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An Injectable Stem Cell Delivery System For Treatment Of Musculoskeletal Defects, Shirae Leslie 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

An Injectable Stem Cell Delivery System For Treatment Of Musculoskeletal Defects, Shirae Leslie

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research was to develop a system of injectable hydrogels to deliver stem cells to musculoskeletal defects, thereby allowing cells to remain at the treatment site and secrete soluble factors that will facilitate tissue regeneration. First, production parameters for encapsulating cells in microbeads were determined. This involved investigating the effects of osmolytes on alginate microbead properties, and the effects of alginate microbead cell density, alginate microbead density, and effects of osteogenic media on microencapsulated cells. Although cells remained viable in the microbeads, alginate does not readily degrade in vivo for six months. Therefore, a method to incorporate ...


Enhancing Osseointegration Of Orthopaedic Implants With Titania Nanotube Surfaces, Erin A. Baker 2016 Michigan Technological University

Enhancing Osseointegration Of Orthopaedic Implants With Titania Nanotube Surfaces, Erin A. Baker

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Introduction: As joint arthroplasty surgical procedures increase annually, the development of new strategies, including novel materials and surface modifications, to attain solid bone-implant fixation are needed to increase implant terms of service. In this study, we evaluate two morphologies of titania nanotubes in both in vitro and in vivo experiments to quantify osseointegrative potential and material-level biocompatibility.

Materials and Methods: Samples were prepared via an electrochemical etching process. Two different titania nanotube (TiNT) morphologies were produced, Aligned and Trabecular. For the in vitro experiment, Sprague Dawley (SD) rat marrow-derived bone marrow cells (BMC) were seeded on samples. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP ...


Influence Of Nb On The Β → Α″ Martensitic Phase Transformation And Properties Of The Newly Designed Ti-Fe-Nb Alloys, Shima Ehtemam-Haghighi, Yujing Liu, Guanghui Cao, Lai-Chang Zhang 2016 Edith Cowan University

Influence Of Nb On The Β → Α″ Martensitic Phase Transformation And Properties Of The Newly Designed Ti-Fe-Nb Alloys, Shima Ehtemam-Haghighi, Yujing Liu, Guanghui Cao, Lai-Chang Zhang

ECU Publications Post 2013

A series of Ti-7Fe-xNb (x = 0, 1, 4, 6, 9, 11 wt.%) alloys was designed and cast to investigate the β → α″ martensitic phase transformation, β phase stability, the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties. Phase analysis revealed that only Ti-7Fe-11Nb alloy shows a single body-centred cubic β phase microstructure while the others are comprised of β and orthorhombic α″ phases. Moreover, Nb addition up to 11 wt.% enhances the stability and volume fraction of β phase in the microstructure, hence reducing the propensity of the alloy system to form α″ phase during quenching. Compressive yield strength and hardness of the ...


High Throughput Studies Of Cell Migration In 3d Microtissues Fabricated By A Droplet Microfluidic Chip, Xiangchen Che, Jacob A. M. Nuhn, Ian C. Schneider, Long Que 2016 Iowa State University

High Throughput Studies Of Cell Migration In 3d Microtissues Fabricated By A Droplet Microfluidic Chip, Xiangchen Che, Jacob A. M. Nuhn, Ian C. Schneider, Long Que

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Arrayed three-dimensional (3D) micro-sized tissues with encapsulated cells (microtissues) have been fabricated by a droplet microfluidic chip. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a polymerized collagen network. One or multiple breast cancer cells were embedded within the microtissues, which were stored in arrayed microchambers on the same chip without ECM droplet shrinkage over 48 h. The migration trajectory of the cells was recorded by optical microscopy. The migration speed was calculated in the range of 3–6 µm/h. Interestingly, cells in devices filled with a continuous collagen network migrated faster than those where only droplets were arrayed in the chambers ...


Combinatorial Hydrogel Library Enables Identification Of Materials That Mitigate The Foreign Body Response In Primates, Arturo J. Vegas, Kaitlin M. Bratlie, et al. 2016 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Combinatorial Hydrogel Library Enables Identification Of Materials That Mitigate The Foreign Body Response In Primates, Arturo J. Vegas, Kaitlin M. Bratlie, Et Al.

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

The foreign body response is an immune-mediated reaction that can lead to the failure of implanted medical devices and discomfort for the recipient16. There is a critical need for biomaterials that overcome this key challenge in the development of medical devices. Here we use a combinatorial approach for covalent chemical modification to generate a large library of variants of one of the most widely used hydrogel biomaterials, alginate. We evaluated the materials in vivo and identified three triazole-containing analogs that substantially reduce foreign body reactions in both rodents and, for at least 6 months, in non-human primates. The ...


Bioactive Poly(Beta-Amino Ester) Biomaterials For Treatment Of Infection And Oxidative Stress, Andrew L. Lakes 2016 University of Kentucky

Bioactive Poly(Beta-Amino Ester) Biomaterials For Treatment Of Infection And Oxidative Stress, Andrew L. Lakes

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Polymers have deep roots as drug delivery tools, and are widely used in clinical to private settings. Currently, however, numerous traditional therapies exist which may be improved through use of polymeric biomaterials. Through our work with infectious and oxidative stress disease prevention and treatment, we aimed to develop application driven, enhanced therapies utilizing new classes of polymers synthesized in-house. Applying biodegradable poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) polymers, covalent-addition of bioactive substrates to these PBAEs avoided certain pitfalls of free-loaded and non-degradable drug delivery systems. Further, through variation of polymer ingredients and conditions, we were able to tune degradation rates, release profiles ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Curcumin Polymer For Application In Radiation Induced Lung Damage, Mark C. Bailey 2016 University of Kentucky

Synthesis And Characterization Of Curcumin Polymer For Application In Radiation Induced Lung Damage, Mark C. Bailey

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Radiotherapy is used as a primary treatment for many cancers, including lung cancer. Although radiotherapy has proven to be an effective cancer treatment, its use is heavily limited due to the peripheral toxicity to healthy tissue. In this work, the antioxidant, curcumin, was tested as a radioprotectant to reduce radiation damage to healthy cells. Curcumin has been limited in use due to its poor bioavailability. In order to avoid problems associated with free curcumin delivery, curcumin poly(beta-amino ester) (CPBAE) was synthesized.

The first study investigated the in vitro radioprotection effect of curcumin in HUVEC dosed with gamma radiation. Cells ...


The Role Of Bone Sialoprotein In Periodontal Tissue Development And Bone Repair, Yohannes Soenjaya 2015 The University of Western Ontario

The Role Of Bone Sialoprotein In Periodontal Tissue Development And Bone Repair, Yohannes Soenjaya

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bone development and repair involve complex processes that include interaction between cells and their surrounding matrix. In the body, bone sialoprotein (BSP) expression is up-regulated at the onset of mineralization. BSP is a multifunctional acidic phosphoprotein with collagen-binding, hydroxyapatite nucleating, and integrin recognition (RGD sequence, which is important for cell-attachment and signaling) regions. Mice lacking BSP expression (Bsp-/-), exhibit a bone phenotype with reductions in bone mineral density, bone length, osteoclast activation, and impaired bone healing. This thesis examined the role of BSP in tooth development and also its potential use as a therapeutic reagent for bone repair. MicroCT and ...


Getting To The Root Of Bacterial Hairs: What Is “S”?, Rebecca Gaddis, Samantha O'Conner, Evan Anderson, Terri Camesano, Nancy Burnham 2015 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Getting To The Root Of Bacterial Hairs: What Is “S”?, Rebecca Gaddis, Samantha O'Conner, Evan Anderson, Terri Camesano, Nancy Burnham

Nancy A. Burnham

An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure the steric forces of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the biofilm-forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is well known that LPS play a vital role in biofilm formation. These forces were characterized with a modified version of the Alexander and de Gennes (AdG) model for polymers, which is a function of equilibrium brush length, L, probe radius, R, temperature, T, separation distance, D, and an indefinite density variable, s. This last parameter was originally distinguished by de Gennes as the root spacing or mesh spacing depending upon the type of polymer adhesion; however since ...


A Collagen Based Tissue Engineered Heart Valve Shows Excellent Functionality And Remodelling After Dynamic Conditioning, Claire Brougham, Ricardo Moreira, Tanya J. Levingstone, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Petra Mela, Fergal J. O'Brien 2015 Dublin Institute of Technology

A Collagen Based Tissue Engineered Heart Valve Shows Excellent Functionality And Remodelling After Dynamic Conditioning, Claire Brougham, Ricardo Moreira, Tanya J. Levingstone, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Petra Mela, Fergal J. O'Brien

Conference Papers

No abstract provided.


The Development Of A Novel Polymer Based System For Gene Delivery, Anh Van Le 2015 FIU

The Development Of A Novel Polymer Based System For Gene Delivery, Anh Van Le

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Gene therapy involves the use of nucleic acids, either DNA or RNA for the treatment, cure, or prevention of human diseases. Synthetic cationic polymers are promising as a tool for gene delivery because of their high level of design flexibility for biomaterial construction and are capable of binding and condensing DNA through electrostatic interactions.

Our lab has developed a novel polymer (poly (polyethylene glycol-dodecanoate) (PEGD), a polyester of polyethylene glycol (PEG) and dodecanedioic acid (DDA). PEGD is a linear viscous polymer that self-assembles into a vesicle upon immersion in an aqueous solution. A copolymer of dodecanedioc acid and polyethylene glycol ...


Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles Fabricated Via Co-Precipitation In Air: Overview Of Size Control And Magnetic Properties, Dennis Toledo 2015 Florida International University

Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles Fabricated Via Co-Precipitation In Air: Overview Of Size Control And Magnetic Properties, Dennis Toledo

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Cobalt Ferrite has important, size-dependent magnetic properties. Consequently, an overview of particle size is important. Co-precipitation in air was the fabrication method used because it is comparatively simple and safe. The effects of three different reaction times including 1, 2, 3 hour(s) on particle size were compared. Also, the effectiveness of three different capping agents (Oleic Acid, Polyvinylpyrollidone (PVP), and Trisodium Citrate) in reducing aggregation and correspondingly particle size were examined. Using Welch’s analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the relevant post hoc tests, there was no significant difference (p=0.05) between reaction times of 1 hour and ...


Incorporation Of Fibrin Into A Collagen–Glycosaminoglycan Matrix Results In A Scaffold With Improved Mechanical Properties And Enhanced Capacity To Resist Cell-Mediated Contraction, Claire Brougham, Tanya J. Levingstone, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Thomas C. Flanagan, Fergal J. O'Brien 2015 Dublin Institute of Technology

Incorporation Of Fibrin Into A Collagen–Glycosaminoglycan Matrix Results In A Scaffold With Improved Mechanical Properties And Enhanced Capacity To Resist Cell-Mediated Contraction, Claire Brougham, Tanya J. Levingstone, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Thomas C. Flanagan, Fergal J. O'Brien

Articles

Fibrin has many uses as a tissue engineering scaffold, however many in vivo studies have shown a reduction in function resulting from the susceptibility of fibrin to cell-mediated contraction. The overall aim of the present study was to develop and characterise a reinforced natural scaffold using fibrin, collagen and glycosaminoglycan (FCG), and to examine the cell-mediated contraction of this scaffold in comparison to fibrin gels. Through the use of an injection loading technique, a homogenous FCG scaffold was developed. Mechanical testing showed a sixfold increase in compressive modulus and a thirtyfold increase in tensile modulus of fibrin when reinforced with ...


Label-Free Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy-Linked Immunosensor Assay (Slisa) For Environmental Surveillance, vinay bhardwaj 2015 Florida International University

Label-Free Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy-Linked Immunosensor Assay (Slisa) For Environmental Surveillance, Vinay Bhardwaj

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The contamination of the environment, accidental or intentional, in particular with chemical toxins such as industrial chemicals and chemical warfare agents has increased public fear. There is a critical requirement for the continuous detection of toxins present at very low levels in the environment. Indeed, some ultra-sensitive analytical techniques already exist, for example chromatography and mass spectroscopy, which are approved by the US Environmental Protection Agency for the detection of toxins. However, these techniques are limited to the detection of known toxins. Cellular expression of genomic and proteomic biomarkers in response to toxins allows monitoring of known as well as ...


Development Of A Microrna Delivery Scaffold System For Bone Tissue Engineering, Irene Mencía Castaño 2015 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Development Of A Microrna Delivery Scaffold System For Bone Tissue Engineering, Irene Mencía Castaño

PhD theses

Although bone has an intrinsic capacity for self repair, the healing of large bone defects that typically present in humans often involves complications which result in failure to heal, leading to delayed or non-union of the defect. Due to limitations of current therapeutic approaches of autografting and allografting, the use of tissue engineered scaffolds has emerged. Despite some success with this approach, these scaffolds often require a further stimulus to promote complete healing of large bone defects. microRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as promising therapeutics to stimulate bone repair, owing to their ability to intercept entire gene cohorts. However, the ...


Mechanical Characterization Of Carbon Fiber And Thermoplastic Ankle Foot Orthoses, Amanda Wach 2015 Marquette University

Mechanical Characterization Of Carbon Fiber And Thermoplastic Ankle Foot Orthoses, Amanda Wach

Master's Theses (2009 -)

The needs of an increasingly young and active orthotic patient population has led to advancements in ankle foot orthosis (AFO) design and materials to enable higher function. The Intrepid Dynamic Exoskeletal Orthosis (IDEO) is a custom energy-storing carbon fiber AFO that has demonstrated improved clinical function, allowing patients to return to high-intensity activities such as sports and military service. An improved understanding of AFO mechanical function will aid prescription and fitting, as well as assist in design modifications for different patient populations. This study investigated the mechanical properties of AFOs, specifically structural stiffness, rotational motion, and strut deflection, to discern ...


Effect Of Hemiarthroplasty Implant Contact Geometry And Material On Early Cartilage Wear, Alana Khayat 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Effect Of Hemiarthroplasty Implant Contact Geometry And Material On Early Cartilage Wear, Alana Khayat

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Hemiarthroplasty is a minimally invasive, cost-effective alternative to total arthroplasty in joints of the upper limb. Though these procedures reduce patient morbidity while restoring joint kinematics, their longevity is limited by wear of the adjacent cartilage. This work investigates the roles of contact geometry and implant stiffness on cartilage wear with the aim of elucidating the mechanics that contribute to cartilage damage. An in vitro study examined the influence of implant geometry on cartilage wear using a pin-on-plate wear simulator. A significant decrease in volumetric wear was observed as contact area increased, which suggests that maximizing contact area should be ...


The Role Of Biological Fluid And Dynamic Flow In The Behavior And Cellular Interactions Of Gold Nanoparticles, Emily K. Breitner, Saber M. Hussain, Kristen K. Comfort 2015 University of Dayton

The Role Of Biological Fluid And Dynamic Flow In The Behavior And Cellular Interactions Of Gold Nanoparticles, Emily K. Breitner, Saber M. Hussain, Kristen K. Comfort

Chemical and Materials Engineering Faculty Publications

Background: Due to their distinctive physicochemical properties, nanoparticles (NPs) have proven to be extremely advantageous for product and application development, but are also capable of inducing detrimental outcomes in biological systems. Standard in vitro methodologies are currently the primary means for evaluating NP safety, as vast quantities of particles exist that require appraisal. However, cell-based models are plagued by the fact that they are not representative of complex physiological systems. The need for a more accurate exposure model is highlighted by the fact that NP behavior and subsequent bioresponses are highly dependent upon their surroundings. Therefore, standard in vitro models ...


3d Scaffolds In Tissue Engineering And Regenerative Medicine: Beyond Structural Templates?, Tierney Deluzio, Dawit Seifu, Kibret Mequanint 2015 The University of Western Ontario

3d Scaffolds In Tissue Engineering And Regenerative Medicine: Beyond Structural Templates?, Tierney Deluzio, Dawit Seifu, Kibret Mequanint

Tierney GB Deluzio

The objective of this article is to systematically present the emerging understanding that 3D porous scaffolds serve not only as structural templates for tissue fabrication but also provide complex signaling cues to cells and facilitate oxygen and therapeutic agent delivery. Strategies in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine often rely on 3D scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix as structural templates that support cell adhesion, migration, differentiation and proliferation, and provide guidance for neo-tissue formation. In addition to providing a temporary support for tissue fabrication, 3D scaffolds have also been used to study cell signaling that best ...


3d Scaffolds In Tissue Engineering And Regenerative Medicine: Beyond Structural Templates?, Tierney Deluzio, Dawit Seifu, Kibret Mequanint 2015 The University of Western Ontario

3d Scaffolds In Tissue Engineering And Regenerative Medicine: Beyond Structural Templates?, Tierney Deluzio, Dawit Seifu, Kibret Mequanint

Tierney GB Deluzio

The objective of this article is to systematically present the emerging understanding that 3D porous scaffolds serve not only as structural templates for tissue fabrication but also provide complex signaling cues to cells and facilitate oxygen and therapeutic agent delivery. Strategies in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine often rely on 3D scaffolds to mimic the natural extracellular matrix as structural templates that support cell adhesion, migration, differentiation and proliferation, and provide guidance for neo-tissue formation. In addition to providing a temporary support for tissue fabrication, 3D scaffolds have also been used to study cell signaling that best ...


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