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1054 full-text articles. Page 1 of 27.

Phylogenetic And Experimental Characterization Of An Acyl-Acp Thioesterase Family Reveals Significant Diversity In Enzymatic Specificity And Activity, Fuyuan Jing, David C. Cantu, Jarmila Tvaruzkova, Jay P. Chipman, Basil J. Nikolau, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Peter J. Reilly 2016 Iowa State University

Phylogenetic And Experimental Characterization Of An Acyl-Acp Thioesterase Family Reveals Significant Diversity In Enzymatic Specificity And Activity, Fuyuan Jing, David C. Cantu, Jarmila Tvaruzkova, Jay P. Chipman, Basil J. Nikolau, Marna D. Yandeau-Nelson, Peter J. Reilly

Basil Nikolau

Background: Acyl-acyl carrier protein thioesterases (acyl-ACP TEs) catalyze the hydrolysis of the thioester bond that links the acyl chain to the sulfhydryl group of the phosphopantetheine prosthetic group of ACP. This reaction terminates acyl chain elongation of fatty acid biosynthesis, and in plant seeds it is the biochemical determinant of the fatty acid compositions of storage lipids.

Results: To explore acyl-ACP TE diversity and to identify novel acyl ACP-TEs, 31 acyl-ACP TEs from wide-ranging phylogenetic sources were characterized to ascertain their in vivo activities and substrate specificities. These acylACP TEs were chosen by two different approaches: 1) 24 TEs were ...


Calcium Phosphate As A Key Material For Socially Responsible Tissue Engineering, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu 2016 Chapman University

Calcium Phosphate As A Key Material For Socially Responsible Tissue Engineering, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Socially responsible technologies are designed while taking into consideration the socioeconomic, geopolitical and environmental limitations of regions in which they will be implemented. In the medical context, this involves making therapeutic platforms more accessible and affordable to patients in poor regions of the world wherein a given disease is endemic. This often necessitates going against the reigning trend of making therapeutic nanoparticles ever more structurally complex and expensive. However, studies aimed at simplifying materials and formulations while maintaining the functionality and therapeutic response of their more complex counterparts seldom provoke a significant interest in the scientific community. In this review ...


Municipal Composting And Organic Waste Diversion: The Case Of Fayetteville, Arkansas, Michael E. Hoppe 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Municipal Composting And Organic Waste Diversion: The Case Of Fayetteville, Arkansas, Michael E. Hoppe

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

It is estimated that 40% of food is wasted in the United States; representing $165 billion in wasted resources. A vast majority of that wasted food is ultimately placed in landfills where it decomposes and releases harmful greenhouse gases (GHGs). In fact, food waste alone is responsible for 23% of annual methane emissions for the US. This has a huge impact on global climate change due to the potency of methane as a greenhouse gas. Currently only 5% of the food waste produced is recovered across the nation. Source reduction would be the best solution to reducing this food waste ...


In Silico Driven Metabolic Engineering Towards Enhancing Biofuel And Biochemical Production, Richard Adam Thompson 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

In Silico Driven Metabolic Engineering Towards Enhancing Biofuel And Biochemical Production, Richard Adam Thompson

Doctoral Dissertations

The development of a secure and sustainable energy economy is likely to require the production of fuels and commodity chemicals in a renewable manner. There has been renewed interest in biological commodity chemical production recently, in particular focusing on non-edible feedstocks. The fields of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have arisen in the past 20 years to address the challenge of chemical production from biological feedstocks. Metabolic modeling is a powerful tool for studying the metabolism of an organism and predicting the effects of metabolic engineering strategies. Various techniques have been developed for modeling cellular metabolism, with the underlying principle ...


Arakniprint: 3d Printing Of Synthetic Spider Silk To Produce Biocompatible And Resorbable Biomaterials, Ashley Ruben, Brianne Bell, Chase Spencer, Craig Soelberg, Dan Gil, Thomas Harris, Richard Decker, Timothy A. Taylor, Randolph V. Lewis 2016 Utah State University

Arakniprint: 3d Printing Of Synthetic Spider Silk To Produce Biocompatible And Resorbable Biomaterials, Ashley Ruben, Brianne Bell, Chase Spencer, Craig Soelberg, Dan Gil, Thomas Harris, Richard Decker, Timothy A. Taylor, Randolph V. Lewis

Research Week

At $3.07 billion in 2013, the 3D printing industry was projected to reach $12.8 billion in 2018 and exceed $21 billion by 2020 (Wohlers and Caffrey, 2013). A lucrative part of this expanding industry includes printing biocompatible medical implants, devices, and tissue scaffolds. A common problem encountered with traditional devices, implants, and tissue scaffolds is that they are not unique to the patient and lack the necessary strength and biocompatibility. To answer these demands, customizable devices are being produced from patient medical scans and CAD designs using 3D printers. These printers traditionally use thermoplastics because of the ease ...


Secretion Of Bioplastic Polymers From Methanotrophic Bacteria Grown Using Natural Gas, Chad L. Nielsen, Charles D. Miller 2016 Utah State University

Secretion Of Bioplastic Polymers From Methanotrophic Bacteria Grown Using Natural Gas, Chad L. Nielsen, Charles D. Miller

Research Week

Biodegradable bioplastics show promise as a replacement for traditional plastics. Cost of production due to the cost of feedstocks and separation/purification processes are the main obstacles to widespread use of bioplastics. The possibility of reducing these costs through using methane gas as a feedstock and genetically transforming a methanotrophic bacterium to secrete bioplastics was investigated through experimentation. The bacteria are a promising option for bioplastic production.


Brain Tumor In A Dish: Glioma/Astrocyte Co-Cultures As A Model For In Vitro Studies, Erin Eickman, Christina Wilson, Srivatsan Kidambi 2016 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Brain Tumor In A Dish: Glioma/Astrocyte Co-Cultures As A Model For In Vitro Studies, Erin Eickman, Christina Wilson, Srivatsan Kidambi

UCARE Research Products

This study seeks to engineer an in vitro co-culture model to elucidate the role of glioma-astrocyte interactions on molecular changes in the tumor microenvironment. The use of patterned co-cultures created with polyelectrolyte multilayers and micromolding in capillaries will allow tthe investigation of cell-cell communication. This study will lead to better understanding of the role of healthy cells in cancer progression and potential treatment options.


The Role Of Rice Leaf Surface Properties In The Appressorium Formation Of Magnaporthe Oryzae, Nicholas A. Bohlim, Sangjin Ryu, Donghee Lee 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

The Role Of Rice Leaf Surface Properties In The Appressorium Formation Of Magnaporthe Oryzae, Nicholas A. Bohlim, Sangjin Ryu, Donghee Lee

UCARE Research Products

The organism Magnaporthe oryzae is one of the leading causes of rice blast fungus, a disease that greatly affects rice crop yields. Given that rice supplies around twenty percent of the world’s total calories consumed, it is important to investigate factors that affect its harmful progression.

The goal of this study is to determine the effects of surface properties in the attachment of M. oryzae to the rice leaf, and how these properties affect appressorium formation. Properties investigated include stiffness, thickness, surface roughness, and wettability. For repeatability, a silicone-based elastomer with which these variables could be controlled was fabricated ...


Utilizing Brain-Computer Interfacing To Control Neuroprosthetic Devices, Cheyne J. Angy 2016 Liberty University

Utilizing Brain-Computer Interfacing To Control Neuroprosthetic Devices, Cheyne J. Angy

Senior Honors Theses

Advances in neuroprosthetics in recent years have made an enormous impact on the quality of life for many people with disabilities, helping them regain the functionality of damaged or impaired abilities. One of the main hurdles to regaining full functionality regarding neuroprosthetics is the integration between the neural prosthetic device and the method in which the neural prosthetic device is controlled or manipulated to function correctly and efficiently. One of the most promising methods for integrating neural prosthetics to an efficient method of control is through Brian-computer Interfacing (BCI). With this method, the neuroprosthetic device is integrated into the human ...


Beyond The Fiber: Novel Spider Silk Coatings And Adhesives, Danielle A. Gaztambide, Breton A. Day 2016 Utah State University

Beyond The Fiber: Novel Spider Silk Coatings And Adhesives, Danielle A. Gaztambide, Breton A. Day

Research on Capitol Hill

Natural spider silks have long been recognized for their combination of incredible strength and elasticity. Spider silk is more elastic than nylon, tougher than Kevlar, and stronger than steel by weight. Due to an inability to farm spiders, much work has been done to produce spider silks in transgenic hosts for large -scale production. Our work was done using recombinant spider silk proteins produced in transgenic goats and the bacteria E. coli.

More recently spider silks have also been recognized for their biocompatibility and lack of immunogenicity. Spider silks' incredible strength and ability to be implanted safely within the body ...


Development Of A Glucose-Powered Biobattery For Implantation And Use In Humans, Carson Sparks, Cody Maughan, Lucas Smith, Carson Sparks 2016 Utah State University

Development Of A Glucose-Powered Biobattery For Implantation And Use In Humans, Carson Sparks, Cody Maughan, Lucas Smith, Carson Sparks

Research on Capitol Hill

With current demands for implantable electrical devices increasing, the need for a more stable and biocompatible source of power is becoming increasingly necessary. Several battery types and materials were evaluated. Ultimately, an abiotic biobattery was designed with the goal of implantation in the human body. Nafion, single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), and gold were used to create an abiotic biobattery that is powered by glucose.

The SWCNTs were used to create the cathode, the gold was used to fabricate the anode, and the Nafion acted as the separator between the cathode and anode. A thin Nafion membrane was evaluated for overlaying ...


Zeta Potential: Key To Harvesting Algae For Biofuels And Bioproducts, Celeste Hancock, Michael Flores 2016 Utah State University

Zeta Potential: Key To Harvesting Algae For Biofuels And Bioproducts, Celeste Hancock, Michael Flores

Research on Capitol Hill

  • Algae is an effective and sustainable resource for creating a broad spectrum of bioproducts.
  • Scientists have found it challenging to harvest algae due to the difficulty of collecting algae when in an aqueous solution such as wastewater.
  • Rotating Algal Biofilm Reactors (RABRs) coated with carbon nanotubes have proved effective. The RABR floats in an aqueous environment and attracts charged algal particles in suspension.
  • The tendency for algae to favor suspension over coagulation occurs only when particles of algae are sufficiently charged. This charge can be measured by analyzing the electric potential at the interface between the surface of a particle ...


Improved Production Of Promising Antioxidant, Resveratrol, In Escherichia Coli, Chad Skidmore 2016 Utah State University

Improved Production Of Promising Antioxidant, Resveratrol, In Escherichia Coli, Chad Skidmore

Research on Capitol Hill

Resveratrol is a promising antioxidant natural product. Studies have shown that it is effective against heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, diabetes, and harmful UV rays. This health-benefiting molecule is present in plants such as peanuts, berries, and the skin of red grapes.

A growth time of 10 months makes Japanese knotweed an impractical source of resveratrol. A more efficient way to produce resveratrol has been found by using E. coli as tiny biological factories.


Computational Capabilities Of Leaky Integrate-And-Fire Neural Networks For Liquid State Machines, Amin Almassian, Christof Teuscher 2016 Portland State University

Computational Capabilities Of Leaky Integrate-And-Fire Neural Networks For Liquid State Machines, Amin Almassian, Christof Teuscher

Christof Teuscher

We analyze the computational capability of Leaky Integrate-and-Fire (LIF) Neural Networks used as a reservoir (liquid) in the framework of Liquid State Machines (LSM). Maass et. al. investigated LIF neurons in LSM and their results showed that they are capable of noise-robust, parallel, and real-time computation. However, it still remains an open question how the network topology affects the computational capability of a reservoir. To address that question, we investigate the performance of the reservoir as a function of the average reservoir connectivity. We also show that the dynamics of the LIF reservoir is sensitive to changes in the average ...


Rational Design Of Rama-Labeled Nanoparticles For A Dual-Modaility, Light Scattering Immunoassay On A Polystyrene Seubstrate, Nathan D. Israelsen, Donald Wooley, Cynthia Hanson, Elizabeth Vargis 2016 Utah State University

Rational Design Of Rama-Labeled Nanoparticles For A Dual-Modaility, Light Scattering Immunoassay On A Polystyrene Seubstrate, Nathan D. Israelsen, Donald Wooley, Cynthia Hanson, Elizabeth Vargis

Biological Engineering Faculty Publications

Background: Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful light scattering technique that can be used for sensitive immunoassay development and cell labeling. A major obstacle to using SERS is the complexity of fabricating SERS probes since they require nanoscale characterization and optical uniformity. The light scattering response of SERS probes may also be modulated by the substrate used for SERS analysis. A typical SERS substrate such as quartz can be expensive. Polystyrene is a cheaper substrate option but can decrease the SERS response due to interfering Raman emission peaks and high background fluorescence. The goal of this research is to ...


Arakniprint: 3d Printing Of Synthetic Spider Silk To Produce Biocompatible And Resorbable Biomaterials, Ashley Ruben, Brianne Bell, Chase Spencer, Craig Soelberg, Dan Gil, Thomas Harris, Richard Decker, Timothy A. Taylor, Randolph V. Lewis 2016 Utah State University

Arakniprint: 3d Printing Of Synthetic Spider Silk To Produce Biocompatible And Resorbable Biomaterials, Ashley Ruben, Brianne Bell, Chase Spencer, Craig Soelberg, Dan Gil, Thomas Harris, Richard Decker, Timothy A. Taylor, Randolph V. Lewis

UCUR

No abstract provided.


Use Of Lidar In The Design Of Grassed Waterways: Case Study In Agricultural Management In Oklahoma, Annette Sparks 2016 Michigan Technological University

Use Of Lidar In The Design Of Grassed Waterways: Case Study In Agricultural Management In Oklahoma, Annette Sparks

Dissertations, Master's Theses and Master's Reports

Before the advent of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology, farm-level infrastructure for sustainable agriculture was designed using topographic maps. LiDAR is a remote sensing method whereby reflected laser pulses are measured to generate high-resolution 3D images of the terrain. This report compares these two methods in the design of grassed waterways for flood drainage and evaluates how the quantitative difference between the two methods can affect the overall hydrologic design. The benefits of LiDAR are expected to be higher accuracy and precision in design, as well as greater reproducibility or consistency, regardless of the designer. To carry out this ...


Retargeting The Clostridium Botulinum C2 Toxin To The Neuronal Cytosol, Benjamin J. Pavlik, Elizabeth J. Hruska, Kevin Van Cott, Paul Blum 2016 University of Nebraska- Lincoln

Retargeting The Clostridium Botulinum C2 Toxin To The Neuronal Cytosol, Benjamin J. Pavlik, Elizabeth J. Hruska, Kevin Van Cott, Paul Blum

Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering -- All Faculty Papers

Many biological toxins are known to attack specific cell types, delivering their enzymatic payloads to the cytosol. This process can be manipulated by molecular engineering of chimeric toxins. Using toxins with naturally unlinked components as a starting point is advantageous because it allows for the development of payloads separately from the binding/translocation components. Here the Clostridium botulinum C2 binding/translocation domain was retargeted to neural cell populations by deleting its non-specific binding domain and replacing it with a C. botulinum neurotoxin binding domain. This fusion protein was used to deliver fluorescently labeled payloads to Neuro-2a cells. Intracellular delivery was ...


Investigating Biosynthetic Steps Of An Angucycline Antifungal, S. Gabrielle Gladstone 2016 Utah State University

Investigating Biosynthetic Steps Of An Angucycline Antifungal, S. Gabrielle Gladstone

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

From the bacterium Streptomyces sp. SCC-2136 (ATCC 55186), two angucycline natural products are produced, designated Sch 47554 and Sch 47555. These compounds are produced through a type II polyketide biosynthetic pathway. The early biosynthetic steps to these molecules were confirmed. These include the minimal polyketide synthase (PKS), the C-9 keteoreductase, the first-ring aromatase, the subsequent ring cyclase, and two oxygenases. Also confirmed were the biosynthetic genes responsible for production of the first amicetose moiety, as well as the glycosyltransferase that creates a C-glycosidic bond between the angucyclic scaffold and the amicetose moiety, In confirming these patways, two new natural products ...


Engineering Of Polyketide Biosynthetic Pathways For Bioactive Molecules, Siyuan Wang 2016 Utah State University

Engineering Of Polyketide Biosynthetic Pathways For Bioactive Molecules, Siyuan Wang

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Polyketides are a large group of structurally diverse natural products that have shown a variety of biological activities. These molecules are synthesized by polyketide synthases (PKSs). PKSs are classified into three types based on their sequence, primary structure, and catalytic mechanism. Because of the bioactivities of polyketide natural products, this study is focused on the engineering of PKS pathways for efficient production of useful bioactive molecules or structural modification to create new molecules for drug development.

One goal of this research is to create an efficient method to produce pharmaceutically important molecules. Seven biosynthetic genes from plants and bacteria were ...


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