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Wafer Enhanced Electrodeionization For Conversion Of Co2 Into Bicarbonate Feed For Algae Cultured Photobioreactors, Kayvan Afrasiabi 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Wafer Enhanced Electrodeionization For Conversion Of Co2 Into Bicarbonate Feed For Algae Cultured Photobioreactors, Kayvan Afrasiabi

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The world has acknowledged climate change as a global crisis that demands considerable attention, with one of the largest culprit being carbon emissions from industrial processing and power generation. While reduction in carbon emissions is the principal action towards mitigating the effects of climate change, scientists and engineers have given increased attention to alternative sources of energy as well as methods of carbon sequestration to coax traditional manufactory and industry into environmentally friendly and sustainable practices. One technology of this nature is the use of wafer-enhanced electrodeionization (WE-EDI) membranes to convert gaseous carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrial flue gas ...


Maintaining And Controlling An Extrinsic Biofilm For Pathogen Removal In Dental Unit Water Lines, Bilal B. Al-Bataina 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Maintaining And Controlling An Extrinsic Biofilm For Pathogen Removal In Dental Unit Water Lines, Bilal B. Al-Bataina

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The control of biofilm formation is a major concern for industrial, environmental, and public health. Undesirable biofilms can harbor different disease-causing pathogens and shorten the operational life of different equipment. On the other hand, beneficial biofilms are also used in various applications and managing its growth and activity can be desirable. Killing the biofilm does not usually incorporate the removal of the dead biofilm structure that is adhered to the surface. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to control biofilm formation; to be able to remove, inhibit, and enhance biofilm formation. This thesis investigated the use of norspermidine, D-amino ...


Biobutanol Production From Cellulosic And Sugar-Based Feedstock From The Corn Plant, Reyna Gomez-Flores 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Biobutanol Production From Cellulosic And Sugar-Based Feedstock From The Corn Plant, Reyna Gomez-Flores

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

In this thesis, biobutanol production by biological fermentation was investigated from the corn plant, integrating two approaches. The first one was to utilize corn cobs, a cellulosic-based material. The second, using a new sugar-based material, sugarcorn juice. Utilizing suitable Clostridia strains for each substrate, these approaches converged into a biorefinery concept to produce renewable biofuels in Ontario, Canada. The corn cob pretreatment was carried out by a dilute acid method resulting in temperature as the variable with most significant effect towards glucose liberation. The enzymatic hydrolysis was performed utilizing a very low concentration of an enzymatic stock solution with approximately ...


Alternative Technology For Sour Water Stripping, Andrew E. Frederick, Connor T. Leach, Christelle U. Nayandi 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Alternative Technology For Sour Water Stripping, Andrew E. Frederick, Connor T. Leach, Christelle U. Nayandi

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

No abstract provided.


Monoclonal Antibody Production And Purification, Hope E. McMahon, Jessica W. Schwartz, Shritama Ray 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Monoclonal Antibody Production And Purification, Hope E. Mcmahon, Jessica W. Schwartz, Shritama Ray

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy is a form of immunotherapy that uses mAbs to bind mono-specifically to certain cells or proteins. This may then stimulate the patient's immune system to attack those cells. MAbs are currently used to treat medical conditions such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn’s Disease, but have the potential to treat countless diseases and disorders. In 2015, the mAb market was valued at $85.4 billion, and is expected to reach $138.6 billion by 2024.1 In manufacturing, mAbs are typically produced in suspension in a series of fed-batch bioreactors using genetically engineered ...


Design Of A Flexible, High-Volume Direct Flue Gas-To-Algae Conversion Process For Value-Added Bioproducts, Casey M. Barkan, Kyle A. DeLuca, Mikaela R. Preston 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Design Of A Flexible, High-Volume Direct Flue Gas-To-Algae Conversion Process For Value-Added Bioproducts, Casey M. Barkan, Kyle A. Deluca, Mikaela R. Preston

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Carbon conversion processes (where carbon dioxide is not only captured and stored, but converted to commercially-valuable products) have high barriers to sustained and large-scale commercial viability. Mass algae production as a means to carbon emissions reductions is considered to have great commercial potential, but the viability of deployment is going to rely on technological leaps supported by strong public and private investment. Presented in this Design Report is a novel pilot-scale microalgae cultivation system that successfully converts over 50% of the carbon dioxide (CO2) present in a stream of flue gas from a coal-red power plant flue gas into ...


Production Of Malonic Acid Through The Fermentation Of Glucose, Emily P. Peters, Gabrielle J. Schlakman, Elise N. Yang 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Production Of Malonic Acid Through The Fermentation Of Glucose, Emily P. Peters, Gabrielle J. Schlakman, Elise N. Yang

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

The overall process to produce malonic acid has not drastically changed in the past 50 years. The current process is damaging to the environment and costly, requiring high market prices. Lygos, Inc., a lab in Berkeley, California, has published a patent describing a way to produce malonic acid through the biological fermentation of genetically modified yeast cells. This proposed technology is appealing as it is both better for the environment and economically friendly.

For the process discussed in this report, genetically modified Pichia Kudriavzevii yeast cells will be purchased from the Lygos lab along with the negotiation of exclusive licensing ...


Bio-Dodecanedioic Acid (Ddda) Production, Brandon M. Mills, Meghavi M. Talati, Gregory A. Winter 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Bio-Dodecanedioic Acid (Ddda) Production, Brandon M. Mills, Meghavi M. Talati, Gregory A. Winter

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

The demand for dodecanedioic acid (DDDA) is steadily increasing each year with demand expected to exceed 90.4 kilotons per month in 2023.1.1 DDDA is an intermediate chemical used in a variety of end products. Thus, the increase in DDDA demand can largely be attributed to increasing demand for manufacturing nylon, paints, adhesives, and powder coatings. Regionally, Asia Pacific has been observing the fastest growth of all regions at over 6% CAGR.1.2 The robust manufacturing base for nylon, along with a growing automotive industry in India and China, will propel DDDA growth into the next decade ...


Sodium And Specialty Cyanides Production Facility, Nicholas A. Baylis, Parth N. Desai, Kyle J. Kuhns 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Sodium And Specialty Cyanides Production Facility, Nicholas A. Baylis, Parth N. Desai, Kyle J. Kuhns

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Sodium cyanide and specialty cyanide production are essential operations for various industrial processes, with primary applications in mining and mineral processing. Sodium cyanide, despite the high toxicity inherent in the material and its production process, is expected to grow 5% annually, with a projected global demand of 1.1 million tonnes in 2018. This report details a process design for producing sodium cyanide through the use of two intermediate reactions and successive downstream separations. The first major step is the production of hydrogen cyanide gas from ammonia and methane derived from natural gas, via the industry standard Andrussow reaction over ...


Process For Sustainably Sourced P-Xylene, Grace Memmo, John C. Newlon, Xiaoxin Tang 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Process For Sustainably Sourced P-Xylene, Grace Memmo, John C. Newlon, Xiaoxin Tang

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Demand for para-xylene, a feedstock used to produce polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics like those found in water bottles or textile fibers, has risen steadily.14 In the PET market, there is a new sustainable focus, pushing producers to use environmentally-friendly processes to create plastic consumer products.3 The current process to create para-xylene relies on fossil fuel cracking and reforming - a decidedly non-green process. This project follows a patent by GEVO, titled Integrated Process to Selectively Convert Renewable Isobutanol to p-Xylene, that explores a green process to convert isobutanol, created from biomass, to para-xylene.20 The raw material for this ...


Chemical Recycling Of Polystyrene Using Pyrolysis, Jade H. Bassil, Gabrielle Dreux, Gwendolyn A. Eastaugh 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Chemical Recycling Of Polystyrene Using Pyrolysis, Jade H. Bassil, Gabrielle Dreux, Gwendolyn A. Eastaugh

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

There are significant economic and environmental benefits to the recycling of waste plastics, especially that of polystyrene. Currently, much of polystyrene waste is sent to landfills due to the difficulty in separation and cleaning processes, where it accumulates indefinitely. It contributes to plastic pollution and adversely affects wildlife, oceans and humans. Pyrolysis of waste polystyrene is explored in this paper as a chemical recycling method. This reaction yields useful liquid fuel products such as styrene, ethylbenzene, toluene, and methylstyrene, which can be sold to provide project revenues. Beginning with a polystyrene feed of 100 tons per day, the suggested design ...


Production Of Universal Red Blood Cells Via Enzymatic Conversion, Carly M. Catella, Rachel A. Coler, Brandon H. Hayes 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Production Of Universal Red Blood Cells Via Enzymatic Conversion, Carly M. Catella, Rachel A. Coler, Brandon H. Hayes

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion units are considered one of the most essential healthcare components in the world. In the United States alone, approximately 21 million transfusion units are required every year. Despite this high demand, RBC units are becoming increasingly scarce since only a fraction of eligible donors provide RBCs to for medical use. Additionally, RBC transfusions are limited to immune compatibility in patients, making it difficult to serve all patients with such a limited supply. This proposed design provides a method in which RBCs of any blood group can be converted into the universal blood type, O, to ...


Oxy Fuel For Clean Energy Generation, Patrick J. Hally, Najib M. Muqeem, Colin B. Richter, Timothy R. Schanstra 2018 University of Pennsylvania

Oxy Fuel For Clean Energy Generation, Patrick J. Hally, Najib M. Muqeem, Colin B. Richter, Timothy R. Schanstra

Senior Design Reports (CBE)

This process explores several concentrations of oxygen-enriched air streams (oxy fuel) in combination with natural gas to generate steam for a steam turbine power plant with 30 MW capacity. The proposed location for this plant is the gulf coast of the United States. The oxy fuel concentrations tested were 36 mol. %, 53 mol. %, and 95 mol. %. Nitrogen removed from air would be sold as well as the 30 MW of electricity. The three oxygen purities were not profitable for the most realistic prices of electricity, nitrogen, and natural gas. However, the scenarios were all profitable with prices of nitrogen above ...


Hydrothermal Liquefaction Of Microalgae For The Production Of Bio-Crude Oil, Yulin Hu 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Hydrothermal Liquefaction Of Microalgae For The Production Of Bio-Crude Oil, Yulin Hu

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Due to the depletion of fossil fuels and climate change, extensive research has performed towards renewable energy production from microalgal biomass. Microalgae have several inherent benefits, such as high photosynthetic efficiencies, fast growth rates, and high lipid contents. In addition, microalgae can be cultivated in the non-arable lands (e.g., saline and waste water), thereby no competition with food crops production.

Transesterification is the one of commonly used technologies for converting microalgae into liquid bio-fuels (i.e., biodiesel). Normally, an energy-intensive drying step is required in the transesterification treatment, which accounts for nearly half of the energy input. Hence, if ...


Engineering Of E. Coli Inherent Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Capacity To Increase Octanoic Acid Production, Zaigao Tan, Jong Moon Yoon, Anupam Chowdhury, Kaitlin Burdick, Laura R. Jarboe, Costas D. Maranas, Jacqueline V. Shanks 2018 Iowa State University

Engineering Of E. Coli Inherent Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Capacity To Increase Octanoic Acid Production, Zaigao Tan, Jong Moon Yoon, Anupam Chowdhury, Kaitlin Burdick, Laura R. Jarboe, Costas D. Maranas, Jacqueline V. Shanks

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Background

As a versatile platform chemical, construction of microbial catalysts for free octanoic acid production from biorenewable feedstocks is a promising alternative to existing petroleum-based methods. However, the bio-production strategy has been restricted by the low capacity of E. coli inherent fatty acid biosynthesis. In this study, a combination of integrated computational and experimental approach was performed to manipulate the E. coli existing metabolic network, with the objective of improving bio-octanoic acid production.

Results

First, a customized OptForce methodology was run to predict a set of four genetic interventions required for production of octanoic acid at 90% of the theoretical ...


Covalently Crosslinked Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering Applications, Dibakar Mondal 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Covalently Crosslinked Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Biomaterials For Bone Tissue Engineering Applications, Dibakar Mondal

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Scaffolds are key components for bone tissue engineering and regeneration. They guide new bone formation by mimicking bone extracellular matrix for cell recruitment and proliferation. Ideally, scaffolds for bone tissue engineering need to be osteoconductive, osteoinductive, porous, degradable and mechanically competent. As a single material can not provide all these requirements, composites of several biomaterials are viable solutions to combine various properties. However, conventional composites fail to fulfil these requirements due to their distinct phases at the microscopic level. Organic/inorganic (O/I) class II hybrid biomaterials, where the organic and inorganic phases are chemically crosslinked on a molecular scale ...


A Single Dose Polyanhydride-Based Vaccine Platform Promotes And Maintains Anti-Gnrh Antibody Titers, Robert G. Schaut, Matt T. Brewer, Jesse M. Hostetter, Kriscelle Mendoza, Julia E. Vela-Ramirez, Sean M. Kelly, John K. Jackman, Giuseppe Dell’Anna, Joan M. Howard, Balaji Narasimhan, Wen Zhou, Douglas E. Jones 2018 United States Department of Agriculture

A Single Dose Polyanhydride-Based Vaccine Platform Promotes And Maintains Anti-Gnrh Antibody Titers, Robert G. Schaut, Matt T. Brewer, Jesse M. Hostetter, Kriscelle Mendoza, Julia E. Vela-Ramirez, Sean M. Kelly, John K. Jackman, Giuseppe Dell’Anna, Joan M. Howard, Balaji Narasimhan, Wen Zhou, Douglas E. Jones

Veterinary Pathology Publications and Papers

Traditionally, vaccination strategies require an initial priming vaccination followed by an antigen boost to generate adequate immunity. Here we describe vaccination against a self-peptide for reproductive sterilization utilizing a three-stage vaccine platform consisting of gonadotropin releasing hormone multiple antigenic peptide (GnRH-MAP) as a soluble injection coupled with subcutaneous administration of polyanhydride-immobilized GnRH-MAP and a cyto-exclusive implant containing GnRH-MAP dendrimer-loaded polyanhydride. This strategy generated and maintained cell-mediated and humoral immunity for up to 41 weeks after a single vaccination in mice with enhanced antibody avidity over time. All intact implants had a grossly visible tissue interface with neovascularization and lymphocytic aggregates ...


Molded Features In Pdms For Fabricating Bacterial Cellulose For Various Geometries, Mitchell Habegger 2018 The University of Akron

Molded Features In Pdms For Fabricating Bacterial Cellulose For Various Geometries, Mitchell Habegger

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The purpose of producing features on bacterial cellulose (BC) is to facilitate the elongation and alignment for cells, in this case Normal Human Dermal Fibroblast (NHDF) cells. The elongated cells have applications in wound healing, tissue engineering, disease diagnostics, and many other fields. Experiments were run to test the effectiveness of transferring features to BC sheets from features induced by fracturing on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and those duplicated from molds with existing features. The features were duplicated to BC sheets by either air drying or Guided Assembly-Based Biolithography (GAB). The research results showed that fracture inducing on PDMS produced very small ...


Development Of Entubulation Strategies For Treating Central Nervous System Injuries, Ivy Brosch 2018 The University of Akron

Development Of Entubulation Strategies For Treating Central Nervous System Injuries, Ivy Brosch

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

According to the McKnight Brain Institute, at least 10,000 people annually in the USA suffer from a central nervous system (CNS) injury. These injuries can cause serve disabilities including paralysis. Due to the complexity of the spinal cord, it is common that potential CNS treatments are first applied to an optic nerve crush (ONC) model in rats. Two proposed treatments were employed; one where nerve growth factor (NGF) was immobilized to a chitosan substrate to stimulate axonal regeneration, and the other using pentadecafluorooctanoyl chloride modified methacrylamide chitosan (MAC(Ali15)F) hydrogel to enhance local oxygenation. The two different treatments ...


Sweat Sensor Modelling, Katie Brumbaugh 2018 The University of Akron

Sweat Sensor Modelling, Katie Brumbaugh

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

There are no in-situ electrolyte sodium sensors available in the marketplace, however there is a demand and use for them. An in-situ sodium sensor can be used to monitor bodily functioning in many applications like medical patient monitoring and athlete monitoring during workouts. Patients with cystic fibrosis attempt to monitor salt content in sweat to maintain homoeostatic body function, this sweat sensor would change the way those patients took care of themselves [1]. Sweat sensor samples were made using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) and nylon 6. The MWNTs were functionalized on the nylon using cyclo-oligomeric calixarene [3]. In functionalizing the ...


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