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Structure And Dynamics Of Charged Colloidal Disks In Colloid-Polymer Mixtures, Suhasini Kishore 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Structure And Dynamics Of Charged Colloidal Disks In Colloid-Polymer Mixtures, Suhasini Kishore

Doctoral Dissertations

Complex fluid mixtures of colloids and polymers are extensively used in several conventional and emerging technological applications. Particles self-assemble under different conditions to form colloidal glasses and gels and it often leads to the development of unusual viscoelastic features. In the case of aspherical particles, shape anisotropy and physical aging effects add to the existing complexities so the implementation of a strategic formulation method to improve performance and stability remains a critical challenge.

This thesis presents a comprehensive analysis of particle interactions in mixtures of charged disk-shaped colloids and weakly-adsorbing polymers like poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO). Here, we discuss the ...


Biopolymer Electrospun Nanofiber Mats To Inactivate And Remove Bacteria, Katrina Ann Rieger 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Biopolymer Electrospun Nanofiber Mats To Inactivate And Remove Bacteria, Katrina Ann Rieger

Doctoral Dissertations

The persistence of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens remains a primary concern for immunocompromised and critically-ill hospital patients. Hospital associated infections can be deadly and reduce the successes of medical advancements, such as, cancer therapies and medical implants. Thus, it is imperative to develop materials that can (i) deliver new antibiotics with accuracy, as well as (ii) uptake pathogenic microbes. In this work, we will demonstrate that electrospun nanofiber mats offer a promising platform for both of these objectives because of their high surface-to-volume ratio, interconnected high porosity, gas permeability, and ability to contour to virtually any surface. To provide ...


Bioengineered Platforms To Study Carcinoma Cell Response To Drug Treatment, Thuy V. Nguyen 2016 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Bioengineered Platforms To Study Carcinoma Cell Response To Drug Treatment, Thuy V. Nguyen

Doctoral Dissertations

The tumor extracellular matrix (ECM) plays an important role in facilitating tumor growth and mediating tumor cells' resistance to drugs. However, during drug development, potential chemotherapeutics are screened in plastic plates, which lack relevant ECM physicochemical cues. In order to improve drug development process, this dissertation includes the development of relevant 2D and 3D biomaterial systems that can be used to study carcinoma cell response to drug treatment.

A novel poly(ethylene glycol)-phosphorylcholine (PEG-PC) high-throughput biomaterial platform was developed to study how the ECM mechanochemical properties affect cancer cells' response to drug. The PEG-PC biomaterial is optically transparent, has ...


An Injectable Stem Cell Delivery System For Treatment Of Musculoskeletal Defects, Shirae Leslie 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

An Injectable Stem Cell Delivery System For Treatment Of Musculoskeletal Defects, Shirae Leslie

Theses and Dissertations

The goal of this research was to develop a system of injectable hydrogels to deliver stem cells to musculoskeletal defects, thereby allowing cells to remain at the treatment site and secrete soluble factors that will facilitate tissue regeneration. First, production parameters for encapsulating cells in microbeads were determined. This involved investigating the effects of osmolytes on alginate microbead properties, and the effects of alginate microbead cell density, alginate microbead density, and effects of osteogenic media on microencapsulated cells. Although cells remained viable in the microbeads, alginate does not readily degrade in vivo for six months. Therefore, a method to incorporate ...


Enhancing Osseointegration Of Orthopaedic Implants With Titania Nanotube Surfaces, Erin A. Baker 2016 Michigan Technological University

Enhancing Osseointegration Of Orthopaedic Implants With Titania Nanotube Surfaces, Erin A. Baker

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Introduction: As joint arthroplasty surgical procedures increase annually, the development of new strategies, including novel materials and surface modifications, to attain solid bone-implant fixation are needed to increase implant terms of service. In this study, we evaluate two morphologies of titania nanotubes in both in vitro and in vivo experiments to quantify osseointegrative potential and material-level biocompatibility.

Materials and Methods: Samples were prepared via an electrochemical etching process. Two different titania nanotube (TiNT) morphologies were produced, Aligned and Trabecular. For the in vitro experiment, Sprague Dawley (SD) rat marrow-derived bone marrow cells (BMC) were seeded on samples. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP ...


Combinatorial Hydrogel Library Enables Identification Of Materials That Mitigate The Foreign Body Response In Primates, Arturo J. Vegas, Kaitlin M. Bratlie, et al. 2016 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Combinatorial Hydrogel Library Enables Identification Of Materials That Mitigate The Foreign Body Response In Primates, Arturo J. Vegas, Kaitlin M. Bratlie, Et Al.

Materials Science and Engineering Publications

The foreign body response is an immune-mediated reaction that can lead to the failure of implanted medical devices and discomfort for the recipient16. There is a critical need for biomaterials that overcome this key challenge in the development of medical devices. Here we use a combinatorial approach for covalent chemical modification to generate a large library of variants of one of the most widely used hydrogel biomaterials, alginate. We evaluated the materials in vivo and identified three triazole-containing analogs that substantially reduce foreign body reactions in both rodents and, for at least 6 months, in non-human primates. The ...


Bioactive Poly(Beta-Amino Ester) Biomaterials For Treatment Of Infection And Oxidative Stress, Andrew L. Lakes 2016 University of Kentucky

Bioactive Poly(Beta-Amino Ester) Biomaterials For Treatment Of Infection And Oxidative Stress, Andrew L. Lakes

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Polymers have deep roots as drug delivery tools, and are widely used in clinical to private settings. Currently, however, numerous traditional therapies exist which may be improved through use of polymeric biomaterials. Through our work with infectious and oxidative stress disease prevention and treatment, we aimed to develop application driven, enhanced therapies utilizing new classes of polymers synthesized in-house. Applying biodegradable poly(β-amino ester) (PBAE) polymers, covalent-addition of bioactive substrates to these PBAEs avoided certain pitfalls of free-loaded and non-degradable drug delivery systems. Further, through variation of polymer ingredients and conditions, we were able to tune degradation rates, release profiles ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Curcumin Polymer For Application In Radiation Induced Lung Damage, Mark C. Bailey 2016 University of Kentucky

Synthesis And Characterization Of Curcumin Polymer For Application In Radiation Induced Lung Damage, Mark C. Bailey

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Radiotherapy is used as a primary treatment for many cancers, including lung cancer. Although radiotherapy has proven to be an effective cancer treatment, its use is heavily limited due to the peripheral toxicity to healthy tissue. In this work, the antioxidant, curcumin, was tested as a radioprotectant to reduce radiation damage to healthy cells. Curcumin has been limited in use due to its poor bioavailability. In order to avoid problems associated with free curcumin delivery, curcumin poly(beta-amino ester) (CPBAE) was synthesized.

The first study investigated the in vitro radioprotection effect of curcumin in HUVEC dosed with gamma radiation. Cells ...


A Scalable Low-Cost Cgmp Process For Clinical Grade Production Of The Hiv Inhibitor 5p12-Rantes In Pichia Pastoris, Fabrice Cerini, Hubert Gaertner, Knut Madden, Ilya Tolstorukov, Scott Brown, Bram Laukens, Nico Callewaert, Jay C. Harner, Anna M. Oommen, John T. Harms, Anthony R. Sump, Robert C. Sealock, Dustin J. Peterson, Scott K. Johnson, Stephan B. Abramson, Michael M. Meagher, Robin Offord, Oliver Hartley 2016 University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland

A Scalable Low-Cost Cgmp Process For Clinical Grade Production Of The Hiv Inhibitor 5p12-Rantes In Pichia Pastoris, Fabrice Cerini, Hubert Gaertner, Knut Madden, Ilya Tolstorukov, Scott Brown, Bram Laukens, Nico Callewaert, Jay C. Harner, Anna M. Oommen, John T. Harms, Anthony R. Sump, Robert C. Sealock, Dustin J. Peterson, Scott K. Johnson, Stephan B. Abramson, Michael M. Meagher, Robin Offord, Oliver Hartley

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering -- All Faculty Papers

In the continued absence of an effective anti-HIV vaccine, approximately 2 million new HIV infections occur every year, with over 95% of these in developing countries. Calls have been made for the development of anti-HIV drugs that can be formulated for topical use to prevent HIV transmission during sexual intercourse. Because these drugs are principally destined for use in low-resource regions, achieving production costs that are as low as possible is an absolute requirement. 5P12-RANTES, an analog of the human chemokine protein RANTES/CCL5, is a highly potent HIV entry inhibitor which acts by achieving potent blockade of the principal ...


High Throughput Studies Of Cell Migration In 3d Microtissues Fabricated By A Droplet Microfluidic Chip, Xiangchen Che, Jacob A. M. Nuhn, Ian C. Schneider, Long Que 2016 Iowa State University

High Throughput Studies Of Cell Migration In 3d Microtissues Fabricated By A Droplet Microfluidic Chip, Xiangchen Che, Jacob A. M. Nuhn, Ian C. Schneider, Long Que

Chemical and Biological Engineering Publications

Arrayed three-dimensional (3D) micro-sized tissues with encapsulated cells (microtissues) have been fabricated by a droplet microfluidic chip. The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a polymerized collagen network. One or multiple breast cancer cells were embedded within the microtissues, which were stored in arrayed microchambers on the same chip without ECM droplet shrinkage over 48 h. The migration trajectory of the cells was recorded by optical microscopy. The migration speed was calculated in the range of 3–6 µm/h. Interestingly, cells in devices filled with a continuous collagen network migrated faster than those where only droplets were arrayed in the chambers ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Antioxidant Conjugated Poly(Βeta-Amino Ester) Micro/Nanogels For The Suppression Of Oxidative Stress, Prachi Gupta 2016 University of Kentucky

Synthesis And Characterization Of Antioxidant Conjugated Poly(Βeta-Amino Ester) Micro/Nanogels For The Suppression Of Oxidative Stress, Prachi Gupta

Theses and Dissertations--Chemical and Materials Engineering

Oxidative stress is a pathophysiological condition defined by an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can result in the growth arrest of cells followed by cell disintegration or necrosis. A number of small molecule antioxidants (e.g. curcumin, quercetin and resveratrol) are capable of directly scavenging ROS, thereby short-circuiting the self-propagating oxidative stress state. However, poor solubility and rapid 1st pass metabolism results in overall low bioavailability and acts as a barrier for its use as a drug to suppress oxidative stress efficiently.

To overcome this limitation, these small molecule antioxidants were covalently conjugated into poly(β-amino ...


Characterization Of Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) Blends And Fabrication Of Soft Micropillar Arrays For Force Detection, Thomas J. Petet Jr 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Characterization Of Poly(Dimethylsiloxane) Blends And Fabrication Of Soft Micropillar Arrays For Force Detection, Thomas J. Petet Jr

Theses and Dissertations

Diseases involving fibrosis cause tens of thousands of deaths per year in the US alone. These diseases are characterized by a large amount of extracellular matrix, causing stiff abnormal tissues that may not function correctly. To take steps towards curing these diseases, a fundamental understanding of how cells interact with their substrate and how mechanical forces alter signaling pathways is vital. Studying the mechanobiology of cells and the interaction between a cell and its extracellular matrix can help explain the mechanisms behind stem cell differentiation, cell migration, and metastasis. Due to the correlation between force, extracellular matrix assembly, and substrate ...


Polycaprolactone Nanofiber Scaffold Variants For Human Periosteal Cell Growth, Christopher W. Burton 2016 University of Akron

Polycaprolactone Nanofiber Scaffold Variants For Human Periosteal Cell Growth, Christopher W. Burton

Honors Research Projects

Polycaprolactone (PCL) nanofiber scaffolds with attached periosteal cells were investigated in this study for a tissue-engineering approach to repair damaged non-union injuries of periosteal tissue and bone. The research purpose was to determine whether this type of scaffold may be utilized as a substrate for periosteal tissue regeneration and to determine whether addition of silica nanoparticles (nSiO2) to PCL scaffolds enhanced the growth of cadaveric (donor) human periosteal cells in vitro. Electrospun PCL nanofiber scaffolds were fabricated with different silica additions (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) and utilized as substrates on which periosteal cells were seeded. Cell growth ...


Fiber Based Approaches As Medicine Delivery Systems, Farrokh Sharifi, Avinash C. Sooriyarachchi, Hayriye Altural, Reza Montazami, Marissa Nichole Rylander, Nicole Nastaran Hashemi 2016 Iowa State University

Fiber Based Approaches As Medicine Delivery Systems, Farrokh Sharifi, Avinash C. Sooriyarachchi, Hayriye Altural, Reza Montazami, Marissa Nichole Rylander, Nicole Nastaran Hashemi

Mechanical Engineering Publications

The goal of drug delivery is to ensure that therapeutic molecules reach the intended target organ or tissue, such that the effectiveness of the drug is maximized. The efficiency of a drug delivery system greatly depends on the choice of drug carrier. Recently, there has been growing interest in using micro- and nanofibers for this purpose. The reasons for this growing interest include these materials’ high surface area to volume ratios, ease of fabrication, high mechanical properties, and desirable drug release profile. Here, we review developments in using these materials made by the most prevalent methods of fiber fabrication: electrospinning ...


Influence Of Nb On The Β → Α″ Martensitic Phase Transformation And Properties Of The Newly Designed Ti-Fe-Nb Alloys, Shima Ehtemam-Haghighi, Yujing Liu, Guanghui Cao, Lai-Chang Zhang 2016 Edith Cowan University

Influence Of Nb On The Β → Α″ Martensitic Phase Transformation And Properties Of The Newly Designed Ti-Fe-Nb Alloys, Shima Ehtemam-Haghighi, Yujing Liu, Guanghui Cao, Lai-Chang Zhang

ECU Publications Post 2013

A series of Ti-7Fe-xNb (x = 0, 1, 4, 6, 9, 11 wt.%) alloys was designed and cast to investigate the β → α″ martensitic phase transformation, β phase stability, the resulting microstructure and mechanical properties. Phase analysis revealed that only Ti-7Fe-11Nb alloy shows a single body-centred cubic β phase microstructure while the others are comprised of β and orthorhombic α″ phases. Moreover, Nb addition up to 11 wt.% enhances the stability and volume fraction of β phase in the microstructure, hence reducing the propensity of the alloy system to form α″ phase during quenching. Compressive yield strength and hardness of the ...


Development And Characterization Of Lung Derived Extracellular Matrix Hydrogels, Robert A. Pouliot 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Development And Characterization Of Lung Derived Extracellular Matrix Hydrogels, Robert A. Pouliot

Theses and Dissertations

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) including emphysema is a devastating condition, increasing in prevalence in the US and worldwide. There remains no cure for COPD, rather only symptomatic treatments. Due to unique challenges of the lung, translation of therapies for acute lung injury to target chronic lung diseases like COPD has not been successful. We have been investigating lung derived extracellular matrix (ECM) hydrogels as a novel approach for delivery of cellular therapies to the pulmonary system.

During the course of this work we have developed and characterized a lug derived ECM hydrogel that exhibits “injectability,” allowing cells or dugs ...


Characterization Of Fibrin Matrix Incorporated Electrospun Polycaprolactone Scaffold, Cho Yi Wong 2016 Virginia Commonwealth University

Characterization Of Fibrin Matrix Incorporated Electrospun Polycaprolactone Scaffold, Cho Yi Wong

Theses and Dissertations

Specific objective: Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) aims to regenerate the lost attachment apparatus caused by periodontal disease through the use of a barrier membrane. For the GTR procedures to be successful, barrier membranes are required to be present at the surgical site for an extended period of time (weeks to months). Synthetic membranes have the advantage of prolonged presence in a wound site; however, they do not actively contribute to wound healing. Biologic membranes are recognized by the host tissue and participate in wound healing but have the disadvantage of early resorption. Therefore, the goal of this study is to ...


The Role Of Bone Sialoprotein In Periodontal Tissue Development And Bone Repair, Yohannes Soenjaya 2015 The University of Western Ontario

The Role Of Bone Sialoprotein In Periodontal Tissue Development And Bone Repair, Yohannes Soenjaya

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Bone development and repair involve complex processes that include interaction between cells and their surrounding matrix. In the body, bone sialoprotein (BSP) expression is up-regulated at the onset of mineralization. BSP is a multifunctional acidic phosphoprotein with collagen-binding, hydroxyapatite nucleating, and integrin recognition (RGD sequence, which is important for cell-attachment and signaling) regions. Mice lacking BSP expression (Bsp-/-), exhibit a bone phenotype with reductions in bone mineral density, bone length, osteoclast activation, and impaired bone healing. This thesis examined the role of BSP in tooth development and also its potential use as a therapeutic reagent for bone repair. MicroCT and ...


Getting To The Root Of Bacterial Hairs: What Is “S”?, Rebecca Gaddis, Samantha O'Conner, Evan Anderson, Terri Camesano, Nancy Burnham 2015 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Getting To The Root Of Bacterial Hairs: What Is “S”?, Rebecca Gaddis, Samantha O'Conner, Evan Anderson, Terri Camesano, Nancy Burnham

Nancy A. Burnham

An atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure the steric forces of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on the biofilm-forming bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It is well known that LPS play a vital role in biofilm formation. These forces were characterized with a modified version of the Alexander and de Gennes (AdG) model for polymers, which is a function of equilibrium brush length, L, probe radius, R, temperature, T, separation distance, D, and an indefinite density variable, s. This last parameter was originally distinguished by de Gennes as the root spacing or mesh spacing depending upon the type of polymer adhesion; however since ...


A Collagen Based Tissue Engineered Heart Valve Shows Excellent Functionality And Remodelling After Dynamic Conditioning, Claire Brougham, Ricardo Moreira, Tanya J. Levingstone, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Petra Mela, Fergal J. O'Brien 2015 Dublin Institute of Technology

A Collagen Based Tissue Engineered Heart Valve Shows Excellent Functionality And Remodelling After Dynamic Conditioning, Claire Brougham, Ricardo Moreira, Tanya J. Levingstone, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Petra Mela, Fergal J. O'Brien

Conference Papers

No abstract provided.


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