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Molecular, Cellular, and Tissue Engineering Commons

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Improving Healthspan Through Patient-Derived Artificial Organs From Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells And Two-Photon Polymerization, Connor Espenshade 2021 University of Pennsylvania

Improving Healthspan Through Patient-Derived Artificial Organs From Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells And Two-Photon Polymerization, Connor Espenshade

Protocols and Reports

Senescence, from the shortening of telomeres, accumulation of mutations, epigenetic hypomethylation, and other causes, begins an eventual cycle of decline in every patient. Stem cells disappear as a function of age, which in turn impairs cellular replication. Moreover, when fully differentiated cells are induced back into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), they not only revert to a state of pre-differentiation, but also to a younger cellular age. Their aging clocks turn back: their telomeres become longer and DNA methylation reverts back to an earlier age. It should therefore be possible to use iPSCs to replace the missing stem cells from ...


A Single Cell Pair Mechanical Interrogation Platform To Study Cell-Cell Adhesion Mechanics, Amir Monemianesfahani 2021 University of Nebraska- Lincoln

A Single Cell Pair Mechanical Interrogation Platform To Study Cell-Cell Adhesion Mechanics, Amir Monemianesfahani

Mechanical (and Materials) Engineering -- Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Cell-cell adhesion complexes are macromolecular adhesive organelles that integrate cells into tissues. Perturbations of the cell-cell adhesion structure or relatedmechanotransduction pathways lead to pathological conditions such as skin and heart diseases, arthritis, and cancer. Mechanical stretching has been used to stimulate the mechanotransduction process originating from the cell-cell adhesion and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) complexes. The current techniques, however, have limitations on their ability to measure the cell-cell adhesion force directly and quantitatively. These methods use a monolayer of cells, which makes it impossible to quantify the forces within a single cell-cell adhesion complex. Other methods using single cells or cell ...


Multiscale Models For Fibril Formation: Rare Events Methods, Microkinetic Models, And Population Balances, Armin Shayesteh Zadeh, Baron Peters 2021 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign

Multiscale Models For Fibril Formation: Rare Events Methods, Microkinetic Models, And Population Balances, Armin Shayesteh Zadeh, Baron Peters

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Amyloid fibrils are thought to grow by a two-step dock-lock mechanism. However, previous simulations of fibril formation (i) overlook the bi-molecular nature of the docking step and obtain rates with first-order units, or (ii) superimpose the docked and locked states when computing the potential of mean force for association and thereby muddle the docking and locking steps. Here, we developed a simple microkinetic model with separate locking and docking steps and with the appropriate concentration dependences for each step. We constructed a simple model comprised of chiral dumbbells that retains qualitative aspects of fibril formation. We used rare events methods ...


Review And Analysis Of Methods For Measuring Concentration Of Suspended Substances And Active Sludge During Biological Treatment Of Waste Water, Maxsud Maxmudov, Siroj Nurov, Zafar Qo'ziev, Sanjar Sidiqov 2021 Bukhara engineering technological institute

Review And Analysis Of Methods For Measuring Concentration Of Suspended Substances And Active Sludge During Biological Treatment Of Waste Water, Maxsud Maxmudov, Siroj Nurov, Zafar Qo'ziev, Sanjar Sidiqov

Scientific-technical journal

This work analyzes and compares the measuring and technical characteristics of methods for measuring and controlling the parameters of activated sludge in the processes of biological wastewater treatment. As methods for measuring the concentration of activated sludge, methods such as the optical method, the ultrasonic method and the method for measuring the nuclear density of a liquid are considered. The principles of operation of each of these methods are illustrated with graphic drawings for more clarity of the interaction of the measuring signal with the particles of the measured medium. At the end of the work, conclusions on the characteristics ...


The Impact Of Myoblast Transplantation On Collateral Capillary Arteriogenesis And Macrophage Phenotype, Christine Hue Do 2021 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

The Impact Of Myoblast Transplantation On Collateral Capillary Arteriogenesis And Macrophage Phenotype, Christine Hue Do

Biomedical Engineering

Gangrene, pain, loss of limb function, amputation, and death are only few of the grievous consequences associated with peripheral arterial disease (PAD), a vascular disease caused by an obstruction that narrows the blood vessels. Since some patients have collateral vessels that can re-route blood to its downstream destination, much focus has been spotlighted upon discovering the mechanism of this process, termed arteriogenesis, as well as cell therapies to increase arterial diameter of collateral vessels. Since some patients do not have native pre-existing collateral vessels, another method to re-route blood is through arterialized collateral capillaries (ACC), which is the conversion of ...


Impact Of Angiogenic And Osteogenic Factors In The Presence Of Biodegradable Piezoelectric Films, Jayla Millender 2021 University of Connecticut

Impact Of Angiogenic And Osteogenic Factors In The Presence Of Biodegradable Piezoelectric Films, Jayla Millender

University Scholar Projects

One of the most common causes of bone graft rejection is lack of a vascular network connecting the graft to the existing native tissue – allowing for nutrient flow. Under current grafting techniques, the existing blood vessel network in the patient slowly invades the implant in order to supply the injured site with its necessary nutrients. The purpose of this research is to determine if a synthetic bone graft with a stable microvascular network can be developed in vitro. I hypothesize that the use of indirect angiogenic factors such as sonic hedgehog homolog and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in combination with the direct ...


Impact Of Angiogenic And Osteogenic Factors In The Presence Of Biodegradable Piezoelectric Films, Jayla Millender 2021 University of Connecticut

Impact Of Angiogenic And Osteogenic Factors In The Presence Of Biodegradable Piezoelectric Films, Jayla Millender

Honors Scholar Theses

One of the most common causes of bone graft rejection is lack of a vascular network connecting the graft to the existing native tissue – allowing for nutrient flow. Under current grafting techniques, the existing blood vessel network in the patient slowly invades the implant in order to supply the injured site with its necessary nutrients. The purpose of this research is to determine if a synthetic bone graft with a stable microvascular network can be developed in vitro. I hypothesize that the use of indirect angiogenic factors such as sonic hedgehog homolog and hypoxia-inducible factor-1 in combination with the direct ...


Project Alien, Rebecca McCallin, Madelyn Hoying, Alex Evans, Matthew Nestler, Karli Rae Sutton, Garett Craig, Lucia Secaia Del Cid, Alexander Guy, Rachel Fernandez, Amanda Trusiak, Paige Aley, Ingabire Gakwerere, Nina Dorfner, Maria Mosbacher, Mary Flavin, Selvin Hernandez, Audrey Steen, Benjamin Kazimer 2021 Duquesne University

Project Alien, Rebecca Mccallin, Madelyn Hoying, Alex Evans, Matthew Nestler, Karli Rae Sutton, Garett Craig, Lucia Secaia Del Cid, Alexander Guy, Rachel Fernandez, Amanda Trusiak, Paige Aley, Ingabire Gakwerere, Nina Dorfner, Maria Mosbacher, Mary Flavin, Selvin Hernandez, Audrey Steen, Benjamin Kazimer

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Project ALIEN is a comprehensive plan to send humans to Mars to look for life on the Martian surface while exploring the viability and adaptability of terrestrial microbes in Martian atmospheric conditions. ALIEN will use a ballistic capture trajectory to get to Mars and stay in aerostationary orbit for a 30-day surface mission, during which two surface crewmembers will perform a variety of experiments to achieve the mission’s goals of Martian microbial discovery within brines of the Gale Crater and terrestrial microbe adaptability and viability to Martian conditions. Experimentation is based on the presumption that Martian microbes are metabolically ...


Diagnosis Of Melanoma Disease State From Patient Blood Samples Using Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Jacob Salvatore 2021 Duquesne University

Diagnosis Of Melanoma Disease State From Patient Blood Samples Using Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Jacob Salvatore

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Approximately 1 in 50 Americans develop melanoma in their lifetime. Early detection of melanoma is pivotal to the survival of the patient, with a 99% survival rate for 5 or more years after an early diagnosis. Metastasis, or the spread of cancer, increases the chances of cancerous growth in other parts of the body. In this study, we propose the use of photoacoustic flow cytometry as a diagnostic of patient disease state, by closely monitoring the amount of circulating melanoma cells (CMCs) in a patient’s blood before and after chemotherapy treatments. Using this patient data, we were able to ...


Involvement Of The Ino80 Chromatin Remodeling Complex In Cell Division And Genomic Stability, Ethan Chen 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Involvement Of The Ino80 Chromatin Remodeling Complex In Cell Division And Genomic Stability, Ethan Chen

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Cell division is a vital biological process for growth and development in both single and multi-cellular organisms—whereby the cell must duplicate its organelles and genome in entirety and appropriately distribute the copied contents to the daughter cells. Cells undergo a cycle of two distinct phases: interphase and mitosis. During interphase, the cell replicates its genomic DNA (in the form of chromosomes) located within the nucleus. DNA replication is carried out in a euchromatin state, where the chromosome structure is loose and easily accessible by DNA polymerase and other replication enzymes. Upon the completion of replication, chromatin is condensed into ...


Guide Rnas Preparation For In-Vitro Crispr-Cas9 Complex Delivery Targeting Genes That Affect Wound Healing., Prashant Khatiwada 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Guide Rnas Preparation For In-Vitro Crispr-Cas9 Complex Delivery Targeting Genes That Affect Wound Healing., Prashant Khatiwada

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

CRISPR-Cas9 technology has widely been used as a viable genome engineering platform to make site-specific insertion, deletion, and breaks. The nuclease dead version of Cas9 or dCas9 can be used for the activation and repression of target gene sites using specific activation or repression domains. In this study, CRISPR guide RNAs were designed for a CRISPR inhibition approach to repress the transcriptional activity of the target genes. An expression plasmid vector composed of a U6 promoter sequence, BbsI restriction sites, and a chimeric gRNA sequence was digested, and the phosphorylated forward and reverse gRNAs were ligated with the plasmid vector ...


Development Of An Integrated Salt Cartridge-Reverse Electrodialysis (Red) Device To Increase Electrolyte Concentrations Of Human Blood Flow To Power Biomedical Devices, Caroline Campbell 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Development Of An Integrated Salt Cartridge-Reverse Electrodialysis (Red) Device To Increase Electrolyte Concentrations Of Human Blood Flow To Power Biomedical Devices, Caroline Campbell

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Emerging technologies in nanotechnology and biomedical sciences have led to an increase in biomedical implantable devices including cardiac pacemakers, artificial organs, drug pumps, and sensors. These devices require continuous stable and reliable power to operate, which creates the demand for the need to find a safe, reliable, and stable power source. A promising avenue for a power source for these devices is a miniaturized reverse electrodialysis (RED) biopower cell design that utilizes the salinity differences between bloodstreams that flow inside the human body. Initial results of the RED system demonstrate that higher gradient salinity differences between streams lead to a ...


Analyzing The Effects Of E-Hook Peptides On Kinesin-1, Ashton Ward Murrah, Baylee Hope Howard 2021 University of Mississippi

Analyzing The Effects Of E-Hook Peptides On Kinesin-1, Ashton Ward Murrah, Baylee Hope Howard

Honors Theses

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States. Cancerous growth is a result of oncogenes, or mutated genes that increase the rate of cell division in an uncontrolled manner. Cell division, which consists of mitosis and cytokinesis phases, is dependent upon the active movement of kinesin motor proteins along microtubules to rearrange the cytoskeleton for equitable distribution of genetic material to daughter cells. As kinesins are vital to this process, if we could prevent kinesin from binding to the microtubules, cell division would cease.

The goal of this study is to develop a method to prevent ...


3d Printable And Computational Models Of The Bone Marrow Mechanical Environment, Alexander Regner 2021 Boise State University

3d Printable And Computational Models Of The Bone Marrow Mechanical Environment, Alexander Regner

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

Aged individuals and astronauts experience bone loss despite rigorous physical activity. Bone mechanoresponse is in part regulated by mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We reported that daily low intensity vibration (LIV) restores MSC proliferation in senescence and simulated microgravity models, suggesting reduced mechanical signal delivery to MSCs likely contributes to declining bone mechanoresponse. To this end, we have developed a 3D bone marrow analog which controls trabecular geometry, marrow mechanics and external stimuli.

Finite element (FE) models of hydrogels, representing bone marrow, were generated using instantaneous compression (1000% strain/s, 20% strain) and relaxation experiments (100s) of both gelatin and hyaluronin-based ...


Peptoid-Based Microsphere Coatings For Biomaterial Applications, Jesse Leland Roberts 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Peptoid-Based Microsphere Coatings For Biomaterial Applications, Jesse Leland Roberts

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Peptoids are peptidomimetic oligomers that predominantly harness similarities to peptides for biomimetic functionality. The incorporation of chiral, aromatic side chains in the peptoid sequence allows for the formation of distinct secondary structures and self-assembly into supramolecular assemblies, including microspheres. Peptoid microspheres can be coated onto substrates for potential use in biosensor technologies, tissue engineering platforms, and drug-delivery systems. They have the potential for use in biomedical applications due to their resistance to proteolytic degradation and low immunogenicity. This dissertation focuses on the physical characteristics and robustness of the peptoid microsphere coatings in various physiological conditions, along with their ability to ...


Evaluating The Effects Of Wood Source On The Physicochemical Properties Of Crosslinked Cellulose Nanocrystals, Helena Tchoungang Nkeumen 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Evaluating The Effects Of Wood Source On The Physicochemical Properties Of Crosslinked Cellulose Nanocrystals, Helena Tchoungang Nkeumen

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Cellulose is an abundant and naturally occurring biopolymer that has been used by humans for food, shelter, and clothing for about two centuries now. Highly crystalline nanoparticles derived from cellulose, called cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), show great potential to meet the rising need for sustainable and nontoxic materials for biomedical applications. However, multiple biomedical applications of CNCs, such as those involving their use in tissue engineering scaffolds, require CNC-based structures to be stable in aqueous environments, a property that native CNCs do not possess due to their inherent hydrophilicity. Chemical crosslinking of CNCs addresses this issue by providing aqueous stability to ...


Tissue Engineering Pre-Reads, Ryan M. Williams 2021 CUNY City College

Tissue Engineering Pre-Reads, Ryan M. Williams

Open Educational Resources

This material provides an introduction to a tissue engineering module in an experimental methods in biomedical engineering course. Students are expected to be familiar with this material prior to a pre-assessment taken at the beginning of class as we have condense lecture time this semester.


Fibrin-Based Engineered Vascular Tissues As Platforms For Cellular Studies And Disease Modeling, Khalil Dayekh 2021 The University of Western Ontario

Fibrin-Based Engineered Vascular Tissues As Platforms For Cellular Studies And Disease Modeling, Khalil Dayekh

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Vascular tissue engineering (VTE) is an emerging alternative therapeutic intervention strategy to treat diseases such as atherosclerosis. While the ultimate goal of VTE is designing tissues to serve as graft substitutes, they can also serve as powerful tools to study tissue and disease development and drug discovery.

In this work, engineered vascular tissues from fibrin gel, mouse embryonic multipotent progenitor cell line (10T1/2 cells), and rat embryonic thoracic artery smooth muscle cells (A-10 cells) were used as models to study the Notch signaling pathway and vascular calcification. The 10T1/2 cells were successfully differentiated into vascular smooth muscle cells ...


Development Of A Robust Methodology To Obtain And Assess Myogenic Precursor Cells For Their Use In Regenerative Therapies, Ricardo Lasa 2021 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Development Of A Robust Methodology To Obtain And Assess Myogenic Precursor Cells For Their Use In Regenerative Therapies, Ricardo Lasa

Master's Theses

Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) is characterized by buildup of atherosclerotic plaque in peripheral arteries that leads to an occlusion that can interrupt the supply of blood to the peripheral tissue, causing downstream tissue ischemia/hypoxia. PAOD is estimated to affect over 200 million patients worldwide. Current surgical revascularization treatments can be effective in about half of the patient population, leading to a significant number of patients with no treatment options beyond pharmacological intervention and lifestyle modification. The decrease in blood flow downstream of the occlusion leads to increased blood pressure gradient in the microvasculature, specifically in vessels that connect ...


Studying The Efficacy Of An Injectable 3-Dimensional Fibrin Extracellular Matrix To Characterize The Effects Of Antitumor Agents On Sw620 Cells In A Microfluidic Device, Thèo Anastos 2021 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Studying The Efficacy Of An Injectable 3-Dimensional Fibrin Extracellular Matrix To Characterize The Effects Of Antitumor Agents On Sw620 Cells In A Microfluidic Device, Thèo Anastos

Master's Theses

Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in the United States and there is currently a lot of research going into new antitumor agents to kill the cancer. One method for replicating the tumor response to a drug in vivo is by creating an in vitro drug testing model to replicate the in vivo condition. This research project was conducted to determine the efficacy of testing tumor cultures in a microfluidic device as a way to provide accurate drug responses in vitro instead of using in vivo subjects in clinical trials. A total of four experiments were conducted with ...


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