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Understanding Glycoside Hydrolase Processivity For Improved Biomass Conversion, Suvamay Jana 2017 University of Kentucky

Understanding Glycoside Hydrolase Processivity For Improved Biomass Conversion, Suvamay Jana

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

In nature, organisms secrete synergistic enzyme cocktails to deconstruct crystalline polysaccharides, such as cellulose and chitin, to soluble sugars. The cocktails consist of multiple classes of processive and non-processive glycoside hydrolases (GH) that aid in substrate accessibility and reduce product inhibition. Processive GHs attach to chain ends and hydrolyze many glycosidic linkages in sequence to produce disaccharide units before dissociation, and as such, are responsible for the majority of hydrolytic bond cleavages. Accordingly, processive GHs are targets for activity improvements towards efficient and economical biomass conversion. However, the mechanism and factors responsible for processivity are still not understood completely at ...


Protein Release Study Using Heparin Modified Methacrylamide Chitosan Hydrogels, Dakotah G. Cox 2017 The University of Akron

Protein Release Study Using Heparin Modified Methacrylamide Chitosan Hydrogels, Dakotah G. Cox

Honors Research Projects

This study was performed to improve the release of proteins from hydrogels in order to increase their effectiveness in treating spinal cord injuries. Heparin, which has the ability to bind to proteins and slow their release, underwent methacrylation, was added to prepared methacrylamide chitosan (MAC) solutions with a model protein (SDF-1α) and photopolymerized to create MAC-heparin hydrogels. Varying weight percentages of methacrylated heparin were tested in order to determine the optimal amount needed to improve the release profile. The pure MAC hydrogels and gels with 10 wt% heparin had a rapid release of the SDF-1α (>23% and >29%, respectively, in ...


Anticancer Drugs, Le Zhao, Zengyi Shao, Jacqueline V. Shanks 2017 Iowa State University

Anticancer Drugs, Le Zhao, Zengyi Shao, Jacqueline V. Shanks

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Plant‐derived anticancer drugs play a large role in anticancer pharmaceuticals. Through reviewing the four major types of plant anticancer drugs, namely vinca alkaloids, taxane diterpenoids, podophyllotoxin lignans, and camptothecin quinoline alkaloids, this article illustrates the development process, current status, existing challenges, and future perspective of the plant anticancer drug production. Moreover, this review explains how various biotechnologies, from the mature elicitation strategy to the “omics” techniques that are still undergoing development, can be applied to address the challenges in improving the production of the plant‐sourced anticancer drugs.


Photoelectrochemical Cell Constructed From Bby Membrane With Various Substrate Materials, Yang Liu 2017 Virginia Community Colleges

Photoelectrochemical Cell Constructed From Bby Membrane With Various Substrate Materials, Yang Liu

Theses and Dissertations

Photoelectrochemical cells have been intensively studied in recent years with regard to using thylakoid and photosynthesis system I/II. BBY membrane is another protein complex that has potential to be utilized to build photoelectrochemical cells. Within the BBY membrane lies the highly active photosynthesis system II complex, which upon light activation, generates electrons transported within the electron transport chain during photosynthesis in green plants. This study presents an approach of immobilizing thylakoid or BBY membrane onto gold nanoparticle modified gold plate or multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) modified indium tin oxide vi (ITO) coated glass substrate. The results show that BBY ...


Novel Experimental Method For The Determination Of The Minimum Agitation Speed For Solids Suspension In Flat-Bottomed Stirred Tank Reactors, Shriarjun Shastry 2016 New Jersey Institute of Technology

Novel Experimental Method For The Determination Of The Minimum Agitation Speed For Solids Suspension In Flat-Bottomed Stirred Tank Reactors, Shriarjun Shastry

Theses

Knowledge of the minimum agitation speed, Njs, required to suspend finely divided solids in vessels stirred by an impeller is a critical parameter to properly operate industrial tanks in a large number of industrial operations. The most common


Characterization Of Molecular Communication Based On Cell Metabolism Through Mutual Information And Flux Balance Analysis, Zahmeeth Sayed Sakkaff 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Characterization Of Molecular Communication Based On Cell Metabolism Through Mutual Information And Flux Balance Analysis, Zahmeeth Sayed Sakkaff

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Synthetic biology is providing novel tools to engineer cells and access the basis of their molecular information processing, including their communication channels based on chemical reactions and molecule exchange. Molecular communication is a discipline in communication engineering that studies these types of communications and ways to exploit them for novel purposes, such as the development of ubiquitous and heterogeneous communication networks to interconnect biological cells with nano and biotechnology-enabled devices, i.e., the Internet of Bio-Nano Things. One major problem in realizing these goals stands in the development of reliable techniques to control the engineered cells and their behavior from ...


Elucidating The Effects Of Metabolic State On Nanoparticle Distribution In Mice And In Vitro Uptake, Kevin James Quigley 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Elucidating The Effects Of Metabolic State On Nanoparticle Distribution In Mice And In Vitro Uptake, Kevin James Quigley

Doctoral Dissertations

Since almost 70% of the U.S. population over 20 years old is overweight and 30% is obese, with much of the western world following suit, many patients that will potentially be administered circulating nanoparticles designed to localize to tumors and avoid non-target areas will have significant amounts of white adipose tissue (WAT), enlarged livers, and additional metabolic complications such as type 2 diabetes. However, studies on nanoparticle biodistribution and efficacy take place almost without exception in lean rodents with healthy metabolic states. In this work, I determined the biodistribution of model nanoparticles – neutral filomicelles and polystyrene spheres both carrying ...


Membrane Chromatography For Bioseparations: Ligand Design And Optimization, Zizhao Liu 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Membrane Chromatography For Bioseparations: Ligand Design And Optimization, Zizhao Liu

Theses and Dissertations

Membrane chromatography, or membrane adsorber, represents an attractive alternative to conventional packed bed chromatography used in downstream processing. Membrane chromatography has many advantages, including high productivity, low buffer consumption and ease to scale up. This doctoral dissertation focuses on developing novel polymeric ligands for protein separations using membrane chromatography. Atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP), known as a controlled radical polymerization technique, has been used to control the architecture of grafted polymeric ligands. The center theme of this dissertation is to develop new polymeric ligands and investigate how the polymer’s property (e.g. flexibility, hydrophobicity) and architecture (e.g. chain ...


Lignin Maximization: Analyzing The Impact Of Different Feedstocks And Feedstock Ratios Using Organosolv Fractionation, Marc Banholzer 2016 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Lignin Maximization: Analyzing The Impact Of Different Feedstocks And Feedstock Ratios Using Organosolv Fractionation, Marc Banholzer

Masters Theses

Over-exploitation of fossil fuels coupled with increasing pressure to reduce carbon emissions are prompting a transition from conventional petrochemical feedstocks to sustainable and renewable sourced carbon. The use of lignocellulosic biomass as a feedstock for integrated biorefining is of current high interest, as separation into its component parts affords process streams of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, each of which can serve as a starting point for the production of biobased chemicals and fuels. Given the large number of potential sources of lignocellulosic feedstocks, the biorefinery will need to adapt to the supplies available over a normal growing season. Of particular ...


Co-Substrate Fermentation Of Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers And Crude Glycerol To Butanol With Integrated Product Recovery, Tahereh Sarchami 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Co-Substrate Fermentation Of Jerusalem Artichoke Tubers And Crude Glycerol To Butanol With Integrated Product Recovery, Tahereh Sarchami

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Butanol has long been considered a potential advanced liquid biofuel, in addition to its current application as an industrial solvent. It can be produced biologically; however, the conventional ABE fermentation suffers from many limitations, including low butanol titer, high cost of traditional raw materials, end-product inhibition and high butanol recovery costs. Possible solutions are the use of renewable low-cost feedstocks, genetic manipulations of Clostridia spp. to improve the strains’ butanol titer and tolerance, advanced fermentation techniques, and in-situ product recovery technologies.

In order to overcome some of these limitations, the overall goal of this thesis was to develop a process ...


Electrochemical Conversion Of Biologically Produced Muconic Acid: Key Considerations For Scale-Up And Corresponding Technoeconomic Analysis, John E. Matthiesen, Miguel Suástegui, Yutong Wu, Mothi Viswanathan, Yang Qu, Natalia Rodriguez-Quiroz, Adam Okerlund, George A. Kraus, D. Raj Raman, Zengyi Shao, Jean-Philippe Tessonnier 2016 Iowa State University and Ames Laboratory

Electrochemical Conversion Of Biologically Produced Muconic Acid: Key Considerations For Scale-Up And Corresponding Technoeconomic Analysis, John E. Matthiesen, Miguel Suástegui, Yutong Wu, Mothi Viswanathan, Yang Qu, Natalia Rodriguez-Quiroz, Adam Okerlund, George A. Kraus, D. Raj Raman, Zengyi Shao, Jean-Philippe Tessonnier

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

We present muconic acid, an unsaturated diacid that can be produced from cellulosic sugars and lignin monomers by fermentation, emerges as a promising intermediate for the sustainable manufacture of commodity polyamides and polyesters including Nylon-6,6 and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). Current conversion schemes consist in the biological production of cis,cis-muconic acid using metabolically engineered yeasts and bacteria, and the subsequent diversification to adipic acid, terephthalic acid, and their derivatives using chemical catalysts. In some instances, conventional precious metal catalysts can be advantageously replaced by base metal electrocatalysts. Here, we show the economic relevance of utilizing a hybrid biological–electrochemical ...


Subcellular And In-Vivo Nano-Endoscopy, Surya Venkatasekhar Cheemalapati, John Winskas, Hao Wang, Karthik Konnaiyan, Arseny Zhdanov, Alison Roth, Swamy Rakesh Adapa, Andrew Deonarine, Rays H. Y. Jiang, Anna Pyayt 2016 University of South Florida

Subcellular And In-Vivo Nano-Endoscopy, Surya Venkatasekhar Cheemalapati, John Winskas, Hao Wang, Karthik Konnaiyan, Arseny Zhdanov, Alison Roth, Swamy Rakesh Adapa, Andrew Deonarine, Rays H. Y. Jiang, Anna Pyayt

Chemical and Biomedical Engineering Faculty Publications

Analysis of individual cells at the subcellular level is important for understanding diseases and accelerating drug discovery. Nanoscale endoscopes allow minimally invasive probing of individual cell interiors. Several such instruments have been presented previously, but they are either too complex to fabricate or require sophisticated external detectors because of low signal collection efficiency. Here we present a nanoendoscope that can locally excite fluorescence in labelled cell organelles and collect the emitted signal for spectral analysis. Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulations have shown that with an optimized nanoendoscope taper profile, the light emission and collection was localized within ~100 nm ...


Parameters Affecting Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Of Extruded Sunflower Meal, Kerry A. Campbell, Guadalupe Vaca-Medina, Charles Glatz, Pierre-Yves Pontalier 2016 Iowa State University

Parameters Affecting Enzyme-Assisted Aqueous Extraction Of Extruded Sunflower Meal, Kerry A. Campbell, Guadalupe Vaca-Medina, Charles Glatz, Pierre-Yves Pontalier

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Microscopic observation of sunflower meal before and after extraction indicated that extensive cellular disruption was achieved by extrusion, but that unextracted oil remained sequestered as coalesced oil within the void spaces of disrupted cotyledon cells. A full factorial design experiment was defined to develop aqueous extraction processing (AEP) with and without enzymes to improve vegetable oil extraction yields of extruded sunflower meal. This experimental design studied the influence of four parameters, agitation, liquid/solid (L/S) ratio, and cellulase and protease addition, on extraction yield of lipid and protein. Agitation and addition of cellulases increased oil extraction yield, indicating that ...


Fabrication And Cross-Linking Of L-Aspartic Acid Functionalized Poly(Ester Amide)-Based Tissue Engineering Scaffolds, Shuyu Liu 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Fabrication And Cross-Linking Of L-Aspartic Acid Functionalized Poly(Ester Amide)-Based Tissue Engineering Scaffolds, Shuyu Liu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Scaffold fabrication is essential in tissue engineering. Amino acid based poly(ester amide)s (PEAs) have been investigated as scaffold materials due to their non-toxic degradation byproducts, and easily tunable mechanical and biological properties. However, L-aspartic acid functionalized PEAs showed poor morphological stability when immersed in buffer. This work focuses on the further functionalization of L-aspartic acid based PEAs, scaffold fabrication and cross-linking of the scaffold to improve morphological stability. Photo-cross-linkable and thermally cross-linkable PEAs were synthesized successfully and characterized. Two scaffold fabrication methods were applied: 1) electrospinning was applied to photo-cross-linkable PEAs, followed by UV treatment to cross-link electrospun ...


Abe Fermentation From Low Cost Substrates, Kai Gao 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Abe Fermentation From Low Cost Substrates, Kai Gao

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The high cost of substrate and product inhibition in the fermentation broth remains two major problems associated with bio-butanol production. This thesis aims to solve these problems by examining abundant lignocellulosic biomass as potential feedstocks and exploring novel substrates such as carbohydrates derived from microalgae for ABE fermentation. The commonly observed toxic effect after pretreatment of lignocelluslosic biomass was removed by resin adsorption, where the resin could also serve as an in-situ butanol recvoery devices.

Corn cobs (an agricultural waste), switchgrass (an energy crop) and phragmites (an invasive plant in North America) were investigated as substrates for ABE fermentation by ...


Methanol And Dimethyl Ether From Renewable Hydrogen And Carbon Dioxide: Alternative Fuels Production And Life-Cycle Assessment, Michael J. Matzen, Yaşar Demirel 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Methanol And Dimethyl Ether From Renewable Hydrogen And Carbon Dioxide: Alternative Fuels Production And Life-Cycle Assessment, Michael J. Matzen, Yaşar Demirel

Yasar Demirel Publications

In this work we investigate two renewably based alternative fuels; methanol and dimethyl ether. The ultimate feedstocks for production are wind-based electrolytic hydrogen and carbon dioxide captured from an ethanol fermentation process. Dimethyl ether production was modeled in ASPEN Plus using a previously simulated methanol production facility. The facilities use 18.6 metric tons (mt) of H2 and 138.4 mt CO2 per day. Methanol is produced at a rate 96.7 mt/day (99.5 wt%) and dimethyl ether is produced at a rate of 68.5 mt/day (99.6 wt%). A full comparative life-cycle assessment ...


Biohydrogen And Biomethane Production From Lignocellulosic Biomass, Chinaza Okeoghene Akobi 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Biohydrogen And Biomethane Production From Lignocellulosic Biomass, Chinaza Okeoghene Akobi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of furfural on mixed cultures during fermentative hydrogen production from lignocellulosic biomass. Small batch studies using synthetic lignocellulosic hydrolysate grown on mesophilic mixed cultures, revealed a threshold furfural concentration of greater than 1 g/L with enhancement to the yields (from the control) observed at 0.5 g/L furfural (at initial substrate-to–biomass (S°/X°) ratios of 0.5 and 1 gCOD/gVSS) and at both 0.5 g/L and 1 g/L furfural (at S°/X° of 2 and 4 gCOD/gVSS). This study was scaled-up ...


Hydrothermal Liquefaction Of High-Water Content Biomass And Waste Materials For The Production Of Biogas And Bio-Crude Oil, Laleh Nazari 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Hydrothermal Liquefaction Of High-Water Content Biomass And Waste Materials For The Production Of Biogas And Bio-Crude Oil, Laleh Nazari

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Growing interest in renewable energies due to shrinking reserves of fossil fuels and climate change concerns have led to extensive research towards gaseous and liquid fuels production from renewable energy resources such as biomass and wastes. Energy generation from municipal and industrial wastes such as wastewater sludge is also environmental friendly way to deal with large volume of waste disposal with the additional advantage of eliminating part of the indirect greenhouse gas emissions from energy crops-derived biofuels.

In this thesis, a novel process for co-production of biogas and bio-crude oil from high-water-content wastewater sludge through hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) treatments is ...


Development And Characterization Of Oxygen Sensitive Microbial Biosensors, Jonathan Lee 2016 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Development And Characterization Of Oxygen Sensitive Microbial Biosensors, Jonathan Lee

Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Research Publications

Microbial biosensors are useful in detecting suboptimal conditions in a bioreactor. This detection can help in development of improved mixing methods to reduce the occurrence of these conditions. In this research, the activities of 3 promoters known to have activity under anaerobic conditions, the gadB promoter, an FNR protein activated promoter, and the pfl promoter, were tested for activity under anaerobic conditions by connecting them to a green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene. Using two types of media, Luria-Bertani (LB) and Wilms-Reuss media, the activity of these promoters under aerobic and anaerobic conditions were tested. Results indicate that while the FNR ...


Studies On Nanocomposite Coating Produced By Laser-Assisted Process To Prevent Silicone Hydrogels From Bio-Fouling, Vishnuvardhana Wuppaladhodi 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Studies On Nanocomposite Coating Produced By Laser-Assisted Process To Prevent Silicone Hydrogels From Bio-Fouling, Vishnuvardhana Wuppaladhodi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis, silver nanoparticles incorporated into polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were deposited on silicone hydrogel to improve the hydrophilicity of the silicone hydrogel and prevent the growth of bacteria. Two different processes were employed to produce Ag nanoparticles: (1) Process-A is a photochemical reduction; (2) Process-B is laser ablation in liquid. Following that, MAPLE process was employed to deposit the Ag-PVP nanocomposites on the surface of silicone hydrogel. A solid-state pulsed laser (Nd:YAG) with a wavelength of 532 nm at a fluence of 50.4 mJ/cm2 was used in the MAPLE system to deposit Ag-PVP nanocomposite coating. Our ...


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