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Biochemical and Biomolecular Engineering Commons

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Biomimetic Devices To Drive A Thermodynamically Uphill Reaction Using Light And To Degrade Industrial Waste Stream Components, Madison JoAnne Sloan 2017 University of Kentucky

Biomimetic Devices To Drive A Thermodynamically Uphill Reaction Using Light And To Degrade Industrial Waste Stream Components, Madison Joanne Sloan

Theses and Dissertations--Chemistry

Given the amount of industrial waste produced each year, as well as the accruing amount of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere produced by the burning of fossil fuels, it is imperative that humanity develop environmentally-sustainable sources of energy and methods of remediation. Nature achieves both of these by use of enzymes as catalysts, inspiring interest in designing biomimetic systems capable of harnessing clean energy and remediating industrial waste. This study examined the ability of enzymes in electrochemical and convective flow systems to achieve these tasks. The first portion studied the incorporation of enzymes into an electrochemical system to drive the ...


Novel Approaches To Bioengineering Target Identification: A Focus On Non-Genetic Contributions To Complex Bacterial Phenotypes, Keesha Elizabeth Erickson 2017 University of Colorado at Boulder

Novel Approaches To Bioengineering Target Identification: A Focus On Non-Genetic Contributions To Complex Bacterial Phenotypes, Keesha Elizabeth Erickson

Chemical & Biological Engineering Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Many critical societal issues could be alleviated via advances in biological engineering, specifically those bolstering our ability to design complex phenotypes like bacterial tolerance, resistance, and chemical production. Complex phenotypes are controlled through overlapping regulatory mechanisms encompassing multiple systems, including metabolism, cellular structure, energy consumption, and more. Moreover, immense heterogeneity within and across bacterial populations makes it challenging to discern key genes and pathways contributing to phenotypes of interest. Thus, to enable engineering of complex bacterial phenotypes, it is essential to consider unconventional perspectives from which to identify targets.

Here, we describe efforts concentrated on non-genetic data to ascertain key ...


Protein Release Study Using Heparin Modified Methacrylamide Chitosan Hydrogels, Dakotah G. Cox 2017 The University of Akron

Protein Release Study Using Heparin Modified Methacrylamide Chitosan Hydrogels, Dakotah G. Cox

Honors Research Projects

This study was performed to improve the release of proteins from hydrogels in order to increase their effectiveness in treating spinal cord injuries. Heparin, which has the ability to bind to proteins and slow their release, underwent methacrylation, was added to prepared methacrylamide chitosan (MAC) solutions with a model protein (SDF-1α) and photopolymerized to create MAC-heparin hydrogels. Varying weight percentages of methacrylated heparin were tested in order to determine the optimal amount needed to improve the release profile. The pure MAC hydrogels and gels with 10 wt% heparin had a rapid release of the SDF-1α (>23% and >29%, respectively, in ...


The Influence Of Light On The Electrochemical Characteristics Of Pure Aluminum, Hongbo M. Cong 2017 The University of Akron

The Influence Of Light On The Electrochemical Characteristics Of Pure Aluminum, Hongbo M. Cong

Honors Research Projects

The objective of this work was to study the influence of light (wave length ~ 460 nm) on the electrochemical characteristics of pure aluminum. The open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, potentiostatic polarization, cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and Zero Resistance Ammetry (ZRA) were performed in 0.1 M NaCl solution. It was observed that the incident light shifted the OCP in the noble direction by 100 mV. Furthermore, ZRA was performed to measure the galvanic current between illuminated and non-illuminated aluminum electrodes. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization tests revealed the influence of light on the pitting potential, passive current density, corrosion current density, and repassivation ...


Vitreous Gel Physics, Svetlana Morozova 2017 University of Massachusetts - Amherst

Vitreous Gel Physics, Svetlana Morozova

Doctoral Dissertations

The transparent vitreous, which fills the posterior cavity of the eye, is incredibly engineered. The charged polyelectrolyte hyaluronic acid (HA) network swells to maintain the pressure in the eye, while stiff collagen type II bundles help absorb any external mechanical shock. Our investigations have contributed to a few key developments related to the physical properties of the vitreous:

(1) The stiff collagen network that supports the soft gel network is self-assembled from single triple-helix collagen proteins. Electrostatic interactions drive this assembly, such that the size and concentration are optimized at physiological salt concentrations. The width of the assemblies remarkably changes ...


The Effects Of Adaptogens On The Physical And Psychological Symptoms Of Chronic Stress, Tosin O. Ajala 2017 Georgia State University

The Effects Of Adaptogens On The Physical And Psychological Symptoms Of Chronic Stress, Tosin O. Ajala

DISCOVERY: Georgia State Honors College Undergraduate Research Journal

Stress is a state of disharmony or threatened homeostasis. The maintenance of homeostasis in stages of internal or external challenges, called stressors, requires constant adjustments of hormonal, behavioral, and autonomic functions. The nuances of life may bring about unwanted stress to the human body. Some of the top causes of stress in America include work, finances, relationships, and health. There are numerous physical and psychological symptoms associated with long-term “chronic” stress, which include chronic fatigue, frustration, irritability, insomnia, frequent headaches, chest and back pain, weakness, and weight gain or weight loss. These symptoms of chronic stress are associated with depression ...


Designing And Development Of A Photobioreactor For Optimizing The Growth Of Micro Algae And Studying Its Growth Parameters, Sarmila Katuwal 2017 South Dakota State University

Designing And Development Of A Photobioreactor For Optimizing The Growth Of Micro Algae And Studying Its Growth Parameters, Sarmila Katuwal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis presents the estimated value of materials required to grow 1g of biomass and the analysis of the light intensity with respect to flow path and flow rate. This thesis aims to design the sparger for a flat plate Photobioreactor, study the flow patterns at different flow rate of air flow and check the performance of flat plate PBR by growing the cyanobacteria. The estimated value to produce 1g of biomass (C44.6H7O25N7.68P0.9S0.3) was 0.099g of N, 0.493g of C, 0.160 g ...


Cis,Cis-Muconic Acid Isomerization And Catalytic Conversion To Biobased Cyclic-C6-1,4-Diacid Monomers, Jack M. Carraher, Toni Pfennig, Radhika Rao, Brent H. Shanks, Jean-Philippe Tessonnier 2017 Iowa State University

Cis,Cis-Muconic Acid Isomerization And Catalytic Conversion To Biobased Cyclic-C6-1,4-Diacid Monomers, Jack M. Carraher, Toni Pfennig, Radhika Rao, Brent H. Shanks, Jean-Philippe Tessonnier

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Renewable terephthalic and 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acids can be produced from biomass via muconic acid using a combination of biological and chemical processes. In this conversion scheme, cis,cis-mucononic acid is first obtained by fermentation using either sugar or lignin monomers as a feedstock. The diunsaturated cis,cis-diacid is then isomerized to trans,trans-muconic acid, reacted with biobased ethylene through Diels–Alder cycloaddition, and further hydrogenated or dehydrogenated to yield the desired 100% renewable cyclic dicarboxylic acid. The isomerization of cis,cis- to trans,trans-muconic acid represents the main bottleneck in this process due to undesired side reactions that promote ring ...


Enzymatically Active Microspheres For Self-Propelled Colloidal Engines, Jungeun Park 2017 CUNY City College of New York

Enzymatically Active Microspheres For Self-Propelled Colloidal Engines, Jungeun Park

Master's Theses

Micro- and nano-motors have attracted numerous attentions from various scientific areas due to their potential applications. Most studies on self-propelled colloidal engines have exploited catalytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to drive the motor. Since the hydrogen peroxide is caustic, it is not suitable to use in biological applications, encouraging people to develop “greener” fuels. The aim of this research is to study a new transduction mechanism for self-propulsion not tied to hydrogen peroxide, and which can in particular be used with biological molecules as fuels. In this study, we focus on making particles with enzymatic activity which can effectively decompose ...


Atomistic Simulations Of Unfolded And Intrinsically Disordered Protein Ensembles And Biological Self-Assembly, Halime Gul Zerze 2017 Lehigh University

Atomistic Simulations Of Unfolded And Intrinsically Disordered Protein Ensembles And Biological Self-Assembly, Halime Gul Zerze

Theses and Dissertations

Complex molecular networks of living organisms primarily involve proteins, bio-macromolecules which involve in every biochemical process of a living organism. As traditionally known, each protein carries out a unique function associated with the unique structure of each protein, which indeed is encoded in the amino acid sequence. Proteins acquire their unique “native” structure following one of the most fundamental biological self-organization process. The progress accomplished in understanding of this physical process, called protein folding, significantly evolved our current understanding of how living organisms function. More recently, a more complete picture of the proteome from many organisms revealed that many ...


Novel Experimental Method For The Determination Of The Minimum Agitation Speed For Solids Suspension In Flat-Bottomed Stirred Tank Reactors, Shriarjun Shastry 2016 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Novel Experimental Method For The Determination Of The Minimum Agitation Speed For Solids Suspension In Flat-Bottomed Stirred Tank Reactors, Shriarjun Shastry

Theses

Knowledge of the minimum agitation speed, Njs, required to suspend finely divided solids in vessels stirred by an impeller is a critical parameter to properly operate industrial tanks in a large number of industrial operations. The most common


Elucidating The Effects Of Metabolic State On Nanoparticle Distribution In Mice And In Vitro Uptake, Kevin James Quigley 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Elucidating The Effects Of Metabolic State On Nanoparticle Distribution In Mice And In Vitro Uptake, Kevin James Quigley

Doctoral Dissertations

Since almost 70% of the U.S. population over 20 years old is overweight and 30% is obese, with much of the western world following suit, many patients that will potentially be administered circulating nanoparticles designed to localize to tumors and avoid non-target areas will have significant amounts of white adipose tissue (WAT), enlarged livers, and additional metabolic complications such as type 2 diabetes. However, studies on nanoparticle biodistribution and efficacy take place almost without exception in lean rodents with healthy metabolic states. In this work, I determined the biodistribution of model nanoparticles – neutral filomicelles and polystyrene spheres both carrying ...


Membrane Chromatography For Bioseparations: Ligand Design And Optimization, Zizhao Liu 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Membrane Chromatography For Bioseparations: Ligand Design And Optimization, Zizhao Liu

Theses and Dissertations

Membrane chromatography, or membrane adsorber, represents an attractive alternative to conventional packed bed chromatography used in downstream processing. Membrane chromatography has many advantages, including high productivity, low buffer consumption and ease to scale up. This doctoral dissertation focuses on developing novel polymeric ligands for protein separations using membrane chromatography. Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), known as a controlled radical polymerization technique, has been used to control the architecture of grafted polymeric ligands. The center theme of this dissertation is to develop new polymeric ligands and investigate how the polymer’s property (e.g. flexibility, hydrophobicity) and architecture (e.g. chain ...


Lignin Maximization: Analyzing The Impact Of Different Feedstocks And Feedstock Ratios Using Organosolv Fractionation, Marc Banholzer 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Lignin Maximization: Analyzing The Impact Of Different Feedstocks And Feedstock Ratios Using Organosolv Fractionation, Marc Banholzer

Masters Theses

Over-exploitation of fossil fuels coupled with increasing pressure to reduce carbon emissions are prompting a transition from conventional petrochemical feedstocks to sustainable and renewable sourced carbon. The use of lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for integrated biorefining is of current high interest, as separation into its component parts affords process streams of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, each of which can serve as a starting point for the production of biobased chemicals and fuels. Given the large number of potential sources of lignocellulosic feedstocks, the biorefinery will need to adapt to the supplies available over a normal growing season. Of particular ...


Characterization Of Molecular Communication Based On Cell Metabolism Through Mutual Information And Flux Balance Analysis, Zahmeeth Sayed Sakkaff 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Characterization Of Molecular Communication Based On Cell Metabolism Through Mutual Information And Flux Balance Analysis, Zahmeeth Sayed Sakkaff

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Synthetic biology is providing novel tools to engineer cells and access the basis of their molecular information processing, including their communication channels based on chemical reactions and molecule exchange. Molecular communication is a discipline in communication engineering that studies these types of communications and ways to exploit them for novel purposes, such as the development of ubiquitous and heterogeneous communication networks to interconnect biological cells with nano and biotechnology-enabled devices, i.e., the Internet of Bio-Nano Things. One major problem in realizing these goals stands in the development of reliable techniques to control the engineered cells and their behavior from ...


Co-Substrate Fermentation Of Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers And Crude Glycerol To Butanol With Integrated Product Recovery, Tahereh Sarchami 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Co-Substrate Fermentation Of Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers And Crude Glycerol To Butanol With Integrated Product Recovery, Tahereh Sarchami

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Butanol has long been considered a potential advanced liquid biofuel, in addition to its current application as an industrial solvent. It can be produced biologically; however, the conventional ABE fermentation suffers from many limitations, including low butanol titer, high cost of traditional raw materials, end-product inhibition and high butanol recovery costs. Possible solutions are the use of renewable low-cost feedstocks, genetic manipulations of Clostridia spp. to improve the strains’ butanol titer and tolerance, advanced fermentation techniques, and in-situ product recovery technologies.

In order to overcome some of these limitations, the overall goal of this thesis was to develop a process ...


Electrochemical Conversion Of Biologically Produced Muconic Acid: Key Considerations For Scale-Up And Corresponding Technoeconomic Analysis, John E. Matthiesen, Miguel Suástegui, Yutong Wu, Mothi Viswanathan, Yang Qu, Natalia Rodriguez-Quiroz, Adam Okerlund, George A. Kraus, D. Raj Raman, Zengyi Shao, Jean-Philippe Tessonnier 2016 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Electrochemical Conversion Of Biologically Produced Muconic Acid: Key Considerations For Scale-Up And Corresponding Technoeconomic Analysis, John E. Matthiesen, Miguel Suástegui, Yutong Wu, Mothi Viswanathan, Yang Qu, Natalia Rodriguez-Quiroz, Adam Okerlund, George A. Kraus, D. Raj Raman, Zengyi Shao, Jean-Philippe Tessonnier

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

We present muconic acid, an unsaturated diacid that can be produced from cellulosic sugars and lignin monomers by fermentation, emerges as a promising intermediate for the sustainable manufacture of commodity polyamides and polyesters including Nylon-6,6 and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Current conversion schemes consist in the biological production of cis,cis-muconic acid using metabolically engineered yeasts and bacteria, and the subsequent diversification to adipic acid, terephthalic acid, and their derivatives using chemical catalysts. In some instances, conventional precious metal catalysts can be advantageously replaced by base metal electrocatalysts. Here, we show the economic relevance of utilizing a hybrid biological–electrochemical ...


Subcellular And In-Vivo Nano-Endoscopy, Surya Venkatasekhar Cheemalapati, John Winskas, Hao Wang, Karthik Konnaiyan, Arseny Zhdanov, Alison Roth, Swamy Rakesh Adapa, Andrew Deonarine, Rays H. Y. Jiang, Anna Pyayt 2016 University of South Florida

Subcellular And In-Vivo Nano-Endoscopy, Surya Venkatasekhar Cheemalapati, John Winskas, Hao Wang, Karthik Konnaiyan, Arseny Zhdanov, Alison Roth, Swamy Rakesh Adapa, Andrew Deonarine, Rays H. Y. Jiang, Anna Pyayt

Chemical and Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Analysis of individual cells at the subcellular level is important for understanding diseases and accelerating drug discovery. Nanoscale endoscopes allow minimally invasive probing of individual cell interiors. Several such instruments have been presented previously, but they are either too complex to fabricate or require sophisticated external detectors because of low signal collection efficiency. Here we present a nanoendoscope that can locally excite fluorescence in labelled cell organelles and collect the emitted signal for spectral analysis. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations have shown that with an optimized nanoendoscope taper profile, the light emission and collection was localized within ~100 nm ...


Parameters Affecting Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Of Extruded Sunflower Meal, Kerry A. Campbell, Guadalupe Vaca-Medina, Charles Glatz, Pierre-Yves Pontalier 2016 Iowa State University

Parameters Affecting Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Of Extruded Sunflower Meal, Kerry A. Campbell, Guadalupe Vaca-Medina, Charles Glatz, Pierre-Yves Pontalier

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Microscopic observation of sunflower meal before and after extraction indicated that extensive cellular disruption was achieved by extrusion, but that unextracted oil remained sequestered as coalesced oil within the void spaces of disrupted cotyledon cells. A full factorial design experiment was defined to develop aqueous extraction processing (AEP) with and without enzymes to improve vegetable oil extraction yields of extruded sunflower meal. This experimental design studied the influence of four parameters, agitation, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, and cellulase and protease addition, on extraction yield of lipid and protein. Agitation and addition of cellulases increased oil extraction yield, indicating that ...


Fabrication And Cross-Linking Of L-Aspartic Acid Functionalized Poly(Ester Amide)-Based Tissue Engineering Scaffolds, Shuyu Liu 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Fabrication And Cross-Linking Of L-Aspartic Acid Functionalized Poly(Ester Amide)-Based Tissue Engineering Scaffolds, Shuyu Liu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Scaffold fabrication is essential in tissue engineering. Amino acid based poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) have been investigated as scaffold materials due to their non-toxic degradation byproducts, and easily tunable mechanical and biological properties. However, L-aspartic acid functionalized PEAs showed poor morphological stability when immersed in buffer. This work focuses on the further functionalization of L-aspartic acid based PEAs, scaffold fabrication and cross-linking of the scaffold to improve morphological stability. Photo-cross-linkable and thermally cross-linkable PEAs were synthesized successfully and characterized. Two scaffold fabrication methods were applied: 1) electrospinning was applied to photo-cross-linkable PEAs, followed by UV treatment to cross-link electrospun ...


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