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366 full-text articles. Page 1 of 15.

How Strongly Do Oysters Stick?, Nicolás M. Morato, Andrés M. Tibabuzo, Jonathan J. Wilker 2017 Universidad de Los Andes - Colombia

How Strongly Do Oysters Stick?, Nicolás M. Morato, Andrés M. Tibabuzo, Jonathan J. Wilker

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Biological adhesives are a type of interfacial material that has incredible potential to generate new biomimetic compounds that can replace current strong, but toxic, adhesives. Therefore, a study of the chemical composition and mechanical properties of those bio-adhesives is necessary. However, in the case of oysters, despite known chemical characterization of the adult’s adhesive, there are almost no studies on its mechanical properties. Furthermore, there is no available information on the adhesive properties of spat (oysters in their larvae state). Herein, we present the first mechanical characterization of the spat adhesive, measuring its adhesion strength by hydrodynamic determination using ...


A Wood-Powered Lawn Mower: Separating The Rules Of Thumb From Engineering Design, William White 2017 Western Kentucky University

A Wood-Powered Lawn Mower: Separating The Rules Of Thumb From Engineering Design, William White

Honors College Capstone Experience/Thesis Projects

Biomass gasification, the thermal process of exracting combustible gasses from organic matter, is an established procedure that has been used for many years to provide fuel in various applications. It is a potential source of renewable fuel and has proven useful as a crisis energy source. This thesis investigates the primary engineering science principles involved in gasifier-engine system design. It arises from and supplements a WKU mechanical engineering senior project. The senior project has developed a wood gasification system designed to power a riding lawn mower. The thesis reiews theory-based design and separates it from informal hit and miss approaches ...


Rapid Cell Extraction In Aqueous Two-Phase Microdroplet Systems, Kalpana Vijayakumar, Shelly Gulati, Andrew J. de Mello, Joshua B. Edel 2017 Imperial College London

Rapid Cell Extraction In Aqueous Two-Phase Microdroplet Systems, Kalpana Vijayakumar, Shelly Gulati, Andrew J. De Mello, Joshua B. Edel

Shelly Gulati

Distinguishing specific cells is an essential technique in cell research and clinical diagnostics. We report a novel method to passively isolate and extract cells in a microfluidic device. We utilise a droplet-based microfluidic system to generate an aqueous two phase system in which aqueous droplets consist of two phases in the form of a double emulsion. Specifically, we generate PEG droplets that completely encapsulate DEX droplets within a microfluidic channel. Target cells can be introduced directly into the droplets and driven to partition to the more favourable phase, whilst still being contained within the aqueous droplet. Human T lymphoma cells ...


Optimizing Microfluidic Design For Cell Separation, Joseph Wakim, Marisel De Jesus Vega, Nese Orbey, Carol Barry 2017 University of Massachusetts Lowell

Optimizing Microfluidic Design For Cell Separation, Joseph Wakim, Marisel De Jesus Vega, Nese Orbey, Carol Barry

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

To evaluate the performance of various designs of crossflow filtration microfluidic devices, blood flow was modeled using computational fluid dynamics software (COMSOL Multiphysics). Velocity profiles were generated and used to analyze four critical design parameters: pillar size, pillar shape, gap size, and wall length. These parameters were optimized to yield greatest flow from an unfiltered main channel into two filtered side channels of the device, thereby maximizing filtration capacity.

Devices containing pillars of 10 µm diameter yielded a significantly greater filtration capacity than devices with pillars of 20 µm diameter. Flow patterns from the main channel to the side channels ...


Pulse Oximetry, Yitzhak Mendelson 2017 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Pulse Oximetry, Yitzhak Mendelson

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

As part of the mini-symposium entitled "Bench to Bedside: Engineering Technology Translation," Dr. Mendelson describes pulse oximetry technology and how that technology idea successfully developed into a real world medical product.


Ultrasonically Responsive Tissue Engineering Scaffolds For The Temporal Control Over Osteo-Inductive Growth Factor Delivery, Catherine Linh 2017 University of Rhode Island

Ultrasonically Responsive Tissue Engineering Scaffolds For The Temporal Control Over Osteo-Inductive Growth Factor Delivery, Catherine Linh

Senior Honors Projects

In 2012, approximately 6.8 million people in the United States were diagnosed with orthopedic injuries or diseases. Over 500,000 people in the United States underwent bone grafting procedures, which cost 2.5 billion dollars per year and can result in complications. Polymer-based grafting scaffolds can facilitate 3D bone tissue growth in a localized, sustained manner. However, bone regeneration requires the orchestration of a sequence of events. Current scaffolds based on degradation and diffusion cannot provide sequential deliveries. We aimed to design a polymer scaffold that can release one payload diffusively at early time points, followed by ultrasonically triggered ...


Patient-Derived Hydrogel As A Sacrificial Matrix For Efficient Cell Loading, Shalmli U. Joshi 2017 University of Connecticut - Storrs

Patient-Derived Hydrogel As A Sacrificial Matrix For Efficient Cell Loading, Shalmli U. Joshi

Honors Scholar Theses

The field of tissue engineering focuses on delivering patient-derived stem cells to the body through the use of degradable biomaterials, such as hydrogels, which are infused into engineered scaffolds. Hydrogels act as templates to support and guide cells towards the regeneration of new tissue. In this study, we introduce a completely intraoperative procedure for obtaining a fibrin hydrogel for tissue engineering applications. In the past, fibrin hydrogel has been commonly formed by combining fibrinogen protein with animal-derived thrombin. Instead, we have developed an automated, and therefore reproducible, protocol to isolate and form fibrin hydrogel without the use of animal-derived thrombin ...


An Electrochemical Analysis Of Fretting Corrosion In Metal-On-Metal Hip Implants Subjected To High Impaction Loads, Joe Morin, Timothy L. Norman, Thomas K. Fehring 2017 Cedarville University

An Electrochemical Analysis Of Fretting Corrosion In Metal-On-Metal Hip Implants Subjected To High Impaction Loads, Joe Morin, Timothy L. Norman, Thomas K. Fehring

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

The metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty, a procedure where the hip joint is replaced by a femoral prosthesis with a metal femoral head and a metal socket, has been a popular option for patients requiring a hip joint replacement. Metal on metal hip implants have been a successful implant design until recently where there has been an increased number of failures of this type of implant due to fretting corrosion, believed to be caused from the use of large femoral heads. Fretting corrosion in hip implants results from cyclic micromotion at the taper-trunnion interface; this interface motion removes the protective oxidation ...


3d Printing Of Biodegradable Scaffolds For Tissue Engineering Applications, Joe Morin, Michael Pickett, Amy Abraham, Tiera Martinelli 2017 Cedarville University

3d Printing Of Biodegradable Scaffolds For Tissue Engineering Applications, Joe Morin, Michael Pickett, Amy Abraham, Tiera Martinelli

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

With the recent improvements in three dimensional (3D) printing technologies, the potential for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have significantly improved. One key idea in tissue engineering is to specifically design scaffolds to aid in the healing process by being incorporated into the body’s own tissue. The overall goal of this project is to investigate 3D printable scaffold design to access suitability for tissue replacement. This was accomplished by analyzing the effect of the material used to create the scaffolds, pore size, and pore shape on mechanical stiffness and cell culturability. Based on published literature, it was determined that ...


Influence Of Lysine-Based Biomaterials On Fibroblast To Myofibroblast Differentiation, Catherine Le Denmat 2017 Iowa State University

Influence Of Lysine-Based Biomaterials On Fibroblast To Myofibroblast Differentiation, Catherine Le Denmat

Honors Projects and Posters

Fibrous encapsulation occurs as a result of implantation of devices such as pacemakers, artificial breast implants, and microencapsulated islet cells used in type 1 diabetes treatment. The foreign body response (FBR) is responsible for the development of a fibrous capsule, which is often detrimental to the function of the implanted device and therefore affected patients. One event leading to fibrous capsule formation is contraction of collagen by myofibroblasts. The objective of this project was to significantly reduce the thickness of the fibrous capsule by limiting fibroblast to myofibroblast differentiation. It was hypothesized that using lysine-based biomaterials with amidine-like functional group ...


Assessment Of The Non-Linear Stress-Strain Characteristics Of Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Cryogel, Mojdeh Zakeri 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Assessment Of The Non-Linear Stress-Strain Characteristics Of Poly (Vinyl Alcohol) Cryogel, Mojdeh Zakeri

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Creation of tissue-mimicking constructs is of great importance in the field of biomedical engineering. Poly (vinyl Alcohol) (PVA) is a biomaterial capable of simulating a wide range of geometries and mechanical properties of biological tissues. It is nontoxic, biocompatible, and easy to produce. PVA can be physically crosslinked by repeated cycles of freezing and thawing. The final product of this process is called PVA cryogel (PVA-C). The mechanical properties of PVA-C can be accurately controlled by changing PVA molecular weight, PVA concentration, and number and duration of freeze/thaw cycles (FTC). In this study, the stress-strain behavior of PVA cryogel ...


Investigation Of Chitosan-Based Hydrogels As A Cell Delivery Platform For Adipose-Derived Stem/Stromal Cell Transplantation To Promote Angiogenesis In Ischemic Tissues, Jobanpreet Singh Dhillon 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Investigation Of Chitosan-Based Hydrogels As A Cell Delivery Platform For Adipose-Derived Stem/Stromal Cell Transplantation To Promote Angiogenesis In Ischemic Tissues, Jobanpreet Singh Dhillon

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Stem cell transplantation is under investigation to stimulate angiogenesis in patients with peripheral artery disease. To develop a cell-delivery platform that enhances cell retention and function post-transplantation, the response of human adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) encapsulated within N-methacrylate glycol chitosan (MGC) hydrogels with or without integrin-binding RGD or IKVAV motifs was explored. ASC viability was enhanced in the MGC and MGC-RGD hydrogels relative to the MGC-IKVAV group under hypoxic (2% O­2) culture conditions, with cell spreading and higher metabolic activity noted in MGC-RGD at 14 days. Analysis of angiogenic gene expression revealed similar patterns between all hydrogel ...


Shape Recovery With Concomitant Mechanical Strengthening Of Amphiphilic Shape Memory Polymers In Warm Water, Ben Zhang, Janae E. DeBartolo, Jie Song 2017 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Shape Recovery With Concomitant Mechanical Strengthening Of Amphiphilic Shape Memory Polymers In Warm Water, Ben Zhang, Janae E. Debartolo, Jie Song

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

Maintaining adequate or enhancing mechanical properties of shape memory polymers (SMPs) after shape recovery in an aqueous environment are greatly desired for biomedical applications of SMPs as self-fitting tissue scaffolds or minimally invasive surgical implants. Here we report stable temporary shape fixing and facile shape recovery of biodegradable triblock amphiphilic SMPs containing a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) center block and flanking poly(lactic acid) or poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) blocks in warm water, accompanied by concomitant enhanced mechanical strengths. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WXRD), and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analyses revealed that the unique stiffening of the amphiphilic ...


The Sub-Chronic Vascular Response To Water-Borne Embolic Coacervates., Joshua P. Jones, Monika Sima, Russell J. Stewart 2017 University of Utah

The Sub-Chronic Vascular Response To Water-Borne Embolic Coacervates., Joshua P. Jones, Monika Sima, Russell J. Stewart

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

Water-borne coacervates that solidify in response to decreasing ionic strength have been developed as an agent for small vessel transcatheter embolization. Here, the sub-chronic vascular response to these agents will be presented. Embolic coacervates demonstrated a benign foreign body response, which supported tissue ingrowth and stabilized vessel occlusion out to 28 days. As with other liquid embolics, occlusion is dependent upon mechanical obstruction of the vessel and native thrombus. Over time, the thrombus becomes more organized by fibroblasts. Continuation of the processes seen at 28 days will likely result in fibrous encapsulation of the embolic coacervate, further stabilizing the occlusion.


Differentiation And Containment Of Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells, Caden Duffy, Alonzo Cook Ph.D. 2017 Brigham Young University - Provo

Differentiation And Containment Of Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells, Caden Duffy, Alonzo Cook Ph.D.

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

Currently, the only permanent cure for Type 1 Diabetes is a pancreatic or islet transplant. With the shortage of donors, we are progressing research towards alternative therapies by differentiating induced pluripotent stem cells into derived pancreatic β-cells that can be transplanted and used as treatment for Type 1 Diabetes. We are investigating methods to increase the yield of fully derived, insulin producing pancreatic β-cells and are additionally researching the use of hydrophilized expanded polytetrafluoroethylene for use in cell containment devices. These devices could offer a future alternative for islet transplantation in human patients.


Super-Hydrophobic And Anti-Microbial Surfaces Via Carbon Infiltrated-Carbon Nanotubes, Christian DaLon Esplin, Anton Bowden, Brian Jensen 2017 Brigham Young University

Super-Hydrophobic And Anti-Microbial Surfaces Via Carbon Infiltrated-Carbon Nanotubes, Christian Dalon Esplin, Anton Bowden, Brian Jensen

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

No abstract provided.


Structural Mrsa Resistance Through Carbon-Infiltrated Carbon Nanotube Coating Of External Fixator Pins, Jaclyn Larsen, Stephanie Morco, Brian Jensen, Anton Bowden 2017 Brigham Young University

Structural Mrsa Resistance Through Carbon-Infiltrated Carbon Nanotube Coating Of External Fixator Pins, Jaclyn Larsen, Stephanie Morco, Brian Jensen, Anton Bowden

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

No abstract provided.


Resorption Rate Of Bioresorbable Materials For Possible Use In Self-Expanding Stents, Jared R. Park, Jason Porter, Anton Bowden 2017 Brigham Young University

Resorption Rate Of Bioresorbable Materials For Possible Use In Self-Expanding Stents, Jared R. Park, Jason Porter, Anton Bowden

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

This study investigates the mechanical behavior of various polymers after a period of degradation from exposure to a Saline Solution. The study found that PLA and PDLLA do not have significant degradation over a period of 2 months, while PLA has a sharp decrease in strength after 7 days.


Effect Of Multiple Confined Compression/Stress Relaxation Cycles On Cross-Linked Alginate Pore Size., Sindhu Kolar Venkat, Erik L. Risa, Bergren Antell, Maryam Mobed-Miremadi 2017 Santa Clara University

Effect Of Multiple Confined Compression/Stress Relaxation Cycles On Cross-Linked Alginate Pore Size., Sindhu Kolar Venkat, Erik L. Risa, Bergren Antell, Maryam Mobed-Miremadi

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

No abstract provided.


Towards A Bioselective Surface For Treatment Of Sepsis In A Hemoperfusion Device, Karl F. Schilke, Ramya Raman, Bonan Yu, Erik Hahn, Jonathan Su 2017 Oregon State University

Towards A Bioselective Surface For Treatment Of Sepsis In A Hemoperfusion Device, Karl F. Schilke, Ramya Raman, Bonan Yu, Erik Hahn, Jonathan Su

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

Sepsis is a dysregulated immune response to circulating bacteria/endotoxin. Hemoperfusion is a promising treatment, but is not universally effective and can unacceptable blood damage. We are developing protein-repellent hydrogel nanofilms that can be grown on a variety of surfaces, and functionalized with “click-ready” pathogen-binding proteins expressed by Genetic Code Expansion (GCE). The extremely rapid, bioorthogonal “click” immobilization chemistry eliminates prior purification, maximizes surface loading, and guarantees spatial orientation of the immobilized proteins. We have demonstrated pathogen binding and blood protein repulsion by these layers, suggesting that they may be part of effective treatments for sepsis and other applications.


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