Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Biomaterials Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

436 Full-Text Articles 796 Authors 327,960 Downloads 59 Institutions

All Articles in Biomaterials

Faceted Search

436 full-text articles. Page 7 of 19.

Isolation Of Metallic Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes For Electrically Conductive Tissue Engineering Scaffolds, Jakob Hockman 2016 University of Arkansas

Isolation Of Metallic Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes For Electrically Conductive Tissue Engineering Scaffolds, Jakob Hockman

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes (m-SWNTs) were separated from pristine SWNTs using affinity chromatography for use in electrically conductive tissue engineering scaffolds. Approximately one third of SWNTs have metallic properties. Separations were achieved using a protocol modified from Liu & coworkers (2011) in order to improve the method for cell culture environments. Samples enriched in m-SWNTs were isolated and characterized. However, challenges still remain for the complete separation of m-SWNTs from their semiconducting counterpart (s-SWNTs) using this protocol. Approaches to improve separation and reduce the difficulties associated with processing the nanotubes were suggested. One of the ultimate destinations of these nanotubes would ...


Inter-Droplet Membranes For Mechanical Sensing Applications, Nima Tamaddoni Jahromi 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

Inter-Droplet Membranes For Mechanical Sensing Applications, Nima Tamaddoni Jahromi

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation combines self-assembly phenomena of amphiphilic molecules with soft materials to create and characterize mechanoelectrical transducers and sensors whose sensing elements are thin-film bioinspired membranes comprised of phospholipids or amphiphilic polymers. We show that the structures of these amphiphilic molecules tune the mechanical and electrical properties of these membranes. We show that these properties affect the mechanoelectrical sensing characteristic and range of operation of these membrane transducers. In the experiments, we construct and characterize a membrane-based hair cell embodiment that enables the membrane to be responsive to mechanical perturbations of the hair. The resulting oscillations of membranes formed between ...


Bending Stiffness In Cadaveric And Composite Long Bones Following Total Joint Replacement, Danielle Gehron, Anderson Adams MS, Tatsuya Sueyoshi MD, Scott R. Small MS 2016 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Bending Stiffness In Cadaveric And Composite Long Bones Following Total Joint Replacement, Danielle Gehron, Anderson Adams Ms, Tatsuya Sueyoshi Md, Scott R. Small Ms

Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Research Publications

Several biomechanics studies have utilized commercially available replicate bone models as an alternative to cadaveric tissue specimens, in part due to their ease of handling and reduced expense. In an effort to validate the use of replicate bone specimens in biomechanics research, a number of studies have compared material properties of whole tibia and femur specimens to those of similar cadaveric specimens. Many of these validation studies have ascertained that the material properties of whole bone composite models fall within the range of those properties of cadaveric specimens, while offering reduced interspecimen variability. Current literature lacks, however, the direct comparison ...


Patterned Alginate Hydrogels To Induce Chondrocyte Alignment, Jordan Catherine Verplank, Taylor D. Laughlin, Angela K. Pannier 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Patterned Alginate Hydrogels To Induce Chondrocyte Alignment, Jordan Catherine Verplank, Taylor D. Laughlin, Angela K. Pannier

UCARE Research Products

The growth plate has an intricate architecture, and this architecture is necessary for directional growth of bones. Specifically, the cells align in longitudinal columns. As the growth plate expands with this pattern, the bone elongates with the same alignment pattern. The purpose of this research is to mimic this single celled, columnar alignment in vitro. In developing this alignment in vitro, this research will contribute to the overall study of growing growth for the development of improved therapeutic treatments and engineered tissues for transplants.


Equilibrium Testing Of Rat Tail Tendon: An Analysis Of The Viscoelastic Properties Of Collagen Under Different Strain Points, Joshua C. Witt 2016 Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology

Equilibrium Testing Of Rat Tail Tendon: An Analysis Of The Viscoelastic Properties Of Collagen Under Different Strain Points, Joshua C. Witt

Graduate Theses - Biology & Biomedical Engineering

Instantaneous tensile testing and stress-relaxation testing are forms of mechanical testing used to determine the elastic and viscoelastic properties of biological tissue. Equilibrium testing is a form of testing that combines both of these testing approaches at different strain points to determine the elastic properties of a material and also assess their viscoelastic properties in the same test. This testing method is commonly used on highly viscoelastic materials such as cartilage but has never been fully described in dense collagenous materials such as tendon or ligament. This analysis utilizes different strain points selected to capture the classic non-linear behavior of ...


Collagen And Elastin Based Tissue Engineered Vascular Grafts, Alan J. Ryan 2016 Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland

Collagen And Elastin Based Tissue Engineered Vascular Grafts, Alan J. Ryan

PhD theses

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death worldwide, accounting for 29% of all global deaths and is set to rise to 23 million deaths a year by 2030 (World Health Organisation, 2012). Arterial bypassing, both peripheral and coronary, is usually performed with autologously harvested vessels. However, the quantity available is often very limited as well as the vessels of elderly patients often suffering from thrombus, aneurysm formation or arthrosclerosis in high pressure arterial sites. The shortcomings of autografts has led to a substantial amount of research being directed towards tissue engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) (Kakisis et al., 2005). Currently ...


Surface-Initiated Polymerizations For The Rapid Sorting Of Rare Cancer Cells, Jacob L. Lilly 2016 University of Kentucky

Surface-Initiated Polymerizations For The Rapid Sorting Of Rare Cancer Cells, Jacob L. Lilly

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Cancer metastasis directly accounts for an estimated 90% of all cancer related deaths and is correlated with the presence of malignant cells in systemic circulation. This observed relationship has prompted efforts to develop a fluid biopsy, with the goal of detecting these rare cells in patient peripheral blood as surrogate markers for metastatic disease as a partial replacement or supplement to tissue biopsies. Numerous platforms have been designed, yet these have generally failed to support a reliable fluid biopsy due to poor performance parameters such as low throughput, low purity of enriched antigen positive cells, and insufficiently low detection thresholds ...


Biopolymer Electrospun Nanofiber Mats To Inactivate And Remove Bacteria, Katrina Ann Rieger 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Biopolymer Electrospun Nanofiber Mats To Inactivate And Remove Bacteria, Katrina Ann Rieger

Doctoral Dissertations

The persistence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens remains a primary concern for immunocompromised and critically-ill hospital patients. Hospital associated infections can be deadly and reduce the successes of medical advancements, such as, cancer therapies and medical implants. Thus, it is imperative to develop materials that can (i) deliver new antibiotics with accuracy, as well as (ii) uptake pathogenic microbes. In this work, we will demonstrate that electrospun nanofiber mats offer a promising platform for both of these objectives because of their high surface-to-volume ratio, interconnected high porosity, gas permeability, and ability to contour to virtually any surface. To provide ...


Bioengineered Platforms To Study Carcinoma Cell Response To Drug Treatment, Thuy V. Nguyen 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Bioengineered Platforms To Study Carcinoma Cell Response To Drug Treatment, Thuy V. Nguyen

Doctoral Dissertations

The tumor extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in facilitating tumor growth and mediating tumor cells' resistance to drugs. However, during drug development, potential chemotherapeutics are screened in plastic plates, which lack relevant ECM physicochemical cues. In order to improve drug development process, this dissertation includes the development of relevant 2D and 3D biomaterial systems that can be used to study carcinoma cell response to drug treatment.

A novel poly(ethylene glycol)-phosphorylcholine (PEG-PC) high-throughput biomaterial platform was developed to study how the ECM mechanochemical properties affect cancer cells' response to drug. The PEG-PC biomaterial is optically transparent, has ...


An Injectable Stem Cell Delivery System For Treatment Of Musculoskeletal Defects, Shirae Leslie 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

An Injectable Stem Cell Delivery System For Treatment Of Musculoskeletal Defects, Shirae Leslie

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research was to develop a system of injectable hydrogels to deliver stem cells to musculoskeletal defects, thereby allowing cells to remain at the treatment site and secrete soluble factors that will facilitate tissue regeneration. First, production parameters for encapsulating cells in microbeads were determined. This involved investigating the effects of osmolytes on alginate microbead properties, and the effects of alginate microbead cell density, alginate microbead density, and effects of osteogenic media on microencapsulated cells. Although cells remained viable in the microbeads, alginate does not readily degrade in vivo for six months. Therefore, a method to incorporate ...


Enhancing Osseointegration Of Orthopaedic Implants With Titania Nanotube Surfaces, Erin A. Baker 2016 Michigan Technological University

Enhancing Osseointegration Of Orthopaedic Implants With Titania Nanotube Surfaces, Erin A. Baker

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Introduction: As joint arthroplasty surgical procedures increase annually, the development of new strategies, including novel materials and surface modifications, to attain solid bone-implant fixation are needed to increase implant terms of service. In this study, we evaluate two morphologies of titania nanotubes in both in vitro and in vivo experiments to quantify osseointegrative potential and material-level biocompatibility.

Materials and Methods: Samples were prepared via an electrochemical etching process. Two different titania nanotube (TiNT) morphologies were produced, Aligned and Trabecular. For the in vitro experiment, Sprague Dawley (SD) rat marrow-derived bone marrow cells (BMC) were seeded on samples. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP ...


Bioactive Poly(Beta-Amino Ester) Biomaterials For Treatment Of Infection And Oxidative Stress, Andrew L. Lakes 2016 University of Kentucky

Bioactive Poly(Beta-Amino Ester) Biomaterials For Treatment Of Infection And Oxidative Stress, Andrew L. Lakes

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Polymers have deep roots as drug delivery tools, and are widely used in clinical to private settings. Currently, however, numerous traditional therapies exist which may be improved through use of polymeric biomaterials. Through our work with infectious and oxidative stress disease prevention and treatment, we aimed to develop application driven, enhanced therapies utilizing new classes of polymers synthesized in-house. Applying biodegradable poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) polymers, covalent-addition of bioactive substrates to these PBAEs avoided certain pitfalls of free-loaded and non-degradable drug delivery systems. Further, through variation of polymer ingredients and conditions, we were able to tune degradation rates, release profiles ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Antioxidant Conjugated Poly(Βeta-Amino Ester) Micro/Nanogels For The Suppression Of Oxidative Stress, Prachi Gupta 2016 University of Kentucky

Synthesis And Characterization Of Antioxidant Conjugated Poly(Βeta-Amino Ester) Micro/Nanogels For The Suppression Of Oxidative Stress, Prachi Gupta

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Oxidative stress is a pathophysiological condition defined by an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can result in the growth arrest of cells followed by cell disintegration or necrosis. A number of small molecule antioxidants (e.g. curcumin, quercetin and resveratrol) are capable of directly scavenging ROS, thereby short-circuiting the self-propagating oxidative stress state. However, poor solubility and rapid 1st pass metabolism results in overall low bioavailability and acts as a barrier for its use as a drug to suppress oxidative stress efficiently.

To overcome this limitation, these small molecule antioxidants were covalently conjugated into poly(β-amino ...


Characterization Of Fibrin Matrix Incorporated Electrospun Polycaprolactone Scaffold, Cho Yi Wong 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Characterization Of Fibrin Matrix Incorporated Electrospun Polycaprolactone Scaffold, Cho Yi Wong

Theses and Dissertations

Specific objective: Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) aims to regenerate the lost attachment apparatus caused by periodontal disease through the use of a barrier membrane. For the GTR procedures to be successful, barrier membranes are required to be present at the surgical site for an extended period of time (weeks to months). Synthetic membranes have the advantage of prolonged presence in a wound site; however, they do not actively contribute to wound healing. Biologic membranes are recognized by the host tissue and participate in wound healing but have the disadvantage of early resorption. Therefore, the goal of this study is to ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Curcumin Polymer For Application In Radiation Induced Lung Damage, Mark C. Bailey 2016 University of Kentucky

Synthesis And Characterization Of Curcumin Polymer For Application In Radiation Induced Lung Damage, Mark C. Bailey

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Radiotherapy is used as a primary treatment for many cancers, including lung cancer. Although radiotherapy has proven to be an effective cancer treatment, its use is heavily limited due to the peripheral toxicity to healthy tissue. In this work, the antioxidant, curcumin, was tested as a radioprotectant to reduce radiation damage to healthy cells. Curcumin has been limited in use due to its poor bioavailability. In order to avoid problems associated with free curcumin delivery, curcumin poly(beta-amino ester) (CPBAE) was synthesized.

The first study investigated the in vitro radioprotection effect of curcumin in HUVEC dosed with gamma radiation. Cells ...


Structure And Dynamics Of Charged Colloidal Disks In Colloid-Polymer Mixtures, Suhasini Kishore 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Structure And Dynamics Of Charged Colloidal Disks In Colloid-Polymer Mixtures, Suhasini Kishore

Doctoral Dissertations

Complex fluid mixtures of colloids and polymers are extensively used in several conventional and emerging technological applications. Particles self-assemble under different conditions to form colloidal glasses and gels and it often leads to the development of unusual viscoelastic features. In the case of aspherical particles, shape anisotropy and physical aging effects add to the existing complexities so the implementation of a strategic formulation method to improve performance and stability remains a critical challenge.

This thesis presents a comprehensive analysis of particle interactions in mixtures of charged disk-shaped colloids and weakly-adsorbing polymers like poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Here, we discuss the ...


Combinatorial Hydrogel Library Enables Identification Of Materials That Mitigate The Foreign Body Response In Primates, Arturo J. Vegas, Kaitlin M. Bratlie, et al. 2016 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Combinatorial Hydrogel Library Enables Identification Of Materials That Mitigate The Foreign Body Response In Primates, Arturo J. Vegas, Kaitlin M. Bratlie, Et Al.

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

The foreign body response is an immune-mediated reaction that can lead to the failure of implanted medical devices and discomfort for the recipient16. There is a critical need for biomaterials that overcome this key challenge in the development of medical devices. Here we use a combinatorial approach for covalent chemical modification to generate a large library of variants of one of the most widely used hydrogel biomaterials, alginate. We evaluated the materials in vivo and identified three triazole-containing analogs that substantially reduce foreign body reactions in both rodents and, for at least 6 months, in non-human primates. The ...


Inhibition Of Bacterial Growth And Prevention Of Bacterial Adhesion With Localized Nitric Oxide Delivery, Julia Osborne 2016 Michigan Technological University

Inhibition Of Bacterial Growth And Prevention Of Bacterial Adhesion With Localized Nitric Oxide Delivery, Julia Osborne

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Bacterial infections continue to be a problem at the site of an indwelling medical device, and over the years, various bacterial strains have become more resistant to current antibiotic treatments. Bacterial infection at an indwelling medical device can be dangerous and affect the performance of the medical device which can ultimately lead to the failure of the device due to bacterial resistance to treatment.

Nitric Oxide (NO) has been shown to possess antibacterial properties to prevent and inhibit bacterial growth. NO releasing coatings on indwelling medical devices could provide a reduction in bacterial infections that occur at the device site ...


High Throughput Studies Of Cell Migration In 3d Microtissues Fabricated By A Droplet Microfluidic Chip, Xiangchen Che, Jacob A. M. Nuhn, Ian C. Schneider, Long Que 2016 Iowa State University

High Throughput Studies Of Cell Migration In 3d Microtissues Fabricated By A Droplet Microfluidic Chip, Xiangchen Che, Jacob A. M. Nuhn, Ian C. Schneider, Long Que

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Arrayed three-dimensional (3D) micro-sized tissues with encapsulated cells (microtissues) have been fabricated by a droplet microfluidic chip. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a polymerized collagen network. One or multiple breast cancer cells were embedded within the microtissues, which were stored in arrayed microchambers on the same chip without ECM droplet shrinkage over 48 h. The migration trajectory of the cells was recorded by optical microscopy. The migration speed was calculated in the range of 3–6 µm/h. Interestingly, cells in devices filled with a continuous collagen network migrated faster than those where only droplets were arrayed in the chambers ...


Development And Characterization Of Lung Derived Extracellular Matrix Hydrogels, Robert A. Pouliot 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Development And Characterization Of Lung Derived Extracellular Matrix Hydrogels, Robert A. Pouliot

Theses and Dissertations

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) including emphysema is a devastating condition, increasing in prevalence in the US and worldwide. There remains no cure for COPD, rather only symptomatic treatments. Due to unique challenges of the lung, translation of therapies for acute lung injury to target chronic lung diseases like COPD has not been successful. We have been investigating lung derived extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels as a novel approach for delivery of cellular therapies to the pulmonary system.

During the course of this work we have developed and characterized a lug derived ECM hydrogel that exhibits “injectability,” allowing cells or dugs ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress