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Optical Fibre-Based Force Sensing Needle Driver For Minimally Invasive Surgery, Pouya Soltani Zarrin 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Optical Fibre-Based Force Sensing Needle Driver For Minimally Invasive Surgery, Pouya Soltani Zarrin

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Minimally invasive surgery has been limited from its inception by insufficient haptic feedback to surgeons. The loss of haptic information threatens patients safety and results in longer operation times. To address this problem, various force sensing systems have been developed to provide information about tool–tissue interaction forces. However, the provided results for axial and grasping forces have been inaccurate in most of these studies due to considerable amount of error and uncertainty in their force acquisition method. Furthermore, sterilizability of the sensorized instruments plays a pivotal role in accurate measurement of forces inside a patient's body. Therefore, the ...


An Electrochemical Analysis Of Fretting Corrosion In Metal-On-Metal Hip Implants Subjected To High Impaction Loads, Joe Morin, Timothy L. Norman, Thomas K. Fehring 2017 Cedarville University

An Electrochemical Analysis Of Fretting Corrosion In Metal-On-Metal Hip Implants Subjected To High Impaction Loads, Joe Morin, Timothy L. Norman, Thomas K. Fehring

Timothy L. Norman, Ph.D.

The metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty, a procedure where the hip joint is replaced by a femoral prosthesis with a metal femoral head and a metal socket, has been a popular option for patients requiring a hip joint replacement. Metal on metal hip implants have been a successful implant design until recently where there has been an increased number of failures of this type of implant due to fretting corrosion, believed to be caused from the use of large femoral heads. Fretting corrosion in hip implants results from cyclic micromotion at the taper-trunnion interface; this interface motion removes the protective oxidation ...


Force Sensing Surgical Grasper With Folding Capacitive Sensor, Dave BP Tripp 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Force Sensing Surgical Grasper With Folding Capacitive Sensor, Dave Bp Tripp

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Minimally-invasive surgery (MIS) has brought many benefits to the operating room, however, MIS procedures result in an absence of force feedback, and surgeons cannot as accurately feel the tissue they are working on, or the forces that they are applying. One of the barriers to introducing MIS instruments with force feedback systems is the high cost of manufacturing and assembly. Instruments must also be sterilized before every use, a process that can destroy embedded sensing systems. An instrument that can be disposed of after a single use and produced in bulk at a low cost is desirable. Printed circuit micro-electro-mechanical ...


Localized Blood Occlusion Generation In An In-Vitro Circulatory Catheter System, Ryan D. Harris, Qi Yang, Hyowon Lee 2017 Purdue University

Localized Blood Occlusion Generation In An In-Vitro Circulatory Catheter System, Ryan D. Harris, Qi Yang, Hyowon Lee

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Hydrocephalus is a debilitating neurological disorder that involves the accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in a ventricle of the brain. The implantation of a catheter commonly treats hydrocephalus with drainage. These catheters have a short lifespan due to obstruction from biological materials. Shunt systems have an extremely high failure rate of more than 40% failed within 1 year and up to 85% failed within 10 years. Previously, polymer-based flexible implantable magnetic micro-actuators were developed to clean up the catheter by mechanical vibration. We have demonstrated clearing of bacteria attachment and are proceeding to examine clearing effects on larger clotting materials, such ...


A Chronically Implanted, Continuous Ph Monitoring System For Rats, Ryan B. Budde, Pedro P. Irazoqui 2017 Purdue University

A Chronically Implanted, Continuous Ph Monitoring System For Rats, Ryan B. Budde, Pedro P. Irazoqui

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Many body systems operate within a strict pH range, and any deviation can cause harm. pH measurement systems are used in many biomedical research fields. Measurement systems have been able to continuously record pH for a short period of time wirelessly, or over a long period of time with wires, but no system is currently capable of long term, wireless, continuous pH recording. This paper proposes a new pH measurement system that is capable of such measurement. The system is composed of inexpensive, micro-scale, and easy to manufacture pH sensitive and reference electrodes and a data acquisition and transmission module ...


Gui For Mri-Compatible Neural Stimulator And Recorder, Soo Han Soon, Nishant Babaria, Ranajay Mandal, Zhongming Liu 2017 Purdue University

Gui For Mri-Compatible Neural Stimulator And Recorder, Soo Han Soon, Nishant Babaria, Ranajay Mandal, Zhongming Liu

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) are useful tools to analyze brain activities given active stimulation. However, the electromagnetic noise from the MRI distorts the brain signal recording and damages the subject with excessive heat generated on the electrodes attached to the skin. MRI-compatible recording and stimulation systems previously developed at LIBI lab were capable of removing the electromagnetic noise during the imaging process. Previously, the hardware systems had required the integrative software that could control both circuits simultaneously and enable users to easily change recording and stimulation parameters. Graphical user interface (GUI) programmed with computer language informed ...


Pathogenic Dna Detection Using Dna Hairpins: A Non-Linear Hybridization Chain Reaction Platform, Lance Novak, Tamara L. Kinzer-Ursem 2017 Purdue University

Pathogenic Dna Detection Using Dna Hairpins: A Non-Linear Hybridization Chain Reaction Platform, Lance Novak, Tamara L. Kinzer-Ursem

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Currently, 3.2 billion people are at risk of being infected with malaria, with 1.2 billion of those being at high risk (>1 in 1000 chance of getting malaria in a year). Thus, there is a need for a biosensor that is highly sensitive, cost effective, and simple to use for point-of-care diagnosis. The biosensing platform, PathVis, has achieved this by measuring changes in fluid properties after a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). LAMP is a DNA amplification system that requires enzymes and a temperature of 65degrees C. LAMP currently limits PathVis by being costly, requiring refrigeration, and difficult to ...


Low Power, Low Noise Circuit For Biological Signal Recording, Rachael A. Swenson, Daniel J. Pederson, Pedro Irazoqui 2017 Purdue University

Low Power, Low Noise Circuit For Biological Signal Recording, Rachael A. Swenson, Daniel J. Pederson, Pedro Irazoqui

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Implantable devices are ideal for recording biological signals in animal models as they have minimal effect on the animal’s normal behavior during observation. The creation of the circuitry for an implantable device has several restrictions including size, power consumption, and noise reduction. These factors compete against each other, making it necessary to carefully optimize circuit components for a given application. This study evaluates the design of a four-channel analog front end circuit board to record cardiac, neural, and respiratory biological signals. Through a critical analysis of component specifications for the circuit’s components and an evaluation of the circuits ...


Co-Modulation Masking Release Begins In The Auditory Periphery, Kareem R. Hussein, Agudemu Borjigan, Mark Sayles 2017 Purdue University

Co-Modulation Masking Release Begins In The Auditory Periphery, Kareem R. Hussein, Agudemu Borjigan, Mark Sayles

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Understanding speech in noisy environments can be difficult, especially for people with hearing loss. The background noise can cover up the sounds of interest. Normally, the auditory system works to alleviate this problem by tagging and then cancelling the noise. Our experiments are aimed at understanding the mechanism of this noise cancellation process. We hypothesize that non-linear signal processing in the mammalian cochlea (the most peripheral part of the auditory system) is the basis of noise cancellation. To test this hypothesis, we measured the responses of auditory-nerve fibers (ANFs) to sounds embedded in background noise with different statistical properties. ANFs ...


Optimization Of Prosthetic Hands: Utilizing Modularity To Improve Grip Force, Grasp, And Versatility, Jordan William Harris 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas

Optimization Of Prosthetic Hands: Utilizing Modularity To Improve Grip Force, Grasp, And Versatility, Jordan William Harris

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

It has been demonstrated that although many varieties of upper limb prosthetics exist, commercially available prosthetics are outdated and unsatisfactory. Ineffectiveness and limitations have led to some prosthesis wearers having to own multiple devices, whereas others have given up on them entirely. Even though ample research has been conducted to design and test new hand designs, the industry appears to rest in an overall stagnated state.

It was proposed here, that one problem with prosthetic research is an excess of variables involved in testing, and therefore the improper application of the scientific method. It seems that each time a research ...


An Automated Device To Increase Screening Throughput Of Zebrafish Larvae, Fuoad Saliou-Sulley 2017 University of Maine

An Automated Device To Increase Screening Throughput Of Zebrafish Larvae, Fuoad Saliou-Sulley

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The use of the zebrafish as an animal model alternative to mammalian species has spawned research advancements in several medical fields. Since the zebrafish shares a high degree of sequence and functional homology with mammals, studies using this organism can provide in-depth insight into host response to disease and provide a platform for testing a range of treatment options. The optical transparency of zebrafish at early stages of development permits easy assessment of the effects of treatments, occurrence of tumors and other abnormal growth, disease progression, and immune response, to name only a few. These characteristics make it ideal for ...


Real-Time Membrane Puncture Detection Using Force Sensors For Micro-Injections In Phantoms, Szymon Kowal 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Real-Time Membrane Puncture Detection Using Force Sensors For Micro-Injections In Phantoms, Szymon Kowal

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Micro-manipulators provide tools for researchers to improve workflow in common preclinical and clinical applications. Following drug delivery injections where drugs did not reach their target will squander research time, experimental animals and other resources. An ultrasound-guided robot developed at Robarts Research Institute was revised to implement closed-loop force feedback to compensate for tissue deformation during micro-interventions. Force sensors can detect puncture events as the needle penetrates tissue membranes, thereby reducing damage to surrounding tissues by preventing the needle from overshooting its target. Changing the angle of injection determined that the range of detectable forces during injections into tissue-mimicking phantoms suggests ...


Poly Drop, Zachary T. Scott, Lilly J. Paul 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Poly Drop, Zachary T. Scott, Lilly J. Paul

Computer Engineering

Poly Drop is a software interface to control an Open Drop digital micro-fluidics system. We obtained a hardware system from Gaudi labs. Our task was to create a Graphical User Interface that made the control of the device easier and more automated for better testing. We created software that had 3 parts: a control GUI, arduino code to control the hardware, and Image Analysis that gives the user information such as location and color of liquid drops as they move across the electrode grid of the Open Drop system. The GUI was developed using Java Swing. The communication between the ...


Redesign Of The Medtronic Kyphon Bone Cement Mixer For Vertebral Compression Fractures, Mollie Benson, Sarah Freesemann, AJ Konnath, Benjamin Murray 2017 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Redesign Of The Medtronic Kyphon Bone Cement Mixer For Vertebral Compression Fractures, Mollie Benson, Sarah Freesemann, Aj Konnath, Benjamin Murray

Biomedical Eng/General Eng.

The complete senior project report was submitted to the project advisor and sponsor. The results of this project are of a confidential nature and will not be published at this time.


A Deterministic Model Of The Effect Of Electric Field On Chemotherapeutics Delivery Into A Tumor, Maryam Moarefian, Luke Achenie 2017 Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University

A Deterministic Model Of The Effect Of Electric Field On Chemotherapeutics Delivery Into A Tumor, Maryam Moarefian, Luke Achenie

Biology and Medicine Through Mathematics Conference

No abstract provided.


Affordable Pressure Ulcer Prevention: Device, System And Algorithm, John McNeill, Yitzhak Mendelson, Raymond Dunn, Xinming Huang, Devdip Sen, Kelli Hickle 2017 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Affordable Pressure Ulcer Prevention: Device, System And Algorithm, John Mcneill, Yitzhak Mendelson, Raymond Dunn, Xinming Huang, Devdip Sen, Kelli Hickle

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

The incidence and prevalence of wound problems in an aging and longer-lived population continue to increase substantially. Pressure ulcers (bedsores) are painful, increase risk for secondary infection, and add $ 11 billion annually to health care costs in the US. When a sufficient fraction of the patient's weight is supported in a region with a bony prominence, the resulting localized concentration of external pressure reduces the cross-sectional area of blood vessels, restricting blood flow and limiting oxygen supply to the at-risk tissue. If this external contact pressure is maintained for sufficient time, the lack of oxygen leads to tissue death ...


Optimizing Microfluidic Design For Cell Separation, Joseph Wakim, Marisel De Jesus Vega, Nese Orbey, Carol Barry 2017 University of Massachusetts Lowell

Optimizing Microfluidic Design For Cell Separation, Joseph Wakim, Marisel De Jesus Vega, Nese Orbey, Carol Barry

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

To evaluate the performance of various designs of crossflow filtration microfluidic devices, blood flow was modeled using computational fluid dynamics software (COMSOL Multiphysics). Velocity profiles were generated and used to analyze four critical design parameters: pillar size, pillar shape, gap size, and wall length. These parameters were optimized to yield greatest flow from an unfiltered main channel into two filtered side channels of the device, thereby maximizing filtration capacity.

Devices containing pillars of 10 µm diameter yielded a significantly greater filtration capacity than devices with pillars of 20 µm diameter. Flow patterns from the main channel to the side channels ...


Pulse Oximetry, Yitzhak Mendelson 2017 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Pulse Oximetry, Yitzhak Mendelson

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

As part of the mini-symposium entitled "Bench to Bedside: Engineering Technology Translation," Dr. Mendelson describes pulse oximetry technology and how that technology idea successfully developed into a real world medical product.


Collaborative Research In Medical Sensing: Wearable Wireless Sensor For Pressure Ulcer Prevention, John McNeill 2017 Worcester Polytechnic Institute

Collaborative Research In Medical Sensing: Wearable Wireless Sensor For Pressure Ulcer Prevention, John Mcneill

UMass Center for Clinical and Translational Science Research Retreat

As part of the mini-symposium entitled "Bench to Bedside: Engineering Technology Translation," Dr. McNeill describes his collaboration with surgeon Dr. Raymond Dunn on wearable sensors for pressure ulcer prevention.


Sensitivity Of Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy To Dose- And Depth-Dependent Changes In Tumor Oxygenation After Radiation Therapy, Daria Semeniak 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Sensitivity Of Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy To Dose- And Depth-Dependent Changes In Tumor Oxygenation After Radiation Therapy, Daria Semeniak

Theses and Dissertations

Along with chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and surgery, radiotherapy is one of the most common treatments used against cancer. Around 50% of all cancer patients undergo radiation therapy. While for some patients radiotherapy works efficiently and lead to a complete cancer disappearance, for others treatment outcome may be less favorable due to radioresistance processes happening within a tumor on the molecular level. Radioresistance remains a big challenge for modern oncology. The ability to identify radioresistance at the early stage of radiotherapy would help physicians to improve therapy efficiency. At the current moment, despite the rapid progress in cancer understanding and diagnostic modalities ...


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