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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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Brassinosteroids Inhibit Autotropic Root Straightening By Modifying Filamentous-Actin Organization And Dynamics, Louise de Bang, Ana Paez-Garcia, Ashley E. Cannon, Sabrina Chin, Jaydeep Kolape, Fuqi Liao, J. Alan Sparks, Qingzhen Jiang, Elison B. Blancaflor 2020 University of Copenhagen

Brassinosteroids Inhibit Autotropic Root Straightening By Modifying Filamentous-Actin Organization And Dynamics, Louise De Bang, Ana Paez-Garcia, Ashley E. Cannon, Sabrina Chin, Jaydeep Kolape, Fuqi Liao, J. Alan Sparks, Qingzhen Jiang, Elison B. Blancaflor

Papers from the Nebraska Center for Biotechnology

When positioned horizontally, roots grow down toward the direction of gravity. This phenomenon, called gravitropism, is influenced by most of the major plant hormones including brassinosteroids. Epi-brassinolide (eBL) was previously shown to enhance root gravitropism, a phenomenon similar to the response of roots exposed to the actin inhibitor, latrunculin B (LatB). This led us to hypothesize that eBL might enhance root gravitropism through its effects on filamentous-actin (F-actin). This hypothesis was tested by comparing gravitropic responses of maize (Zea mays) roots treated with eBL or LatB. LatB- and eBL-treated roots displayed similar enhanced downward growth compared with controls when vertical ...


Risks And Benefits Of Using A Commercially Available Ventricular Assist Device For Failing Fontan Cavopulmonary Support: A Modeling Investigation, Masoud Farahmand, Minoo N. Kavarana, Ethan Kung 2020 Clemson University

Risks And Benefits Of Using A Commercially Available Ventricular Assist Device For Failing Fontan Cavopulmonary Support: A Modeling Investigation, Masoud Farahmand, Minoo N. Kavarana, Ethan Kung

Publications

Fontan patients often develop circulatory failure and are in desperate need of a therapeutic solution. A blood pump surgically placed in the cavopulmonary pathway can substitute the function of the absent sub-pulmonary ventricle by generating a mild pressure boost. However, there is currently no commercially available device designed for the cavopulmonary application; and the risks and benefits of implanting a ventricular assist device (VAD), originally designed for the left ventricular application, on the right circulation of failing Fontan patients is not yet clear. Moreover, further research is needed to compare the hemodynamics between the two clinically-considered surgical configurations for cavopulmonary ...


Synthesis And Applications Of Theranostic Oligonucleotides Carrying Multiple Fluorine Atoms, Valeriy G. Metelev, Alexei A. Bogdanov 2020 University of Massachusetts Medical School

Synthesis And Applications Of Theranostic Oligonucleotides Carrying Multiple Fluorine Atoms, Valeriy G. Metelev, Alexei A. Bogdanov

Open Access Articles

The use of various oligonucleotide (ON) syntheses and post-synthetic strategies for targeted chemical modification enables improving their efficacy as potent modulators of gene expression levels in eukaryotic cells. However, the search still continues for new approaches designed for increasing internalization, lysosomal escape, and tissue specific delivery of ON. In this review we emphasized all aspects related to the synthesis and properties of ON derivatives carrying multifluorinated (MF) groups. These MF groups have unique physico-chemical properties because of their simultaneous hydrophobicity and lipophobicity. Such unusual combination of properties results in the overall modification of ON mode of interaction with the cells ...


Enhancement Of The Syncardia Total Artificial Heart For Pediatric Use, Margaret Clark, Madison Marks 2020 The University of Akron

Enhancement Of The Syncardia Total Artificial Heart For Pediatric Use, Margaret Clark, Madison Marks

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Pediatric patients with disorders and diseases of the heart have limited options with regards to implantable devices. Many of these implants are ventricular assist devices, which is not always suitable for a patient. Total artificial hearts (TAHs) have supported many adult patients until transplantation, and we believe that they could do the same for pediatric patients. SynCardia has the only Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved TAH devices. Since SynCardia is the only company with FDA approved TAHs, we decided to modify the design of the SynCardia TAH for use in pediatric patients without compromising the function of the current ...


All-Wheel-Ukraine, Sofiya Rakovska, Hannah McCulloch, Andrey Garasimchuk, Ahmad Alsaihati 2020 The University of Akron

All-Wheel-Ukraine, Sofiya Rakovska, Hannah Mcculloch, Andrey Garasimchuk, Ahmad Alsaihati

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

We are working with a non-profit organization in Ukraine that provides wheelchairs/strollers to families of disables children who cannot afford them. Their current preferred solution is a baby stroller. The organization asked us to create a wheelchair that is cost efficient, light and collapsible to be used for children ages up to thirteen years old. We will be creating an alpha prototype wheelchair by modifying a basic wheelchair that we purchased. This modifications include adding a headrest that is adjustable and provides a sufficient support for children within the age group given to us and diverse levels of disabilities ...


Lower Extremity Exoskeleton, Kelly Haslett, Jacalyn Everhart 2020 The University of Akron

Lower Extremity Exoskeleton, Kelly Haslett, Jacalyn Everhart

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Develop a lower extremity device that provides assistance, support, and gait correction for children with cerebral palsy who display crouch gait as a symptom. The device will be designed for children ages 7-12. The device will be adjustable to accommodate varying levels of gait irregularity, weakness and human growth. The device would assist walking and stair climbing by providing bilateral support at hips, knees and ankle joints. The device will be designed for ease of donning and doffing. Battery, drive and control electronics will be designed to reside in a minimalistic backpack (outside the scope of this project).


Adaptive Bike Pedals, Norman Hansen, Robert Csaky 2020 The University of Akron

Adaptive Bike Pedals, Norman Hansen, Robert Csaky

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The Adaptive Bike Pedals project is set out to create a new attachment for tricycle pedals that improves on a previous model. The need for these attachments is common in rehabilitation and physical therapy centers to help patients keep their feet on pedals when they are not able to. They can also be used in homes of families that have children with disabilities, diseases, or disorders that inhibit them from keeping their feet on the pedals. There are attachments on the market already, but the problem with those models is that they are costly and made for specific pedals. The ...


Artificial Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty Joint Project, Michael Rosen, Bailei Hoyng 2020 The University of Akron

Artificial Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty Joint Project, Michael Rosen, Bailei Hoyng

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

This proposed project will be developing an artificial reverse shoulder arthroplasty joint that focuses on improvements to the Zimmer Biomet Comprehensive Reverse System by freating a unique feature, or features, to the humeral component that focuses on the prevention of dislocation by not limiting the range of motion of men from ages 45 to 65 years.

The development of the this project will utilize the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) medical device design process. This project will involve a total of four Biomedical Engineering students from the University of Akron. Two students, Michael and Bailei, are in the Honors college ...


Prosthetic Hand, Nicholas Damiani, Eric Rassavong, John Zolton 2020 The University of Akron

Prosthetic Hand, Nicholas Damiani, Eric Rassavong, John Zolton

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Development of a prosthetic hand for an above-the-wrist amputee. The hand will provide flexion and extension of the wrist, fingers and thumb. The device will be customized for each individual by utilizing an medical imaging of the amputation side stump and the normal arm/wrist as the input. An integral hand/wrist and socket will be 3D printed, and actuators will be mounted to the prosthetic to provide motion. The wrist will be a mirror-image of the normal hand. Materials utilized will be selected based on the medical image intensity for different tissue types (cartilage, bone, skin, fat, etc.) and ...


Novel Device For Measuring Lung Function Using Oscillometry, Gregory S. Roy, Nirav Daphtary, Jason H.T. Bates 2020 The University of Vermont

Novel Device For Measuring Lung Function Using Oscillometry, Gregory S. Roy, Nirav Daphtary, Jason H.T. Bates

Larner College of Medicine Fourth Year Advanced Integration Teaching/Scholarly Projects

The forced oscillation technique (FOT) is a non-invasive means of measuring lung mechanics. Broad-band oscillations in flow are delivered to the lungs while the resultant pressure oscillations are recorded. These signals are processed to yield the input impedance of the respiratory system (Zrs), which encapsulates the mechanical properties of the lung over the frequency range spanned by the oscillations. Clinically, can be used to assess pulmonary pathologies such as asthma and COPD. Standard methods of performing FOT are limited to the non-ambulatory clinical setting. Production of a light-weight device that operates without an external power source would allow real-time measurements ...


Extracellular Matrix Nanoparticles Effects On The Lung In Vivo, Brittaney E. Ritchie 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

Extracellular Matrix Nanoparticles Effects On The Lung In Vivo, Brittaney E. Ritchie

Theses and Dissertations

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening condition that causes diffuse alveolar damage and a loss of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This leads to pulmonary edema and lung function deterioration. Our lab has created decellularized porcine lung, electrosprayed ECM nanoparticles that have been previously shown to have pro-regenerative capabilities in vitro.

In this study, the ECM nanoparticle effects on young murine lungs were tested in vivo. An ECM nanoparticle suspension, previously used for the in vitro studies, was aerosolized intratracheally into the lungs using a microsprayer. 24 hours later, the lung mechanics, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, and histology were ...


Upper Extremity Mobility Device, Timothy J. Grassi, Jacob R. Miller 2020 The University of Akron

Upper Extremity Mobility Device, Timothy J. Grassi, Jacob R. Miller

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

The goal of this project was to evaluate a clinical problem, explore possible solutions, and produce a functioning prototype that would conform to all the established guidelines and requirements. The project focused on developing an upper extremity mobility device for a singular client with limited muscle activity in his arms due to childhood polio. Our design process was governed by an adapted form of the FDA Design Control Process, 21 CFR 820.30 [1]. The outcome of this project was a functioning prototype that utilized the concept of a motorized pulley system remote controlled using a key fob. This research ...


Assessing 3d Printability Of Bioinks, Nicole Ramirez 2020 University of Central Florida

Assessing 3d Printability Of Bioinks, Nicole Ramirez

Honors Undergraduate Theses

The field of tissue engineering (TE) is continuously improving through the use of additive manufacturing techniques (AM) such as three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting. The 3D bioprinter has significantly gained attention in the TE field because it is more efficient than regenerative medicine and is readily available as opposed to organ transplants. Working like a conventional 3D printer, the 3D bioprinter is able to dispense material layer by layer from the bottom up with the printing head able to move in the X, Y, and Z direction. This movement allows for the fabrication of structures with complex geometries. In this study, the ...


Atv Dynamics And Pediatric Rider Safety, James T. Auxier II 2020 University of Kentucky

Atv Dynamics And Pediatric Rider Safety, James T. Auxier Ii

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

It has been observed through numerous academic and governmental agency studies that pediatric all-terrain vehicle ridership carries significant risk of injury and death. While no doubt valuable to safety, the post-hoc approach employed in these studies does little to explain the why and how behind the risk factors. Furthermore, there has been no prolonged, widespread, organized, and concerted effort to reconstruct and catalog the details and causes of the large (20,000+) number of ATV-related injuries that occur each year as has been done for road-based motor vehicle accidents. This dissertation takes the opposite approach from a meta-analysis and instead ...


Effects Of A Hip Orthosis On Lumbopelvic Coordination In Individuals With And Without Low Back Pain, Colin Drury 2020 University of Kentucky

Effects Of A Hip Orthosis On Lumbopelvic Coordination In Individuals With And Without Low Back Pain, Colin Drury

Theses and Dissertations--Biomedical Engineering

Individuals with low back pain (LBP) demonstrate an abnormal lumbopelvic coordination compared to back-healthy individuals. This abnormal coordination presents itself as a reduction in lumbar contribution and an increase in pelvic contribution to trunk motion. This study investigated the ability of a hip orthosis to correct such an abnormal lumbo-pelvic coordination by restricting pelvic rotation and, as a result, increasing lumbar contributions. The effects of the hip orthosis on the magnitude and timing characteristics of lumbopelvic coordination were investigated in 20 patients with LBP and 20 asymptomatic controls. The orthosis significantly increased lumbar contributions by 11%, 5.42%, 4.84 ...


Utilizing Virtual High-Throughput Screens To Identify Promising Inhibitors Of Complement Factor C1s, Lyndsey Schmucker 2020 The University of Akron

Utilizing Virtual High-Throughput Screens To Identify Promising Inhibitors Of Complement Factor C1s, Lyndsey Schmucker

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

A large study was conducted to identify possible drug candidates to treat various diseases using computer algorithms, virtual high-throughput screens, and experimental validation of activity. Since the algorithm has the capability to screen millions of compounds, it is beneficial to pharmaceutical development as it allows a larger pool of compounds to be considered that would have otherwise been overlooked. As part of this larger study, this project attempts to identify drug candidates to treat human complement factor C1, a protein which causes tissue damage when underregulated1. A series of designed experiments validate candidates and confirm the performance of the ...


Prosthetic Foot/Ankle Inversion & Eversion Enhancement, Jason Wiebrecht, Maddison Grimes 2020 The University of Akron

Prosthetic Foot/Ankle Inversion & Eversion Enhancement, Jason Wiebrecht, Maddison Grimes

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Modify a prosthetic foot/ankle, that currently has power at the ankle joint, for dorsiflexion/flexion so that it supplies power across a simulated subtalar joint, making the joint capable of inversion/eversion.


From Soap Bubbles To Cell Membranes, Peter Beltramo 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

From Soap Bubbles To Cell Membranes, Peter Beltramo

Science and Engineering Saturday Seminars

Have you ever blown a soap bubble and wondered - what causes the bubble to be so stable and produces those colorful reflections of light? The answer lies in a class of molecules known as surfactants, and they have remarkable similarities with the molecules that comprise the cell membrane of all living organisms. In this workshop, we will use the analogy of a soap bubble to describe cellular membrane properties such as chemistry, structure, membrane transport, and ion channel formation. The goals of this workshop are to 1) link initially intractable concepts in biology like intracellular transport to the intuitive soap ...


Bubble Lab Exercise, Peter Beltramo 2020 University of Massachusetts Amherst

Bubble Lab Exercise, Peter Beltramo

Science and Engineering Saturday Seminars

The cell membrane is a ubiquitous component in mammalian cells which control many vital biological functions. It consists of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded protein molecules which serve to transport molecules between the interior and exterior of the cell. Understanding what makes cell membranes so important and how they function requires concepts from physics, chemistry, and of course biology, but it is difficult to learn and conceptualize the structure and function of membranes due to their nanoscopic size and dynamic nature which can’t be properly appreciated in a static textbook. This activity draws analogies between the chemistry and structure ...


The Impact Of Aging And Mechanical Injury On Alveolar Epithelial And Macrophage Responses In Acute Lung Injury And Inflammation, Michael S. Valentine 2020 Virginia Commonwealth University

The Impact Of Aging And Mechanical Injury On Alveolar Epithelial And Macrophage Responses In Acute Lung Injury And Inflammation, Michael S. Valentine

Theses and Dissertations

Patients with severe lung pathologies, such as Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), often require mechanical ventilation as a clinical intervention; however, this procedure frequently exacerbates the original pulmonary issue and produces an exaggerated inflammatory response that potentially leads to sepsis, multisystem organ failure, and mortality. This acute lung injury (ALI) condition has been termed Ventilator-Induced Lung Injury (VILI). Alveolar overdistension, cyclic atelectasis, and biotrauma are the primary injury mechanisms in VILI that lead to the loss of alveolar barrier integrity and pulmonary inflammation. Stress and strains during mechanical ventilation are believed to initiate alveolar epithelial mechanotransduction signaling mechanisms that contribute ...


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