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Biomedical Engineering and Bioengineering Commons

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Optical Metabolic Imaging As A Predictor Of Patient Tumor Response To Therapy And Apoptosis, Andrew Larey 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Optical Metabolic Imaging As A Predictor Of Patient Tumor Response To Therapy And Apoptosis, Andrew Larey

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Despite a plethora of medical advancements, malignant tumors remain difficult to treat due to complex cancer biology and interpatient heterogeneity. Phenotypically similar tumors may respond differently to a given treatment. In clinical oncology, it is paramount to quantify tumor response to therapy for predicting treatment outcome, monitoring tumor changes, identifying effective therapies, and avoiding unnecessary cost and toxicity to the patient. Current standards of monitoring tumor response to therapy include CT, MRI, PET, and histopathology; these methods either take a merely anatomical approach or are invasive and time consuming, necessitating a functional biomarker approach. MPM represents a metabolic-level method of ...


Theoretical Applicability Of Crispr-Mediated Exon Skipping In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Andrew Greek 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Theoretical Applicability Of Crispr-Mediated Exon Skipping In Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy, Andrew Greek

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) affects approximately 1 in 5,000 males. DMD results from genetic mutations within the gene that interrupts the open reading frame and prematurely truncates the protein. From a non-functional dystrophin protein, DMD results in serious muscle weakening and muscle wasting ultimately leading to death around the age of 26. In some cases of muscular dystrophy, a mutation can occur in areas of the gene that are less essential. In Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), these mutations cause less significant consequences in phenotype as the dystrophin protein is still semi-functional. With gene editing techniques, it may be possible ...


Differential Patterns Of Theta Activation Underlying Various Cognitive Control Strategies, Jarrod Eisma 2020 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Differential Patterns Of Theta Activation Underlying Various Cognitive Control Strategies, Jarrod Eisma

Biomedical Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

In this study, EEG was recorded from 157 participants at the University of Arkansas as they performed three computer tasks that tested inhibitory control (Go/Nogo Task), proactive and reactive control (AX-Continuous Performance Task), and resolving response conflict (Global/Local Task- modified Flanker Task). Time-frequency analysis (ERSP) was the primary focus of this study, in order to take advantage of the temporal and frequential characteristics of EEG recordings. The ERSPs and following statistical analysis showed significantly higher midfrontal theta band (4-8 Hz) power values for target trials (those that required more cognitive control) than control trials, which indicated that the ...


Gait Characterization Using Computer Vision Video Analysis, Martha T. Gizaw 2020 College of William and Mary

Gait Characterization Using Computer Vision Video Analysis, Martha T. Gizaw

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The World Health Organization reports that falls are the second-leading cause of accidental death among senior adults around the world. Currently, a research team at William & Mary’s Department of Kinesiology & Health Sciences attempts to recognize and correct aging-related factors that can result in falling. To meet this goal, the members of that team videotape walking tests to examine individual gait parameters of older subjects. However, they undergo a slow, laborious process of analyzing video frame by video frame to obtain such parameters. This project uses computer vision software to reconstruct walking models from residents of an independent living retirement ...


Determination Of Gas Emission Characteristics From Animal Wastes Using A Multiplexed Portable Ftir-Surface Chamber System, Pakorn Sutitarnnontr 2020 Utah State University

Determination Of Gas Emission Characteristics From Animal Wastes Using A Multiplexed Portable Ftir-Surface Chamber System, Pakorn Sutitarnnontr

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Livestock production is a growing source of air pollution at regional, national, and global scales. Improved livestock manure management has the potential to reduce environmental impacts; however, there is an urgent need for cost-efficient, reliable, and easy to maintain measurement and monitoring capabilities to precisely quantify emissions from livestock manure. This research describes and evaluates a novel measurement method based on the multiplexed portable Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analyzer - surface chamber techniques for continuous measurements and monitoring gas emissions from manure sources. The multiplexing system was designed and developed to automate the chamber network, controlling the movement of chambers ...


Observation Of Struvite In The Mixed Microalgae Biofilm Matrix Of A Rotating Algal Biofilm Reactor During Nutrient Removal From Municipal Anaerobic Digester Filtrate, Kyle M. Hillman 2020 Utah State University

Observation Of Struvite In The Mixed Microalgae Biofilm Matrix Of A Rotating Algal Biofilm Reactor During Nutrient Removal From Municipal Anaerobic Digester Filtrate, Kyle M. Hillman

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Central Valley Water Reclamation Facility (CVWRF) in Salt Lake City is the largest municipal wastewater treatment plant in Utah and must meet new and rigorous nutrient effluent standards–over 95% reduction in phosphorus output by 2025. Filtrate from CVWRF anaerobic digesters contains high levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and magnesium. Supersaturation of these constituents leads to nuisance struvite precipitation that clogs belts, pumps, and pipes downstream of anaerobic digesters. Struvite is a mineral precipitate composed of equimolar magnesium, ammonium, and phosphate. Controlled precipitation of struvite helps prevent clogging and scaling, removes phosphate from wastewater, and generates a marketable fertilizer product.

Struvite ...


A High Frequency Photoacoustic System For Colorectal Cancer Imaging, Kexin Huang 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

A High Frequency Photoacoustic System For Colorectal Cancer Imaging, Kexin Huang

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

While colorectal cancer is the second largest cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States, early detection is a key factor in its survival rate. Compared to conventional imaging modalities, photoacoustic imaging offers benefits in providing angiographic images which are valuable for early-stage tumor detection. This thesis presents the design of a 32-channel 80 MHz photoacoustic image system, whose relatively high frequency offers particular advantages.

The system comprises several modules, including a laser system, ultrasound probe, AD convertor, microcontroller (FPGA), and a computer. The system requires programs for the FPGA and the data receiver on the computer. The data transportation ...


Design And Validation Of A Dynamic Pressure-Based Loading Device And 3d Strain Tracking Protocol For Ventral Hernia Modeling, Griffin Kivitz 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Design And Validation Of A Dynamic Pressure-Based Loading Device And 3d Strain Tracking Protocol For Ventral Hernia Modeling, Griffin Kivitz

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

It is estimated that 350,000-500,000 ventral hernia repair surgeries are performed each year in the United States. While the long-term recurrence rate of ventral hernia repairs is not yet known, when tissues are exposed to the trauma of surgery, there is always the chance of recurrence. Commonly used ex vivo testing methods for determining the mechanical properties of the abdominal wall and biomaterials for hernia repair consist primarily of uniaxial and biaxial testing, which are not physiologically relevant loading environments. The need for a testing device that can exert physiologically relevant loads ex vivo to an abdominal wall ...


Transcriptomic Analysis Of Cytokine-Treated Tissue-Engineered Cartilage As An In Vitro Model Of Osteoarthritis, Jiehan Li 2020 Washington University in St. Louis

Transcriptomic Analysis Of Cytokine-Treated Tissue-Engineered Cartilage As An In Vitro Model Of Osteoarthritis, Jiehan Li

Engineering and Applied Science Theses & Dissertations

Osteoarthritis (OA), as the most common form of arthritis and a leading cause of disability worldwide, currently has no disease-modifying drugs. Inflammation plays an important role in cartilage degeneration in OA, and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β and TNF-α, have been shown to induce degradative changes along with aberrant gene expression in chondrocytes, the only resident cells in cartilage. The goal of this study was to further understand the transcriptomic regulation of tissue-engineered cartilage in response to inflammatory cytokines using an in vitro miPSC model system. We performed RNA sequencing for the IL-1β or TNF-α treated tissue-engineered cartilage derived from murine iPSCs ...


Biomimetic Modeling Of Preeclamptic Conditions, Noha Algahimi 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Biomimetic Modeling Of Preeclamptic Conditions, Noha Algahimi

UCARE Research Products

Background: •Preeclampsia is a condition often diagnosed around 20 weeks of pregnancy •Preeclampsia results in 18% of US maternal deaths and 15% of premature US births •Results in high blood pressure, headaches, nausea, and breathing difficulties Hypothesis: Placental stiffness shares a direct correlation with the adverse progression of preeclampsia. Aims/Objectives: •Characterize the relationship between stiffness and alterations to placental cell morphology, metabolism, and function

Morphology: Once the plates have been seeded they are monitored for several days, when they reach adequate confluence they are imaged for changes in morphology. The images show cell elongation with increasing stiffness.


Optimizing Athletic Throwing Power For Increased Training Efficiency, Ian Ghanavati, Curtis Tomasevicz 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Optimizing Athletic Throwing Power For Increased Training Efficiency, Ian Ghanavati, Curtis Tomasevicz

UCARE Research Products

A summary on the investigation of the mechanics of weighted baseball pitching.

• The demand for higher pitch velocity has increased at all levels of competitive play within baseball • Weighted baseball training programs are a common way to increase pitch velocity • The efficacy and safety of weighted ball throwing is not fully understood • The aim of this study is to further investigate the mechanics of pitching under and overweight balls in order to better understand their role in athletic training


Synthetic Lethality In Pediatric Brain Cancer Cells By Optimized Plga Nanoparticles And Drug Combinations, Megan Ruckman, Megan Otte, Forrest Kievit 2020 University of Nebraska-Lincoln

Synthetic Lethality In Pediatric Brain Cancer Cells By Optimized Plga Nanoparticles And Drug Combinations, Megan Ruckman, Megan Otte, Forrest Kievit

UCARE Research Products

Here we test drugs effectiveness to inhibit various DNA repair pathways with the purpose of sensitizing cancer cells to radiotherapy. We work on optimizing delivery of DNA repair pathway inhibiting drugs by the use of PLGA nanoparticles.


Acute Mechanical Stress In Primary Porcine Rpe Cells Induces Angiogenic Factor Expression And In Vitro Angiogenesis, Farhad Farjood, Amir Ahmadpour, Sassan Ostvar, Elizabeth Vargis 2020 Utah State University

Acute Mechanical Stress In Primary Porcine Rpe Cells Induces Angiogenic Factor Expression And In Vitro Angiogenesis, Farhad Farjood, Amir Ahmadpour, Sassan Ostvar, Elizabeth Vargis

Biological Engineering Faculty Publications

Background

Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) is a major cause of blindness in patients with age-related macular degeneration. CNV is characterized by new blood vessel growth and subretinal fluid accumulation, which results in mechanical pressure on retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells. The overexpression of RPE-derived angiogenic factors plays an important role in inducing CNV. In this work, we investigated the effect of mechanical stress on the expression of angiogenic factors in porcine RPE cells and determined the impact of conditioned medium on in-vitro angiogenesis.

Results

The goal of this study was to determine whether low levels of acute mechanical stress during early ...


Multimodal Photoplethysmography-Based Approaches For Improved Detection Of Hypertension, Kaylie Welykholowa, Richard Fletcher, Mohamed Elgendi 2020 University of British Columbia

Multimodal Photoplethysmography-Based Approaches For Improved Detection Of Hypertension, Kaylie Welykholowa, Richard Fletcher, Mohamed Elgendi

Open Access Articles

Elevated blood pressure (BP) is a major cause of death, yet hypertension commonly goes undetected. Owing to its nature, it is typically asymptomatic until later in its progression when the vessel or organ structure has already been compromised. Therefore, noninvasive and continuous BP measurement methods are needed to ensure appropriate diagnosis and early management before hypertension leads to irreversible complications. Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a noninvasive technology with waveform morphologies similar to that of arterial BP waveforms, therefore attracting interest regarding its usability in BP estimation. In recent years, wearable devices incorporating PPG sensors have been proposed to improve the early ...


Multiphysics Computational Model Of Fluid Flow And Mass Transfer In Aneurysm, Tanja Cupac 2020 Duquesne University

Multiphysics Computational Model Of Fluid Flow And Mass Transfer In Aneurysm, Tanja Cupac

Graduate Student Research Symposium

The abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) mostly affects men between the ages 65-85 and is very common with more than 3 million cases in the United States per year. AAA is defined as the weakening of the arterial wall producing a blood-filled bulge in the body’s largest blood vessel. AAA is progressive, asymptomatic, and can eventually lead to rupture which is a catastrophic event leading to massive internal bleeding and possibly death. Of the males within this age range, 1-3% will die from this disease. About 75% of AAA cases will be characterized by the development of an intraluminal thrombus ...


Inducing Increased Bioplastic Production In R. Palustris Cga009, Cameron Gilley, Dylan Hoppner, Brandi J. Brown 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Inducing Increased Bioplastic Production In R. Palustris Cga009, Cameron Gilley, Dylan Hoppner, Brandi J. Brown

Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering Theses, Dissertations, & Student Research

PHA’s (polyhydroxyalkanoates) are important bio polymers in different industries such as petroleum, medicine, and nano technology. In the microorganisms in which they are produced, they serve as an energy storage material by storing both carbon and usable electrons. This is useful in environments where the organisms are nutrient starved. PHA’s have a practical use especially in the medical field as bio-plastics because they are biodegradable and bio-compatible. Rhodopseudomonas. palustris, a common soil bacterium, is notable for its uncommon metabolic flexibility. Its diverse metabolism means that it can fix CO 2 and grow on many lignin based monomers in ...


Quantification Of Phenotypic Change Resulting In Sensitization Of Primary Sensory Neurons Due To Oxidative Stress, Adan Redwine, Sarah M. Romereim, Rebecca A. Wachs 2020 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Quantification Of Phenotypic Change Resulting In Sensitization Of Primary Sensory Neurons Due To Oxidative Stress, Adan Redwine, Sarah M. Romereim, Rebecca A. Wachs

UCARE Research Products

84% of the population will suffer from low back pain at some point in their lives, and 39% of the cases may be related to pain originating from the intervertebral disc (IVD) also known as discogenic pain. Age or injury can cause progressive degeneration of the IVD, and this can allow innervation by nociceptive (pain-sensing) neurons from the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) into the inner IVD.6 Long-term exposure to pain-inducing stimuli can cause nociceptor sensitization, manifested as increased pain sensation in response to non-painful or painful stimuli.7 Sensitization results in the nociceptors responding more strongly to a stimulus ...


Bionic Hand Team, Christopher T. Rossiter, David J. Bogacz, Carly J. Ulrich 2020 Cedarville University

Bionic Hand Team, Christopher T. Rossiter, David J. Bogacz, Carly J. Ulrich

The Research and Scholarship Symposium

The project goal is to design a low cost prosthetic hand controlled by a PIC18F25K22 microcontroller that will allow the user to perform simple tasks that require a greater dexterity than what a mechanical prosthetic can deliver. The digits of the prosthetic will be contracted or relaxed using electromyographic signals measured by electrodes on a single muscle group. Grip settings, which define the open and closed position for each digit, are used for the control of the hand. This allows common actions, such as grabbing a door handle or pencil, to be accomplished with readings from one muscle group instead ...


Reaching Performance In Heathy Individuals And Stroke Survivors Improves After Practice With Vibrotactile State Feedback, Valay A. Shah 2020 Marquette University

Reaching Performance In Heathy Individuals And Stroke Survivors Improves After Practice With Vibrotactile State Feedback, Valay A. Shah

Dissertations (2009 -)

Stroke causes deficits of cognition, motor, and/or somatosensory functions. These deficits degrade the capability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs). Many research investigations have focused on mitigating the motor deficits of stroke through motor rehabilitation. However, somatosensory deficits are common and may contribute importantly to impairments in the control of functional arm movement. This dissertation advances the goal of promoting functional motor recovery after stroke by investigating the use of a vibrotactile feedback (VTF) body-machine interface (BMI). The VTF BMI is intended to improve control of the contralesional arm of stroke survivors by delivering supplemental limb-state feedback to ...


Eeg Characterization Of Sensorimotor Networks: Implications In Stroke, Dylan Blake Snyder 2020 Marquette University

Eeg Characterization Of Sensorimotor Networks: Implications In Stroke, Dylan Blake Snyder

Dissertations (2009 -)

The purpose of this dissertation was to use electroencephalography (EEG) to characterize sensorimotor networks and examine the effects of stroke on sensorimotor networks. Sensorimotor networks play an essential role in completion of everyday tasks, and when damaged, as in stroke survivors, the successful completion of seemingly simple motor tasks becomes fantasy. When sensorimotor networks are impaired as a result of stroke, varying degrees of sensorimotor deficits emerge, most often including loss of sensation and difficulty generating upper extremity movements. Although sensory therapies, such as the application of tendon vibration, have been shown to reduce the sensorimotor deficits after stroke, the ...


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