Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biomedical Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

518 Full-Text Articles 811 Authors 127,358 Downloads 58 Institutions

All Articles in Biomedical

Faceted Search

518 full-text articles. Page 1 of 24.

Pneumatospinning Of Collagen Microfibers From Benign Solvents, Seth Polk, Nardos Sori, Nick Thayer, Yas Maghdouri-White, Anna A. Bulysheva, Michael P. Francis 2018 Old Dominion University

Pneumatospinning Of Collagen Microfibers From Benign Solvents, Seth Polk, Nardos Sori, Nick Thayer, Yas Maghdouri-White, Anna A. Bulysheva, Michael P. Francis

Medical Diagnostics & Translational Sciences Faculty Publications

Introduction. Current collagen fiber manufacturing methods for biomedical applications, such as electrospinning and extrusion, have had limited success in clinical translation, partially due to scalability, cost, and complexity challenges. Here we explore an alternative, simplified and scalable collagen fiber formation method, termed 'pneumatospinning,' to generate submicron collagen fibers from benign solvents. Methods and results. Clinical grade type I atelocollagen from calf corium was electrospun or pneumatospun as sheets of aligned and isotropic fibrous scaffolds. Following crosslinking with genipin, the collagen scaffolds were stable in media for over a month. Pneumatospun collagen samples were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism ...


A Biomechanical And Physiological Signal Monitoring System For Four Degrees Of Upper Limb Movement, Allison R. Goldman 2018 The University of Western Ontario

A Biomechanical And Physiological Signal Monitoring System For Four Degrees Of Upper Limb Movement, Allison R. Goldman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A lack of adherence to prescribed physical therapy regimens in improper healing results in poor outcomes for those affected by musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) of the upper limb. Societal and psychological barriers to proper adherence can be addressed through the system presented in this work consisting of the following components: an ambulatory biosignal acquisition sleeve, an electromyography (EMG) based motion repetition detection algorithm, and the design of a compatible capacitive EMG acquisition module.

The biosignal acquisition sleeve was untethered, unobtrusive to motion, contained only modular components, and collected biomechanical and physiological sensor data to form full motion profiles of the following ...


Voltage Effects On Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Mediated Contractions Of Airway Smooth Muscle, Iurii Semenov, Robert Brenner 2018 Old Dominion University

Voltage Effects On Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor-Mediated Contractions Of Airway Smooth Muscle, Iurii Semenov, Robert Brenner

Bioelectrics Publications

Studies have shown that the activity of muscarinic receptors and their affinity to agonists are sensitive to membrane potential. It was reported that in airway smooth muscle (ASM) depolarization evoked by high K+ solution increases contractility through direct effects on M3 muscarinic receptors. In this study, we assessed the physiological relevance of voltage sensitivity of muscarinic receptors on ASM contractility. Our findings reveal that depolarization by high K+ solution induces contraction in intact mouse trachea predominantly through activation of acetylcholine release from embedded nerves, and to a lesser extent by direct effects on M3 receptors. We therefore devised a pharmacological ...


Accurate Flexible Refinement Of Atomic Models Against Medium-Resolution Cryo-Em Maps Using Damped Dynamics, Julio A. Kovacs, Vitold E. Galkin, Willy Wriggers 2018 Old Dominion University

Accurate Flexible Refinement Of Atomic Models Against Medium-Resolution Cryo-Em Maps Using Damped Dynamics, Julio A. Kovacs, Vitold E. Galkin, Willy Wriggers

Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering Faculty Publications

Background: Dramatic progress has recently been made in cryo-electron microscopy technologies, which now make possible the reconstruction of a growing number of biomolecular structures to near-atomic resolution. However, the need persists for fitting and refinement approaches that address those cases that require modeling assistance.

Methods: In this paper, we describe algorithms to optimize the performance of such medium-resolution refinement methods. These algorithms aim to automatically optimize the parameters that define the density shape of the flexibly fitted model, as well as the time-dependent damper cutoff distance. Atomic distance constraints can be prescribed for cases where extra containment of parts of ...


Development Of Image-Based Surgical Planning Software For Bone-Conduction Implants, Carlos D. Salgado 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Development Of Image-Based Surgical Planning Software For Bone-Conduction Implants, Carlos D. Salgado

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The BONEBRIDGE bone-conduction device is used to treat conductive and mixed hearing losses. The size of its floating mass transducer (FMT) can preclude implantation in certain anatomies, necessitating comprehensive surgical planning. Current techniques are time consuming and difficult to transfer to the operating room. The objective of this thesis was to develop software for calculating skull thickness to the dura mater to find locations for the FMT and to the first air cells which guarantee sufficient bone for the implant screws to grasp. Temporal bone computed tomography (CT) images were segmented and processed and custom Matlab code was written to ...


Development Of An Emg-Based Muscle Health Model For Elbow Trauma Patients, Emma Farago 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Development Of An Emg-Based Muscle Health Model For Elbow Trauma Patients, Emma Farago

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Musculoskeletal (MSK) conditions are a leading cause of pain and disability worldwide. Rehabilitation is critical for recovery from these conditions and for the prevention of long-term disability. Robot-assisted therapy has been demonstrated to provide improvements to stroke rehabilitation in terms of efficiency and patient adherence. However, there are no wearable robot-assisted solutions for patients with MSK injuries. One of the limiting factors is the lack of appropriate models that allow the use of biosignals as an interface input. Furthermore, there are no models to discern the health of MSK patients as they progress through their therapy.

This thesis describes the ...


Shaped 3d Microcarriers For Adherent Cell Culture And Analysis, Chueh-Yu Wu, Daniel Stoecklein, Aditya Kommajosula, Jonathan Lin, Keegan Owsley, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Dino Di Carlo 2018 University of California, Los Angeles

Shaped 3d Microcarriers For Adherent Cell Culture And Analysis, Chueh-Yu Wu, Daniel Stoecklein, Aditya Kommajosula, Jonathan Lin, Keegan Owsley, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Dino Di Carlo

Mechanical Engineering Publications

Standard tissue culture of adherent cells is known to poorly replicate physiology and often entails suspending cells in solution for analysis and sorting, which modulates protein expression and eliminates intercellular connections. To allow adherent culture and processing in flow, we present 3D-shaped hydrogel cell microcarriers, which are designed with a recessed nook in a first dimension to provide a tunable shear-stress shelter for cell growth, and a dumbbell shape in an orthogonal direction to allow for self-alignment in a confined flow, important for processing in flow and imaging flow cytometry. We designed a method to rapidly design, using the genetic ...


Developmental Steps For A Functional Three-Dimensional Cell Culture System For The Study Of Asymmetrical Division Of Neural Stem Cells, Martina Zamponi 2018 Old Dominion University

Developmental Steps For A Functional Three-Dimensional Cell Culture System For The Study Of Asymmetrical Division Of Neural Stem Cells, Martina Zamponi

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Stem cells are a cell type present during and following development, which possess self- renewal properties, as well as the ability to differentiate into specific cells. Asymmetrical division is the cellular process that allows stem cells to produce one differentiated and one un-differentiated daughter cell during the same mitotic event. Insights in the molecular mechanisms of such process are minimal, due to the absence of effective methods for its targeted study. Currently, traditional methods of investigation include monolayer cell culture and animal models. The first poses structural limitations to the accurate representation of human tissue and cell structures, while animal ...


Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: Design Of A Stimulator And A Focused Coil For The Application Of Small Animals, Jayaprakash Selvaraj, Priyam Rastogi, Neelam G. Prabhu Gaunkar, Ravi L. Hadimani, Mani Mina 2018 Iowa State University

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: Design Of A Stimulator And A Focused Coil For The Application Of Small Animals, Jayaprakash Selvaraj, Priyam Rastogi, Neelam G. Prabhu Gaunkar, Ravi L. Hadimani, Mani Mina

Electrical and Computer Engineering Publications

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive, safe, effective, and food and drug administration approved treatment for major depressive disorder. TMS relies on time-varying magnetic fields to induce an electric field in the brain, resulting in depolarization or hyperpolarization of the neurons. Recently, there has been extensive research to improve the magnetic coil design, effectiveness of TMS treatment, and improvement in the computer modeling of human brains, yet little development is reported on the TMS pulse generators and coil design for small animals. TMS pulse generators, or stimulators, are the circuits which provides pulse current to drive the inductive coils ...


New Algorithms For Compressed Sensing Of Mri: Wtwts, Dwts, Wdwts, Srivarna Settisara Janney 2018 Kennesaw State University

New Algorithms For Compressed Sensing Of Mri: Wtwts, Dwts, Wdwts, Srivarna Settisara Janney

Master of Science in Computer Science Theses

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most accurate imaging techniques that can be used to detect several diseases, where other imaging methodologies fail. MRI data takes a longer time to capture. This is a pain taking process for the patients to remain still while the data is being captured. This is also hard for the doctor as well because if the images are not captured correctly then it will lead to wrong diagnoses of illness that might put the patients lives in danger. Since long scanning time is one of most serious drawback of the MRI modality, reducing ...


Mechanism Of Virus Inactivation By Cold Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma And Plasma-Activated Water, Li Guo, Ruobing Xu, Lu Gou, Zhichao Liu, Yiming Zhao, Dingxin Liu, Lei Zhang, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong 2018 Old Dominion University

Mechanism Of Virus Inactivation By Cold Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma And Plasma-Activated Water, Li Guo, Ruobing Xu, Lu Gou, Zhichao Liu, Yiming Zhao, Dingxin Liu, Lei Zhang, Hailan Chen, Michael G. Kong

Bioelectrics Publications

ABSTRACT Viruses cause serious pathogenic contamination that severely affects the environment and human health. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma efficiently inactivates pathogenic bacteria; however, the mechanism of virus inactivation by plasma is not fully understood. In this study, surface plasma in argon mixed with 1% air and plasma-activated water was used to treat water containing bacteriophages. Both agents efficiently inactivated bacteriophages T4, ϕ174, and MS2 in a time-dependent manner. Prolonged storage had marginal effects on the antiviral activity of plasma-activated water. DNA and protein analysis revealed that the reactive species generated by plasma damaged both nucleic acids and proteins, consistent with the ...


Optimization Of Gpu-Accelerated Iterative Ct Reconstruction Algorithm For Clinical Use, Tao Ge 2018 Washington University in St. Louis

Optimization Of Gpu-Accelerated Iterative Ct Reconstruction Algorithm For Clinical Use, Tao Ge

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

In order to transition the GPU-accelerated CT reconstruction algorithm to a more clinical environment, a graphical user interface is implemented. Some optimization methods on the implementation are presented. We describe the alternating minimization (AM) algorithm as the updating algorithm, and the branchless distance-driven method for the system forward operator. We introduce a version of the Feldkamp-Davis-Kress algorithm to generate the initial image for our alternating minimization algorithm and compare it to a choice of a constant initial image. For the sake of better rate of convergence, we introduce the ordered-subsets method, find the optimal number of ordered subsets, and discuss ...


Longitudinal Tracking Of Physiological State With Electromyographic Signals., Robert Warren Stallard 2018 University of Louisville

Longitudinal Tracking Of Physiological State With Electromyographic Signals., Robert Warren Stallard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Electrophysiological measurements have been used in recent history to classify instantaneous physiological configurations, e.g., hand gestures. This work investigates the feasibility of working with changes in physiological configurations over time (i.e., longitudinally) using a variety of algorithms from the machine learning domain. We demonstrate a high degree of classification accuracy for a binary classification problem derived from electromyography measurements before and after a 35-day bedrest. The problem difficulty is increased with a more dynamic experiment testing for changes in astronaut sensorimotor performance by taking electromyography and force plate measurements before, during, and after a jump from a small ...


Segmentation, Tracking, And Kinematics Of Lung Parenchyma And Lung Tumors From 4d Ct With Application To Radiation Treatment Planning., Jungwon Cha 2018 University of Louisville

Segmentation, Tracking, And Kinematics Of Lung Parenchyma And Lung Tumors From 4d Ct With Application To Radiation Treatment Planning., Jungwon Cha

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis is concerned with development of techniques for efficient computerized analysis of 4-D CT data. The goal is to have a highly automated approach to segmentation of the lung boundary and lung nodules inside the lung. The determination of exact lung tumor location over space and time by image segmentation is an essential step to track thoracic malignancies. Accurate image segmentation helps clinical experts examine the anatomy and structure and determine the disease progress. Since 4-D CT provides structural and anatomical information during tidal breathing, we use the same data to also measure mechanical properties related to deformation of ...


Phase Unwrapping Of 4d-Flow Mri Data With Graph Cuts., Andrew Justice 2018 University of Louisville

Phase Unwrapping Of 4d-Flow Mri Data With Graph Cuts., Andrew Justice

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A common issue when measuring velocity utilizing 4D flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is aliasing that occurs because of a low velocity encoding parameter (VENC). Aliasing can be avoided if the velocity encoding parameter is set above the largest velocity quantity. However, when this is done the velocity to noise ratio is lowered less detail is acquired in the image. Thusly, it is sometimes desirable to have a below the maximum velocity to acquire higher quality data.

Consequently, an efficient and robust algorithm is needed to unwrap the aliased data. This paper proposes an iterative graph cuts algorithm to perform ...


Image Processing Applications In Real Life: 2d Fragmented Image And Document Reassembly And Frequency Division Multiplexed Imaging, Houman Kamran Habibkhani, Houman Kamran Habibkhani 2018 Louisiana State University

Image Processing Applications In Real Life: 2d Fragmented Image And Document Reassembly And Frequency Division Multiplexed Imaging, Houman Kamran Habibkhani, Houman Kamran Habibkhani

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

In this era of modern technology, image processing is one the most studied disciplines of signal processing and its applications can be found in every aspect of our daily life. In this work three main applications for image processing has been studied.

In chapter 1, frequency division multiplexed imaging (FDMI), a novel idea in the field of computational photography, has been introduced. Using FDMI, multiple images are captured simultaneously in a single shot and can later be extracted from the multiplexed image. This is achieved by spatially modulating the images so that they are placed at different locations in the ...


Generalized Robust Mtl Semantics For Problems In Cardiac Electrophysiology, Houssam Abbas, Rahul Mangharam 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Generalized Robust Mtl Semantics For Problems In Cardiac Electrophysiology, Houssam Abbas, Rahul Mangharam

Real-Time and Embedded Systems Lab (mLAB)

Robustness-Guided Falsification (RGF) is an efficient

testing technique that tries to find a system execution that

violates some formal specification, by minimizing the robustness

of the specification over the set of initial conditions of the

system. Robustness uses an underlying distance function on

the space of system executions. As RGF is applied to new fields

like medicine, it is essential to determine whether our distances

still capture the domain expert’s intuition of which executions

are similar and which are not. Motivated by the problem of

testing the algorithms of cardiac defibrillators implanted in

millions of patients worldwide, this work ...


Deep Gaze Velocity Analysis During Mammographic Reading For Biometric Identification Of Radiologists, Hong-Jun Yoon, Folami Alamudun, Kathy Hudson, Garnetta Morin-Ducote, Georgia Tourassi 2018 Biomedical Sciences, Engineering, and Computing Group Health Data Sciences Institute, Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Deep Gaze Velocity Analysis During Mammographic Reading For Biometric Identification Of Radiologists, Hong-Jun Yoon, Folami Alamudun, Kathy Hudson, Garnetta Morin-Ducote, Georgia Tourassi

Journal of Human Performance in Extreme Environments

Several studies have confirmed that the gaze velocity of the human eye can be utilized as a behavioral biometric or personalized biomarker. In this study, we leverage the local feature representation capacity of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for eye gaze velocity analysis as the basis for biometric identification of radiologists performing breast cancer screening. Using gaze data collected from 10 radiologists reading 100 mammograms of various diagnoses, we compared the performance of a CNN-based classification algorithm with two deep learning classifiers, deep neural network and deep belief network, and a previously presented hidden Markov model classifier. The study showed that ...


Plasmonic Nanoplatforms For Biochemical Sensing And Medical Applications, Arash Ahmadivand 2018 Florida International University

Plasmonic Nanoplatforms For Biochemical Sensing And Medical Applications, Arash Ahmadivand

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Plasmonics, the science of the excitation of surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) at the metal-dielectric interface under intense beam radiation, has been studied for its immense potential for developing numerous nanophotonic devices, optical circuits and lab-on-a-chip devices. The key feature, which makes the plasmonic structures promising is the ability to support strong resonances with different behaviors and tunable localized hotspots, excitable in a wide spectral range. Therefore, the fundamental understanding of light-matter interactions at subwavelength nanostructures and use of this understanding to tailor plasmonic nanostructures with the ability to sustain high-quality tunable resonant modes are essential toward the realization of highly ...


Big Data And Parkinson’S Disease: Exploration, Analyses, And Data Challenges, Mahalakshmi SenthilarumugamVeilukandammal, Sree Nilakanta, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Vellareddy Anantharam, Anumantha Kanthasamy, Auriel A. Willette 2018 Iowa State University

Big Data And Parkinson’S Disease: Exploration, Analyses, And Data Challenges, Mahalakshmi Senthilarumugamveilukandammal, Sree Nilakanta, Baskar Ganapathysubramanian, Vellareddy Anantharam, Anumantha Kanthasamy, Auriel A. Willette

Mechanical Engineering Conference Presentations, Papers, and Proceedings

In healthcare, a tremendous amount of clinical and laboratory tests, imaging, prescription and medication data are being collected. Big data analytics on these data aim at early detection of disease which will help in developing preventive measures and in improving patient care. Parkinson disease is the second-most common neurodegenerative disorder in the United States. To find a cure for Parkinson's disease biological, clinical and behavioral data of different cohorts are collected, managed and propagated through Parkinson’s Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI). Applying big data technology to this data will lead to the identification of the potential biomarkers of Parkinson ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress