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Cytomegalovirus Inhibition By Pluronic-Encapsulated Quercetin And Synergy With Ganciclovir, Ian Wadsworth 2020 Utah State University

Cytomegalovirus Inhibition By Pluronic-Encapsulated Quercetin And Synergy With Ganciclovir, Ian Wadsworth

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading viral cause of birth defects worldwide and leads to a variety of complications. Ganciclovir is the most common anti-CMV drug used but often causes severe side effects. Quercetin, a plant pigment, shows anti-CMV activity that may provide a less toxic alternative to ganciclovir, or when co-administered, reduce ganciclovir treatments. However, a drug carrier is needed to deliver quercetin for CMV treatment. In this study, three Pluronic polymers (P123, F127, and F68) were investigated as a quercetin drug delivery system (DDS) for CMV treatment.

All selected Pluronics successfully encapsulated quercetin at varying degrees of efficacy ...


A Microfluidic Platform For High-Throughput Screening Of Aquaporin Performance, Adriana Del Pino Herrera, Jordan Hoydick, Rachel Rauh, Elyssa El-hajj, Madison Burchfield 2020 Duquesne University

A Microfluidic Platform For High-Throughput Screening Of Aquaporin Performance, Adriana Del Pino Herrera, Jordan Hoydick, Rachel Rauh, Elyssa El-Hajj, Madison Burchfield

Undergraduate Research and Scholarship Symposium

Aquaporins are a family of small integral membrane proteins that transport water across cell membranes in response to osmotic gradients. They facilitate fluid secretion and absorption across epithelial surfaces in kidney tubules, exocrine glands, and gastrointestinal tract. Here, we describe a novel microfluidic method to evaluate and screen for aquaporin-based transmembrane permeability in mammalian cells. A microfluidic device was designed and fabricated for the encapsulation of single mammalian and yeast cells in micron-sized droplets. For this purpose, Chinese Hamster Ovarian (CHO) cells were used. CHO cells express AQP1 (aquaporin-1) homologous to human kidney aquaporins. The cells were cultivated and exposed ...


Design Of A 3d Printed Bioreactor For Bone Cancer Research, Brooklyn K. VanDerWolde, Katelyn Hillson 2020 South Dakota State University

Design Of A 3d Printed Bioreactor For Bone Cancer Research, Brooklyn K. Vanderwolde, Katelyn Hillson

The Journal of Undergraduate Research

Bone cancer is an aggressive disease and has peak occurrence during physiological stimulation of growth and aging. Astronauts who undergo long-term space missions also acquire an increased risk of bone tissue degeneration and cancer. Few in-vitro models currently exist capable of reproducing the complex microenvironment of bone tissue to support multicellular activity in a three-dimensional structure. This limits the ability to understand disease progression and develop suitable treatment strategies. Therefore, developing a bone tissue model and an associated bioreactor is critical to understand the risks associated with cancer progression and improve treatment and preventions related to those risks. The goal ...


Design Of A Deep Flow Technique Hydroponic System And An Elementary Education Module For Tri Cycle Farms, Cady Rosenbaum 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Design Of A Deep Flow Technique Hydroponic System And An Elementary Education Module For Tri Cycle Farms, Cady Rosenbaum

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Hydroponics is an agricultural technique in which plants are grown without soil and are instead grown in water systems that include nutrients and other growth-supporting media. Hydroponic systems typically reside inside, so that the system can be fully controlled by the grower by manipulating the temperature and amount of light the plants receive. The benefits of growing plants using hydroponics include: the amount of water used is reduced, it is less labor to grow organic produce with an indoor system, less space used, and it allows for growing food anywhere. Tri Cycle Farms is planning for the construction of a ...


Comparing Economics Of Traditional Carbonation Method And A Novel Carbonation Invention For Craft Beer, Kira Simonson 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Comparing Economics Of Traditional Carbonation Method And A Novel Carbonation Invention For Craft Beer, Kira Simonson

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The traditional method for the carbonation of beer includes bubbling CO2 through a pressurized brite tank until the desired level of carbonation concentration is reached. The gas either dissolves in the liquid volume or passes through the beer into the gas headspace above the bulk volume of beer. The gas that passes through the liquid can strip the beer of flavors, and this undissolved gas is vented to the atmosphere. To reduce the gas lost to the atmosphere, the CO2 is dissolved into the beer slowly over a long period of time, which increases gas-use efficiency but sacrifices ...


Determination Of Gas Emission Characteristics From Animal Wastes Using A Multiplexed Portable Ftir-Surface Chamber System, Pakorn Sutitarnnontr 2020 Utah State University

Determination Of Gas Emission Characteristics From Animal Wastes Using A Multiplexed Portable Ftir-Surface Chamber System, Pakorn Sutitarnnontr

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Livestock production is a growing source of air pollution at regional, national, and global scales. Improved livestock manure management has the potential to reduce environmental impacts; however, there is an urgent need for cost-efficient, reliable, and easy to maintain measurement and monitoring capabilities to precisely quantify emissions from livestock manure. This research describes and evaluates a novel measurement method based on the multiplexed portable Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyzer - surface chamber techniques for continuous measurements and monitoring gas emissions from manure sources. The multiplexing system was designed and developed to automate the chamber network, controlling the movement of chambers ...


Observation Of Struvite In The Mixed Microalgae Biofilm Matrix Of A Rotating Algal Biofilm Reactor During Nutrient Removal From Municipal Anaerobic Digester Filtrate, Kyle M. Hillman 2020 Utah State University

Observation Of Struvite In The Mixed Microalgae Biofilm Matrix Of A Rotating Algal Biofilm Reactor During Nutrient Removal From Municipal Anaerobic Digester Filtrate, Kyle M. Hillman

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Central Valley Water Reclamation Facility (CVWRF) in Salt Lake City is the largest municipal wastewater treatment plant in Utah and must meet new and rigorous nutrient effluent standards–over 95% reduction in phosphorus output by 2025. Filtrate from CVWRF anaerobic digesters contains high levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and magnesium. Supersaturation of these constituents leads to nuisance struvite precipitation that clogs belts, pumps, and pipes downstream of anaerobic digesters. Struvite is a mineral precipitate composed of equimolar magnesium, ammonium, and phosphate. Controlled precipitation of struvite helps prevent clogging and scaling, removes phosphate from wastewater, and generates a marketable fertilizer product.

Struvite ...


Transcriptomic Analysis Of Cytokine-Treated Tissue-Engineered Cartilage As An In Vitro Model Of Osteoarthritis, Jiehan Li 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Transcriptomic Analysis Of Cytokine-Treated Tissue-Engineered Cartilage As An In Vitro Model Of Osteoarthritis, Jiehan Li

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Osteoarthritis (OA), as the most common form of arthritis and a leading cause of disability worldwide, currently has no disease-modifying drugs. Inflammation plays an important role in cartilage degeneration in OA, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, have been shown to induce degradative changes along with aberrant gene expression in chondrocytes, the only resident cells in cartilage. The goal of this study was to further understand the transcriptomic regulation of tissue-engineered cartilage in response to inflammatory cytokines using an in vitro miPSC model system. We performed RNA sequencing for the IL-1β or TNF-α treated tissue-engineered cartilage derived from murine iPSCs ...


Acute Mechanical Stress In Primary Porcine Rpe Cells Induces Angiogenic Factor Expression And In Vitro Angiogenesis, Farhad Farjood, Amir Ahmadpour, Sassan Ostvar, Elizabeth Vargis 2020 Utah State University

Acute Mechanical Stress In Primary Porcine Rpe Cells Induces Angiogenic Factor Expression And In Vitro Angiogenesis, Farhad Farjood, Amir Ahmadpour, Sassan Ostvar, Elizabeth Vargis

Biological Engineering Faculty Publications

Background

Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a major cause of blindness in patients with age-related macular degeneration. CNV is characterized by new blood vessel growth and subretinal fluid accumulation, which results in mechanical pressure on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. The overexpression of RPE-derived angiogenic factors plays an important role in inducing CNV. In this work, we investigated the effect of mechanical stress on the expression of angiogenic factors in porcine RPE cells and determined the impact of conditioned medium on in-vitro angiogenesis.

Results

The goal of this study was to determine whether low levels of acute mechanical stress during early ...


Gesea Biosciences - Core Shell Pellet Manufacturing Device, Claire Edelman, Maria Medrano, Rachel Longoria 2020 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Gesea Biosciences - Core Shell Pellet Manufacturing Device, Claire Edelman, Maria Medrano, Rachel Longoria

Biomedical Engineering

No abstract provided.


Initial Development Of Corn Seedlings After Seed Priming With Nanoscale Synthetic Zinc Oxide, Michel Esper Neto, David W. Britt, Lorena Moreira Lara, Anthony Cartwright, Rayssa Fernanda de Santos, Tadeu Takeyoshi Inoue, Marcelo Augusto Batista 2020 Utah State University

Initial Development Of Corn Seedlings After Seed Priming With Nanoscale Synthetic Zinc Oxide, Michel Esper Neto, David W. Britt, Lorena Moreira Lara, Anthony Cartwright, Rayssa Fernanda De Santos, Tadeu Takeyoshi Inoue, Marcelo Augusto Batista

Biological Engineering Faculty Publications

Nanofertilizers are increasingly explored for sustainable micronutrient delivery in agriculture. Pre-treating seeds with nanofertilizers prior to planting (i.e., seed priming) reduces concerns about nanoparticle (NP) fertilizer non-target dispersion; however, priming formulations and concentrations must be carefully selected to avoid germination inhibition and toxicity. Here we investigate changes in corn seed germination and seedling development after seed priming with ZnO NPs, ZnO bulk and ZnCl2. To evaluate the effects sterile seeds were immersed in priming solutions of 0, 20, 40, 80, 160 mg L−1 Zn for the three Zn sources. Following an 8 h priming the seeds were ...


"When The Enemy Drew Our Attention": Reconsidering Prior Restraint In The Context Of Dual Use Research Of Concern, Caine Caverly 2020 William & Mary Law School

"When The Enemy Drew Our Attention": Reconsidering Prior Restraint In The Context Of Dual Use Research Of Concern, Caine Caverly

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Through 2016 and 2017, a team led by Canadian virologist David Evans, and funded by an American pharmaceutical company, attempted to synthesize the previously extinct horsepox virus. After just six months and an expenditure of $100,000, the research team was able to successfully construct the virus “using only commercially available information, technology and tools.” In January of 2018, the team went on to publish their information in an American-based journal, PLOS ONE.

The publication was controversial because it included a potential “blueprint” for the synthesis of a genetic strand in the same viral family as the highly lethal, albeit ...


Extracellular Matrix Nanoparticles Effects On The Lung In Vivo, Brittaney E. Ritchie 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Extracellular Matrix Nanoparticles Effects On The Lung In Vivo, Brittaney E. Ritchie

Theses and Dissertations

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition that causes diffuse alveolar damage and a loss of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This leads to pulmonary edema and lung function deterioration. Our lab has created decellularized porcine lung, electrosprayed ECM nanoparticles that have been previously shown to have pro-regenerative capabilities in vitro.

In this study, the ECM nanoparticle effects on young murine lungs were tested in vivo. An ECM nanoparticle suspension, previously used for the in vitro studies, was aerosolized intratracheally into the lungs using a microsprayer. 24 hours later, the lung mechanics, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and histology were ...


From Soap Bubbles To Cell Membranes, Peter Beltramo 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

From Soap Bubbles To Cell Membranes, Peter Beltramo

Science and Engineering Saturday Seminars

Have you ever blown a soap bubble and wondered - what causes the bubble to be so stable and produces those colorful reflections of light? The answer lies in a class of molecules known as surfactants, and they have remarkable similarities with the molecules that comprise the cell membrane of all living organisms. In this workshop, we will use the analogy of a soap bubble to describe cellular membrane properties such as chemistry, structure, membrane transport, and ion channel formation. The goals of this workshop are to 1) link initially intractable concepts in biology like intracellular transport to the intuitive soap ...


The Impact Of Aging And Mechanical Injury On Alveolar Epithelial And Macrophage Responses In Acute Lung Injury And Inflammation, Michael S. Valentine 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Impact Of Aging And Mechanical Injury On Alveolar Epithelial And Macrophage Responses In Acute Lung Injury And Inflammation, Michael S. Valentine

Theses and Dissertations

Patients with severe lung pathologies, such as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), often require mechanical ventilation as a clinical intervention; however, this procedure frequently exacerbates the original pulmonary issue and produces an exaggerated inflammatory response that potentially leads to sepsis, multisystem organ failure, and mortality. This acute lung injury (ALI) condition has been termed Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI). Alveolar overdistension, cyclic atelectasis, and biotrauma are the primary injury mechanisms in VILI that lead to the loss of alveolar barrier integrity and pulmonary inflammation. Stress and strains during mechanical ventilation are believed to initiate alveolar epithelial mechanotransduction signaling mechanisms that contribute ...


Cdse Quantum Dots Synthesis Laboratory Course For High School Students, Danlin Zuo, Gyuseok Kim, David Jones 2019 Singh Center for Nanotechnology

Cdse Quantum Dots Synthesis Laboratory Course For High School Students, Danlin Zuo, Gyuseok Kim, David Jones

Protocols and Reports

Cadmium selenide quantum dot is a fascinating subject for leading high school students to the quantum world. An 8-hour laboratory course for up to 12 high school students is proposed. The 8-hour course consist of two 4-hours sections. This laboratory course includes the quantum dot syntheses, absorption and emission characterization, and data analysis. The proposes process runs at relatively lower temperature which means safe and easy, and shows apparent experimental results.


Blood Glucose Predictor, Jessica Patterson 2019 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Blood Glucose Predictor, Jessica Patterson

Electrical Engineering

For my senior project, I perform data analysis using statistical methods to determine body metrics that correlate with blood glucose levels. Working with Dr. Tina Smilkstein, I take repeat measurements from 6 different volunteers to establish trends in bodily metric data. The data taken includes weight, body fat, pulse rate, VO2, blood glucose, blood pressure, hours slept, and quality of sleep. Using these values, I use the program MiniTab to view results.

A few examples of correlations with blood glucose found in this project are:

  • Systolic blood pressure for females had a regression line of 124.0 -0.3366*Blood ...


Expression Systems For Synthetic Spider Silk Protein Production, Michaela R. Hugie 2019 Utah State University

Expression Systems For Synthetic Spider Silk Protein Production, Michaela R. Hugie

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Spider silk is a biodegradable and biocompatible natural material that is stronger than steel and more elastic than nylon. These properties make spider silk a desirable material for many commercial products, ranging from textiles to biomedical materials. Due to spiders’ cannibalistic and territorial nature it is impossible to farm them to produce spider silk at a high enough yield to meet product demands. Therefore, a bioengineered synthetic process is necessary to produce spider silk. Synthetic spider silk has been produced in bacteria, goats, yeast, plants, mammalian cells and silkworms, but none of these processes provided a commercially viable yield or ...


Effect Of Annealing On The Contact Resistance Of Aluminum On A P-Type Substrate, Shrey Shah, George Patrick Watson 2019 Singh Center for Nanotechnology

Effect Of Annealing On The Contact Resistance Of Aluminum On A P-Type Substrate, Shrey Shah, George Patrick Watson

Protocols and Reports

Aluminum contacts are widely used to form both ohmic and rectifying contacts. The process to form these contacts involves annealing, thus it is important to study the effect of annealing on the electrical properties of the contacts. Here, we present a way to measure the contact resistance of aluminum contacts formed on a p-type silicon substrate. It was found the contact resistivity decreased by an average of 18%. It was thus found that annealing at 400°C in a forming gas environment improves the electrical properties of aluminum contacts.


Enhancing Cpr Training: Development And Assessment Of An Affordable, Open-Source Real-Time Feedback Manikin, Anish Sangari, Nitish Sood, Joseph Andrew Hauger 2019 Augusta University

Enhancing Cpr Training: Development And Assessment Of An Affordable, Open-Source Real-Time Feedback Manikin, Anish Sangari, Nitish Sood, Joseph Andrew Hauger

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) is a life-saving technique used in cases of cardiac arrest. Immediate CPR can increase survival rates two to three-fold. While many CPR training courses use non-electronic CPR manikins, recent literature has shown that training on a real-time feedback CPR manikin improves functional outcomes such as chest compression rate and mean tidal volume. However, current commercially available real-time feedback manikins only measure metrics on chest compressions or can be prohibitively expensive ( >$200). Accordingly, we have designed, constructed, and tested a low-cost Arduino microcontroller-based CPR manikin that provides real-time feedback to trainees on eight critical metrics including force of ...


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