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Biophysical Features Of The Extracellular Matrix Direct Breast Cancer Metastasis, Alyssa Schwartz 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Biophysical Features Of The Extracellular Matrix Direct Breast Cancer Metastasis, Alyssa Schwartz

Doctoral Dissertations

Breast cancer is plagued by two key clinical challenges; drug resistance and metastasis. Most work to date probes these events on an extremely rigid plastic surface, which recapitulates few aspects of these processes in humans. A malignant cell first resides in breast tissue, then likely travels to the bone, brain, liver, or lung, each of which has a distinct mechanical and biochemical profile. Cells transmit mechanical forces into intracellular tension and biochemical signaling events, and here we hypothesize that this mechanotransduction influences drug response, growth, and migration.

To probe the impact of extracellular matrix on drug resistance, we defined a ...


Lessons In Membrane Engineering For Octanoic Acid Production From Environmental Escherichia Coli Isolates, Yingxi Chen, Michael Reinhardt, Natalia Neris, Lucas Kerns, Thomas J. Mansell, Laura R. Jarboe 2018 Iowa State University

Lessons In Membrane Engineering For Octanoic Acid Production From Environmental Escherichia Coli Isolates, Yingxi Chen, Michael Reinhardt, Natalia Neris, Lucas Kerns, Thomas J. Mansell, Laura R. Jarboe

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Fermentative production of many attractive biorenewable fuels and chemicals is limited by product toxicity in the form of damage to the microbial cell membrane. Metabolic engineering of the production organism can help mitigate this problem, but there is a need for identification and prioritization of the most effective engineering targets. Here, we use a set of previously characterized environmental Escherichia coli isolates with high tolerance and production of octanoic acid, a model membrane-damaging biorenewable product, as a case study for identifying and prioritizing membrane engineering strategies. This characterization identified differences in the membrane lipid composition, fluidity, integrity, and cell surface ...


Treatment Of Neurodegenerative Disorders Through The Blood-Brain Barrier Using Nanocarriers, Nitya Poovaiah, Zahra Davoudi, Haisheng Peng, Benjamin Schlichtmann, Surya K. Mallapragada, Balaji Narasimhan, Qun Wang 2018 Iowa State University

Treatment Of Neurodegenerative Disorders Through The Blood-Brain Barrier Using Nanocarriers, Nitya Poovaiah, Zahra Davoudi, Haisheng Peng, Benjamin Schlichtmann, Surya K. Mallapragada, Balaji Narasimhan, Qun Wang

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Neurodegenerative diseases refer to disorders of the central nervous system (CNS) that are caused by neuronal degradations, dysfunctions, or death. Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease (APHD) are regarded as the three major neurodegenerative diseases. There is a vast body of literature on the causes and treatments of these neurodegenerative diseases. However, the main obstacle in developing an effective treatment strategy is the permeability of the treatment components to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Several strategies have been developed to improve this obstruction. For example, nanomaterials facilitate drug delivery to the BBB due to their size. They ...


Direct Quantification Of Deubiquitinating Enzyme Activity In Single Intact Cells, Nora Safabakhsh 2018 Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College

Direct Quantification Of Deubiquitinating Enzyme Activity In Single Intact Cells, Nora Safabakhsh

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Challenges in drug efficacy occur during the treatment of most types of cancer due to the heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment. This has led to the development of personalized medicine. Due to the clinical success of the proteasome inhibitors Bortezomib and Carfilzomib in treatment of multiple myeloma, interest has shifted towards molecularly-targeted chemotherapeutics for ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) are an essential part of this pathway which have been found to promote Bortezomib resistance in multiple myeloma patients. Unfortunately, there is a lack of specific, high throughput biochemical assays to characterize DUB activity in patient samples before and after ...


Anaerobic Digestion Of Aqueous Pyrolysis Condensate, Connie Wen 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Anaerobic Digestion Of Aqueous Pyrolysis Condensate, Connie Wen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Lignocellulosic material can be subjected to pyrolysis to yield pyrolysis liquid, biochar, and gas. The pyrolysis liquid resulting from the condensation of vapours can be separated into a rich organic condensate and an acidic “aqueous pyrolysis condensate” (APC) which may be considered a waste. The target of this research is subjecting APC to anaerobic digestion to produce biogas that can be energy purposed, and to reduce the organic load of APC to acceptable levels for possible disposal. From this study, it was found that without any treatment, the inoculum requires 50 to 60 days of adaptation period to reduce the ...


On-Chip Studies Of Magnetic Stimulation Effect On Single Neural Cell Viability And Proliferation On Glass And Nanoporous Surfaces, Xiangchen Che, Joseph Boldrey, Xiaojing Zhong, Shalini Unnikandam-Veettil, Ian C. Schneider, David C. Jiles, Long Que 2018 Iowa State University

On-Chip Studies Of Magnetic Stimulation Effect On Single Neural Cell Viability And Proliferation On Glass And Nanoporous Surfaces, Xiangchen Che, Joseph Boldrey, Xiaojing Zhong, Shalini Unnikandam-Veettil, Ian C. Schneider, David C. Jiles, Long Que

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive neuromodulation technique, an FDA-approved treatment method for various neurological disorders such as depressive disorder, Parkinson’s disease, post-traumatic stress disorder, and migraine. However, information concerning the molecular/cellular-level mechanisms of neurons under magnetic simulation (MS), particularly at the single neural cell level, is still lacking, resulting in very little knowledge of the effects of MS on neural cells. In this paper, the effects of MS on the behaviors of neural cell N27 at the single-cell level on coverslip glass substrate and anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous substrate are reported for the first time ...


Targeted Epigenetic Editing Using Optogenetic Tools, Joshua Hahn, Chongli Yuan 2018 Purdue University

Targeted Epigenetic Editing Using Optogenetic Tools, Joshua Hahn, Chongli Yuan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Epigenetics markers, such as DNA methylation and histone post-translational modifications, are modifications to the structure of DNA that impact gene expression without altering the genetic code. Among them, DNA methylation plays a critical role in various biological processes including the differentiation of stem cells, regulation of gene expression, and adaptation to environmental signals. The ability to modify DNA methylation at particular genes in various cell types is thus desirable for engineering specific cell phenotypes. Although technologies exist that can alter DNA methylation at target genes, these techniques lack spatial and temporal resolution and are not able to selectively edit individual ...


Uncoupling Fermentative Synthesis Of Molecular Hydrogen From Biomass Formation In Thermotoga Maritima, Raghuveer Singh, Derrick White, Yaşar Demirel, Robert Kelley, Kenneth Noll, Paul H. Blum 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Uncoupling Fermentative Synthesis Of Molecular Hydrogen From Biomass Formation In Thermotoga Maritima, Raghuveer Singh, Derrick White, Yaşar Demirel, Robert Kelley, Kenneth Noll, Paul H. Blum

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering -- All Faculty Papers

When carbohydrates are fermented by the hyperthermophilic anaerobe Thermotoga maritima, molecular hydrogen (H2) is formed in strict proportion to substrate availability. Excretion of the organic acids acetate and lactate provide an additional sink for removal of excess reductant. However, mechanisms controlling energy management of these metabolic pathways are largely unexplored. To investigate this topic, transient gene inactivation was used to block lactate production as a strategy to produce spontaneous mutant cell lines that overproduced H2 through mutation of unpredicted genetic targets. Single-crossover homologous chromosomal recombination was used to disrupt lactate dehydrogenase (encoded by ldh) with a truncated ldh ...


New Approaches In Engineering Somatic Embryogenesis In Loblolly Pine Suspension Cultures, Elizabeth Morgan Cummings Bende 2018 University of Massachusetts Amherst

New Approaches In Engineering Somatic Embryogenesis In Loblolly Pine Suspension Cultures, Elizabeth Morgan Cummings Bende

Doctoral Dissertations

Many industries including agriculture and healthcare require efficient methods for replication of plants with optimal traits. The loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) is a valuable crop in the timber industry, occupying 30 million acres of U.S. land, and breeding efforts aim to produce a crop with ideal phenotypic traits, including superior growth and wood quality. One method to large-scale clonal crop propagation is somatic embryogenesis (SE), the process through which asexual (somatic) plant cells undergo differentiation in vitro, resulting in germination-competent embryos. There are three main stages of growth and development that lead to the production of embryos: 1) aggregated ...


Creating Metamaterial Building Blocks With Directed Photochemical Metallization Of Silver Onto Dna Origami Templates, Md Mir Hossen, Lee Bendickson, Pierre Palo, Zhiqi Yao, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Andrew C. Hillier 2018 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Creating Metamaterial Building Blocks With Directed Photochemical Metallization Of Silver Onto Dna Origami Templates, Md Mir Hossen, Lee Bendickson, Pierre Palo, Zhiqi Yao, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, Andrew C. Hillier

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

DNA origami can be used to create a variety of complex and geometrically unique nanostructures that can be further modified to produce building blocks for applications such as in optical metamaterials. We describe a method for creating metal-coated nanostructures using DNA origami templates and a photochemical metallization technique. Triangular DNA origami forms were fabricated and coated with a thin metal layer by photochemical silver reduction while in solution or supported on a surface. The DNA origami template serves as a localized photosensitizer to facilitate reduction of silver ions directly from solution onto the DNA surface. The metallizing process is shown ...


Preparation Of Supramolecular Amphiphilic Cyclodextrin Bilayer Vesicles For Pharmaceutical Applications, Kate E. Frischkorn 2018 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Preparation Of Supramolecular Amphiphilic Cyclodextrin Bilayer Vesicles For Pharmaceutical Applications, Kate E. Frischkorn

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Recent pharmaceutical developments have investigated using supramolecular nanoparticles in order to increase the bioavailability and solubility of drugs delivered in various methods. Modification of the carbohydrate cyclodextrin increases the ability to encapsulate hydrophobic pharmaceutical molecules by forming a carrier with a hydrophobic core and hydrophilic exterior. Guest molecules are commonly added to these inclusion complexes in order to add stability and further increase targeting abilities of the carriers. One such guest molecule is adamantine combined with a poly(ethylene glycol) chain. Vesicles are formed by hydrating a thin film of amphiphilic cyclodextrin and guest molecules in buffer solution that mimics ...


Elucidating The Action Of A Regulatory Lipid Ligand Via Molecular Simulation: Cholesterol Swarms And The Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channel, Belinda Akpa, Nicolas Barbera, Irena Levitan 2018 North Carolina State University

Elucidating The Action Of A Regulatory Lipid Ligand Via Molecular Simulation: Cholesterol Swarms And The Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channel, Belinda Akpa, Nicolas Barbera, Irena Levitan

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Modeling Pharmaceutical Inhibition Of Glucose-Stimulated Renin-Angiotensin System In Kidneys, Ashlee N. Ford Versypt, Minu R. Pilvankar, Hui Ling Yong 2018 Oklahoma State University - Main Campus

Modeling Pharmaceutical Inhibition Of Glucose-Stimulated Renin-Angiotensin System In Kidneys, Ashlee N. Ford Versypt, Minu R. Pilvankar, Hui Ling Yong

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Learning In Bio-Molecular Computing Systems, Lauren Braun 2018 Portland State University

Learning In Bio-Molecular Computing Systems, Lauren Braun

Undergraduate Research & Mentoring Program

Many potential applications of biochemical computers involve the detection of highly adaptable and dynamic chemical systems, such as emerging pathogens. Current technology is expensive to develop and unique to each application, thus causing limitations in accessibility. In order to make this type of computing a realistic solution to problems in the medical field, a biochemical computer would need to be adaptable to work in a variety of applications. Banda et al. (2014) previously proposed a first dynamic biochemical system that was capable of autonomous learning. For this project we studied a framework similar to Banda’s but in two separate ...


Predicting The Dynamic Binding Capacities For Adsorbents Using Bsa As A Model Protein, Gaoshan Li 2018 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Predicting The Dynamic Binding Capacities For Adsorbents Using Bsa As A Model Protein, Gaoshan Li

Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Research Publications

Membrane adsorbers are one alternative to traditional bead-based chromatography that receive attention in the bioseparation process because of their ability to process material with lower residence times. However some properties of membranes make membrane adsorbers unrealistic for some applications. For example, some membrane adsorbers exhibit lower binding capacities compared with the traditional bead-based chromatography counterparts. The dynamic binding capacity (DBC) in this study is defined as the amount of protein bound in the column when the outlet reaches a certain concentration, which is 10% [2], and the equilibrium binding capacity (EBC) is the binding capacity under the equilibrium conditions, when ...


Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender 2018 Fordham University

Radical Social Ecology As Deep Pragmatism: A Call To The Abolition Of Systemic Dissonance And The Minimization Of Entropic Chaos, Arielle Brender

Student Theses 2015-Present

This paper aims to shed light on the dissonance caused by the superimposition of Dominant Human Systems on Natural Systems. I highlight the synthetic nature of Dominant Human Systems as egoic and linguistic phenomenon manufactured by a mere portion of the human population, which renders them inherently oppressive unto peoples and landscapes whose wisdom were barred from the design process. In pursuing a radical pragmatic approach to mending the simultaneous oppression and destruction of the human being and the earth, I highlight the necessity of minimizing entropic chaos caused by excess energy expenditure, an essential feature of systems that aim ...


Family Of Bodipy Photocages Cleaved By Single Photons Of Visible/Near-Infrared Light, Julie A. Peterson, Chamari Wijesooriya, Elizabeth J. Gehrmann, Kaitlyn M. Mahoney, Pratik P. Goswami, Toshia Albright, Aleem Syed, Andrew S. Dutton, Emily A. Smith, Arthur Winter 2018 Iowa State University

Family Of Bodipy Photocages Cleaved By Single Photons Of Visible/Near-Infrared Light, Julie A. Peterson, Chamari Wijesooriya, Elizabeth J. Gehrmann, Kaitlyn M. Mahoney, Pratik P. Goswami, Toshia Albright, Aleem Syed, Andrew S. Dutton, Emily A. Smith, Arthur Winter

Chemistry Publications

Photocages are light-sensitive chemical protecting groups that provide external control over when, where, and how much of a biological substrate is activated in cells using targeted light irradiation. Regrettably, most popular photocages (e.g., o-nitrobenzyl groups) absorb cell-damaging ultraviolet wavelengths. A challenge with achieving longer wavelength bond-breaking photochemistry is that long-wavelength-absorbing chromophores have shorter excited-state lifetimes and diminished excited-state energies. However, here we report the synthesis of a family of BODIPY-derived photocages with tunable absorptions across the visible/near-infrared that release chemical cargo under irradiation. Derivatives with appended styryl groups feature absorptions above 700 nm, yielding photocages cleaved with ...


Biomineralization And Bioinspired Synthesis Of Ceria And Transition Metal-Oxide Solid Solution Nanocrystals, Christopher David Curran 2018 Lehigh University

Biomineralization And Bioinspired Synthesis Of Ceria And Transition Metal-Oxide Solid Solution Nanocrystals, Christopher David Curran

Theses and Dissertations

Biomineralization is an intriguing approach to the synthesis of functional inorganic materials for energy applications whereby biological systems are engineered to mineralize inorganic materials and control their structure over multiple length scales under mild reaction conditions. Herein we demonstrate a single enzyme mediated biomineralization route to synthesize crystalline, catalytically active, quantum confined ceria (CeO2-x) and ceria-zirconia (Ce1-yZryO2-x) nanocrystals and a bio-inspired ligand mediated method for the synthesis of copper doped ceria (Ce1-yCuyO2-x) and gallium oxide. In contrast to typical synthesis routes, the crystalline oxide nanoparticles are formed at room temperature from an otherwise inert aqueous solution. An engineered form of ...


Comparing Stenotic Blood Flow In Three- And Two-Dimensional Arterial Renderings Using Computational Fluid Dynamics And Multiphase Mean Age Theory., Jacob S. Garza 2018 University of Louisville

Comparing Stenotic Blood Flow In Three- And Two-Dimensional Arterial Renderings Using Computational Fluid Dynamics And Multiphase Mean Age Theory., Jacob S. Garza

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Over one million invasive coronary angiography procedures are performed annually in patients who experience chest pain or are known to have coronary artery disease. The procedure is carried out to ascertain the degree of arterial blockage (stenosis) that hinders blood flow to the heart. A cardiologist performing the procedure determines the physiological degree of a stenosis by either visual estimation, which is routine practice, or by invasively measuring fractional flow reserve (FFR), which is the current gold standard that has been demonstrated to improve patient outcomes and temper the cost of healthcare. Nevertheless, FFR is performed in only 10–20 ...


Cross-Linking Amyloid Forming Proteins For Improved Understanding Of Early Aggregation, Gram Booth 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Cross-Linking Amyloid Forming Proteins For Improved Understanding Of Early Aggregation, Gram Booth

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Alzheimer’s disease is the only disease in the ten leading causes of death in the United states that cannot be slowed, prevented, or cured. Alzheimer’s dementia and type II diabetes are the top two diseases caused by improper protein folding, aggregation, and deposition of fibrillar plaques in tissues. These plaques, originally thought to be the cause of these diseases, have been discovered to be mostly benign and representative of the later stages of the disease. The smaller, more soluble oligomeric aggregates are responsible for the death of pancreatic and neural cells. Many oligomeric species are unstable and exist ...


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