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Characterization Of Murine Breast Cancer Cell Lines For Anti-Cancer Vaccine, Haven N. Frazier 2017 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Characterization Of Murine Breast Cancer Cell Lines For Anti-Cancer Vaccine, Haven N. Frazier

Biological Sciences Undergraduate Honors Theses

Breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in women and the second leading cause of cancer death among women in the United States (1). While treatments involving radiation and chemotherapy currently exist, disease must be detected early in order for the treatments to be somewhat effective, and there is no effective treatment after metastasis occurs (2). Additionally, current therapies do not mitigate tumor immunosuppression. Decreasing the tumor-associated immunosuppressive conditions while activating antitumor immunity could prevent recurrence and metastasis, possibly leading to an effective treatment for cancer (3). Tumor cell vaccines could possibly address this issue and have become a ...


Anaerobic Digestion Of Wastewater: Effects Of Inoculants And Nutrient Management On Biomethane Production And Treatment, Jason Peterson 2017 Utah State University

Anaerobic Digestion Of Wastewater: Effects Of Inoculants And Nutrient Management On Biomethane Production And Treatment, Jason Peterson

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Due to population expiation and the increased awareness of the impact on the environment by wastewater treatment, improved wastewater treatment systems are needed to treat municipal and agricultural wastewater. Treating wastewater with oxygen decreases carbon compounds at the expense of energy to move carbon and oxygen to be in contact with each other. Anaerobic digestion of wastewater can reduce the cost by utilizing microbes to treat high amounts of carbon in wastewater without the need for extensive oxygen requirement. With a proper balance of nutrients, microbes also produce methane, a renewable energy source.

It has been suggested that microalgae be ...


Differentiation And Containment Of Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells, Caden Duffy, Alonzo Cook Ph.D. 2017 Brigham Young University - Provo

Differentiation And Containment Of Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells, Caden Duffy, Alonzo Cook Ph.D.

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

Currently, the only permanent cure for Type 1 Diabetes is a pancreatic or islet transplant. With the shortage of donors, we are progressing research towards alternative therapies by differentiating induced pluripotent stem cells into derived pancreatic β-cells that can be transplanted and used as treatment for Type 1 Diabetes. We are investigating methods to increase the yield of fully derived, insulin producing pancreatic β-cells and are additionally researching the use of hydrophilized expanded polytetrafluoroethylene for use in cell containment devices. These devices could offer a future alternative for islet transplantation in human patients.


Molecular Modeling Of Antibody-Antigen Binding Near Solid Surfaces, Derek Bush, Thomas Knotts 2017 Brigham Young University

Molecular Modeling Of Antibody-Antigen Binding Near Solid Surfaces, Derek Bush, Thomas Knotts

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

Antibody microarrays are biosensors that have the potential to revolutionize molecular detection in medicine, scientific research, and national defense. However, current microarrays are not widely used due to problems including poor reproducibility and signal quality, unbalanced antibody performance, and cross-reactivity. Prior work in the area focused mainly on the stability of the antibody alone and not its affinity for its antigen. This presentation shows results of using molecular simulation to determine how different types of surfaces affect antigen binding to surface-tethered antibodies. The results offer an unprecedented, molecular-level view into these protein-protein-surface interactions and how to drive binding to occur.


Effect Of L-Ascorbic Acid And All-Trans Retinoic Acid On Smooth Muscle Cells Cultured On Pcl Scaffolds, Brandon Chaffay 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Effect Of L-Ascorbic Acid And All-Trans Retinoic Acid On Smooth Muscle Cells Cultured On Pcl Scaffolds, Brandon Chaffay

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The aim of vascular tissue engineering (VTE) is to fabricate tissues that are both mechanically and biologically competent similar to the native vessel they are intended to replace. To this end, the incorporation of sufficient extracellular matrix elastin and collagen is important. The objective of this thesis work was to evaluate the effect of two biochemical factors, l-ascorbic acid (AA) and all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), on elastin synthesis when coronary artery smooth muscle cells were cultured on 3D polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. First, porous PCL scaffolds were fabricated using a solvent casting and particulate leaching approach. The effect of different ...


Biomanufacturing Through Igem-An International Student Competition, Asif Rahman, Ryan J. Putman, Neal Hengge, Charles D. Miller 2017 Utah State University

Biomanufacturing Through Igem-An International Student Competition, Asif Rahman, Ryan J. Putman, Neal Hengge, Charles D. Miller

Biological Engineering Faculty Publications

The foundations of synthetic biology are built on molecular biology and genetic engineering. One of the purposes of synthetic biology is to make biology easier to engineer by the creation of standardized biological parts and devices. There are a wide range of potential applications for synthetic biology and a variety of approaches to constructing parts and systems. Undergraduate Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) students from around the world apply synthetic biology principles at the annual International Genetically Engineered Machine (iGEM) competition to demonstrate functioning biological systems created from standardized parts. The iGEM competition will continue to add to the ...


Production Of Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesives From Catalytic Pyrolysis Oil, Angela M. Akude 2017 Utah State University

Production Of Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesives From Catalytic Pyrolysis Oil, Angela M. Akude

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Phenol-formaldehyde adhesives are important adhesives known to have superior water resistance capacity and high mechanical strength when utilized in wood-based applications. Due to unsustainability and environmental issues associated with the use of fossil fuels, there is an urgent need to look for alternative raw materials, which are renewable in nature. Pinyon-juniper biomass has been found to be a suitable replacement for petroleum-based phenol because it is renewable, abundant, and readily available.

In this thesis, bio-oil produced from the pyrolysis of pinyon-juniper biomass using red mud alumina catalyst was used to produce wood adhesives. The characterization of pinyon-juniper bio-oil showed the ...


Characterization Of Molecular Communication Based On Cell Metabolism Through Mutual Information And Flux Balance Analysis, Zahmeeth Sayed Sakkaff 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Characterization Of Molecular Communication Based On Cell Metabolism Through Mutual Information And Flux Balance Analysis, Zahmeeth Sayed Sakkaff

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Synthetic biology is providing novel tools to engineer cells and access the basis of their molecular information processing, including their communication channels based on chemical reactions and molecule exchange. Molecular communication is a discipline in communication engineering that studies these types of communications and ways to exploit them for novel purposes, such as the development of ubiquitous and heterogeneous communication networks to interconnect biological cells with nano and biotechnology-enabled devices, i.e., the Internet of Bio-Nano Things. One major problem in realizing these goals stands in the development of reliable techniques to control the engineered cells and their behavior from ...


A Multi-Channel 3d-Printed Bioreactor For Evaluation Of Growth And Production In The Microalga Dunaliella Sp, Cristian A. Cox 2016 University of Maine

A Multi-Channel 3d-Printed Bioreactor For Evaluation Of Growth And Production In The Microalga Dunaliella Sp, Cristian A. Cox

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We explored the capabilities of additive manufacturing using a photo-cured jetted material 3D printer to manufacture a milli-microfluidic device with direct application in microalgae Dunaliella sp growth and intracellular compounds biosynthesis tests. A continuous microbioreactor for microalgae culture was CAD designed and successfully built in 1 hour and 49 minutes using black photopolymer cured by UV and a support material. The microreactor was made up of 2 parts including the bioreactor itself and a microchannel network for culture media fluids and microalgae. Both parts were assembled to form a single unit. Additional optical and auxiliar components were added. An external ...


Importance Of Heat And Pressure For Solubilization Of Recombinant Spider Silk Proteins In Aqueous Solution, Justin Jones, Thomas Harris, Paula F. Oliveira, Brianne Bell, Abdulrahman Alhabib, Randolph V. Lewis 2016 Utah State University

Importance Of Heat And Pressure For Solubilization Of Recombinant Spider Silk Proteins In Aqueous Solution, Justin Jones, Thomas Harris, Paula F. Oliveira, Brianne Bell, Abdulrahman Alhabib, Randolph V. Lewis

Biology Faculty Publications

The production of recombinant spider silk proteins continues to be a key area of interest for a number of research groups. Several key obstacles exist in their production as well as in their formulation into useable products. The original reported method to solubilize recombinant spider silk proteins (rSSp) in an aqueous solution involved using microwaves to quickly generate heat and pressure inside of a sealed vial containing rSSp and water. Fibers produced from this system are remarkable in their mechanical ability and demonstrate the ability to be stretched and recover 100 times. The microwave method dissolves the rSSPs with dissolution ...


Long-Term Biocompatibility, Imaging Appearance And Tissue Effects Associated With Delivery Of A Novel Radiopaque Embolization Bead For Image-Guided Therapy, Karun Sharma, Zainab Bascal, Hugh Kilpatrick, Koorosh Ashrafi, Sean L. Willis, Matthew R. Dreher, Andrew L. Lewis 2016 George Washington University

Long-Term Biocompatibility, Imaging Appearance And Tissue Effects Associated With Delivery Of A Novel Radiopaque Embolization Bead For Image-Guided Therapy, Karun Sharma, Zainab Bascal, Hugh Kilpatrick, Koorosh Ashrafi, Sean L. Willis, Matthew R. Dreher, Andrew L. Lewis

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

The objective of this study was to undertake a comprehensive long-term biocompatibility and imaging assessment of a new intrinsically radiopaque bead (LC Bead LUMI™) for use in transarterial embolization. The sterilized device and its extracts were subjected to the raft of ISO10993 biocompatibility tests that demonstrated safety with respect to cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, blood contact, irritation, sensitization, systemic toxicity and tissue reaction. Intra-arterial administration was performed in a swine model of hepatic arterial embolization in which 0.22–1 mL of sedimented bead volume was administered to the targeted lobe(s) of the liver. The beads could be visualized during the ...


Brain Encoding Of Saltatory Velocity-Scaled Somatosensory Array In Glabrous Hand Among Neurotypical Adults, Hyuntaek Oh 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Brain Encoding Of Saltatory Velocity-Scaled Somatosensory Array In Glabrous Hand Among Neurotypical Adults, Hyuntaek Oh

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Neurons in human somatosensory cortex are somatotopically organized, with sensation from the lower limbs mediated by neurons near the midline of the brain, whereas sensations from the upper body, hands and orofacial surfaces are mediated by neurons located more laterally in a sequential map. Neurons in Brodmann's area (BA) 3b are exquisitely sensitive to tactile stimulation of these skin surfaces. Moreover, the location, velocity and direction of tactile stimuli on the skin's surface are discriminable features of somatosensory processing, however their role in fine motor control and passive detection are poorly understood in health, and as a neurotherapeutic ...


Using Elastin-Like Polypeptides For Better Retention Of Biofuels, Yu Hong Wang, Ethan T. Hilman, Kevin V. Solomon 2016 Purdue University

Using Elastin-Like Polypeptides For Better Retention Of Biofuels, Yu Hong Wang, Ethan T. Hilman, Kevin V. Solomon

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are synthetic molecules that exhibit an interesting property of inverse temperature phase transition; they exist as soluble monomers at low temperatures and form insoluble aggregates at higher temperatures. The transition temperature depends on the pH, salt concentration, and the amino acid sequence of the ELP. This unique and reversible behavior, along with their high biocompatibility has made them a strategic tool for various biomedical applications. However, their hydrophobic properties also make them a prime candidate for biofuel production. As high levels of many commercially important organic solvents are toxic to the cells that make them, ELPs can ...


Nanobubbles Provide Theranostic Relief To Cancer Hypoxia, Christopher M. Long, Pushpak N. Bhandari, Joseph Irudayaraj 2016 Purdue University

Nanobubbles Provide Theranostic Relief To Cancer Hypoxia, Christopher M. Long, Pushpak N. Bhandari, Joseph Irudayaraj

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Hypoxia is a common motif among tumors, contributing to metastasis, angiogenesis, cellular epigenetic abnormality, and resistance to cancer therapy. Hypoxia also plays a pivotal role in oncological studies, where it can be used as a principal target for new anti-cancer therapeutic methods. Oxygen nanobubbles were designed in an effort to target the hypoxic tumor regions, thus interrupting the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) regulatory pathway and inhibiting tumor progression. At less than 100nm, oxygen nanobubbles act as a vehicle for site-specific oxygen delivery, while also serving as an ultrasound contrast agent for advanced imaging purposes. Through in vitro and in vivo studies ...


Mechanical Reliability Of Implantable Polyimide-Based Magnetic Microactuators For Biofouling Removal, Christian G. Figueroa-Espada, Qi Yang, Hyowon Lee 2016 University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez

Mechanical Reliability Of Implantable Polyimide-Based Magnetic Microactuators For Biofouling Removal, Christian G. Figueroa-Espada, Qi Yang, Hyowon Lee

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Hydrocephalus is a neurological disorder that typically requires a long-term implantation of a shunt system to manage its symptoms. These shunt systems are notorious for their extremely high failure rate. More than 40% of all implanted shunt systems fail within the first year of implantation. On average, 85% of all hydrocephalus patients with shunt systems undergo at least two shunt-revision surgeries within 10 years of implantation. A large portion of this high failure rate can be attributed to biofouling-related obstructions and infections. Previously, we developed flexible polyimide-based magnetic microactuators to remove obstructions formed on hydrocephalus shunts. To test the long-term ...


Role Of Sumoylation In Mitochondrial Division In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Ramya Modi, James Forney 2016 Purdue University

Role Of Sumoylation In Mitochondrial Division In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Ramya Modi, James Forney

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

SUMOylation is a post translation modification that involves the addition of a small protein called SUMO, Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier to a target protein. It is an important mechanism for the regulation of gene expression, the maintenance of genomic stability and in modifying nuclear proteins. More recently evidence has emerged for its importance in regulating mitochondrial fission and fusion in mammalian cells. This study evaluates the parameters for optimal staining of Tetrahymena thermophila mitochondria using two different dyes and then examines different cell lines with defects in the SUMOylation pathway. The first staining method uses Mitotracker Green, a vital stain that ...


Functional Vasodilation And Vascular Reactivity In Arteriolar Collaterals In The Spinotrapezius Of Males And Females, Britta C. Nelson 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Functional Vasodilation And Vascular Reactivity In Arteriolar Collaterals In The Spinotrapezius Of Males And Females, Britta C. Nelson

Biomedical Eng/General Eng.

Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) occurs when there is narrowing or blockage of the peripheral arteries that carry blood to the extremities, most commonly the legs. The most common symptom of PAOD is intermittent claudication, or ischemic pain during exercise. Women with PAOD experience a greater extremity functional impairment than men. Since impaired vasodilation might cause the ischemic pain from PAOD, we should evaluate vasodilation post ligation in males and females in collateral vessels, which connect two arterial segments to maintain blood flow to an otherwise hypoxic area. First, we need to examine collateral vasodilation in unoperated male and female ...


Chlorine Demand Shows Thresholds And Hierarchy With Source Water Quality At Beaver Lake, Arkansas, Jaime M. Gile 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Chlorine Demand Shows Thresholds And Hierarchy With Source Water Quality At Beaver Lake, Arkansas, Jaime M. Gile

Theses and Dissertations

This study investigated the effects of source water quality in Beaver Lake on the amount of chlorine (Cl) needed to develop decision support system to help guide chlorination practices in pre-treatment of source water. Chlorine demand assays were performed on water samples from Beaver Lake collected from the intake structure at Beaver Water District from March 2014 through August 2015, and using data from these assays, the two points of interest in this study were the Cl dose at which Cl residuals began to accumulate and the mean Cl demand occurring after that dose. Three methods of analysis were used ...


Fermentative Processes Requiring Low Solubility Feed Gases: An Investigation Into Gas-Dependent Microorganisms, Eric W. Doerr 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Fermentative Processes Requiring Low Solubility Feed Gases: An Investigation Into Gas-Dependent Microorganisms, Eric W. Doerr

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Two bioprocesses were separately investigated based on their common interest of using gaseous substrates that have low solubility. The first process involved the development of a mixed culture using two organisms capable of utilizing glycerol and carbon monoxide separately to increase biobutanol production, while the second process involved an investigation of different production media used in aerobic xanthan production of Xanthomonas campestris with pressurization effects. It was determined that Clostridium pasteurianum should be used with an organism like Clostridium carboxidivorans or Eubacterium limosum in order for butyrate uptake at 3 g/L to occur with a minimum 0.1 g ...


Alginate Hydrogels As Three-Dimensional Scaffolds For In Vitro Culture Models Of Growth Plate Cartilage Development And Porcine Embryo Elongation, Taylor D. Laughlin 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Alginate Hydrogels As Three-Dimensional Scaffolds For In Vitro Culture Models Of Growth Plate Cartilage Development And Porcine Embryo Elongation, Taylor D. Laughlin

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The establishment of in vitro culture models utilizes tissue engineering principles to design functional mimics of in vivo environments in vitro. Advantages for the use of in vitro culture models include ethical alleviation of animal models for therapeutic testing, cost efficiency, and a greater ability to study specific mechanisms via a systematic, ground-up approach to development. In this thesis, alginate hydrogels are utilized in the development of in vitro culture models of porcine embryo elongation and growth plate cartilage development. First, the effect of scaffold and modifications to the scaffold were explored in both projects. In order to modulate cell-scaffold ...


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