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Differentiation And Containment Of Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells, Caden Duffy, Alonzo Cook Ph.D. 2017 Brigham Young University - Provo

Differentiation And Containment Of Derived Pancreatic Beta Cells, Caden Duffy, Alonzo Cook Ph.D.

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

Currently, the only permanent cure for Type 1 Diabetes is a pancreatic or islet transplant. With the shortage of donors, we are progressing research towards alternative therapies by differentiating induced pluripotent stem cells into derived pancreatic β-cells that can be transplanted and used as treatment for Type 1 Diabetes. We are investigating methods to increase the yield of fully derived, insulin producing pancreatic β-cells and are additionally researching the use of hydrophilized expanded polytetrafluoroethylene for use in cell containment devices. These devices could offer a future alternative for islet transplantation in human patients.


Molecular Modeling Of Antibody-Antigen Binding Near Solid Surfaces, Derek Bush, Thomas Knotts 2017 Brigham Young University

Molecular Modeling Of Antibody-Antigen Binding Near Solid Surfaces, Derek Bush, Thomas Knotts

Biomedical Engineering Western Regional Conference

Antibody microarrays are biosensors that have the potential to revolutionize molecular detection in medicine, scientific research, and national defense. However, current microarrays are not widely used due to problems including poor reproducibility and signal quality, unbalanced antibody performance, and cross-reactivity. Prior work in the area focused mainly on the stability of the antibody alone and not its affinity for its antigen. This presentation shows results of using molecular simulation to determine how different types of surfaces affect antigen binding to surface-tethered antibodies. The results offer an unprecedented, molecular-level view into these protein-protein-surface interactions and how to drive binding to occur.


Effect Of L-Ascorbic Acid And All-Trans Retinoic Acid On Smooth Muscle Cells Cultured On Pcl Scaffolds, Brandon Chaffay 2017 The University of Western Ontario

Effect Of L-Ascorbic Acid And All-Trans Retinoic Acid On Smooth Muscle Cells Cultured On Pcl Scaffolds, Brandon Chaffay

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The aim of vascular tissue engineering (VTE) is to fabricate tissues that are both mechanically and biologically competent similar to the native vessel they are intended to replace. To this end, the incorporation of sufficient extracellular matrix elastin and collagen is important. The objective of this thesis work was to evaluate the effect of two biochemical factors, l-ascorbic acid (AA) and all-trans retinoic acid (atRA), on elastin synthesis when coronary artery smooth muscle cells were cultured on 3D polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. First, porous PCL scaffolds were fabricated using a solvent casting and particulate leaching approach. The effect of different ...


Characterization Of Molecular Communication Based On Cell Metabolism Through Mutual Information And Flux Balance Analysis, Zahmeeth Sayed Sakkaff 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Characterization Of Molecular Communication Based On Cell Metabolism Through Mutual Information And Flux Balance Analysis, Zahmeeth Sayed Sakkaff

Computer Science and Engineering: Theses, Dissertations, and Student Research

Synthetic biology is providing novel tools to engineer cells and access the basis of their molecular information processing, including their communication channels based on chemical reactions and molecule exchange. Molecular communication is a discipline in communication engineering that studies these types of communications and ways to exploit them for novel purposes, such as the development of ubiquitous and heterogeneous communication networks to interconnect biological cells with nano and biotechnology-enabled devices, i.e., the Internet of Bio-Nano Things. One major problem in realizing these goals stands in the development of reliable techniques to control the engineered cells and their behavior from ...


A Multi-Channel 3d-Printed Bioreactor For Evaluation Of Growth And Production In The Microalga Dunaliella Sp, Cristian A. Cox 2016 University of Maine

A Multi-Channel 3d-Printed Bioreactor For Evaluation Of Growth And Production In The Microalga Dunaliella Sp, Cristian A. Cox

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We explored the capabilities of additive manufacturing using a photo-cured jetted material 3D printer to manufacture a milli-microfluidic device with direct application in microalgae Dunaliella sp growth and intracellular compounds biosynthesis tests. A continuous microbioreactor for microalgae culture was CAD designed and successfully built in 1 hour and 49 minutes using black photopolymer cured by UV and a support material. The microreactor was made up of 2 parts including the bioreactor itself and a microchannel network for culture media fluids and microalgae. Both parts were assembled to form a single unit. Additional optical and auxiliar components were added. An external ...


Importance Of Heat And Pressure For Solubilization Of Recombinant Spider Silk Proteins In Aqueous Solution, Justin Jones, Thomas Harris, Paula F. Oliveira, Brianne Bell, Abdulrahman Alhabib, Randolph V. Lewis 2016 Utah State University

Importance Of Heat And Pressure For Solubilization Of Recombinant Spider Silk Proteins In Aqueous Solution, Justin Jones, Thomas Harris, Paula F. Oliveira, Brianne Bell, Abdulrahman Alhabib, Randolph V. Lewis

Biology Faculty Publications

The production of recombinant spider silk proteins continues to be a key area of interest for a number of research groups. Several key obstacles exist in their production as well as in their formulation into useable products. The original reported method to solubilize recombinant spider silk proteins (rSSp) in an aqueous solution involved using microwaves to quickly generate heat and pressure inside of a sealed vial containing rSSp and water. Fibers produced from this system are remarkable in their mechanical ability and demonstrate the ability to be stretched and recover 100 times. The microwave method dissolves the rSSPs with dissolution ...


Long-Term Biocompatibility, Imaging Appearance And Tissue Effects Associated With Delivery Of A Novel Radiopaque Embolization Bead For Image-Guided Therapy, Karun Sharma, Zainab Bascal, Hugh Kilpatrick, Koorosh Ashrafi, Sean L. Willis, Matthew R. Dreher, Andrew L. Lewis 2016 George Washington University

Long-Term Biocompatibility, Imaging Appearance And Tissue Effects Associated With Delivery Of A Novel Radiopaque Embolization Bead For Image-Guided Therapy, Karun Sharma, Zainab Bascal, Hugh Kilpatrick, Koorosh Ashrafi, Sean L. Willis, Matthew R. Dreher, Andrew L. Lewis

Pediatrics Faculty Publications

The objective of this study was to undertake a comprehensive long-term biocompatibility and imaging assessment of a new intrinsically radiopaque bead (LC Bead LUMI™) for use in transarterial embolization. The sterilized device and its extracts were subjected to the raft of ISO10993 biocompatibility tests that demonstrated safety with respect to cytotoxicity, mutagenicity, blood contact, irritation, sensitization, systemic toxicity and tissue reaction. Intra-arterial administration was performed in a swine model of hepatic arterial embolization in which 0.22–1 mL of sedimented bead volume was administered to the targeted lobe(s) of the liver. The beads could be visualized during the ...


Brain Encoding Of Saltatory Velocity-Scaled Somatosensory Array In Glabrous Hand Among Neurotypical Adults, Hyuntaek Oh 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Brain Encoding Of Saltatory Velocity-Scaled Somatosensory Array In Glabrous Hand Among Neurotypical Adults, Hyuntaek Oh

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

Neurons in human somatosensory cortex are somatotopically organized, with sensation from the lower limbs mediated by neurons near the midline of the brain, whereas sensations from the upper body, hands and orofacial surfaces are mediated by neurons located more laterally in a sequential map. Neurons in Brodmann's area (BA) 3b are exquisitely sensitive to tactile stimulation of these skin surfaces. Moreover, the location, velocity and direction of tactile stimuli on the skin's surface are discriminable features of somatosensory processing, however their role in fine motor control and passive detection are poorly understood in health, and as a neurotherapeutic ...


Using Elastin-Like Polypeptides For Better Retention Of Biofuels, Yu Hong Wang, Ethan T. Hilman, Kevin V. Solomon 2016 Purdue University

Using Elastin-Like Polypeptides For Better Retention Of Biofuels, Yu Hong Wang, Ethan T. Hilman, Kevin V. Solomon

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) are synthetic molecules that exhibit an interesting property of inverse temperature phase transition; they exist as soluble monomers at low temperatures and form insoluble aggregates at higher temperatures. The transition temperature depends on the pH, salt concentration, and the amino acid sequence of the ELP. This unique and reversible behavior, along with their high biocompatibility has made them a strategic tool for various biomedical applications. However, their hydrophobic properties also make them a prime candidate for biofuel production. As high levels of many commercially important organic solvents are toxic to the cells that make them, ELPs can ...


Nanobubbles Provide Theranostic Relief To Cancer Hypoxia, Christopher M. Long, Pushpak N. Bhandari, Joseph Irudayaraj 2016 Purdue University

Nanobubbles Provide Theranostic Relief To Cancer Hypoxia, Christopher M. Long, Pushpak N. Bhandari, Joseph Irudayaraj

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Hypoxia is a common motif among tumors, contributing to metastasis, angiogenesis, cellular epigenetic abnormality, and resistance to cancer therapy. Hypoxia also plays a pivotal role in oncological studies, where it can be used as a principal target for new anti-cancer therapeutic methods. Oxygen nanobubbles were designed in an effort to target the hypoxic tumor regions, thus interrupting the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) regulatory pathway and inhibiting tumor progression. At less than 100nm, oxygen nanobubbles act as a vehicle for site-specific oxygen delivery, while also serving as an ultrasound contrast agent for advanced imaging purposes. Through in vitro and in vivo studies ...


Role Of Sumoylation In Mitochondrial Division In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Ramya Modi, James Forney 2016 Purdue University

Role Of Sumoylation In Mitochondrial Division In Tetrahymena Thermophila, Ramya Modi, James Forney

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

SUMOylation is a post translation modification that involves the addition of a small protein called SUMO, Small Ubiquitin-like MOdifier to a target protein. It is an important mechanism for the regulation of gene expression, the maintenance of genomic stability and in modifying nuclear proteins. More recently evidence has emerged for its importance in regulating mitochondrial fission and fusion in mammalian cells. This study evaluates the parameters for optimal staining of Tetrahymena thermophila mitochondria using two different dyes and then examines different cell lines with defects in the SUMOylation pathway. The first staining method uses Mitotracker Green, a vital stain that ...


Mechanical Reliability Of Implantable Polyimide-Based Magnetic Microactuators For Biofouling Removal, Christian G. Figueroa-Espada, Qi Yang, Hyowon Lee 2016 University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez

Mechanical Reliability Of Implantable Polyimide-Based Magnetic Microactuators For Biofouling Removal, Christian G. Figueroa-Espada, Qi Yang, Hyowon Lee

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Hydrocephalus is a neurological disorder that typically requires a long-term implantation of a shunt system to manage its symptoms. These shunt systems are notorious for their extremely high failure rate. More than 40% of all implanted shunt systems fail within the first year of implantation. On average, 85% of all hydrocephalus patients with shunt systems undergo at least two shunt-revision surgeries within 10 years of implantation. A large portion of this high failure rate can be attributed to biofouling-related obstructions and infections. Previously, we developed flexible polyimide-based magnetic microactuators to remove obstructions formed on hydrocephalus shunts. To test the long-term ...


Functional Vasodilation And Vascular Reactivity In Arteriolar Collaterals In The Spinotrapezius Of Males And Females, Britta C. Nelson 2016 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

Functional Vasodilation And Vascular Reactivity In Arteriolar Collaterals In The Spinotrapezius Of Males And Females, Britta C. Nelson

Biomedical Eng/General Eng.

Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD) occurs when there is narrowing or blockage of the peripheral arteries that carry blood to the extremities, most commonly the legs. The most common symptom of PAOD is intermittent claudication, or ischemic pain during exercise. Women with PAOD experience a greater extremity functional impairment than men. Since impaired vasodilation might cause the ischemic pain from PAOD, we should evaluate vasodilation post ligation in males and females in collateral vessels, which connect two arterial segments to maintain blood flow to an otherwise hypoxic area. First, we need to examine collateral vasodilation in unoperated male and female ...


Fermentative Processes Requiring Low Solubility Feed Gases: An Investigation Into Gas-Dependent Microorganisms, Eric W. Doerr 2016 The University of Western Ontario

Fermentative Processes Requiring Low Solubility Feed Gases: An Investigation Into Gas-Dependent Microorganisms, Eric W. Doerr

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Two bioprocesses were separately investigated based on their common interest of using gaseous substrates that have low solubility. The first process involved the development of a mixed culture using two organisms capable of utilizing glycerol and carbon monoxide separately to increase biobutanol production, while the second process involved an investigation of different production media used in aerobic xanthan production of Xanthomonas campestris with pressurization effects. It was determined that Clostridium pasteurianum should be used with an organism like Clostridium carboxidivorans or Eubacterium limosum in order for butyrate uptake at 3 g/L to occur with a minimum 0.1 g ...


Alginate Hydrogels As Three-Dimensional Scaffolds For In Vitro Culture Models Of Growth Plate Cartilage Development And Porcine Embryo Elongation, Taylor D. Laughlin 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Alginate Hydrogels As Three-Dimensional Scaffolds For In Vitro Culture Models Of Growth Plate Cartilage Development And Porcine Embryo Elongation, Taylor D. Laughlin

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

The establishment of in vitro culture models utilizes tissue engineering principles to design functional mimics of in vivo environments in vitro. Advantages for the use of in vitro culture models include ethical alleviation of animal models for therapeutic testing, cost efficiency, and a greater ability to study specific mechanisms via a systematic, ground-up approach to development. In this thesis, alginate hydrogels are utilized in the development of in vitro culture models of porcine embryo elongation and growth plate cartilage development. First, the effect of scaffold and modifications to the scaffold were explored in both projects. In order to modulate cell-scaffold ...


Using A Vnir Spectral Library To Model Soil Carbon And Total Nitrogen Content, Nuwan K. Wijewardane 2016 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Using A Vnir Spectral Library To Model Soil Carbon And Total Nitrogen Content, Nuwan K. Wijewardane

Biological Systems Engineering--Dissertations, Theses, and Student Research

n-situ soil sensor systems based on visible and near infrared spectroscopy is not yet been effectively used due to inadequate studies to utilize legacy spectral libraries under the field conditions. The performance of such systems is significantly affected by spectral discrepancies created by sample intactness and library differences. In this study, four objectives were devised to obtain directives to address these issues. The first objective was to calibrate and evaluate VNIR models statistically and computationally (i.e. computing resource requirement), using four modeling techniques namely: Partial least squares regression (PLS), Artificial neural networks (ANN), Random forests (RF) and Support vector ...


Calcium Phosphate As A Key Material For Socially Responsible Tissue Engineering, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu 2016 Chapman University

Calcium Phosphate As A Key Material For Socially Responsible Tissue Engineering, Vuk Uskoković, Victoria M. Wu

Pharmacy Faculty Articles and Research

Socially responsible technologies are designed while taking into consideration the socioeconomic, geopolitical and environmental limitations of regions in which they will be implemented. In the medical context, this involves making therapeutic platforms more accessible and affordable to patients in poor regions of the world wherein a given disease is endemic. This often necessitates going against the reigning trend of making therapeutic nanoparticles ever more structurally complex and expensive. However, studies aimed at simplifying materials and formulations while maintaining the functionality and therapeutic response of their more complex counterparts seldom provoke a significant interest in the scientific community. In this review ...


In Silico Driven Metabolic Engineering Towards Enhancing Biofuel And Biochemical Production, Richard Adam Thompson 2016 University of Tennessee - Knoxville

In Silico Driven Metabolic Engineering Towards Enhancing Biofuel And Biochemical Production, Richard Adam Thompson

Doctoral Dissertations

The development of a secure and sustainable energy economy is likely to require the production of fuels and commodity chemicals in a renewable manner. There has been renewed interest in biological commodity chemical production recently, in particular focusing on non-edible feedstocks. The fields of metabolic engineering and synthetic biology have arisen in the past 20 years to address the challenge of chemical production from biological feedstocks. Metabolic modeling is a powerful tool for studying the metabolism of an organism and predicting the effects of metabolic engineering strategies. Various techniques have been developed for modeling cellular metabolism, with the underlying principle ...


Municipal Composting And Organic Waste Diversion: The Case Of Fayetteville, Arkansas, Michael E. Hoppe 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Municipal Composting And Organic Waste Diversion: The Case Of Fayetteville, Arkansas, Michael E. Hoppe

Biological and Agricultural Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

It is estimated that 40% of food is wasted in the United States; representing $165 billion in wasted resources. A vast majority of that wasted food is ultimately placed in landfills where it decomposes and releases harmful greenhouse gases (GHGs). In fact, food waste alone is responsible for 23% of annual methane emissions for the US. This has a huge impact on global climate change due to the potency of methane as a greenhouse gas. Currently only 5% of the food waste produced is recovered across the nation. Source reduction would be the best solution to reducing this food waste ...


Intravital Microscopy Of Tumor Oxygenation And Glycolytic Demand, Jesse D. Ivers 2016 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Intravital Microscopy Of Tumor Oxygenation And Glycolytic Demand, Jesse D. Ivers

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

There is growing concern about the over treatment of cancer because treatments are based primarily on tumor anatomy. In this study, we aim to begin the process of addressing that issue by developing an intravital technique for optically analyzing tumor biology. Two traits were identified as having significant importance in the aggression of a tumor, vascular oxygenation (SO2) and glycolytic demand. Dorsal skin flap window chambers were implanted and 4T1 and 67NR cancer cells were injected to provide a tumor model for the development of this intravital quantification technique. This study provides a detailed protocol from instrumentation setup to surgical ...


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