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David Versus Goliath: The Power Of Weakness In Asymmetric Warfare—Lessons From History, Nicholas K. Petaludis 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

David Versus Goliath: The Power Of Weakness In Asymmetric Warfare—Lessons From History, Nicholas K. Petaludis

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Under what conditions do violent nonstate actors (VNA) succeed against states? Why does David sometimes beat Goliath? Since at least the time of Thucydides and the Peloponnesian Wars, the realist narrative in international relations measures power primarily in relative, coercive, and deterrent terms. Strong states should accordingly face fewer constraints and enjoy more options while pursuing their national interests. Unconventional warfare, and its subsets of terrorism and insurgency, should—given these circumstances, end in VNA failure. Sometimes, however, VNAs find success. By comparing the literature on historical and current case studies, I propose that a set of preconditions and two mechanisms …


Perkembangan Kanal Oud Batavia Abad Xvii–Xx: Tinjauan Sejarah Perkotaan, Heru Mulyanto 2022 Universitas Indonesia

Perkembangan Kanal Oud Batavia Abad Xvii–Xx: Tinjauan Sejarah Perkotaan, Heru Mulyanto

Paradigma: Jurnal Kajian Budaya

Urban environmental problems such as flooding and water pollution have actually occurred in Jakarta (formerly Batavia) since the Dutch colonial era. Batavia was one of the cities with a myriad of urban planning problems, such as canal flooding which continues to this day. This article was written to find the root of the water problem in Jakarta by reviewing the development of canal construction from the Oud Batavia to the Nieuwe Batavia era. This study was conducted to identify the colonial government’s methods for dealing with flooding and repairing problematic canals. Thus, this research is expected to provide an insight …


The Dixie Mission, Patrick J. Hurley, And America's Diplomatic Failure In China, 1944-45, Sarah Moody 2022 University of Washington Tacoma

The Dixie Mission, Patrick J. Hurley, And America's Diplomatic Failure In China, 1944-45, Sarah Moody

History Undergraduate Theses

This paper examines the American diplomatic effort in China in 1944-45 including the attempts at military coordination with Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist government as well as the "Dixie Mission," which was the first official American contact with the Chinese Communist Party. I argue that the personalities of the American diplomats, the structural issues endemic to the China-Burma-India Theater, the fractured and complex Chinese political situation, and the lack of clear and rational foreign policy on China all culminated in the diplomatic efforts failing. While acknowledging the numerous contributing factors that led to diplomatic failure, this paper also suggests ways in which …


Explaining Suharto's Rise And Fall: International And Domestic Variables, Julia Batanghari 2022 University of San Diego

Explaining Suharto's Rise And Fall: International And Domestic Variables, Julia Batanghari

Undergraduate Honors Theses

For three decades (1968-1998), Indonesia was led by President Suharto, whose authoritarian military regime is remembered for its corruption and brutality. This paper offers an analysis of Suharto’s rule through the lens of two events: his 1965 purge of local ‘communists’ and the riots of May 1998. Drawing comparisons between the two, I delve into systemic causes by considering the influence of domestic and international variables. Exploring links between intergroup accommodation and democracy reveals that Suharto’s lack of ethnic, socioeconomic, and religious inclusivity paved the way not only for the anti-Chinese sentiment which pervaded Indonesian society during his presidency, but …


Erotic Grotesque Nonsense: Veiled Criticism Through Extreme Entertainment, Thoby Jeanty 2022 Seton Hall University

Erotic Grotesque Nonsense: Veiled Criticism Through Extreme Entertainment, Thoby Jeanty

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

This thesis examines the writings of Meiji novelists living during a time of transition. Their writings became known as part of a genre called Erotic Grotesque Nonsense. The genre became defined as engaging in extremes to entertain an audience captivated by the eroticism, grotesque, or even the nonsensical nature of the stories being told. The thesis discovers there is a pressing social commentary on the tumultuous transition to modernity hidden within these works. The traditions established during the Tokugawa era starting from 1603 and lasting until 1867 came under pressure with the start of the Meiji era in 1868. Each …


The Personality Profile Of China’S Empress Wu Zetian, Ruoyue Wang, Yunyiye Chen, Aubrey Immelman 2022 Capital Normal University

The Personality Profile Of China’S Empress Wu Zetian, Ruoyue Wang, Yunyiye Chen, Aubrey Immelman

Psychology Faculty Publications

This paper presents the results of an indirect assessment of the personality of Empress Wu Zetian, de facto ruler of China from 665 to 705, from the conceptual perspective of personologist Theodore Millon.

Psychodiagnostically relevant data about Empress Wu were collected from biographical sources and media reports and synthesized into a personality profile using the Millon Inventory of Diagnostic Criteria (MIDC), which yields 34 normal and maladaptive personality classifications congruent with DSM-III-R, DSM-IV, and DSM-5.

The personality profile yielded by the MIDC was analyzed in accordance with interpretive guidelines provided in the MIDC and Millon Index of …


Book Censorship In Post-Tiananmen China (1989-2019), Yuwu Song 2022 Library of Congress

Book Censorship In Post-Tiananmen China (1989-2019), Yuwu Song

Journal of East Asian Libraries

Abstract: Censorship has become more prevalent in Chinese cultural and social life since the 1989 Tiananmen Square Massacre. Modern commentary on Chinese censorship focuses on news media and Internet, but neglects print books, which is part of a broader crackdown on dissent. To fill this gap, the project aims to map the contours of book censorship in China during the past 30 years. The emphasis is on the Chinese authorities’ increasing attempts to dominate people’s minds under Xi Jinping, who ascended to power as the leader of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in 2012. The project reveals different levels of …


Christian Mass Movements In South India And Some Of The Critical Factors That Changed The Face Of Christianity In India, Philip Joseph Mathew 2022 The University of Western Ontario

Christian Mass Movements In South India And Some Of The Critical Factors That Changed The Face Of Christianity In India, Philip Joseph Mathew

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The main reason for Christian growth in India was not individual conversions but rather Christian mass movements (CMMs). Since the late 1700s, a series of independent CMMs among non-Christians and a mass reformation movement within the Suriani community have occurred in the southern end of India. These MMs culminated in a mass emancipation movement against caste-imposed segregation of Dalits in the late 1800s, an event of national significance. In the early 1900s, Pentecostalism evolved from these CMMs and transformed the religious landscape of Christianity in South India and later in India as a whole. The Thoma Christians were the early …


History From The Margins: Literary Culture And Manuscript Production In Western India In The Vernacular Millennium, Jahnabi Barooah Chanchani 2022 University of Michigan

History From The Margins: Literary Culture And Manuscript Production In Western India In The Vernacular Millennium, Jahnabi Barooah Chanchani

Manuscript Studies

Scholars of South Asia have long known of praśastis, eulogistic verses often composed in the transregional Sanskrit language on copperplates, stone slabs, and temple walls, from the early centuries of the Common Era. They have traditionally sieved these documents to recover dynastic histories and have supposed that as a genre, it faded away in the second millennium CE when Islamic polities were established across the subcontinent and new genres of history writing were popularized. In making this supposition they have overlooked the fact that praśastis continued to be frequently composed and written. Yet, their appearance was neither in public spaces …


Thailand: The Return Of Authoritarianism, Alexandra T. Harrison 2022 University of North Florida

Thailand: The Return Of Authoritarianism, Alexandra T. Harrison

PANDION: The Osprey Journal of Research and Ideas

In the post–World War II global order, democracy has made advancements around the world. However, it is not uncommon for governments to establish systems that try to emulate democracy while embodying a more authoritarian rule, which quickly becomes problematic because authoritarian governments are notorious for violating their citizens’ rights. This can be seen specifically in Thailand, where multiple military coups d’état have caused changes in the government, forcing the nation to alternate between democratic and authoritarian policies. The most recent coup staged in 2014, shifted the government away from democracy entirely, transitioning into the strictest authoritarian rule Thailand has seen …


Dalit Studies: The Impacts Of British Colonization In India, Dalit Identity & The Internationalization Of Caste Discrimination At The United Nations, Yashpreet Birdi 2022 University of Windsor

Dalit Studies: The Impacts Of British Colonization In India, Dalit Identity & The Internationalization Of Caste Discrimination At The United Nations, Yashpreet Birdi

Major Papers

The centuries-old caste system dividing individuals in society in a hierarchical order has long been responsible for the continuous oppression of the Dalit (also referred to as Untouchables) population in India. Experiences associated with British colonization period in the country have greatly influenced the fundamental social values, structures, and institutional frameworks of modern and democratic India, along with the identity of Dalits. Scholars in the newly emerged academic field of Dalit studies have examined contemporary issues of the Dalit population, whereas academics of post-colonial studies have analyzed the various social, economic, and cultural losses of British colonization in India. Although …


“Filipinos In California, Community, And Identity”: A Personal Inquiry, Sam T. McClintock 2022 California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo

“Filipinos In California, Community, And Identity”: A Personal Inquiry, Sam T. Mcclintock

The Forum: Journal of History

No abstract provided.


Taiwanese Indigenous Representation, Rhetoric Of Resistance, And Heteroglossia In Warriors Of The Rainbow: Seediq Bale., John Yu-Choh Chang 2022 University of Louisville

Taiwanese Indigenous Representation, Rhetoric Of Resistance, And Heteroglossia In Warriors Of The Rainbow: Seediq Bale., John Yu-Choh Chang

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation explores the relationship between Taiwanese indigenous narrative and rhetoric, in textual representations of the Seediq people and the 1930 Musha Incident. It explores how the forced colonization of Taiwanese indigenous people affected their identities and cultural representation, and how multi-voiced forms of narrative, storytelling, and meaning-making have rooted in indigenous oral traditions and rituals that counter colonial representations. Across a range of cultural texts, I identify what I call Taiwanese indigenous rhetoric of resistance (TIRR), drawing on Simon J. Ortiz’s theory of indigenous literature and oral traditions as indigenous-nationalist forms of cultural resistance. In addition, I draw on …


Total Prevention: A History Of Schistosomiasis In Japan, Alexander Bay 2022 Chapman University

Total Prevention: A History Of Schistosomiasis In Japan, Alexander Bay

History Faculty Articles and Research

In Japan, schistosomiasis was endemic in Yamanashi Prefecture and a few other hotspot areas where the Miya’iri snail lived. The parasite’s lifecycle relied on the intermediary Miya’iri snail as well as the human host. Parasite eggs passed into the agrarian environment through untreated night soil used as fertiliser or through the culture of open defecation in rural Japan. Manmade rice fields and irrigation ditches, night soil covered paddies and highly refined growing seasons put people in flooded rice paddies to intensively work the land in the spring and summer. The disease was equally dependent on human intervention in the natural …


Wang Xitian And The Chinese Experience In Imperial Tokyo, 1899-1923: Class, Violence, And The Formation Of A New National Consciousness, Isabella Yihan Yang 2022 Yale University

Wang Xitian And The Chinese Experience In Imperial Tokyo, 1899-1923: Class, Violence, And The Formation Of A New National Consciousness, Isabella Yihan Yang

Student Work

A 2021-2022 Williams Prize for best essay in East Asian Studies was awarded to Isabella Yang (Saybrook ‘22) for her essay submitted to the Department of History, "Wang Xitian and the Chinese Experience in Imperial Tokyo, 1899-1923: Class, Violence, and the Formation of a New National Consciousness” (Daniel Botsman, Professor of History, advisor).

Drawing upon a remarkable array of sources in Japanese, Chinese and English, Isabella Yang, in her thesis “Wang Xitian and the Chinese Experience in Imperial Tokyo, 1899-1923: Class, Violence, and the Formation of a New National Consciousness,” has crafted a genuinely path-breaking account of an aspect of …


Solidarity Divided: The Miike Strike Of 1960 And Fractures Within Japan's Labor Movement During The Cold War, John L. M. Dinh 2022 Portland State University

Solidarity Divided: The Miike Strike Of 1960 And Fractures Within Japan's Labor Movement During The Cold War, John L. M. Dinh

University Honors Theses

One of the most famous episodes of labor seeking concessions from management in postwar Japan was the Miike strike of 1960 in Ōmuta, Fukuoka Prefecture. The goal of the striking coal miners was to pressure management of the Mitsui Mining Company to rescind over a thousand notices that would force those affected into "voluntary retirement," most targeted union members who were hostile to management. However, there was a lack of unity among the strikers where the miners split between the "first union" and the "second union." The first union was hostile to management and opposed such rationalization measures entirely. The …


The Cost Of Urbanization: A Look Into The Transformation Of Mao Era Reforms, Tieren A. Dokes 2022 University of San Francisco

The Cost Of Urbanization: A Look Into The Transformation Of Mao Era Reforms, Tieren A. Dokes

Master's Projects and Capstones

Mao Zedong has played an influential role in Chinese society, whether for better or for worse. His policies have caused ripples throughout contemporary Chinese society, but nothing stronger than his desire for urbanization and economic land reform. Utilizing Mao’s drive for urbanization and economic reform as essential historical context, this paper connects how the contemporary governmental push for urbanization has been unyielding, and, in some ways, counterproductive as decade-old Mao-era institutions reverberate in an echo chamber with cracks that allow darker forces to seep in. Real estate and urban development companies and local governments are given monetary incentive to redevelop …


The Perspectives Of Urban Renewal: Reevaluating The Image Of Late Twentieth Century Gentrification Of U.S. Chinatowns, Christian E. Manalac 2022 Temple University

The Perspectives Of Urban Renewal: Reevaluating The Image Of Late Twentieth Century Gentrification Of U.S. Chinatowns, Christian E. Manalac

Gettysburg College Headquarters

Urban renewal or gentrification has affected many low-income minority families in the United States with redevelopment projects that destroyed their neighborhoods for the affluent white middle class. Unlike, many minority groups who protested against the intrusive practice Chinatowns communities saw themselves divided over the issue. Chinatowns throughout the nation benefitted from redevelopment projects that brought new investments into their neighborhoods’ businesses, but like other minority neighborhood, they also suffered as their residents were displaced. This case study examines the debates over urban renewal of Philadelphia and Washington D.C’s Chinatowns through local newspaper coverage from the 1970s-1990s. Specifically, this study uncovers …


A Phoenix From The Ashes: Jackson Park’S Japanese Garden, Cultural Exchange, And The Endurance Of Japanese Sites After Pearl Harbor, Brittany Murphy 2022 Augustana College

A Phoenix From The Ashes: Jackson Park’S Japanese Garden, Cultural Exchange, And The Endurance Of Japanese Sites After Pearl Harbor, Brittany Murphy

Asian Studies: Student Scholarship & Creative Works

Japanese gardens in the United States have a history that dates back to the World’s Fairs of the late 19th century, when Japan used the World’s Stage to project an image of itself as a powerful nation founded on both modern industrial techniques and traditional culture to compete with dominating Euro-American powers. The history of the Japanese garden in Chicago’s Jackson Park, gifted to Chicago by the Japanese government for the 1893 Columbian Exposition, tells the story of Midwesterners’ love and appreciation for the gardens while also demonstrating the implicit legacies of Executive Order 9066. The garden remained a crucial …


How Nationalist China Attempted To Modernize Its Military Food System During And After World War Ii, John Walker 2022 United States Military Academy

How Nationalist China Attempted To Modernize Its Military Food System During And After World War Ii, John Walker

West Point ETD

In 1949, the United States Government published the China White Paper as justification for withholding military aid to the Chinese Nationalist Government (KMT) during the Chinese Civil War, which many blamed as the cause of the KMT’s loss to the Chinese Communist Party (CCP).[1] In the China White Paper, the claim was made that “in no small measure, the predicament in which the National Government finds itself today is due to its failure to provide China with enough to eat.”[2] Six years prior to the American government making this conclusion in 1943, the KMT sent one of …


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