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Fabrication And Characterization Of Lactobacillus Crispatus Containing Bioprints For Bacterial Vaginosis Application., Anthony J. Kyser 2022 University of Louisville

Fabrication And Characterization Of Lactobacillus Crispatus Containing Bioprints For Bacterial Vaginosis Application., Anthony J. Kyser

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a condition in which healthy lactobacilli are replaced by an overabundance of pathogenic bacteria in the female reproductive tract. Current antibiotic treatments often fail to “cure” infection, resulting in recurrence in more than 50% of women, 6 months post-treatment. Recently, probiotics have demonstrated promise to restore vaginal health; however, as with other active agents, delivery requires once-to-twice daily administration. Recently, three-dimensional (3D)-bioprinting has enabled the fabrication of well-defined cell-laden architectures with tunable agent release, thereby presenting a novel approach with which to deliver probiotics. One promising bioink, gelatin alginate, was selected for study, due to its …


Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault At The University Of Arkansas, Barrett Weidman 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault At The University Of Arkansas, Barrett Weidman

Chemical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

This work was written to fulfill two main purposes. First, to help survivors of Drug-Facilitated Sexual Assault (DFSA) process their experience by compiling the toxicological, pharmacological, and distribution of the three most used date-rape drugs. Second, to gauge the knowledge and interest of University of Arkansas students regarding drug impairments, sexual assault education, and bystander intervention training. A survey was conducted for the latter and revealed that 91.6% of students believe the University’s existing sexual assault prevention education and bystander intervention training have room for improvement. Also, 37.1% of students who have received this education report that the programming does …


Exploring The Effects Of Varied Land Use On Elemental Concentrations Within Streams, Logan Jennings 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Exploring The Effects Of Varied Land Use On Elemental Concentrations Within Streams, Logan Jennings

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

It is well documented that human activity influences the chemistry of surrounding waters. As such, it is possible that there is a link between land use within a watershed and the chemical composition of the stream. The objectives of this study are to determine if varied land use does affect the concentrations of macronutrients and trace elements present in the streams of Northwest Arkansas, and if so, to determine what extent urban and agricultural development are responsible for these changes. Water samples were collected across 19 streams in the Northwest Arkansas region between January and March of 2022. Water samples …


Study Of Porosity Of Gelatin-Alginate Hydrogels To Model Brain Matter For Studying Traumatic Brain Injuries, Apolline Vincent 2022 University of Connecticut

Study Of Porosity Of Gelatin-Alginate Hydrogels To Model Brain Matter For Studying Traumatic Brain Injuries, Apolline Vincent

Honors Scholar Theses

Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) affect brain tissue and neuronal signaling, leading to many side effects including death. Research on TBIs is limited by the lack of accurate brain matter models to study the physiological and cellular reaction. Alginate-gelatin hydrogels have been designed and modified to mimic the mechanical properties of the brain to act as an accurate in vitro model. This Honors thesis aims to verify the porous microstructure of gelatin-alginate hydrogels through Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to understand how gelatin and alginate affect the microstructure. I measured the pore sizes of each hydrogel using ImageJ, compared the average pore …


Alternative Fixation Of Venous Valves For Bioprosthetic Applications, Makenzie Kapales 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Alternative Fixation Of Venous Valves For Bioprosthetic Applications, Makenzie Kapales

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Venous valve failure allows for the retrograde, or backward, flow of blood into the lower extremities, which leads to Chronic Venous Insufficiency (CVI). CVI infringes upon quality of life through ulceration and can result in death due to Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT), or blood clots, causing pulmonary embolism. A successful treatment of CVI restores valve function and prevents retrograde blood flow; however, current bioprosthetic venous valves exhibit low patency and high calcification. To improve upon bioprosthetic venous valves and CVI treatment, the University of Arkansas’s Cardiovascular Biomechanics Lab conducts studies with the purpose of comparing the properties and performance of …


Insole Fall Prevention Device, Nick M. Hughes, Andrew M. Slaboda 2022 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Insole Fall Prevention Device, Nick M. Hughes, Andrew M. Slaboda

Biomedical Engineering

Falls among the aging population occur every single day, with 1 in every 5 resulting in some injury and 300,000 hospitalized every year with a hip fracture [1]. The most popular and effective way to mitigate these falls is through physical therapist intervention. However, with the increased popularity in telerehab, many patients at risk for falls cannot accurately convey their gait tendencies to their physical therapists from the comfort of their home or while not in direct contact with the PT. A device like an insole, implanted with force sensors, which measures different parts of a patient’s foot, could convey …


Synthesis Of Monodisperse Nanoscintillators At High Temperatures For Biomedical Relevant Applications, Eric Zhang 2022 Clemson University

Synthesis Of Monodisperse Nanoscintillators At High Temperatures For Biomedical Relevant Applications, Eric Zhang

All Dissertations

Luminescent sub-100 nm particulates continuously generate immense research interest in the biomedical field for imaging, theranostics, and optogenetics. Conventionally, upconversion nanoparticles or UV activated semiconductors are studied, however these materials are limited by biological barriers such as the skin which reduces the penetration depth of these excitation sources, tissue's auto- fluorescence, and toxicity. One approach to overcome these challenges is to use nanoscintillators (sub-100 nm materials that can generate visible light using high energy excitation sources such as x-rays) which can generate light locally to the human body. Numerous scintillators have been reported since the discovery of x-rays from the …


Synthesis Of Thiol-Acrylate Hydrogels For 3d Cell Culture And Microfluidic Applications, Anowar Hossain Khan 2022 Louisiana State University at Baton Rouge

Synthesis Of Thiol-Acrylate Hydrogels For 3d Cell Culture And Microfluidic Applications, Anowar Hossain Khan

LSU Doctoral Dissertations

Globally cell culture is an $18.98 billion industry as of 2020, with an 11.6 percent annual growth rate. Drug discovery has an estimated worth of $69.8 billion in 2020 and is predicted to grow to $110.4 billion by 2025. Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture of cancer cells is one of the rapidly growing felids since it better recapitulates in vivo conditions compared to two-dimensional (2D) models. However, it is challenging to grow 3D tumor spheroids outside the body, and some of the existing technology can generate these spheroids outside the human body but poorly mimic in vivo tumor models. Therefore, there …


Controlled Codelivery Of Mir-26a And Antagomir-133a With Osteoconductive Scaffolds To Promote Healing Of Large Bone Defects, Cole J. Ferreira 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Controlled Codelivery Of Mir-26a And Antagomir-133a With Osteoconductive Scaffolds To Promote Healing Of Large Bone Defects, Cole J. Ferreira

Masters Theses

Often caused by trauma or tumor removal, large bone defects frequently result in delayed or non-union. The current gold standard for treatment is autograft. However, due to limitations, such as the size and location of the defect, these cannot always be utilized. A common alternative to autograft is the use of BMP-2 with a collagen scaffold, however, this treatment is limited by numerous side effects. In recent years, genetic materials such as microRNAs (miRNAs) have offered possible alternative therapies. MiRNAs are small non-coding RNA molecules that generally range from 20-24 nucleotides, serve as repressors of gene expression, and are involved …


Sol-Gel Derived Bioceramic Poly(Diethyl Fumarate – Co – Triethoxyvinylsilane) Composite, Aref Sleiman 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Sol-Gel Derived Bioceramic Poly(Diethyl Fumarate – Co – Triethoxyvinylsilane) Composite, Aref Sleiman

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Synthetic bone graft materials have become an increasingly popular choice for bone augmentation. Ceramic-based and polymer-based bone graft materials constitute the two main classes of synthetic bone graft materials. This study investigated the synthesis of novel bioactive composites for their potential use as bone graft biomaterials. Poly(diethyl fumarate-co-triethoxyvinylsilane)/bioceramic class II organic/inorganic hybrid biomaterials were synthesized via a sol gel process. These biomaterials were then reacted with an ammonium phosphate solution to prepare their respective composites. For the first time, we successfully synthesized sol-gel derived bioceramic poly(diethyl fumarate-co-triethoxyvinylsilane) composites. In vitro bioactivity evaluation of poly(diethyl fumarate-co-triethoxyvinylsilane)/bioceramic composites in simulated body fluid …


Breaks In Longitudinal Elastic Fibers Of Human Femoropopliteal Arteries, Elham Zamani 2022 University of Nebraska at Omaha

Breaks In Longitudinal Elastic Fibers Of Human Femoropopliteal Arteries, Elham Zamani

UNO Student Research and Creative Activity Fair

Breaks in Longitudinal Elastic Fibers of Human Femoropopliteal Arteries

Elham Zamani1, Majid Jadidi1

1 Department of Biomechanics, University of Nebraska Omaha, Omaha, NE

Introduction: Elastin is a major protein in the body with half-life >50 years. It is thought that elastic fibers are formed before the postnatal period. In the femoropopliteal artery (FPA), the main artery in the leg, longitudinal elastic fibers are present in External Elastic Lamina (EEL). Our team has studied more than 1000 cadaveric human FPA and has noticed that there are big breaks in their longitudinal elastic fibers in some subjects. Our goal in this work …


Optimization Of A Novel Nipam-Based Thermoresponsive Copolymer For Intramuscular Injection As A Myoblast Delivery Vehicle To Combat Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease, Quentin R. Klueter 2022 Cal Poly SLO

Optimization Of A Novel Nipam-Based Thermoresponsive Copolymer For Intramuscular Injection As A Myoblast Delivery Vehicle To Combat Peripheral Artery Occlusive Disease, Quentin R. Klueter

Master's Theses

There is a need for a minimally invasive delivery method to enable cell therapies to combat peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAOD) in end stage patients. Myoblasts show promise as a cell mediated therapy but warrant an improved delivery method to increase cell retention in the region of interest because of their adherent nature, relative to previously used BM-MNC’s that are non-adherent. Contemporary issues with achieving successful cell therapies of vasculature can be mainly characterized by the lack of clinical translation from promising animal studies and absence of cell delivery scaffolding. Naturally, polymers have been widely experimented with as grafts to …


An Electrochemical, Fluidic, Chip-Based Biosensor For Biomarker Detection, Lauren Bell 2022 University of Kentucky

An Electrochemical, Fluidic, Chip-Based Biosensor For Biomarker Detection, Lauren Bell

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Biosensors and their use in both the research and clinical field for the detection and monitoring of critical biomarkers are prevalent and constantly improving. However, continued research needs to be done to address shortcomings, such as low sensitivity, poor specificity, and poor readiness for integration into research use and patient care. The objective of this research was to create a combined fluidic, chip-based biosensor that could detect different biomarkers with high sensitivity and ease of use. For assessing the developed sensor, three separate biomarkers were tested: glucose, cholesterol, and oxygen. Both the glucose biosensor and cholesterol biosensor were combined with …


A Highly Conductive, Flexible, And 3d-Printable Carbon Nanotube-Elastomer Ink For Additive Bio-Manufacturing, Andy Shar, Phillip Glass, Daeha Joung Ph.D. 2022 Virginia Commonwealth University

A Highly Conductive, Flexible, And 3d-Printable Carbon Nanotube-Elastomer Ink For Additive Bio-Manufacturing, Andy Shar, Phillip Glass, Daeha Joung Ph.D.

Undergraduate Research Posters

The synthesis of a highly conductive, flexible, 3D-printable, and biocompatible ink has been of great interest in the field of bio-based additive manufacturing. Various applications include ultra-sensitive, microscale tactile sensors, patient-customizable scaffolds for cardiac and nerve tissue regeneration, and flexible electrocardiogram (ECG) electrodes. Here, a novel elastomeric carbon nanocomposite is presented consisting of amino-functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT-NH2) homogenously dispersed in a one-part room-temperature vulcanizing (RTV) silicone matrix. The use of acetone as a swelling solvent aids in electrical percolation through the elastomer matrix. CNT-NH2 ratios can be tuned to fit various needs; higher tensile strength is favored …


Multimodal Ultrasound Imaging For Improved Metastatic Lymph Node Detection, Sidhartha Jandhyala 2022 Dartmouth College

Multimodal Ultrasound Imaging For Improved Metastatic Lymph Node Detection, Sidhartha Jandhyala

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and is complex in nature due to the variety of organs located in the head and neck region. Knowing the metastatic state of the lymph nodes is paramount in accurately staging and treating HNSCC patients. Currently, metastatic lymph node detection involves the use of magnetic resonance imaging and/or x-ray computed tomography, followed by biopsies for histological confirmation. The main diagnostic criteria is the size of the nodes; however, current imaging methods are not 100% accurate due natural lymph node variability. Ultrasound imaging is able to provide …


Phase-Changing Nanodroplets As Nanotheranostic Platform For Combination Cancer Therapy, Catalina-Paula Spatarelu 2022 Dartmouth College

Phase-Changing Nanodroplets As Nanotheranostic Platform For Combination Cancer Therapy, Catalina-Paula Spatarelu

Dartmouth College Ph.D Dissertations

Cancer is a cluster of diseases, and 1.8 million Americans are newly diagnosed each year. Treatment issues such as drug instability, the occurrence of severe side effects, as well as resistance make the need for solutions to improve conventional methods, like chemotherapy, apparent. Nano-sized drug-delivery platforms, particles loaded with therapeutic molecules that escape the immune system clearance and accumulate at the tumor site, were proposed as one of these solutions. Despite the expansion of the field, several aspects still need to be addressed: inconsistent delivery of the drugs, inability of measuring the effective dose being delivered to the tumor, lack …


Impact Of Percutaneous Transluminal Intervention On Vascular Hypoxia And The Role Of Micro-Calcifications On Atherosclerotic Plaque Rupture, Andrea Corti 2022 CUNY City College

Impact Of Percutaneous Transluminal Intervention On Vascular Hypoxia And The Role Of Micro-Calcifications On Atherosclerotic Plaque Rupture, Andrea Corti

Dissertations and Theses

Atherosclerotic disease is initiated by cholesterol build-up beneath the endothelium, which evolves into a fibroatheroma, a lipid-rich plaque covered by a fibrous cap. Many of these plaques are considered as vulnerable, as they grow to occlude the luminal section of the artery (chronically stenotic) or become mechanically unstable with a higher chance of rupturing (rupture-prone). On one hand, chronically stenotic vulnerable plaques are symptomatic lesions that are often treated with Percutaneous Transluminal Intervention (PTI). Unfortunately, approximately 10% of PTI procedures are followed by severe Neointima Hyperplasia (NH), which causes a new occlusion and failure of the implant. A significant precursor …


Development Of Cellulose-Based, Semi-Interpenetrating Network Hydrogels As Tissue-Adhesive, Thermoresponsive, Injectable Implants, Jesse Martin 2022 CUNY City College

Development Of Cellulose-Based, Semi-Interpenetrating Network Hydrogels As Tissue-Adhesive, Thermoresponsive, Injectable Implants, Jesse Martin

Dissertations and Theses

Abstract Development of Cellulose-Based, Semi-Interpenetrating Network Hydrogels as Tissue-Adhesive, Thermoresponsive, Injectable Implants

Hydrogels are three-dimensional polymer networks with high water content and tunable mechanical properties, which have been widely investigated as replacements for soft tissues, such as the intervertebral disc (IVD). Various derivatives of the plant polysaccharide, cellulose, have been explored for use as injectable hydrogel implants. Methylcellulose (MC), which exhibits thermogelation at temperatures above 32°C, and relatively hydrophilic carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC), are versatile cellulosic polymers that have shown promise as base materials for such applications. In prior work, functionalization with methacrylate groups allowed for the formation of stable, covalently crosslinked …


Comparison Effect On Biogas Production From Vegetable And Fruit Waste With Rumen Digesta Through Co-Digestion Process, Anika Tasnim, Muhammad Rashed Al Mamun, Md Anwar Hossen, Md Towfiqur Rahman, Md Janibul Alam Soeb 2022 Sylhet Agricultural University

Comparison Effect On Biogas Production From Vegetable And Fruit Waste With Rumen Digesta Through Co-Digestion Process, Anika Tasnim, Muhammad Rashed Al Mamun, Md Anwar Hossen, Md Towfiqur Rahman, Md Janibul Alam Soeb

Department of Biological Systems Engineering: Papers and Publications

Biogas is the best renewable energy as it can be produced from any biomass for example any plant or living organism. The purpose of this research was to produce biomethane from co-digestion of vegetable and fruit waste with rumen digesta through anaerobic digestion process. In this research, two trials of experiment were conducted. Each trial has three different sample with different mixing ratios. Raw materials used in the experiment was rumen digesta of goat and cow, potato, capsicum, cucumbers, onions, radish, cauliflower, carrot, leafy vegetables, apple, banana, and papaya. In each sample, 1200 gram of raw materials were used. Hydraulic …


Extraction Of Melanin From Black Knot Fungus: Optimization And Applications, Amara Davis 2022 The University of Akron

Extraction Of Melanin From Black Knot Fungus: Optimization And Applications, Amara Davis

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The goal of this research project was to optimize the extraction of melanin from black knot fungus and to analyze possible applications of the extracted melanin. An extraction method that was previously created was examined for possible improvements. Improvements that were studied include the elimination of steps in the extraction process while obtaining the same quality of product, examining options for machinery that could be used to increase production rate when moved to a production plant setting, and optimize the concentrations of the raw materials that are used in the extraction for possible reduction of cost without compromising yield or …


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