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Damage-Free Peripheral Nerve Stimulation By 12-Ns Pulsed Electric Field, Maura Casciola, Shu Xiao, Andrei G. Pakhomov 2017 Old Dominion University

Damage-Free Peripheral Nerve Stimulation By 12-Ns Pulsed Electric Field, Maura Casciola, Shu Xiao, Andrei G. Pakhomov

Bioelectrics Publications

Modern technologies enable deep tissue focusing of nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) for non-invasive nerve and muscle stimulation. However, it is not known if PEF orders of magnitude shorter than the activation time of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) would evoke action potentials (APs). One plausible scenario requires the loss of membrane integrity (electroporation) and resulting depolarization as an intermediate step. We report, for the first time, that the excitation of a peripheral nerve can be accomplished by 12-ns PEF without electroporation. 12-ns stimuli at 4.1-11 kV (3.3-8.8 kV/cm) evoked APs similarly to conventional stimuli (100-250 mus ...


Delayed Hypersensitivity To Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field In Electroporated Cells, Sarah D. Jensen, Vera A. Khorokhorina, Claudia Muratori, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Olga N. Pakhomova 2017 Old Dominion University

Delayed Hypersensitivity To Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Field In Electroporated Cells, Sarah D. Jensen, Vera A. Khorokhorina, Claudia Muratori, Andrei G. Pakhomov, Olga N. Pakhomova

Bioelectrics Publications

We demonstrate that conditioning of mammalian cells by electroporation with nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) facilitates their response to the next nsPEF treatment. The experiments were designed to unambiguously separate the electroporation-induced sensitization and desensitization effects. Electroporation was achieved by bursts of 300-ns, 9 kV/cm pulses (50 Hz, n = 3–100) and quantified by propidium dye uptake within 11 min after the nsPEF exposure. We observed either sensitization to nsPEF or no change (when the conditioning was either too weak or too intense, or when the wait time after conditioning was too short). Within studied limits, conditioning never caused ...


Controllable Moderate Heating Enhances The Therapeutic Efficacy Of Irreversible Electroporation For Pancreatic Cancer, Chelsea M. Edelblute, James Hornef, Niculina I. Burcus, Thomas Norman, Stephen J. Beebe, Karl Schoenbach, Richard Heller, Chunqi Jiang, Sigi Guo 2017 Old Dominion University

Controllable Moderate Heating Enhances The Therapeutic Efficacy Of Irreversible Electroporation For Pancreatic Cancer, Chelsea M. Edelblute, James Hornef, Niculina I. Burcus, Thomas Norman, Stephen J. Beebe, Karl Schoenbach, Richard Heller, Chunqi Jiang, Sigi Guo

Bioelectrics Publications

Irreversible electroporation (IRE) as a non-thermal tumor ablation technology has been studied for the treatment of pancreatic carcinoma and has shown a significant survival benefit. We discovered that moderate heating (MH) at 43°C for 1-2 minutes significantly enhanced ex vivo IRE tumor ablation of Pan02 cells by 5.67-fold at 750 V/cm and by 1.67-fold at 1500 V/cm. This amount of heating alone did not cause cell death. An integrated IRE system with controllable laser heating and tumor impedance monitoring was developed to treat mouse ectopic pancreatic cancer. With this novel IRE system, we were able ...


Co-Modulation Masking Release Begins In The Auditory Periphery, Kareem R. Hussein, Agudemu Borjigan, Mark Sayles 2017 Purdue University

Co-Modulation Masking Release Begins In The Auditory Periphery, Kareem R. Hussein, Agudemu Borjigan, Mark Sayles

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Understanding speech in noisy environments can be difficult, especially for people with hearing loss. The background noise can cover up the sounds of interest. Normally, the auditory system works to alleviate this problem by tagging and then cancelling the noise. Our experiments are aimed at understanding the mechanism of this noise cancellation process. We hypothesize that non-linear signal processing in the mammalian cochlea (the most peripheral part of the auditory system) is the basis of noise cancellation. To test this hypothesis, we measured the responses of auditory-nerve fibers (ANFs) to sounds embedded in background noise with different statistical properties. ANFs ...


Low Power, Low Noise Circuit For Biological Signal Recording, Rachael A. Swenson, Daniel J. Pederson, Pedro Irazoqui 2017 Purdue University

Low Power, Low Noise Circuit For Biological Signal Recording, Rachael A. Swenson, Daniel J. Pederson, Pedro Irazoqui

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Implantable devices are ideal for recording biological signals in animal models as they have minimal effect on the animal’s normal behavior during observation. The creation of the circuitry for an implantable device has several restrictions including size, power consumption, and noise reduction. These factors compete against each other, making it necessary to carefully optimize circuit components for a given application. This study evaluates the design of a four-channel analog front end circuit board to record cardiac, neural, and respiratory biological signals. Through a critical analysis of component specifications for the circuit’s components and an evaluation of the circuits ...


Gui For Mri-Compatible Neural Stimulator And Recorder, Soo Han Soon, Nishant Babaria, Ranajay Mandal, Zhongming Liu 2017 Purdue University

Gui For Mri-Compatible Neural Stimulator And Recorder, Soo Han Soon, Nishant Babaria, Ranajay Mandal, Zhongming Liu

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) are useful tools to analyze brain activities given active stimulation. However, the electromagnetic noise from the MRI distorts the brain signal recording and damages the subject with excessive heat generated on the electrodes attached to the skin. MRI-compatible recording and stimulation systems previously developed at LIBI lab were capable of removing the electromagnetic noise during the imaging process. Previously, the hardware systems had required the integrative software that could control both circuits simultaneously and enable users to easily change recording and stimulation parameters. Graphical user interface (GUI) programmed with computer language informed ...


Characterization Of The High Frequency Alternating Current Block In The Rat Sciatic Nerve Using Cuff Electrodes And Macro-Sieve Electrodes, Soumyajit Ray 2017 Washington University in St. Louis

Characterization Of The High Frequency Alternating Current Block In The Rat Sciatic Nerve Using Cuff Electrodes And Macro-Sieve Electrodes, Soumyajit Ray

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Tripolar cuff electrodes were designed, fabricated and non-chronically implanted in the sciatic nerve of two-month-old Lewis rats. A proximal constant current stimulus to the nerve was blocked by applying a high frequency sinusoidal signal to the distally placed tripolar cuff electrode. The frequency voltage characteristic of the blocking signal was obtained. Complete block was not achieved using variants of the tripolar cuff design and bipolar cuff electrodes. Single and dual macro-sieve electrode assemblies were designed, fabricated and chronically implanted in the sciatic nerve of Lewis rats. After a four-month period for regeneration four different electrode configurations were tested to enable ...


Anaplasma Phagocytophilum Infection Modulates Expression Of Megakaryocyte Cell Cycle Genes Through Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase Signaling, Supreet Khanal, Hameeda Sultana, John D. Catravas, Jason A. Carlyon, Girish Neelakanta 2017 Old Dominion University

Anaplasma Phagocytophilum Infection Modulates Expression Of Megakaryocyte Cell Cycle Genes Through Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase Signaling, Supreet Khanal, Hameeda Sultana, John D. Catravas, Jason A. Carlyon, Girish Neelakanta

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis infects neutrophils and other cells from hematopoietic origin. Using human megakaryocytic cell line, MEG-01, we show that expression of cell cycle genes in these cells are altered upon A. phagocytophilum infection. Expression of several cell cycle genes in MEG-01 cells was significantly up regulated at early and then down regulated at later stages of A. phagocytophilum infection. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays revealed reduced cellular cytotoxicity in MEG-01 cells upon A. phagocytophilum infection. The levels of both PI3KCA (p110 alpha, catalytic subunit) and PI3KR1 (p85, regulatory subunit) of Class I PI3 kinases and ...


Reactive Stepping With Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation In Response To Forward-Directed Perturbations, Alexander J. Hunt, Brooke M. Odle, Lisa M. Lombardo, Musa L. Audu, Ronald J. Triolo 2017 Portland State University

Reactive Stepping With Functional Neuromuscular Stimulation In Response To Forward-Directed Perturbations, Alexander J. Hunt, Brooke M. Odle, Lisa M. Lombardo, Musa L. Audu, Ronald J. Triolo

Mechanical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications and Presentations

Background: Implanted motor system neuroprostheses can be effective at increasing personal mobility of persons paralyzed by spinal cord injuries. However, currently available neural stimulation systems for standing employ patterns of constant activation and are unreactive to changing postural demands. Methods: In this work, we developed a closed-loop controller for detecting forward-directed body disturbances and initiating a stabilizing step in a person with spinal cord injury. Forward-directed pulls at the waist were detected with three body-mounted triaxial accelerometers. A finite state machine was designed and tested to trigger a postural response and apply stimulation to appropriate muscles so as to produce ...


Developing An Imaging Biomarker To Detect Aberrant Brain Connectivity In Individual Patients, Esther Cox 2017 Marquette University

Developing An Imaging Biomarker To Detect Aberrant Brain Connectivity In Individual Patients, Esther Cox

Master's Theses (2009 -)

Resting state functional MRI (rsfMRI) has been proven to be a valuable tool in clinical applications such as pre-surgical mapping, but there is not yet a functional and usable algorithm that can be used by physicians in a clinical setting to evaluate an individual patient for diseases and aberrant brain connectivity. If a physician wants to evaluate a patient in this way, the rsfMRI data must be looked at “by hand,” i.e. the physician must manually evaluate the data and identify the functional ICN’s and whether they are normal or aberrant. An algorithm that would automate this process ...


Development Of An Atlas-Based Segmentation Of Cranial Nerves Using Shape-Aware Discrete Deformable Models For Neurosurgical Planning And Simulation, Sharmin Sultana 2017 Old Dominion University

Development Of An Atlas-Based Segmentation Of Cranial Nerves Using Shape-Aware Discrete Deformable Models For Neurosurgical Planning And Simulation, Sharmin Sultana

Modeling, Simulation & Visualization Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Twelve pairs of cranial nerves arise from the brain or brainstem and control our sensory functions such as vision, hearing, smell and taste as well as several motor functions to the head and neck including facial expressions and eye movement. Often, these cranial nerves are difficult to detect in MRI data, and thus represent problems in neurosurgery planning and simulation, due to their thin anatomical structure, in the face of low imaging resolution as well as image artifacts. As a result, they may be at risk in neurosurgical procedures around the skull base, which might have dire consequences such as ...


Ultrasonic Power Transfer For Medical Implants, Kee S. Moon, Yusuf Ozturk, Sung Q. Lee, Woosub Youm, Guun Hwang, H. W. Park 2017 San Diego State University

Ultrasonic Power Transfer For Medical Implants, Kee S. Moon, Yusuf Ozturk, Sung Q. Lee, Woosub Youm, Guun Hwang, H. W. Park

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

Wireless power transmission is an attractive alternative to low-power biomedical implants to overcome the power limitation of the primary battery. In this paper, we are presenting an efficient ultrasonic wireless power transmission system for implantable medical devices. It is known that the ultrasonic wireless power transmission has a longer power transmission distance as well as free from electromagnetic interference and absorption in the human body. In this research, an ultrasonic resonance will be applied to improve the power transmission efficiency as well as the distance.


A Model Of Gradual Dopamine Depletion In The Rat, Christine Henry, Heidi Y. Febinger, Alan Dorval 2017 University of Utah

A Model Of Gradual Dopamine Depletion In The Rat, Christine Henry, Heidi Y. Febinger, Alan Dorval

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

No abstract provided.


Electrotransfer Of Plasmid Dna Radiosensitizes B16f10 Tumors Through Activation Of Immune Response, Monika Savarin, Urska Kamensek, Maja Cemazar, Richard Heller, Gregor Sersa 2017 Old Dominion University

Electrotransfer Of Plasmid Dna Radiosensitizes B16f10 Tumors Through Activation Of Immune Response, Monika Savarin, Urska Kamensek, Maja Cemazar, Richard Heller, Gregor Sersa

Bioelectrics Publications

Background. Tumor irradiation combined with adjuvant treatments, either vascular targeted or immunomodulatory, is under intense investigation. Gene electrotransfer of therapeutic genes is one of these approaches. The aim of this study was to determine, whether gene electrotransfer of plasmid encoding shRNA for silencing endoglin, with vascular targeted effectiveness, can radiosensitize melanoma B16F10 tumors.

Materials and methods. The murine melanoma Bl6F10 tumors, growing on the back of C57BI/6 mice, were treated by triple gene electrotransfer and irradiation. The antitumor effect was evaluated by determination of tumor growth delay and proportion of tumor free mice. Furthermore, histological analysis of tumors (necrosis ...


Transient Alt Activation Protects Human Primary Cells From Chromosome Instability Induced By Low Chronic Oxidative Stress, Elisa Coluzzi, Rossella Buonsante, Stefano Leone, Anthony J. Asmar, Kelley L. Miller, Daniela Cimini, Antonella Sgura 2017 Old Dominion University

Transient Alt Activation Protects Human Primary Cells From Chromosome Instability Induced By Low Chronic Oxidative Stress, Elisa Coluzzi, Rossella Buonsante, Stefano Leone, Anthony J. Asmar, Kelley L. Miller, Daniela Cimini, Antonella Sgura

Bioelectrics Publications

Cells are often subjected to the effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as a result of both intracellular metabolism and exposure to exogenous factors. ROS-dependent oxidative stress can induce 8-oxodG within the GGG triplet found in the G-rich human telomeric sequence (TTAGGG), making telomeres highly susceptible to ROS-induced oxidative damage. Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes that protect the ends of linear chromosomes and their dysfunction is believed to affect a wide range of cellular and/or organismal processes. Acute oxidative stress was shown to affect telomere integrity, but how prolonged low level oxidative stress, which may be more physiologically relevant, affects ...


Exploring The Production Of Extracellular Matrix By Astrocytes In Response To Mimetic Traumatic Brain Injury, Addison Walker 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Exploring The Production Of Extracellular Matrix By Astrocytes In Response To Mimetic Traumatic Brain Injury, Addison Walker

Theses and Dissertations

Following injury to the central nervous system, extracellular modulations are apparent at

the site of injury, often resulting in a glial scar. Astrocytes are mechanosensitive cells, which can create a neuroinhibitory extracellular environment in response to injury. The aim for this research was to gain a fundamental understanding of the affects a diffuse traumatic brain injury has on the astrocyte extracellular environment after injury. To accomplish this, a bioreactor culturing astrocytes in 3D constructs delivered 150G decelerations with 20% biaxial strain to mimic a traumatic brain injury. Experiments were designed to compare the potential effects of media type, number of ...


Elbow Patients’ Data Collection And Analysis: An Examination Of Electromyography Healing Patterns, Raneem Haddara 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Elbow Patients’ Data Collection And Analysis: An Examination Of Electromyography Healing Patterns, Raneem Haddara

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Musculoskeletal conditions are the most common cause of severe long-term pain and physical disability, accounting for the highest disability costs of about $17 billion yearly. To provide better rehabilitation tactics, the knowledge gap between injuries and their healing mechanisms needs to be addressed. The use of electromyography (EMG) is very popular in detecting neuromuscular diseases or nerve lesions; however, there is limited knowledge available for quantifying healing patterns of EMG in orthopedic patients who have injured their joints, muscles, or bones. In order to quantify the progress of orthopedic patients and assess their neuromuscular health and muscle synergy patterns, EMG ...


Cortical Oscillations During A Lateral Balance Perturbation While Walking, Joseph Lee 2016 Marquette University

Cortical Oscillations During A Lateral Balance Perturbation While Walking, Joseph Lee

Dissertations (2009 -)

The role of sensory systems in the cortical control of dynamic balance was examined using electroencephalography (EEG) recordings during balance perturbations while walking. Specifically, we examined the impact of sensory deficits on cortical oscillations using vibratory stimuli to suppress sensory feedback and by comparing cortical oscillations during balance perturbations while walking in people with sensory deficits associated with cervical myelopathy and neurologically intact controls. Balance during walking provides a rich framework for investigating cortical control using EEG during a functionally relevant task. While this approach is promising, substantial technical challenges remain in recording and processing EEG in the noisy, artifact ...


A Proposal For A Wirelessly Powered, Implantable Pressure Sensor And Neural Stimulator For The Control Of Urinary Incontinence, Robert N. Tucker, Christopher J. Quinkert, Pedro P. Irazoqui 2016 Purdue University

A Proposal For A Wirelessly Powered, Implantable Pressure Sensor And Neural Stimulator For The Control Of Urinary Incontinence, Robert N. Tucker, Christopher J. Quinkert, Pedro P. Irazoqui

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

47 to 53 percent of women over the age of 20 suffer from urinary incontinence, often caused by childbirth-related damage to the pelvic nerve. This uncertainty of when bladder voiding will occur causes social anxiety and can compromise quality of life. This study explores one method to restore the ability to sense the need to urinate and prevent unwanted voiding. We propose a device to measure pressure due to bladder content as the difference between pressure in the bladder and pressure in the abdominal cavity. Integrated circuits, biocompatible packaging, and wireless radiofrequency powering allow for a fully implantable device to ...


Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas For Food Applications, Michael V. Lauria, Russell S. Brayfield II, Ronald G. Johnson, Allen L. Garner 2016 Purdue University

Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas For Food Applications, Michael V. Lauria, Russell S. Brayfield Ii, Ronald G. Johnson, Allen L. Garner

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Successfully distributing shelf food requires treatment to eliminate microorganisms. Current chemical methods, such as chlorine wash, can alter food quality while only being effective for a limited time. Cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPs) can eradicate the microorganisms responsible for food spoilage and foodborne illness. Optimizing CAP treatments requires understanding the reactive species generated and relating them to eradication efficiency. Recent studies have used optical emission spectroscopy (OES) to determine the species generated in a sealed package that would hold food. In this study,we supplement the OES results with optical absorption spectroscopy (OAS) using the same gases (helium, nitrogen, compressed ...


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