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Peptide-Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles For Cancer Therapy Applications, Anastasia K. Hauser 2016 University of Kentucky

Peptide-Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles For Cancer Therapy Applications, Anastasia K. Hauser

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the United States. Radiation and chemotherapy are conventional treatments, but they result in serious side effects and the probability of tumor recurrence remains high. Therefore, there is an increasing need to enhance the efficacy of conventional treatments. Magnetic nanoparticles have been previously studied for a variety of applications such as magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, anemia treatment, magnetic cell sorting and magnetically mediated hyperthermia (MMH). In this work, dextran coated iron oxide nanoparticles were developed and functionalized with peptides to target the nanoparticles to either the extracellular matrix ...


Bioengineered Platforms To Study Carcinoma Cell Response To Drug Treatment, Thuy V. Nguyen 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Bioengineered Platforms To Study Carcinoma Cell Response To Drug Treatment, Thuy V. Nguyen

Doctoral Dissertations

The tumor extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in facilitating tumor growth and mediating tumor cells' resistance to drugs. However, during drug development, potential chemotherapeutics are screened in plastic plates, which lack relevant ECM physicochemical cues. In order to improve drug development process, this dissertation includes the development of relevant 2D and 3D biomaterial systems that can be used to study carcinoma cell response to drug treatment.

A novel poly(ethylene glycol)-phosphorylcholine (PEG-PC) high-throughput biomaterial platform was developed to study how the ECM mechanochemical properties affect cancer cells' response to drug. The PEG-PC biomaterial is optically transparent, has ...


Label-Free And Aptamer-Based Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy For Detection Of Food Contaminants, Shintaro Pang 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Label-Free And Aptamer-Based Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy For Detection Of Food Contaminants, Shintaro Pang

Doctoral Dissertations

The development of analytical methods to detect food contaminants is a critical step for improving food safety. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an emerging detection technology that has the potential to rapidly, accurately and sensitively detect a wide variety of food contaminants. However, SERS detection becomes a challenge in real complex matrix, such as food, since non-specific matrix signals have the potential to drown out target associated Raman peaks. In this dissertation, we focused on the development and application of label-free, aptamer-based SERS in order to improve the accuracy and specificity of target contaminant detection in food. To accomplish ...


Polycaprolactone Nanofiber Scaffold Variants For Human Periosteal Cell Growth, Christopher W. Burton 2016 University of Akron

Polycaprolactone Nanofiber Scaffold Variants For Human Periosteal Cell Growth, Christopher W. Burton

Honors Research Projects

Polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffolds with attached periosteal cells were investigated in this study for a tissue-engineering approach to repair damaged non-union injuries of periosteal tissue and bone. The research purpose was to determine whether this type of scaffold may be utilized as a substrate for periosteal tissue regeneration and to determine whether addition of silica nanoparticles (nSiO2) to PCL scaffolds enhanced the growth of cadaveric (donor) human periosteal cells in vitro. Electrospun PCL nanofiber scaffolds were fabricated with different silica additions (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) and utilized as substrates on which periosteal cells were seeded. Cell growth ...


Thermal Responsive Release Of A Model Drug, Rhoadmine B, From Alginate Bead System, Heather F. Fairbairn Miss 2016 The University of Akron

Thermal Responsive Release Of A Model Drug, Rhoadmine B, From Alginate Bead System, Heather F. Fairbairn Miss

Honors Research Projects

Smart drug delivery systems have garnered increased interest in the biomedical community during recent years. Investigation into thermal, pH, and light responsive delivery systems allows for targeted drug release systems to be developed. For this project, thermal responsive release behavior was investigated for the purpose of tuning release systems to achieve 60% release in a specified time by varying the content of thermal responsive polymer. To investigate this, the release profile of a model small hydrophilic drug (rhodamine B) from polymeric alginate beads that have been modified by the addition of thermal responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm). It was determined that ...


Construction Of Polyurethane Fabric Nanocomposites For Use In Resistance Temperature Detectors-Effect Of Polyurethane Concentration, Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes, And Oxidant, Jordan M. Shaffer 2016 University of Akron

Construction Of Polyurethane Fabric Nanocomposites For Use In Resistance Temperature Detectors-Effect Of Polyurethane Concentration, Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes, And Oxidant, Jordan M. Shaffer

Honors Research Projects

Current resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) are rigid and create pressure points when used in contact with the human body. The current RTDs can also not be used in confined areas like the inside of a prosthetic. The research done for this paper explores the possibility of creating a soft fabric like RTD that can accurately measure temperature. This RTD could be used in medical devices, be placed in prosthetic legs, and be worn for a long period of time creating no discomfort for the user. Polyurethane scaffolds were created through an electrospinning process and multiwalled carbon nanotubes were adhered to ...


Protein Sequence-Structure-Function Relationship: Testing Ke-50 Modification On Recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein (Acgfp), Anna E. Burkey 2016 University of Akron

Protein Sequence-Structure-Function Relationship: Testing Ke-50 Modification On Recombinant Green Fluorescent Protein (Acgfp), Anna E. Burkey

Honors Research Projects

Protein modification shows promise for improving the effectiveness of protein therapy, including the use of Interferon-beta-1b for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. The addition of a chain of 50 lysine and glutamic acid residues (also called a KE50 modification) was tested on green fluorescent protein (AcGFP) to determine its effect on the bioactivity of the protein. Standard transformation protocol was used to grow the normal and modified proteins in E.Coli, and the bioactivity of the protein was measured using quantum yield and extinction coefficients to determine the reduction in brightness from the native form to the modified form. The ...


Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion: Rhamnolipid Effects, Andrea M. Wildroudt 2016 The University of Akron

Microbiologically Influenced Corrosion: Rhamnolipid Effects, Andrea M. Wildroudt

Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this experiment was to identify if a rhamnolipid could inhibit the growth of a biofilm on carbon steel coupons and result in less corrosion activity. This type of research impacts various industries (with one of the largest being the oil and gas industry). Multiple systems with varying concentrations of the rhamnolipid were created to determine, if any, the optimum concentration to inhibit biofilm growth. The systems were created and exposed to optimum physio-chemical environments to promote SRB induced corrosion. Coupons were immersed for 28 days. Seven systems were created with varying rhamnolipid concentrations; to ensure accurate results ...


Calcium Alginate Microbead Production Via An Air Assisted Shearing Process, Ryan Loftus 2016 The University of Akron

Calcium Alginate Microbead Production Via An Air Assisted Shearing Process, Ryan Loftus

Honors Research Projects

The purpose of this project was to model the size of calcium alginate microbeads produced by extruding a solution of 1.5 wt.% alginate from a syringe and needle with air shear generated from a pneumatic line flowing in an annular tube around the extrusion needle. The air shear would create microdroplets that would fall into a solution of 2 wt.% calcium chloride in water, crosslinking the droplets into beads. These microbeads can be used in drug dispersion applications or in encapsulation of cells throughout the body due to their biocompatibility. The goal was to create uniform beads that ranged ...


Polyhydroxybutyrate Production In A Photobioreactor Using Spirulina Platensis, Adrianna Mika 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Polyhydroxybutyrate Production In A Photobioreactor Using Spirulina Platensis, Adrianna Mika

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Biopolymers and other naturally derived chemicals continue to gain attention over petrochemical based products due to the price volatility of crude oil, increasing need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and public awareness of environmental issues. Cyanobacterium Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis, a commercially feasible blue-green alga, is able to synthesize poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB), a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer, as an energy storage product of photosynthesis directly from CO2. A flat plate photobioreactor (PBR) with LED illumination was designed for the cultivation of S. platensis. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software was used to improve airflow uniformity and mixing in the photobioreactor. PHB ...


Modeling Styrene-Styrene Interactions, Ivana Adamovic, Hui Li, Monica H. Lamm, Mark S. Gordon 2015 Iowa State University

Modeling Styrene-Styrene Interactions, Ivana Adamovic, Hui Li, Monica H. Lamm, Mark S. Gordon

Mark S. Gordon

This study is the first step in the systematic investigation of substituted (carboxyl) polystyrene nanoparticles. Understanding the fundamental interactions between the p-carboxyl styrene monomers, where an ethyl group is used instead of a vinyl group (referenced, for convenience, as "p-carboxyl styrene"), provides the basic information needed to construct potentials for nanoparticles composed of these monomers. In this work, low-energy isomers of p-carboxyl styrene dimer were studied. The dimer structures and their relative and binding energies were determined using both Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation theory (MP2) and the general effective fragment potential (EFP2) method. Sections of the intermolecular potential energy surface ...


Ab Initio Study Of Molecular Interactions In Cellulose Iα, Ajitha Devarajan, Sergiy Markutsya, Monica H. Lamm, Xiaolin Cheng, Jeremy C. Smith, John Ysrael Baluyut, Yana Kholod, Mark S. Gordon, Theresa Lynn Windus 2015 Iowa State University

Ab Initio Study Of Molecular Interactions In Cellulose Iα, Ajitha Devarajan, Sergiy Markutsya, Monica H. Lamm, Xiaolin Cheng, Jeremy C. Smith, John Ysrael Baluyut, Yana Kholod, Mark S. Gordon, Theresa Lynn Windus

Mark S. Gordon

Biomass recalcitrance, the resistance of cellulosic biomass to degradation, is due in part to the stability of the hydrogen bond network and stacking forces between the polysaccharide chains in cellulose microfibers. The fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method at the correlated Møller-Plesset second order perturbation level of theory was used on a model of the crystalline cellulose Iα core with a total of 144 glucose units. These computations show that the intersheet chain interactions are stronger than the intrasheet chain interactions for the crystalline structure, while they are more similar to each other for a relaxed structure. An FMO chain ...


Elucidating Mechanisms Of Lipid Droplet Formation In The Fission Yeast, Schizosaccharomyces Pombe, Alexander William Meyers 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Elucidating Mechanisms Of Lipid Droplet Formation In The Fission Yeast, Schizosaccharomyces Pombe, Alexander William Meyers

Doctoral Dissertations

Cellular function relies on the proper sequestration of fats in organelles called lipid droplets. Lipid droplet metabolism is inherently linked to many disorders including obesity, type-2 diabetes, and atherosclerosis, so further elucidation of the bio-physical phenomena governing these diseases, is crucial for their respective treatments.

Once widely regarded as inert, these neutral lipid storage depots are highly dynamic and are increasingly shown to affect a wide array of biological processes. Droplet formation requires the accumulation of neutral lipids and related factors at specific cellular domains, however because this occurs at nanometer length-scales, details are lacking. Here, we try to provide ...


Production And Harvest Of Microalgae In Wastewater Raceways With Resource Recycling, Alexander Colin Roberts 2015 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Production And Harvest Of Microalgae In Wastewater Raceways With Resource Recycling, Alexander Colin Roberts

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Microalgae can be grown on municipal wastewater media to both treat the wastewater and produce feedstock for algae biofuel production. However the reliability of treatment must be demonstrated, as well as high areal algae productivity on recycled wastewater media and efficient sedimentation harvesting. This processes was studied at pilot scale in the present research.

A pilot facility was operated with nine CO2-supplemented raceway ponds, each with a 33-m2 surface area and a 0.3-m depth, continuously from March 6, 2013 through September 24, 2014. The ponds were operated as three sets of triplicates with two sets continuously ...


Biomolecular Interactions Control The Shape Of Stains From Drying Droplets Of Complex Fluids, Cedric Hurth, Ranjeesh Bhardwaj, Sahar Andalib, Christophe Frankiewicz, Andrew Dobos, Daniel Attinger, Frederic Zenhausern 2015 University of Arizona

Biomolecular Interactions Control The Shape Of Stains From Drying Droplets Of Complex Fluids, Cedric Hurth, Ranjeesh Bhardwaj, Sahar Andalib, Christophe Frankiewicz, Andrew Dobos, Daniel Attinger, Frederic Zenhausern

Mechanical Engineering Publications

When a sessile droplet of a complex fluid dries, a stain forms on the solid surface. The structure and pattern of the stain can be used to detect the presence of a specific chemical compound in the sessile droplet. In the present work, we investigate what parameters of the stain or its formation can be used to characterize the specific interaction between an aqueous dispersion of beads and its receptor immobilized on the surface. We use the biotin-streptavidin system as an experimental model. Clear dissimilarities were observed in the drying sequences on streptavidin-coated substrates of droplets of aqueous solutions containing ...


Effects Of Magnetically Induced Micro-Mixing On Nanofiltration Performance, Guanghui Song 2015 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Magnetically Induced Micro-Mixing On Nanofiltration Performance, Guanghui Song

Theses and Dissertations

Nanofiltration (NF) is a relatively new membrane separation process mainly used for removing low molecular weight species from aqueous and non-aqueous solutions. NF membranes suffer from concentration polarization leading to membrane fouling thus compromised membrane performance. Magnetically responsive nanofiltration (NF) membranes functionalized with superparamagnetic nanoparticles (SPNs) attached to the chain ends of grafted polymer nanolayers have been shown to be effective in breaking concentration polarization at the membrane-liquid interface under an appropriate external oscillating magnetic field. Under an oscillating magnetic field, the movement of the polymer chains acts as micro-mixer leading to the suppression of concentration polarization and improved filtration ...


Pyrolysis Based Biorefineries For The Production Of Fermentable Substrates, Luis Carlos Luque-Moreno 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Pyrolysis Based Biorefineries For The Production Of Fermentable Substrates, Luis Carlos Luque-Moreno

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Fast pyrolysis is rapid thermal conversion process capable of transforming multiple feedstocks into various energy carriers, specifically pyrolysis oil, bio gas, and bio char. The oil phase is of high value due to its complex mixtures of organic molecules, along with large number of anhydrous carbohydrates, which can be easily transformed into glucose via acid hydrolysis. These carbohydrates can be either biocatalyzed into fuels and chemicals by microorganisms or converted after further treatment steps. However quantities of these carbohydrates in the oil are a function of feedstock composition and process parameters. The research presented in this thesis focuses on producing ...


Ex Vivo Recapitulation Of Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy And Preliminary Assessment Of Trauma Patient Platelet Function Under Flow Using Microfluidic Technology, Ruizhi Li, Hanna Elmongy, Carrie Sims, Scott L. Diamond 2015 University of Pennsylvania

Ex Vivo Recapitulation Of Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy And Preliminary Assessment Of Trauma Patient Platelet Function Under Flow Using Microfluidic Technology, Ruizhi Li, Hanna Elmongy, Carrie Sims, Scott L. Diamond

Departmental Papers (CBE)

Background: Relevant to trauma induced coagulopathy (TIC) diagnostics, microfluidic assays allow controlled hemodynamics for testing of platelet and coagulation function using whole blood.

Methods: Hemodilution or hyperfibrinolysis was studied under flow with modified healthy whole blood. Furthermore, platelet function was also measured using whole blood from trauma patients admitted to a Level 1 Trauma center. Platelet deposition was measured with PPACK-inhibited blood perfused over collagen surfaces at a wall shear rate of 200 s-1, while platelet/fibrin deposition was measured with corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI)-treated blood perfused over TF/collagen.

Results: In hemodilution studies, PPACK-treated blood displayed almost no ...


Producing Glucose 6-Phosphate From Cellulosic Biomass Structural Insights Into Levoglucosan Bioconversion, John-Paul Bacik, Justin R. Klesmith, Timothy A. Whitehead, Laura R. Jarboe, Clifford J. Unkefer, Brian L. Mark, Ryszard Michalczyk 2015 Los Alamos National Laboratory

Producing Glucose 6-Phosphate From Cellulosic Biomass Structural Insights Into Levoglucosan Bioconversion, John-Paul Bacik, Justin R. Klesmith, Timothy A. Whitehead, Laura R. Jarboe, Clifford J. Unkefer, Brian L. Mark, Ryszard Michalczyk

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

The most abundant carbohydrate product of cellulosic biomass pyrolysis is the anhydrosugar levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose), which can be converted to glucose 6-phosphate by levoglucosan kinase (LGK). In addition to the canonical kinase phosphotransfer reaction, the conversion requires cleavage of the 1,6-anhydro ring to allow ATP-dependent phosphorylation of the sugar O6 atom. Using x-ray crystallography, we show that LGK binds two magnesium ions in the active site that are additionally coordinated with the nucleotide and water molecules to result in ideal octahedral coordination. To further verify the metal binding sites, we co-crystallized LGK in the presence of manganese instead of ...


Interfacial Properties And Iron Binding To Bacterial Proteins That Promote The Growth Of Magnetite Nanocrystals: X-Ray Reflectivity And Surface Spectroscopy Studies, Wenjie Wang, Wei Bu, Lijun Wang, Pierre E. Palo, Surya K. Mallapragada, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, David Vaknin 2015 Iowa State University

Interfacial Properties And Iron Binding To Bacterial Proteins That Promote The Growth Of Magnetite Nanocrystals: X-Ray Reflectivity And Surface Spectroscopy Studies, Wenjie Wang, Wei Bu, Lijun Wang, Pierre E. Palo, Surya K. Mallapragada, Marit Nilsen-Hamilton, David Vaknin

Wei Bu 4509464

Surface sensitive X-ray scattering and spectroscopic studies have been conducted to determine structural properties of Mms6, the protein in Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1 that is implicated as promoter of magnetite nanocrystals growth. Surface pressure versus molecular area isotherms indicate Mms6 forms stable monolayers at the aqueous/vapor interface that are strongly affected by ionic conditions of the subphase. Analysis of X-ray reflectivity from the monolayers shows that the protein conformation at the interface depends on surface pressure and on the presence of ions in the solutions, in particular of iron ions and its complexes. X-ray fluorescence at grazing angles of incidence ...


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