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Comparison Of In-Vitro 3d Human Embryoids With Current Models For Gastrulation, Jin Park 2023 Washington University in St. Louis

Comparison Of In-Vitro 3d Human Embryoids With Current Models For Gastrulation, Jin Park

McKelvey School of Engineering Theses & Dissertations

Gastrulation is an early morphogenetic process that is conserved across most metazoans and lays out the future body plan through the formation and shaping of the three germ layers: endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm. Despite its importance, not much is known about the events surrounding human gastrulation that occurs in utero due to ethical and technical limitations on studying human embryos. Therefore, many researchers have devised protocols for creating in vitro models of gastrulation using embryonic stem cells. Initially starting with mouse embryonic stem cells, the field of in vitro embryo models has advanced rapidly, with protocols using human embryonic stem …


Dendrimer-Based Drug Delivery Systems: History, Challenges, And Latest Developments, Juan Wang, Boxuan Li, Li Qiu, Xin Qiao, Hu Yang 2022 Missouri University of Science and Technology

Dendrimer-Based Drug Delivery Systems: History, Challenges, And Latest Developments, Juan Wang, Boxuan Li, Li Qiu, Xin Qiao, Hu Yang

Chemical and Biochemical Engineering Faculty Research & Creative Works

Since the first dendrimer was reported in 1978 by Fritz Vögtle, dendrimer research has grown exponentially, from synthesis to application in the past four decades. The distinct structure characteristics of dendrimers include nanoscopic size, multi-functionalized surface, high branching, cavernous interior, and so on, making dendrimers themselves ideal drug delivery vehicles. This mini review article provides a brief overview of dendrimer's history and properties and the latest developments of dendrimers as drug delivery systems. This review focuses on the latest progress in the applications of dendrimers as drug and gene carriers, including 1) active drug release strategies to dissociate drug/gene from …


Encapsulation Of Antimicrobial Peptides In Bicontinuous Microemulsions For Topical Delivery To Surgical Site Infections And Chronic Wounds, Madison A. Oehler 2022 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Encapsulation Of Antimicrobial Peptides In Bicontinuous Microemulsions For Topical Delivery To Surgical Site Infections And Chronic Wounds, Madison A. Oehler

Masters Theses

Surgical site infections and chronic wounds, especially those caused by antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, result in hospitalization and fatalities each year. Methods to prevent these infections, such as cleaning and preparing medical tools, have had minimal success in preventing infections. Further, antibiotic treatments have become less successful in treating infections and wounds because of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Antimicrobial peptides (AMP) are a possible treatment solution for wound infections. AMPs are oligopeptides that occur in nature or can be synthesized in vitro which possess a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against bacteria and other harmful microorganisms. AMPs operate by disrupting the packing arrangements of …


Increasing Production Of Therapeutic Mabs In Cho Cells Through Genetic Engineering, Charles Barentine 2022 Utah State University

Increasing Production Of Therapeutic Mabs In Cho Cells Through Genetic Engineering, Charles Barentine

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Between 2014 and 2018, the global market for therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) rose from $60 billion to $115.2 billion with a projected value of $300 billion by 2025. These molecules are used to effectively treat some of the most challenging illnesses from auto-immune diseases to cancer. While mAbs are highly valuable with potent applications, their production at scale remains an outstanding challenge. These molecules are largely produced in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells that require highly specific conditions to produce a useful product.

Genetic engineering presents one solution to overcome productivity limits. With the advent of CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced …


Low Resource Assay For Tracking Sars-Cov-2 In Wastewater, Julissa van Renselaar 2022 Utah State University

Low Resource Assay For Tracking Sars-Cov-2 In Wastewater, Julissa Van Renselaar

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Wastewater based epidemiology (WBE) allows for the tracking of nucleic acid of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater which gives the opportunity for the public and government officials to be informed about the infectivity of the virus in a community. Advances have been made in WBE that have allowed for higher performance, lower resource use, and faster turnaround time. An adapted concentration method of spin column direct extraction has yielded a proxy virus recovery of 83%, consumable cost of $2.01 per sample, and a turnaround time of 0.33 hour/sample. Other concentration methods have lower proxy virus recoveries, comparable cost, and comparable turnaround time. …


Hypoxic Incubation Chamber, Simone Lisette Helfrich, Makenzie Nicole Jones 2022 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Hypoxic Incubation Chamber, Simone Lisette Helfrich, Makenzie Nicole Jones

Biomedical Engineering: Graduate Reports and Projects

This paper describes the design, manufacturing, and testing of a novel controllable hypoxic incubator with fully functional oxygen gas control and temperature control in a humid environment. On the current market, a majority of the few hypoxic incubators use pre-mixed gas that does not offer precise control over gas concentration. The objective for this project was to create a chamber that allows the user to set the O2 concentration to varying set points of % O2 while maintaining the chamber at a constant body temperature, CO2 level, humidity, and sterility. To start the project, multiple concepts were developed for the …


Functionality Of The Gracilis Collateral Is Impaired Following Arteriogenesis And Cell Transplantation, Ada A. Tadeo 2022 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Functionality Of The Gracilis Collateral Is Impaired Following Arteriogenesis And Cell Transplantation, Ada A. Tadeo

Biomedical Engineering

Peripheral Arterial Disease involves narrowed arteries, reducing blood flow to limbs. Increasing blood flow to those extremities is possible by redirecting the blood to flow through natural bypasses (i.e. collateral arteries), which can enlarge via arteriogenesis to maintain blood supply once the prominent arteries have become occluded. This study aims to investigate how arteriogenesis affects collateral function, if myoblast transplantation can stimulate collateral growth, and how that in turn may affect collateral function. Femoral artery ligation was performed to mimic the blockage that occurs in patients with ischemic diseases on lean mice and mice with diet induced obesity (DIO). A …


Labeling Melanoma Cells With Black Microspheres For Improved Sensitivity In Detection Via Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Tori Kocsis 2022 Duquesne University

Labeling Melanoma Cells With Black Microspheres For Improved Sensitivity In Detection Via Photoacoustic Flow Cytometry, Tori Kocsis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer known for developing into metastatic disease. Current clinical diagnostics, including medical imaging and tissue biopsy, provide a poor prognosis since the cancer is in the late stages of disease progression. In recent years, photoacoustic flow cytometry has allowed for the detection of circulating melanoma cells within patient blood samples in vitro. Although this method exploits the naturally-produced melanin within the cells, it has only successfully detected highly-pigmented melanoma cell lines. Since various forms of melanoma exist, each with varying melanin concentrations, this research aims to provide a novel method for detecting lightly-pigmented …


Upstream Methods For Enhancing Engineered Curcumin Biosynthesis, Caleb D. Barton 2022 Utah State University

Upstream Methods For Enhancing Engineered Curcumin Biosynthesis, Caleb D. Barton

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Curcumin is a bright orange compound with myriad applications for human health and wellness. Curcumin occurs naturally in the plant Curcuma longa (commonly known as turmeric) but must be extracted from the roots in an environmentally unfriendly fashion to obtain commercially relevant amounts of the compound. In addition, extraction of curcumin from turmeric spice yields a mixture of various curcuminoids, presenting an issue for isolating it in its pure form and complicating its use in clinical settings.

Heterologous biosynthetic production of curcumin in Escherichia coli has been used extensively as a viable alternative to plant extraction but suffers from poor …


Investigating The Effect Of Dissolved Oxygen-Assisted Corneal Cross-Linking (Cxl) On Porcine Corneas, Julianni Dar 2022 Duquesne University

Investigating The Effect Of Dissolved Oxygen-Assisted Corneal Cross-Linking (Cxl) On Porcine Corneas, Julianni Dar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Corneal cross-linking is a clinical procedure that is known to stop the progression of keratoconus, an eye disease that affects the cornea’s structure, ultimately leading to vision loss in its advanced stages. The typical treatment plan includes riboflavin and UV-A exposure in the hope to increase the mechanical properties of the cornea. There are two types of CXL pathways, with Type-II CXL requiring oxygen. Naturally, the dissolved oxygen is limited in the cornea; therefore, limiting the effect of Type-II CXL. This study proposes to improve the Type-II CXL contribution by integrating dissolved oxygen during the standard CXL treatment used in …


Development Of An Equation To Correlate Brite Tank Temperature And Pressure To Beverage Carbonation Concentration, Devyn Meyer 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Development Of An Equation To Correlate Brite Tank Temperature And Pressure To Beverage Carbonation Concentration, Devyn Meyer

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The Carbo Rock-It™ is an invention created to carbonate beverages at craft breweries. One of the Carbo Rock-It’s main features is that it does not add a significant volume of undissolved gas bubbles to the brite tank in which the beverage is carbonated. This may allow temperature and pressure readings from the brite tank to be used to determine the concentration of dissolved carbon dioxide in the beverage continuously in real time. This eliminates the need for manual samplings, which could save breweries time and allow for more controlled, accurate carbonation. The goal of this project was to develop an …


Modeling Leaf Area Index And Canopy Height Using Growing Degree Days, Ellie J. Kuhn 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Modeling Leaf Area Index And Canopy Height Using Growing Degree Days, Ellie J. Kuhn

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

As the global population increases and food security is recognized as a critical issue, crop growth prediction models help ensure the sustainability of reliable food sources. Using a prediction model based on temperature and simple, measurable field parameters, e.g., Leaf Area Index (LAI) or Canopy Height (Hcan), may allow farmers and others to intervene mid-season with fertilizer, irrigation, or other inputs to obtain a better harvest.

This study aims to create a general model that could predict LAI and Hcan values for numerous rice varieties using Growing Degree Days (GDD) as the time scale. The models use …


Exploring The Effects Of Varied Land Use On Elemental Concentrations Within Streams, Logan Jennings 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Exploring The Effects Of Varied Land Use On Elemental Concentrations Within Streams, Logan Jennings

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

It is well documented that human activity influences the chemistry of surrounding waters. As such, it is possible that there is a link between land use within a watershed and the chemical composition of the stream. The objectives of this study are to determine if varied land use does affect the concentrations of macronutrients and trace elements present in the streams of Northwest Arkansas, and if so, to determine what extent urban and agricultural development are responsible for these changes. Water samples were collected across 19 streams in the Northwest Arkansas region between January and March of 2022. Water samples …


Atomic Force Microscopy Based Dna Sensing And Manipulation, Matthew Shubert 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Atomic Force Microscopy Based Dna Sensing And Manipulation, Matthew Shubert

Mechanical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Sequencing DNA provides a positive impact for the biomedical community by understanding a wide variety of applications such as human genetics, disease, and pathogens. The reason the Arkansas Micro & Nano Systems lab is involved with research in DNA sequencing is due to the current, leading industry method. Nanopore sequencing was developed by Oxford Nanopore Technology in which its sequencing method separates double stranded DNA to electrically characterize individual nucleotides traveling through a charged nanopore. Unfortunately, nanopore sequencing uses biological materials that require a shelf life and drives high cost. Therefore, the Arkansas Micro & Nano Systems lab has developed …


Cyanobacterial And Microcystin Response To Nutrient Additions At Lake Fayetteville Throughout The 2021 Growing Season, Lillie Haddock 2022 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Cyanobacterial And Microcystin Response To Nutrient Additions At Lake Fayetteville Throughout The 2021 Growing Season, Lillie Haddock

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) are becoming a global concern due to their increasing distribution, frequency, intensity, and the occurrence of toxins. While it is known that eutrophication influences algal blooms, there is less known about what triggers these HABs to produce toxins, especially microcystin. In this study, we conducted 21 community bioassays at Lake Fayetteville, a hypereutrophic reservoir in Fayetteville, Arkansas, from April-November 2021 to examine how the addition of phosphorous and nitrogen influence cyanobacteria concentrations, microcystin concentrations, and microcystin toxin production. These experiments included a control, nitrogen (1.0 mg/L as KNO3), low phosphorus (0.025 mg/L as K2HPO4), high phosphorus …


Toward Sustainable Urban Food Production: Integrating Hydroponic Cultivation With Wastewater Reuse, Amanda Tan 2022 Clemson University

Toward Sustainable Urban Food Production: Integrating Hydroponic Cultivation With Wastewater Reuse, Amanda Tan

All Theses

The growing crisis of freshwater scarcity together with the increasing global food demand directs attention to the need for alternative water sources for agriculture. The research presented here engages this need by carrying out indoor cultivation of food crops in Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) hydroponic systems using residential wastewater. Randomized single factor experimental designs were used to investigate the physiochemical and microbiological makeup of the hydroponic nutrient solution throughout the cultivation cycle and their relationship with different plant development parameters.

For agricultural wastewater reuse to be of low risk to human health there must be some advancement in pathogen monitoring …


Fabrication And Characterization Of Lactobacillus Crispatus Containing Bioprints For Bacterial Vaginosis Application., Anthony J. Kyser 2022 University of Louisville

Fabrication And Characterization Of Lactobacillus Crispatus Containing Bioprints For Bacterial Vaginosis Application., Anthony J. Kyser

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a condition in which healthy lactobacilli are replaced by an overabundance of pathogenic bacteria in the female reproductive tract. Current antibiotic treatments often fail to “cure” infection, resulting in recurrence in more than 50% of women, 6 months post-treatment. Recently, probiotics have demonstrated promise to restore vaginal health; however, as with other active agents, delivery requires once-to-twice daily administration. Recently, three-dimensional (3D)-bioprinting has enabled the fabrication of well-defined cell-laden architectures with tunable agent release, thereby presenting a novel approach with which to deliver probiotics. One promising bioink, gelatin alginate, was selected for study, due to its …


Insect Antennae As Bioinspirational Superstrong Fiber-Based Microfluidics, Griffin J. Donley 2022 Clemson University

Insect Antennae As Bioinspirational Superstrong Fiber-Based Microfluidics, Griffin J. Donley

All Theses

Nature is frequently turned to for inspiration for the creation of new materials. Insect antennae are hollow, blood-filled fibers with complex shape, and are cantilevered at the head. The antenna is muscle-free, but the insect can controllably flex, twist, and maneuver it laterally. To explain this behavior, a comparative study of structural and tensile properties of the antennae of Periplaneta americana (American cockroach), Manduca sexta (Carolina hawkmoth), and Vanessa cardui (painted lady butterfly) was performed. These antennae demonstrate a range of distinguishable tensile properties, responding either as brittle fibers (Manduca sexta) or strain-adaptive fibers that stiffen when stretched (Vanessa cardui …


The Tin Man Needs A Heart: A Proposed Framework For The Regulation Of Bioprinted Organs, Linda Foit 2022 Fordham University School of Law

The Tin Man Needs A Heart: A Proposed Framework For The Regulation Of Bioprinted Organs, Linda Foit

Fordham Law Review

Each day, seventeen people die in the United States while waiting for an organ transplant. At least part of this need could be met by bioprinting, a technology that allows the on-demand production of custom-sized organs from a patient’s own cells. The field of bioprinting is progressing rapidly: the first bioprinted organs have already entered the clinic. Yet, developers of bioprinted organs face significant uncertainty as to how their potentially lifesaving products will be regulated—and by which government agency. Such regulatory uncertainty has the potential to decrease investment and stifle innovation in this promising technological field. This Note examines how …


Bone And Cartilage Compression Simulator, Karoline M. Wucherer, Benjamin A. Parmentier, Thomasina E. Hinkle 2022 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Bone And Cartilage Compression Simulator, Karoline M. Wucherer, Benjamin A. Parmentier, Thomasina E. Hinkle

Biomedical Engineering

A device was developed that delivers mechanical loads to bone and soft tissue samples under physiological conditions to aid in the research of tissue engineering bone and cartilage. To begin the design process, a Network Diagram and Gantt Chart were produced to create a general timeline for the project to follow. This allowed us to measure our progress and determine what effects (if any) delays could have on our project.


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