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298 full-text articles. Page 1 of 12.

Cartilage Engineering: Optimization Of Media For Chondrogenic Differentiation In Vitro, Evan Surma, Sherry L. Harbin, Hongji Zhang, Stacy Halum 2016 Purdue University

Cartilage Engineering: Optimization Of Media For Chondrogenic Differentiation In Vitro, Evan Surma, Sherry L. Harbin, Hongji Zhang, Stacy Halum

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Lower back pain from intervertebral disc injury affects around 84% of the population at some point in their life, which at its worst may cause total immobilization. This pain can only be temporarily relieved by spinal fusion or intervertebral disc replacement; however, both of these cause loss of natural motion in patients by removing damaged fibrocartilage discs. While these techniques help mitigate pain briefly, no permanent solution exists currently to both relieve pain and preserve natural motion. My work may be a solution by eventually providing patient-specific implants that resemble native tissue in the regeneration process that could be absorbed ...


Optimization Of The Design Of An Amphiphilic Biodegradable Polymer For Tissue-Engineering Application, Ben Zhang, Tera M. Filion, Jie Song 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Optimization Of The Design Of An Amphiphilic Biodegradable Polymer For Tissue-Engineering Application, Ben Zhang, Tera M. Filion, Jie Song

Jie Song

Biodegradable polymers have been widely utilized as drug delivery vehicles and tissue engineering scaffolds. We previously designed amphiphilic triblock copolymer poly(lactic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic acid) (PELA) and its hydroxyapatite (HA) composites for bone tissue engineering applications. The hydrophilic electrospun PELA-HA composite exhibited aqueous stability and elastic handling characteristics, and was able to template the proliferation and osteogenesis of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro and in vivo when spiral-wrapped into cylinders and press-fit into critical size femoral segmental defects in rats. However, the slow degradation of PELA has prevented timely disappearance of the scaffold and ...


Prosthetic Leg Kit For Deployment In Developing Countries, Brian Murphy, Dominique Porcincula, Derek Morgan, Kendall Ruggles, Christian Aguayo 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Prosthetic Leg Kit For Deployment In Developing Countries, Brian Murphy, Dominique Porcincula, Derek Morgan, Kendall Ruggles, Christian Aguayo

Biomedical Eng/General Eng.

The World Health Organization estimates that over 30 million people require some sort of prosthetic technology. However, traditional prosthetic fitting practices take a lot of time and cost a lot of money, making them inaccessible to millions of people around the world. StandUP Worldwide is an interdisciplinary project team devoted to creating low-cost prosthetic technologies for use around the world, especially in resource poor areas. They are currently developing a low cost, below-the-knee prosthetic kit that can be easily deployed in a resource-poor area. The following presents their solution for a below-the-knee prosthetic socket, foot, and leg.


Implantable Microenvironments To Capture Stable-To- Aggressive Tumor Transition, Ryan Carpenter, Jungwoo Lee 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Implantable Microenvironments To Capture Stable-To- Aggressive Tumor Transition, Ryan Carpenter, Jungwoo Lee

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Clinical stability occurs when cancers reach a state where the disease neither advances nor regresses. Tumors can remain in this state for multiple years before progressing to more aggressive phenotypes. The mechanisms for maintaining a stable state and the factors that contribute to tumor activation are poorly understood. We hypothesized that an implantable biomaterial scaffold would be able to isolate a population of stable tumor cells that could then be used to study the transition to an aggressive phenotype. In this work we developed a tunable and highly controlled, porous acrylamide scaffold and subcutaneously implanted them in immunodeficient (NSG) mice ...


Synthetic Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Using A Hydrogel Slab Integrated Microfluidic Chip, Jun-Goo Kwak, Abhinav Sharma, Jungwoo Lee 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Synthetic Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Using A Hydrogel Slab Integrated Microfluidic Chip, Jun-Goo Kwak, Abhinav Sharma, Jungwoo Lee

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

The mucosal barrier lining along the intestinal tract plays a key role in metabolic and immunological homeostasis. Repeated disruption of the mucosal barrier integrity has been suggested to be a precursor event that derives inflammatory bowel diseases and colorectal cancer. Multiple in vitro platform technologies have been developed to understand the mucosal barrier function including trans-wells and microfabricated devices, but a static and vertical axis culture settings limits to simulate and observe dynamic complexity of the gut microenvironment. Here, we introduce a biomaterials engineering approach to create a synthetic mucosal barrier in a transverse manner for direct observation of cellular ...


Optimization Of The Design Of An Amphiphilic Biodegradable Polymer For Tissue-Engineering Application, Ben Zhang, Tera M. Filion, Jie Song 2016 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Optimization Of The Design Of An Amphiphilic Biodegradable Polymer For Tissue-Engineering Application, Ben Zhang, Tera M. Filion, Jie Song

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

Biodegradable polymers have been widely utilized as drug delivery vehicles and tissue engineering scaffolds. We previously designed amphiphilic triblock copolymer poly(lactic acid)-b-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactic acid) (PELA) and its hydroxyapatite (HA) composites for bone tissue engineering applications. The hydrophilic electrospun PELA-HA composite exhibited aqueous stability and elastic handling characteristics, and was able to template the proliferation and osteogenesis of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in vitro and in vivo when spiral-wrapped into cylinders and press-fit into critical size femoral segmental defects in rats. However, the slow degradation of PELA has prevented timely disappearance of the scaffold and ...


Interaction Of Fibrinogen With Fibronectin: Purification And Characterization Of A Room Temperature-Stable Fibrinogen-Fibronectin Complex From Normal Human Plasma, Ayman E. Ismail 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Interaction Of Fibrinogen With Fibronectin: Purification And Characterization Of A Room Temperature-Stable Fibrinogen-Fibronectin Complex From Normal Human Plasma, Ayman E. Ismail

Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Theses, Dissertations, & Student Research

A fibrinogen-fibronectin complex (γγ’pdFI-pdFN) was purified from normal human plasma using a sequence of cryoprecipitation, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and DEAE Sepharose chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) under reducing condition showed both a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio of fibrinogen (FI) to fibronectin (FN) as well as a stoichiometric ratio of 1:1 of γg to gγ’. The γγ’pdFI-pdFN complex was non-covalent in nature as it was disrupted by affinity adsorption to Gelatin Sepharose where pdFN bound strongly and the disrupted γγ’pdFI fell through the chromatographic column. Surprisingly, the purified γγ’pdFI-pdFN complex was more broadly ...


Inter-Droplet Membranes For Mechanical Sensing Applications, Nima Tamaddoni Jahromi 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Inter-Droplet Membranes For Mechanical Sensing Applications, Nima Tamaddoni Jahromi

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation combines self-assembly phenomena of amphiphilic molecules with soft materials to create and characterize mechanoelectrical transducers and sensors whose sensing elements are thin-film bioinspired membranes comprised of phospholipids or amphiphilic polymers. We show that the structures of these amphiphilic molecules tune the mechanical and electrical properties of these membranes. We show that these properties affect the mechanoelectrical sensing characteristic and range of operation of these membrane transducers. In the experiments, we construct and characterize a membrane-based hair cell embodiment that enables the membrane to be responsive to mechanical perturbations of the hair. The resulting oscillations of membranes formed between ...


Investigating The Mechanical Behaviors Of Organic/Inorganic Composite Bone Scaffolds, Parker Davidson 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigating The Mechanical Behaviors Of Organic/Inorganic Composite Bone Scaffolds, Parker Davidson

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The regeneration of bone over a large area cannot occur without a structure for the bone cells to bind and divide. The use of an organic/inorganic composite bone scaffold appears to be a promising alternative to the current clinical standard of bone grafting. Bone grafting is very limited, in that the size and shape of the area are hard to replicate and the use of donor tissue can trigger an immunologic response resulting in rejection of the bone tissue. This study experimented with composite bone scaffolds which can be made to fit the shape of the area in which ...


Customization Of Titanate Nanofiber Bioscaffolds, Jared Hopkins 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Customization Of Titanate Nanofiber Bioscaffolds, Jared Hopkins

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

In the field of orthopedic devices implant loosening is a major issue resulting in the majority of device failures. These failures result in the need for costly secondary procedures. To reduce device loosening an improved method of tissue anchoring is required. A previously studied titanate nanofiber bioscaffold has been shown to be safely implantable and to contribute to the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells to osteocytes. Through the customization of both physical and chemical characteristics this titanate nanofiber bioscaffold was fabricated as a potential means to enhance tissue anchoring for use with orthopedic devices. This customization was enabled by acoustic ...


Chitosan As An Antiviral, Tayler Pauls 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Chitosan As An Antiviral, Tayler Pauls

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

There is no broad-based antiviral medication available today; there are specific antivirals, for example, the antiretroviral for HIV. However, these specific antivirals are not available in each country and can be problematic for specific patients. Chitosan is proposed as a possible broad-based antiviral, which has already demonstrated antibacterial properties, antiviral properties in plants, is used for wound healing and as a hydrogel among other medical applications. The methods used are transfection of NIH-3T3 cells with GFP-adenovirus with 0.1%, 0.5%, and 1% chitosan added to virus prior to transfection. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry data has validated that the ...


Bending Stiffness In Cadaveric And Composite Long Bones Following Total Joint Replacement, Danielle Gehron, Anderson Adams MS, Tatsuya Sueyoshi MD, Scott R. Small MS 2016 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Bending Stiffness In Cadaveric And Composite Long Bones Following Total Joint Replacement, Danielle Gehron, Anderson Adams Ms, Tatsuya Sueyoshi Md, Scott R. Small Ms

Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Research Publications

Several biomechanics studies have utilized commercially available replicate bone models as an alternative to cadaveric tissue specimens, in part due to their ease of handling and reduced expense. In an effort to validate the use of replicate bone specimens in biomechanics research, a number of studies have compared material properties of whole tibia and femur specimens to those of similar cadaveric specimens. Many of these validation studies have ascertained that the material properties of whole bone composite models fall within the range of those properties of cadaveric specimens, while offering reduced interspecimen variability. Current literature lacks, however, the direct comparison ...


Patterned Alginate Hydrogels To Induce Chondrocyte Alignment, Jordan Catherine Verplank, Taylor D. Laughlin, Angela K. Pannier 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Patterned Alginate Hydrogels To Induce Chondrocyte Alignment, Jordan Catherine Verplank, Taylor D. Laughlin, Angela K. Pannier

UCARE Research Products

The growth plate has an intricate architecture, and this architecture is necessary for directional growth of bones. Specifically, the cells align in longitudinal columns. As the growth plate expands with this pattern, the bone elongates with the same alignment pattern. The purpose of this research is to mimic this single celled, columnar alignment in vitro. In developing this alignment in vitro, this research will contribute to the overall study of growing growth for the development of improved therapeutic treatments and engineered tissues for transplants.


Equilibrium Testing Of Rat Tail Tendon: An Analysis Of The Viscoelastic Properties Of Collagen Under Different Strain Points, Joshua C. Witt 2016 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Equilibrium Testing Of Rat Tail Tendon: An Analysis Of The Viscoelastic Properties Of Collagen Under Different Strain Points, Joshua C. Witt

Graduate Theses - Biology & Biomedical Engineering

Instantaneous tensile testing and stress-relaxation testing are forms of mechanical testing used to determine the elastic and viscoelastic properties of biological tissue. Equilibrium testing is a form of testing that combines both of these testing approaches at different strain points to determine the elastic properties of a material and also assess their viscoelastic properties in the same test. This testing method is commonly used on highly viscoelastic materials such as cartilage but has never been fully described in dense collagenous materials such as tendon or ligament. This analysis utilizes different strain points selected to capture the classic non-linear behavior of ...


A Scalable Low-Cost Cgmp Process For Clinical Grade Production Of The Hiv Inhibitor 5p12-Rantes In Pichia Pastoris, Fabrice Cerini, Hubert Gaertner, Knut Madden, Ilya Tolstorukov, Scott Brown, Bram Laukens, Nico Callewaert, Jay C. Harner, Anna M. Oommen, John T. Harms, Anthony R. Sump, Robert C. Sealock, Dustin J. Peterson, Scott K. Johnson, Stephan B. Abramson, Michael M. Meagher, Robin Offord, Oliver Hartley 2016 University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

A Scalable Low-Cost Cgmp Process For Clinical Grade Production Of The Hiv Inhibitor 5p12-Rantes In Pichia Pastoris, Fabrice Cerini, Hubert Gaertner, Knut Madden, Ilya Tolstorukov, Scott Brown, Bram Laukens, Nico Callewaert, Jay C. Harner, Anna M. Oommen, John T. Harms, Anthony R. Sump, Robert C. Sealock, Dustin J. Peterson, Scott K. Johnson, Stephan B. Abramson, Michael M. Meagher, Robin Offord, Oliver Hartley

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering -- All Faculty Papers

In the continued absence of an effective anti-HIV vaccine, approximately 2 million new HIV infections occur every year, with over 95% of these in developing countries. Calls have been made for the development of anti-HIV drugs that can be formulated for topical use to prevent HIV transmission during sexual intercourse. Because these drugs are principally destined for use in low-resource regions, achieving production costs that are as low as possible is an absolute requirement. 5P12-RANTES, an analog of the human chemokine protein RANTES/CCL5, is a highly potent HIV entry inhibitor which acts by achieving potent blockade of the principal ...


Surface-Initiated Polymerizations For The Rapid Sorting Of Rare Cancer Cells, Jacob L. Lilly 2016 University of Kentucky

Surface-Initiated Polymerizations For The Rapid Sorting Of Rare Cancer Cells, Jacob L. Lilly

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Cancer metastasis directly accounts for an estimated 90% of all cancer related deaths and is correlated with the presence of malignant cells in systemic circulation. This observed relationship has prompted efforts to develop a fluid biopsy, with the goal of detecting these rare cells in patient peripheral blood as surrogate markers for metastatic disease as a partial replacement or supplement to tissue biopsies. Numerous platforms have been designed, yet these have generally failed to support a reliable fluid biopsy due to poor performance parameters such as low throughput, low purity of enriched antigen positive cells, and insufficiently low detection thresholds ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Curcumin Polymer For Application In Radiation Induced Lung Damage, Mark C. Bailey 2016 University of Kentucky

Synthesis And Characterization Of Curcumin Polymer For Application In Radiation Induced Lung Damage, Mark C. Bailey

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Radiotherapy is used as a primary treatment for many cancers, including lung cancer. Although radiotherapy has proven to be an effective cancer treatment, its use is heavily limited due to the peripheral toxicity to healthy tissue. In this work, the antioxidant, curcumin, was tested as a radioprotectant to reduce radiation damage to healthy cells. Curcumin has been limited in use due to its poor bioavailability. In order to avoid problems associated with free curcumin delivery, curcumin poly(beta-amino ester) (CPBAE) was synthesized.

The first study investigated the in vitro radioprotection effect of curcumin in HUVEC dosed with gamma radiation. Cells ...


Characterization Of Fibrin Matrix Incorporated Electrospun Polycaprolactone Scaffold, Cho Yi Wong 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Characterization Of Fibrin Matrix Incorporated Electrospun Polycaprolactone Scaffold, Cho Yi Wong

Theses and Dissertations

Specific objective: Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) aims to regenerate the lost attachment apparatus caused by periodontal disease through the use of a barrier membrane. For the GTR procedures to be successful, barrier membranes are required to be present at the surgical site for an extended period of time (weeks to months). Synthetic membranes have the advantage of prolonged presence in a wound site; however, they do not actively contribute to wound healing. Biologic membranes are recognized by the host tissue and participate in wound healing but have the disadvantage of early resorption. Therefore, the goal of this study is to ...


Development And Characterization Of Lung Derived Extracellular Matrix Hydrogels, Robert A. Pouliot 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Development And Characterization Of Lung Derived Extracellular Matrix Hydrogels, Robert A. Pouliot

Theses and Dissertations

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) including emphysema is a devastating condition, increasing in prevalence in the US and worldwide. There remains no cure for COPD, rather only symptomatic treatments. Due to unique challenges of the lung, translation of therapies for acute lung injury to target chronic lung diseases like COPD has not been successful. We have been investigating lung derived extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels as a novel approach for delivery of cellular therapies to the pulmonary system.

During the course of this work we have developed and characterized a lug derived ECM hydrogel that exhibits “injectability,” allowing cells or dugs ...


An Injectable Stem Cell Delivery System For Treatment Of Musculoskeletal Defects, Shirae Leslie 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

An Injectable Stem Cell Delivery System For Treatment Of Musculoskeletal Defects, Shirae Leslie

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research was to develop a system of injectable hydrogels to deliver stem cells to musculoskeletal defects, thereby allowing cells to remain at the treatment site and secrete soluble factors that will facilitate tissue regeneration. First, production parameters for encapsulating cells in microbeads were determined. This involved investigating the effects of osmolytes on alginate microbead properties, and the effects of alginate microbead cell density, alginate microbead density, and effects of osteogenic media on microencapsulated cells. Although cells remained viable in the microbeads, alginate does not readily degrade in vivo for six months. Therefore, a method to incorporate ...


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