells to produce one differentiated and one un-differentiated daughter cell during the same mitotic event. Insights in the molecular mechanisms of such process are minimal, due to the absence of effective methods for its targeted study. Currently, traditional methods of investigation include monolayer cell culture and animal models. The first poses structural limitations to the accurate representation of human tissue and cell structures, while animal ...
Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: Design Of A Stimulator And A Focused Coil For The Application Of Small Animals, Jayaprakash Selvaraj, Priyam Rastogi, Neelam G. Prabhu Gaunkar, Ravi L. Hadimani, Mani Mina
Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive, safe, effective, and food and drug administration approved treatment for major depressive disorder. TMS relies on time-varying magnetic fields to induce an electric field in the brain, resulting in depolarization or hyperpolarization of the neurons. Recently, there has been extensive research to improve the magnetic coil design, effectiveness of TMS treatment, and improvement in the computer modeling of human brains, yet little development is reported on the TMS pulse generators and coil design for small animals. TMS pulse generators, or stimulators, are the circuits which provides pulse current to drive the inductive coils ...
New Algorithms For Compressed Sensing Of Mri: Wtwts, Dwts, Wdwts, 2018 Kennesaw State University
New Algorithms For Compressed Sensing Of Mri: Wtwts, Dwts, Wdwts, Srivarna Settisara Janney
Master of Science in Computer Science Theses
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most accurate imaging techniques that can be used to detect several diseases, where other imaging methodologies fail. MRI data takes a longer time to capture. This is a pain taking process for the patients to remain still while the data is being captured. This is also hard for the doctor as well because if the images are not captured correctly then it will lead to wrong diagnoses of illness that might put the patients lives in danger. Since long scanning time is one of most serious drawback of the MRI modality, reducing ...
Extended-Use Ecg Monitor, 2018 California Polytechnic State University – San Luis Obispo
Extended-Use Ecg Monitor, Daniel Aaron Soski
Master's Theses and Project Reports
In this thesis, a prototype ECG monitor was developed that is integrated into an elastic shirt and takes a 3-lead ECG for over 5 days. The high-quality measurements can be used to identify markers indicative of various detrimental heart conditions. Measurements recorded by the device are encrypted and stored onto a micro-SD card. Current Holter monitors are expensive and have functional lives less than 48 hours; however, extended duration monitoring has been proven more useful in diagnosis. The device designed demonstrates that ECG measurements can be taken over longer durations without sacrificing quality, comfort, or device cost.
Mechanism Of Virus Inactivation By Cold Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma And Plasma-Activated Water, 2018 Old Dominion University
Mechanism Of Virus Inactivation By Cold Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma And Plasma-Activated Water, Li Guo, Ruobing Xu, Lu Gou, Zhichao Liu, Yiming Zhao, Dingxin Liu, Lei Zhang, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong
ABSTRACT Viruses cause serious pathogenic contamination that severely affects the environment and human health. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma efficiently inactivates pathogenic bacteria; however, the mechanism of virus inactivation by plasma is not fully understood. In this study, surface plasma in argon mixed with 1% air and plasma-activated water was used to treat water containing bacteriophages. Both agents efficiently inactivated bacteriophages T4, ϕ174, and MS2 in a time-dependent manner. Prolonged storage had marginal effects on the antiviral activity of plasma-activated water. DNA and protein analysis revealed that the reactive species generated by plasma damaged both nucleic acids and proteins, consistent with the ...
Subspace Averaging Of Auditory Evoked Potentials, 2018 Southern Methodist University
Subspace Averaging Of Auditory Evoked Potentials, Xiaoliang Wang
Electrical Engineering Theses and Dissertations
The auditory evoked potential (AEP) is an electric potential generated in the brain in response to auditory stimuli. It has clinical importance in the detection of newborn infant hearing loss. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) of the AEP is low, so signal averaging is typically employed to estimate it. Often, thousands of trials must be averaged before a sufficiently high SNR estimate is obtained.
In this research, we have developed a new AEP averaging method called subspace averaging. The subspace averaging method projects onto the signal subspace: the span of the principal eigenvectors of the signal correlation matrix. The ...