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Biomechanics and Biotransport Commons

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The Development Of A Temporomandibular Force Simulator To Study Craniofacial Strain In-Vitro, Kenneth KC Ip 2018 The University of Western Ontario

The Development Of A Temporomandibular Force Simulator To Study Craniofacial Strain In-Vitro, Kenneth Kc Ip

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

An in-vitro musculoskeletal loading simulator was developed to replicate the internal forces of mastication, and then employed in a comparison of clinically relevant facial fracture repairs. Muscle forces are simulated by pneumatic pistons via 3D printed mounts that are reverse-engineered from CT scan to match muscle attachment sites, which are adhered to bone in order to simulate native stress distributions. Bite force and bone strain pattern of the craniofacial structure under load were measured using a force sensor and strain gauges respectively. In a series of five fresh-frozen cadaveric heads, it was found that strain patterns of the craniofacial structure ...


Soft-Microrobotics: The Manipulation Of Alginate Artificial Cells, Samuel Sheckman 2018 Southern Methodist University

Soft-Microrobotics: The Manipulation Of Alginate Artificial Cells, Samuel Sheckman

Mechanical Engineering Research Theses and Dissertations

In this work, the approach to the manipulation of alginate artificial cell soft-microrobots, both individually and in swarms is shown. Fabrication of these artificial cells were completed through centrifugation, producing large volumes of artificial cells, encapsulated with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles; these artificial cells can be then externally stimulated by an applied magnetic field. The construction of a Permeant Magnet Stage (PMS) was produced to manipulate the artificial cells individually and in swarms. The stage functionalizes the permanent magnet in the 2D xy-plane. Once the PMS was completed, Parallel self-assembly (Object Particle Computation) using swarms of artificial cells in complex ...


Analyzing Memcapacitive Capabilities Of Lipid And Polymer Bilayers For Use In Smart Materials, Megan Pitz 2018 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Analyzing Memcapacitive Capabilities Of Lipid And Polymer Bilayers For Use In Smart Materials, Megan Pitz

EURēCA: Exhibition of Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement

Neuromorphic engineering involves designing artificial neural systems that mimic the way neuron circuits in the brain process information and make computations. It took the fourth most powerful computer in the world (with 705,024 processor cores and 1.4 million GB of RAM) 40 minutes to simulate just one second of human brain activity. This shows a clear difference of energy use in the human brain versus modern computers; neuromorphic engineering could be how we mimic the computing power of the brain to create energy-efficient, neuron-based computers. Memristors and memcapacitors are proposed circuit elements with memory components. Memristors have been ...


Extraction And Analysis Of Vector Flow Imaging Data In A Pediatric Population, Bailey Stinnett 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Extraction And Analysis Of Vector Flow Imaging Data In A Pediatric Population, Bailey Stinnett

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Vector flow imaging (VFI) is a new ultrasound technology that provides real time, angle-independent visualization of flow velocities in the heart and great vessels. Thus far, VFI has been used for superficial applications due to the limited penetration depth of available transducer probes; however, this depth in smaller pediatric patients enables adequate aortic views. In this project, VFI was used to study pediatric aortic stenosis (PAS)—a congenital heart defect that results in the narrowing of the aorta and/or aortic valve. The decision to refer PAS patients for surgical or catheter-based intervention is initially based on Doppler ultrasound. VFI ...


The Effect Of Elastin Degradation On The Biomechanical Properties Of Porcine Aortic Tissue, Caleb Nissen 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Effect Of Elastin Degradation On The Biomechanical Properties Of Porcine Aortic Tissue, Caleb Nissen

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) is currently the 13th leading cause of death in the United States [1]. AAA is characterized, in part, by an increase in presence of proteolytic enzymes which degrade the structural proteins collagen and elastin [6]. The goal of this study was to examine the effect that elastin degradation has on the biomechanical properties of aortic tissue. For this experiment, porcine aortic tissue was cut in the circumferential and longitudinal directions. These specimens were exposed to an elastase solution for varying time-intervals and then underwent uniaxial tensile testing. Elastase-treated tissue tested in the ...


Novel Methodology For Emboli Analog Production And In-Vitro Simulation Of Acute Ischemic Stroke, Anne Preut 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Novel Methodology For Emboli Analog Production And In-Vitro Simulation Of Acute Ischemic Stroke, Anne Preut

Theses and Dissertations

Stroke is the leading cause of disability and a primary cause of mortality, resulting in an estimated $33 billion dollars spent on healthcare, rehabilitation and lost productivity in the United States each year. The most prevalent cause of stroke incidents are acute ischemic events, manifested as blood clots in the vasculature supplying the brain. Current gold standard treatments have improved since 2006 with the introduction of mechanical stent retrievers; however, several issues with the current treatments to acute ischemic stroke remain. Thrombolysis of the clot with a tissue plasminogen activator may lead to weakening the vessel wall and consequently, hemorrhaging ...


Sex Differences In Lower Limb Biomechanics During A Single-Leg Cut With Body Borne Load, AuraLea Carylon Fain 2018 Boise State University

Sex Differences In Lower Limb Biomechanics During A Single-Leg Cut With Body Borne Load, Auralea Carylon Fain

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: Musculoskeletal injuries are ever-increasing in military personnel, particularly females. These musculoskeletal injuries are attributed to adaptations in lower limb biomechanics while performing routine military tasks, such as a single-leg cut, with the addition of body borne load. However, it is unknown if females and males exhibit similar lower limb biomechanics with the addition of body borne load during these tasks. This study sought to compare the lower limb biomechanical adaptations exhibited by females and males performing a single-leg cut with body borne load. Methods: Eleven females and 17 males had lower limb biomechanics quantified during a single-leg cut with ...


Effects Of Stride Length On Lower Limb Stiffness When Running With Body Borne Load, Nick Lobb 2018 Boise State University

Effects Of Stride Length On Lower Limb Stiffness When Running With Body Borne Load, Nick Lobb

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Introduction: During military activities, soldiers are often required to run at a fixed cadence with body borne load, but these loads purportedly increase leg stiffness, leading to increased risk of musculoskeletal injury. Yet, to date, it is unknown how altering stride length when running with body borne load affects lower limb stiffness for males and females. Purpose: To quantify leg stiffness, and lower limb joint (hip, knee and ankle) stiffness for males and females using different stride lengths to run with body borne loads of 20 kg, 25 kg, 30 kg, and 35 kg. Methods: Twenty-seven (17 males and 10 ...


Tibial Fracture Nonunions Following Intramedullary Nailing: An Application Of Logistic Regression, Katherine Wu 2018 Lehigh University

Tibial Fracture Nonunions Following Intramedullary Nailing: An Application Of Logistic Regression, Katherine Wu

Eckardt Scholars Projects

This paper utilizes the principles of logistic regression analysis to study patient factors that are strongly linked to the outcome of intramedullary nail surgery. This surgery is performed on fractured tibial bones to bring the bone back to union, or a state of connection again. The alternative result of the surgery is nonunion, or a state in which the bone does not heal properly. This paper draws from a recent publication in the Journal of Orthopedic Trauma, “Tibial fracture nonunion and time to healing following reamed intramedullary nailing” (Dailey, Wu, Wu, McQueen, & Court-Brown, 2018).


Effects Of Hydration And Mineralization On The Mechanical Behavior Of Collagen Fibrils, Marco Fielder 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Effects Of Hydration And Mineralization On The Mechanical Behavior Of Collagen Fibrils, Marco Fielder

Theses and Dissertations

Bone is a composite biomaterial with a structural load-bearing function. Understanding the biomechanics of bone is important for characterizing factors such as age, trauma, or disease, and in the development of scaffolds for tissue engineering and bioinspired materials. At the nanoscale, bone is primarily composed of collagen protein, apatite crystals, and water. Though several studies have characterized nanoscale bone mechanics as the mineral content changes, the effect of water, mineral, and carbon nanotube (CNT) content and distribution in fibril gap and overlap regions is unexplored. This study used molecular dynamics to investigate the change in collagen fibril deformation mechanisms as ...


Investigating The Likelihood Of Pediatric Femur Fracture Due To Falls Through Finite Element Analysis., Keyonna McKinsey 2018 University of Louisville

Investigating The Likelihood Of Pediatric Femur Fracture Due To Falls Through Finite Element Analysis., Keyonna Mckinsey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bone fracture is the second most common injury of child abuse. Studies have generally reported that femur fractures are more likely due to abuse than accidental causes in cases where the child is non-ambulatory. They have also found that household falls are commonly offered as the cause of injury in cases of abuse. In this study, a finite element (FE) pediatric femur model will be developed and used to evaluate likelihood of fracture in common household fall scenarios (bed falls and feet first falls). This will provide greater biomechanical evidence as to the likelihood of femur fracture due to common ...


A Numerical Investigation Of Human Cough Jet Development And Droplet Dispersion, Ran Bi 2018 The University of Western Ontario

A Numerical Investigation Of Human Cough Jet Development And Droplet Dispersion, Ran Bi

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

As part of the Western Cold and Flu aerosol (WeCoF) studies, the present study provides Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modelling of human cough flow. The cough flow is characterized in two different aspects, the flow field and the droplets. In the study of the flow field of coughing, various dynamic characteristics, including the velocity variation, streamwise penetration and power spectral density, are examined. CFD simulations using two different approaches, the unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and the large eddy simulation (LES), are performed for comparison purposes. The numerical results are validated by the experimental data obtained from the measurements by ...


Integration Of A Sensory Driven Model For Hand Grasp Function In 3d Printed Prostheses, Austin T. Hetherington 2018 University of South Carolina

Integration Of A Sensory Driven Model For Hand Grasp Function In 3d Printed Prostheses, Austin T. Hetherington

Senior Theses

My Honors Thesis was completed through the Biomedical Engineering senior design project I worked on. Our project took a mechanically operated 3D printed prosthetic hand and automated the process by which it makes a grasp. The purpose of this project was to provide an affordable, automatic prosthetic hand to those either capable and incapable of wrist flexion. The current 3D printed prosthetic models require users to bend their wrist to initiate a simple grasp. However, our design took an alternative approach by using an EMG sensor placed on the ventral side of the forearm to record muscle activity, which, upon ...


Increasing Drug Delivery Efficacy Of Drug-Coated Balloons, Alexander Galan, Eric Bidinger, Franco Godoy, Shrusti Patel 2018 University of South Carolina

Increasing Drug Delivery Efficacy Of Drug-Coated Balloons, Alexander Galan, Eric Bidinger, Franco Godoy, Shrusti Patel

Senior Theses

Peripheral artery disease (PAD), the narrowing of peripheral arteries located in areas such as the arms and legs, is a common disease that affects 12% to 20% of people over 65. Numerous therapies have been developed to treat PAD, the most recent technology being drug-coated balloons. Drug-coated balloons release drugs, such as Paclitaxel (PTX), into the arterial wall during balloon angioplasty to locally treat PAD. Current levels of drug transfer from the balloon to the vascular endothelium are at a low 10%-18%. Our Biomedical Engineering Senior Design project aims to increase drug delivery of drug-coated balloons by manipulating the ...


Can The Presence Of A 1/F Structure In Stride-To-Stride Variability Enable Us To Withstand Falls?, Jenny A. Kent, ANDREAS SKIADOPOULOS, Jordan Wickstrom, Nicholas Stergiou 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Can The Presence Of A 1/F Structure In Stride-To-Stride Variability Enable Us To Withstand Falls?, Jenny A. Kent, Andreas Skiadopoulos, Jordan Wickstrom, Nicholas Stergiou

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Falls are a persistent threat to longevity and quality of life, affecting 1/3 of older adults living in the community each year. There is strong evidence suggesting that a particular pattern within our walking reflects an ability to adapt to a continually changing environment. Specifically, the stride-to-stride patterns of healthy walking have a 1/f frequency spectrum. This has been observed to degrade to varying extents with aging and pathology. The aim of this study was to determine whether the presence of this structure of variability is related to an increased ability to withstand perturbations. We hypothesized that individuals ...


Individuals With Peripheral Artery Disease Alter Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters When Walking With Pain Versus Without Pain, Todd Leutzinger, Sara A. Myers, Iraklis Pipinos 2018 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Individuals With Peripheral Artery Disease Alter Spatiotemporal Gait Parameters When Walking With Pain Versus Without Pain, Todd Leutzinger, Sara A. Myers, Iraklis Pipinos

Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

This abstract compares the spatiotemporal walking parameters of individuals with peripheral artery disease at the time they first begin walking, the time when they first feel pain, and the time when they can no longer continue walking.


Examining Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Baseplate Fixation In Patients With E2-Type Glenoid Erosion, Matthew D. Mahaffy 2018 The University of Western Ontario

Examining Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty Baseplate Fixation In Patients With E2-Type Glenoid Erosion, Matthew D. Mahaffy

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Superior glenoid erosion of the shoulder joint is a result of humeral subluxation caused by rotator cuff tears, and can be addressed using implants, specifically reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. This thesis examined the regional variations of bone present in superiorly eroded glenoids, established a baseline for regular RTSA baseplate fixation in patients with this defect, and compared the effect of geometric baseplate differences on implant fixation. The superiorly eroded glenoids demonstrated similar regional bone density variations as normal glenoids, and the superior and inferior regions of the glenoid demonstrated the densest and least dense cancellous bone, respectively. These regions also ...


Wearable Hearing Accessory Technology, Tyler Cindea, Jaime Alcorn, Brooke Draper, Kyle Glascott, Ben Hanna, Robert Thoerner 2018 The University of Akron

Wearable Hearing Accessory Technology, Tyler Cindea, Jaime Alcorn, Brooke Draper, Kyle Glascott, Ben Hanna, Robert Thoerner

Honors Research Projects

We set out in August 2017 to develop an active noise suppressing device that would be usable both in military and civilian activities. Due to constraints in knowledge and time, we decided our best course of action was to divide the project into two equal projects with the hope to be able to combine them into a single project at the end of the allotted time. This consisted of an active noise suppression device and a passive noise suppression device. The passive device would have no electronic components and the active device would be pure circuitry with no housing. This ...


Can A Comprehensive Transition Plan To Barefoot Running Be The Solution To The Injury Epidemic In American Endurance Runners?, Michael A. Scarlett 2018 Claremont McKenna College

Can A Comprehensive Transition Plan To Barefoot Running Be The Solution To The Injury Epidemic In American Endurance Runners?, Michael A. Scarlett

CMC Senior Theses

Fossils belonging to the genus Homo, dating as far back as two million years ago, exhibit uniquely efficient features suggesting that early humans had evolved to become exceptional endurance runners. Although they did not have the cushion or stability-control features provided in our modern day running shoes, our early human ancestors experienced far less of the running-related injuries we experience today. The injury rate has been estimated as high as 90% annually for Americans training for a marathon and as high as 79% annually for all American endurance runners. There is an injury epidemic in conventionally shod populations that does ...


Predictive Modeling Of Hip Dislocation: Assessment Of Surgical And Patient Factors To Reduce The Occurrence Of Hip Instability And Adverse Clinical Outcomes, Daniel N. Huff 2018 University of Denver

Predictive Modeling Of Hip Dislocation: Assessment Of Surgical And Patient Factors To Reduce The Occurrence Of Hip Instability And Adverse Clinical Outcomes, Daniel N. Huff

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Instability and dislocation remain leading indications for revision of primary Total Hip Arthroplasty (THA). Many studies have addressed the links between implant design and propensity for dislocation, however a comprehensive review of the ability of modern THA constructs to protect against joint instability is needed.

Accordingly, the objective of this study is to provide objective data about THA risks to be considered in the treatment algorithm to protect against adverse joint loading conditions and joint instability. Adverse loading conditions were assessed in a population of activities of daily living using data from telemetric hip implant representation in an FE simulation ...


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