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Development Of A Crosslinked Osteochondral Xenograft And A Collagen Stabilizing Intra-Articular Injection To Remediate Cartilage Focal Lesions To Prevent Osteoarthritis, Mark Lewis Mosher 2022 Mississippi State University

Development Of A Crosslinked Osteochondral Xenograft And A Collagen Stabilizing Intra-Articular Injection To Remediate Cartilage Focal Lesions To Prevent Osteoarthritis, Mark Lewis Mosher

Theses and Dissertations

Osteoarthritis is one of the most common causes of disability in adults in America. It is a progressive and degenerative disease where the articular cartilage is broken down and lost from the surfaces of bones causing chronic pain and swelling in the joints, and currently has no cure. The most commonly osteoarthritis starts from a focal lesion on the cartilage surface, which will expand on the surface and downwards through the thickness of the tissue. The current gold standard for correcting cartilage focal lesions is the osteochondral autograft/allograft transplantation (OAT), which replaces the defect with a fresh osteochondral graft. The …


Hypoxic Incubation Chamber, Simone Lisette Helfrich, Makenzie Nicole Jones 2022 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Hypoxic Incubation Chamber, Simone Lisette Helfrich, Makenzie Nicole Jones

Biomedical Engineering: Graduate Reports and Projects

This paper describes the design, manufacturing, and testing of a novel controllable hypoxic incubator with fully functional oxygen gas control and temperature control in a humid environment. On the current market, a majority of the few hypoxic incubators use pre-mixed gas that does not offer precise control over gas concentration. The objective for this project was to create a chamber that allows the user to set the O2 concentration to varying set points of % O2 while maintaining the chamber at a constant body temperature, CO2 level, humidity, and sterility. To start the project, multiple concepts were developed for the …


Conducting Polypyrrole Hydrogel Biomaterials For Drug Delivery And Cartilage Tissue Regeneration, Iryna Liubchak 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Conducting Polypyrrole Hydrogel Biomaterials For Drug Delivery And Cartilage Tissue Regeneration, Iryna Liubchak

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Articular cartilage tissue has limited capacity for self-regeneration leading to challenges in the treatment of joint injuries and diseases such as osteoarthritis. The tissue engineering approach combines biomaterials, cells and bioactive molecules to provide a long-term and stable cartilage repair. In the following work, electroactive polymer polypyrrole~(PPy) was incorporated into the synthetic hydrogel to enhance the mechanical properties of the material for cartilage applications. PPy was loaded with drug compound and the \emph{on demand} drug release was demonstrated. The composite PPy hydrogel was 3D printed using stereolithography to create a porous tissue engineering scaffold. Biocompatibility and cell adhesion to the …


Labeling Melanoma Cells With Black Microspheres For Improved Sensitivity In Detection Via Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Tori Kocsis 2022 Duquesne University

Labeling Melanoma Cells With Black Microspheres For Improved Sensitivity In Detection Via Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Tori Kocsis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer known for developing into metastatic disease. Current clinical diagnostics, including medical imaging and tissue biopsy, provide a poor prognosis since the cancer is in the late stages of disease progression. In recent years, photoacoustic flow cytometry has allowed for the detection of circulating melanoma cells within patient blood samples in vitro. Although this method exploits the naturally-produced melanin within the cells, it has only successfully detected highly-pigmented melanoma cell lines. Since various forms of melanoma exist, each with varying melanin concentrations, this research aims to provide a novel method for detecting lightly-pigmented …


Optimizing Crispr/Cas9-Mediated Knockdown Of Angptl3 In Liver Cell Lines And Mouse Hepatocytes, Meredith Reeves 2022 Clemson University

Optimizing Crispr/Cas9-Mediated Knockdown Of Angptl3 In Liver Cell Lines And Mouse Hepatocytes, Meredith Reeves

All Theses

Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic condition characterized by elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) that leads to an increased risk of developing cardiac disease early in life (Shah et al., 2020). Current treatments such as statins and PCSK9 inhibitors have helped lower LDL-C levels, however they require repeated administration every 4-6 weeks to remain effective (Raal et al., 2018). Angiopoietin-like 3 (ANGPTL3) is an inhibitor of plasma lipid metabolism that has become a promising molecular target for the treatment of FH. Individuals with non-functional copies of ANGPTL3 demonstrate low levels of plasma LDL-C and triglycerides, indicating a protective …


Engineering Of Ideal Systems For The Study And Direction Of Stem Cell Asymmetrical Division And Fate Determination, Martina Zamponi 2022 Old Dominion University

Engineering Of Ideal Systems For The Study And Direction Of Stem Cell Asymmetrical Division And Fate Determination, Martina Zamponi

Biomedical Engineering Theses & Dissertations

The cellular microenvironment varies significantly across tissues, and it is constituted by both resident cells and the macromolecules they are exposed to. Cues that the cells receive from the microenvironment, as well as the signaling transmitted to it, affect their physiology and behavior. This notion is valid in the context of stem cells, which are susceptible to biochemical and biomechanical signaling exchanged with the microenvironment, and which plays a fundamental role in establishing fate determination and cell differentiation events. The definition of the molecular mechanisms that drive stem cell asymmetrical division, and how these are modulated by microenvironmental signaling, is …


Mitral Valve Tissue Engineering - A Dynamic Model For Investigating The Mechanism Of Valvular Pathology, Collin Owens 2022 Clemson University

Mitral Valve Tissue Engineering - A Dynamic Model For Investigating The Mechanism Of Valvular Pathology, Collin Owens

All Dissertations

Heart valve disease affects an average of 2.5% of the population in the United States. The mitral valve (MV) is the most complex of the heart’s four valves and is most associated with the disease by exhibiting altered extracellular matrix (ECM) which translates into stenosis or regurgitation. These diseases are typically degenerative in nature and can be accelerated by risk factors such as diabetes and hypertension. With diabetes and hypertension affecting 425 million and 1.39 billion people worldwide, further investigation into these risk factors is warranted. This study aims to develop and test an in vitro model of MV disease. …


Functional Requirements For A Samd14-Capping Protein Complex In Stress Erythropoiesis, Suhita Ray, Linda Chee, Yichao Zhou, Meg A. Schaefer, Michael J. Naldrett, Sophie Alvarez, Nicholas T. Woods, Kyle J. Hewitt 2022 University of Nebraska Medical Center

Functional Requirements For A Samd14-Capping Protein Complex In Stress Erythropoiesis, Suhita Ray, Linda Chee, Yichao Zhou, Meg A. Schaefer, Michael J. Naldrett, Sophie Alvarez, Nicholas T. Woods, Kyle J. Hewitt

Papers from the Nebraska Center for Biotechnology

Acute anemia induces rapid expansion of erythroid precursors and accelerated differentiation to replenish erythrocytes. Paracrine signals—involving cooperation between stem cell factor (SCF)/Kit signaling and other signaling inputs—are required for the increased erythroid precursor activity in anemia. Our prior work revealed that the sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain 14 (Samd14) gene increases the regenerative capacity of the erythroid system in a mouse genetic model and promotes stress-dependent Kit signaling. However, the mechanism underlying Samd14’s role in stress erythropoiesis is unknown. We identified a protein-protein interaction between Samd14 and the α- and β-heterodimers of the F-actin capping protein (CP) complex. Knockdown of …


The Influence Of Flow Mechanotransduction On Endothelial Cells In The Lymphatic Valve Sinus, Joshua Daniel Hall 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

The Influence Of Flow Mechanotransduction On Endothelial Cells In The Lymphatic Valve Sinus, Joshua Daniel Hall

Doctoral Dissertations

Fluid flow in the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems influences the phenotype of endothelial cells that line the interior to the vessel via mechanotransduction. Geometric features in a vessel such as curvature, bifurcation, and valves promote heterogeneous fluid flow profiles, inducing a heterogeneous endothelial phenotype within a vessel region. Certain flow conditions are associated with vascular dysfunction, and diseases such as atherosclerosis preferentially develop in areas of flow disturbance. Lymphatic vessels are highly analogous to blood vessels, although lymphatic flow characteristics and its effect on lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) via mechanotransduction have been comparatively less examined. The most significant geometric features …


A Novel Electroconductive Nanofibrous Scaffold For Bone Regeneration, Mitchell Kenter 2022 Western Michigan University Homer Stryker M.D. School of Medicine

A Novel Electroconductive Nanofibrous Scaffold For Bone Regeneration, Mitchell Kenter

Medical Engineering Theses

The goal of this study was to develop a biodegradable and conductive scaffold to mimic the piezoelectric properties of bone and the architecture of the extracellular matrix. Poly(3,4- ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) is a conductive polymer of great interest in tissue engineering due to excellent electrical stability and biocompatibility. To enhance its conductivity, dopants such as dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) can be added. Engineered graphene oxide (GO) can also be introduced as oxidant to enhance conductivity and mechanical properties. PEDOT nanocomposites were synthesized by oxidative polymerization of 3, 4-Etylenedioxythiophene monomer (EDOT) in the presence of GO, DMSO, ferric chloride and various solvents. The …


Investigating The Effect Of Dissolved Oxygen-Assisted Corneal Cross-Linking (Cxl) On Porcine Corneas, Julianni Dar 2022 Duquesne University

Investigating The Effect Of Dissolved Oxygen-Assisted Corneal Cross-Linking (Cxl) On Porcine Corneas, Julianni Dar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Corneal cross-linking is a clinical procedure that is known to stop the progression of keratoconus, an eye disease that affects the cornea’s structure, ultimately leading to vision loss in its advanced stages. The typical treatment plan includes riboflavin and UV-A exposure in the hope to increase the mechanical properties of the cornea. There are two types of CXL pathways, with Type-II CXL requiring oxygen. Naturally, the dissolved oxygen is limited in the cornea; therefore, limiting the effect of Type-II CXL. This study proposes to improve the Type-II CXL contribution by integrating dissolved oxygen during the standard CXL treatment used in …


A Microfluidic Assay For Single Cell Bacterial Adhesion Studies Under Shear Stress, Amanda Trusiak 2022 Duquesne University

A Microfluidic Assay For Single Cell Bacterial Adhesion Studies Under Shear Stress, Amanda Trusiak

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The study of bacterial adhesion to host cells is important in understanding bacterial pathogenesis and developing new therapeutic approaches. Here, we studied bacterial adhesion under shear stress using a novel microfluidic method. Specifically, the adhesion of a uropathogenic E. coli strain (FimHOn, ATCC 700928/CFT073) to mannose-modified substrates was studied under flow conditions. The FimHOn E. coli strain expresses FimH which is a mannose-specific adhesin found on the fimbriae that binds to glycoproteins on the epithelium. We developed a microfluidic method that mimics bacterial adhesion to urothelial cells. First, the microfluidic channels were modified by sequentially adsorbing BSA-mannose and BSA onto …


Interactions Between Soft Nanoparticles And Mammalian Cells, Mitchell Raith 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Interactions Between Soft Nanoparticles And Mammalian Cells, Mitchell Raith

Doctoral Dissertations

Nanoparticles have been of interest to the pharmaceutical industry since the 1980s. The first FDA approved nanoparticle-based therapies included liposomal anesthesia agents. Since then, the amount of FDA-approved nanoparticle therapies remains low. This is because nanoparticle-patient interactions can be very complex and are not well understood. Complicating factors also include increasing obesity rates among the patient population and many small animal pre-clinical trials are completed with healthy, lean animals. The biochemical differences between lean and obese patients prevents early studies from accurately predicting nanoparticle clinical behaviors. Many nanoparticles fail in trails. In this thesis, I aimed to uncover how nanoparticles …


Development Of A Long-Read Sequencing Protocol To Assess The Precision And Efficacy Of Gene Editing For Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Landon Andrew Burcham 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Development Of A Long-Read Sequencing Protocol To Assess The Precision And Efficacy Of Gene Editing For Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Landon Andrew Burcham

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

This work establishes a method for assessing on-target precision due to CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing, especially within the context of exon skipping therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy. The proposed method utilizes an Oxford nanopore long-read sequencing approach to sequence amplified regions of DNA that have been edited using CRISPR-Cas9. NIH3T3 and C2C12 cell lines were treated with a dual-guide CRISPR-Cas9 system, that targets and deletes exon 23 from the DMD gene in mouse samples. Deletion PCR revealed deletion of exon 23 in both DNA and cDNA samples. Additionally, sequencing using Oxford Nanopore revealed targeted exon 23 deletion as the most prevalent …


Design Of A Four Channel Pulsatile Perfusion Bioreactor For Ex-Vivo Study Of Vascular Grafts, Thomas M. Fair 2022 Clemson University

Design Of A Four Channel Pulsatile Perfusion Bioreactor For Ex-Vivo Study Of Vascular Grafts, Thomas M. Fair

All Theses

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in the United States. Atherosclerosis in peripheral arteries is a major contributing factor. Autologous saphenous vein grafts are the most common bypass grafts for treating peripheral artery diseases. A quarter of these grafts fail within a year, and around half have failed within 10 years of the initial surgery. Graft failure is attributed to the development of intimal hyperplasia indicated by the migration and proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and the deposition of extracellular proteins.

Increases in flow, pressure, the pulse frequency, and the differential of pressure that model an …


Characterizing The Expression Pattern And Function Of Tartan During Drosophila Development, Alaina Baggett 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterizing The Expression Pattern And Function Of Tartan During Drosophila Development, Alaina Baggett

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The development of complex structures and organs by multicellular organisms relies on the ability of epithelial cells to self-organize. Epithelia are sheets of connected cells, and compartment boundaries are formed between certain epithelial cells to create distinct tissue compartments. Compartment boundaries are specialized cell-cell interfaces that are enriched for the cytoskeletal proteins actin and myosin, leading to straight cell edges under relatively high tension that act as fences keep cells from moving between compartments. In the model organism Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), compartment boundaries in the early embryo are established in response to the non-uniform striped expression of the cell-surface …


Isolation And Production Of Tandem Collagen Binding Domain From Clostridial Collagenase Colg And Developments In C1q Reagent Production For Future Molecule Characterization Work, Stephanie Beitle 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Isolation And Production Of Tandem Collagen Binding Domain From Clostridial Collagenase Colg And Developments In C1q Reagent Production For Future Molecule Characterization Work, Stephanie Beitle

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

This thesis covers a two part project: the production methods to create a double collagen binding domain molecule with a growth factor for wound healing applications and the development of a new in-house production method for isolating C1q from bovine blood. The wound healing molecule was created using transformation, sonication, and purification before being tested via electrophoresis SDS page and Western blots to confirm the molecule’s presence. The C1q in-house production method utilizes an ultrafiltration flow cell rather than dialysis at a critical point in the process, allowing for researchers to not only be able to use a single small …


Investigating The Impact Of Hypoxia On Reactive Oxygen Species Generation Within Murine Breast Cancer Cells, Jared McPeake 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Investigating The Impact Of Hypoxia On Reactive Oxygen Species Generation Within Murine Breast Cancer Cells, Jared Mcpeake

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

When cancer metastasizes from a primary tumor site to secondary site through the bloodstream or lymph, the cancer becomes more difficult to treat. For this reason, it is vital to study what indicates the metastatic potential of a tumor. Current research has shown that cell lines with high metastatic potential display increased levels of metabolic adaptability over their nonmetastatic counterparts after undergoing hypoxic conditions. One method of assessing this adaptability is to measure the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by the cells while undergoing oxidative stress. In highly adaptable metastatic cells, an increase of ROS buildup within the …


Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault At The University Of Arkansas, Barrett Weidman 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault At The University Of Arkansas, Barrett Weidman

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

This work was written to fulfill two main purposes. First, to help survivors of Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault (DFSA) process their experience by compiling the toxicological, pharmacological, and distribution of the three most used date-rape drugs. Second, to gauge the knowledge and interest of University of Arkansas students regarding drug impairments, sexual assault education, and bystander intervention training. A survey was conducted for the latter and revealed that 91.6% of students believe the University’s existing sexual assault prevention education and bystander intervention training have room for improvement. Also, 37.1% of students who have received this education report that the programming does …


A Versatile Python Package For Simulating Dna Nanostructures With Oxdna, Kira Threlfall 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

A Versatile Python Package For Simulating Dna Nanostructures With Oxdna, Kira Threlfall

Computer Science and Computer Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The ability to synthesize custom DNA molecules has led to the feasibility of DNA nanotechnology. Synthesis is time-consuming and expensive, so simulations of proposed DNA designs are necessary. Open-source simulators, such as oxDNA, are available but often difficult to configure and interface with. Packages such as oxdna-tile-binding pro- vide an interface for oxDNA which allows for the ability to create scripts that automate the configuration process. This project works to improve the scripts in oxdna-tile-binding to improve integration with job scheduling systems commonly used in high-performance computing environments, improve ease-of-use and consistency within the scripts compos- ing oxdna-tile-binding, and move …


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