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Ike's Last War: Making War Safe For Society, Jesse A. Faugstad 2019 Chapman University

Ike's Last War: Making War Safe For Society, Jesse A. Faugstad

War and Society (MA) Theses

This thesis analyzes how Eisenhower defined war and its utility in his New Look defense policy and the ramifications for America’s interactions with the world through its foreign policy. It argues that Eisenhower redefined the relationship between war and society as he executed his grand strategy, further removing society from the decision for war. To avoid what he believed to be the inevitable global destruction of a general war turned nuclear, Eisenhower broadened the scope of ‘war” to balance domestic opinion for containing communism while also avoiding the devastating consequences of war in American society. By authorizing coups in ...


Black Robes At The Edge Of Empire: Jesuits, Natives, And Colonial Crisis In Early Detroit, 1728-1781, Eric J. Toups 2019 University of Maine

Black Robes At The Edge Of Empire: Jesuits, Natives, And Colonial Crisis In Early Detroit, 1728-1781, Eric J. Toups

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis examines the Jesuit missionaries active in the region of Detroit and how their role in that region changed over the course of the eighteenth century and under different colonial regimes. Jesuits Armand de la Richardie, Pierre Potier, and Pierre du Jaunay influenced imperial decision-making and policy in the eighteenth-century pays d’en haut through their notable influence within certain indigenous communities. The priests were deeply influential during the French regime as demonstrated by their impact on several colonial crises discussed in the text. The Seven Years War and the conquest of New France by Great Britain gradually eroded ...


The Long Defeat – Glimpses Of Final Victory: The Years Of The Locust, Evan B. Lanning 2019 Cedarville University

The Long Defeat – Glimpses Of Final Victory: The Years Of The Locust, Evan B. Lanning

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

An examination of Tolkien’s conception of history, the crisis of unpreparedness preceding the Second World War, and a relating of the story of Churchill’s warnings and eventual ascension to the position of Prime Minister. This study will compare the historical perspective of Tolkien, as represented in his fictional works, with the turmoil that transpired during the early days of WWII. Mostly, it will demonstrate how Tolkien’s view of history manifested itself within the context of the very perilous realities leading up to WWII. Nonetheless, a larger portrait of the nation of Great Britain, Winston Churchill, and their ...


The Casualties Of U.S. Grand Strategy: Korean Exclusion From The San Francisco Peace Treaty And The Pacific Pact, Syrus Jin 2019 Washington University in St. Louis

The Casualties Of U.S. Grand Strategy: Korean Exclusion From The San Francisco Peace Treaty And The Pacific Pact, Syrus Jin

Senior Honors Papers / Undergraduate Theses

From August 1945 to September 1951, the United States had a unique opportunity to define and frame how it would approach its foreign relations in the Asia-Pacific region. As the dominant power in the Pacific after World War II and claiming direct authority over vanquished Japan, the United States had the liberty to design its own post-war vision for the entire region. Until 1951, American State Department diplomats and government planners, attempted—ultimately unsuccessfully—to harmonize the competing motivations of lingering World War II multilateralist idealism and Cold War geopolitics in a postcolonial, postwar world. This thesis examines U.S ...


Casualties Of War? Refining The Civilian-Military Dichotomy In World War I, Eric Grube 2019 Boston College

Casualties Of War? Refining The Civilian-Military Dichotomy In World War I, Eric Grube

Madison Historical Review

Throughout the First World War, newspapers around the world mocked the British state for its lavish spending on captured German officers kept at Donington Hall, a refurbished English estate. Why was this camp such a controversial space of perceived decadence? I argue that its comforts seemed to linger from an earlier era, one in which military men exuded genteel civility as integral to their supposedly heroic service. The British state essentially enabled such treatment, and the public decried this space for sustaining the anachronism of aristocratic privilege in the face of a globalized total war. However, the German inmates expected ...


In Defense Of Peace: Aron Trainin's Contributions To International Jurisprudence, Thomas Earl Porter 2019 North Carolina Agricultural & Technical State University

In Defense Of Peace: Aron Trainin's Contributions To International Jurisprudence, Thomas Earl Porter

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

The Soviet Union played a major role in the establishment of the International Military Tribunal (IMT) that tried Nazi Germany’s leaders for their criminal actions at Nuremberg. Only a handful of Western scholars have noted that the Soviets were early proponents of the use of the legal principle of conspiracy and in establishing the principle that a war of aggression in and of itself could be legally construed as a criminal act. And it was the brilliant Soviet jurist Aron Trainin who forcefully “advanced the idea of individual responsibility for international crimes…the realization of which was established during ...


Anglo-Spanish Trade And Diplomacy 1712-1742, Forrest La Jeunesse 2019 Liberty University

Anglo-Spanish Trade And Diplomacy 1712-1742, Forrest La Jeunesse

Masters Theses

Between the War of Spanish succession till the war of Austrian succession, the British focus shifted from matters of the European Continent towards that of expanding its trade and its commercial empire. With the securing of an important treaty with France, the British were able to seek trading concessions from the Spanish, through diplomacy or war, in order to gain economic dominance in the West Indies. However, unequal and often conflicting interests between the two nations prevented desired expansion into the West Indies for the British, so they sought to exploit vague treaty terms and obligations in order to conduct ...


A Most Interesting Time: The Militarization Of Containment After The Czechoslovakian Coup D'Etat Of 1948, Abraham Buri 2019 University of Washington Tacoma

A Most Interesting Time: The Militarization Of Containment After The Czechoslovakian Coup D'Etat Of 1948, Abraham Buri

History Undergraduate Theses

This paper discusses the development of American foreign policy during the first few years of the Cold War through the containment doctrine. This doctrine, which in modern times has come to mean aggressive military action against any perceived communist threat, is not at all what the architect of containment George Kennan had in mind when he first pitched the idea to the Truman Administration in 1946. The reason that the definition shifted in the course of a few short years is because of the communist coup d’état that occurred in Czechoslovakia in February 1948. Scholars have traditionally assigned more ...


Genocide Masquerading: The Politics Of The Sharpeville Massacre And Soweto Uprising, Jessica P. Forsee 2019 Georgia Southern University

Genocide Masquerading: The Politics Of The Sharpeville Massacre And Soweto Uprising, Jessica P. Forsee

University Honors Program Theses

Apartheid South Africa represented a paradox as a US ally and human rights pariah. “Genocide Masquerading” uncovers the implications of US foreign policy on the rise and decline of apartheid, looking specifically at the 1960 Sharpeville Massacre and the 1976 Soweto Uprising. By comparing Presidents Eisenhower, Kennedy, Ford, and Carter foreign policy responses, this thesis creates a comparative analysis of how effective, or ineffective, the United States was during pivotal moments in apartheid history. This thesis will not only expand on the developing South African literature but add to the conversation of international aid, diplomacy practices, and North-South relationships.


Breakdown Of Relations: American Expansionism, The Great Plains, And The Arikara People, 1823-1957, Stephen R. Aoun 2019 Virginia Commonwealth University

Breakdown Of Relations: American Expansionism, The Great Plains, And The Arikara People, 1823-1957, Stephen R. Aoun

Theses and Dissertations

Arikara people had been adapting their tribal structures to European influences since Europeans first arrived on the northern Plains in the early seventeenth century. Their sedentary lifestyle, focused on agriculture and hunting, increasingly included trade with French, British, and American trappers by the seventeenth century. The goods procured from European traders, such as firearms and other metallurgical works, began to upset the balance of geopolitical power on the Plains, setting the stage for the violence and political realignments at the center of this thesis. As my research reveals, by the time of the Lewis and Clark expedition, tensions between the ...


Gustaf H. And Ursula Panula U.N. Philatelic Collection, University Archives and Special Collections, Prescott Memorial Library, Louisiana Tech University 2019 Louisiana Tech University

Gustaf H. And Ursula Panula U.N. Philatelic Collection, University Archives And Special Collections, Prescott Memorial Library, Louisiana Tech University

Manuscript Finding Aids

A United Nations Stamp Collection consisting of 39/58 stamps issued by the U.N. from 1951-1957. These are full sheets, each consisting of 50 stamps, with a total of 172 sheets.


The Overlooked Embargo: The 1967 Oil Embargo, The Arab Cold War, And The Creation Of Oapec, Aaron Shaum 2019 The University of Akron

The Overlooked Embargo: The 1967 Oil Embargo, The Arab Cold War, And The Creation Of Oapec, Aaron Shaum

Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects

Abstract: This paper will examine the role of the 1967 oil embargo in the historiography of the 1967 Six Day War, its aftermath, the Arab Cold War, and post-war inter-Arab politics. It argues that, for a multitude of reasons, the 1967 oil embargo is a significant part of that history that has been overlooked in the historiography.


In Response To Totalitarianism: The Hawkish Cold War Foreign Diplomacy Of The Europeans Kissinger And Brzezinski During American Détente, D'Otta M. Sniezak 2018 University of New Orleans

In Response To Totalitarianism: The Hawkish Cold War Foreign Diplomacy Of The Europeans Kissinger And Brzezinski During American Détente, D'Otta M. Sniezak

University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations

Despite historians describing the 1970s as a time of détente, both National Security Advisors that dominated America’s foreign policy pursued harsh stances against the Soviet Union. Henry Kissinger and Zbigniew Brzezinski sabotaged peace talks in order help the United States keep its edge against the other world superpower. Most historians point to the similarities between these two men, but what is most often left out of the narrative is that both men witnessed persecution at the hands of totalitarian governments: Kissinger by the Nazis and Brzezinski by both the Nazis and the Soviets. This influence is strong in their ...


The Documentality Of Memory In The Post-Truth Era, Claire Scopsi 2018 Dicen-IDF Cnam Paris (France)

The Documentality Of Memory In The Post-Truth Era, Claire Scopsi

Proceedings from the Document Academy

This article analyzes the documentality of memories in order to ground further consideration of memory for historical research in the post-truth era. The article compares discussions of the document in document theory to those in French historical epistemology in order to establish what is a reliable documentary source. Formerly, reliability was rooted in the paradigm of truth and the authenticity guaranteed by institutions and scientists. In today's post-truth era, these foundations are questioned. This article suggests that we consider the production of historical narratives as a design process, and that we evaluate the truthfulness of a source according to ...


Before Vietnam: Understanding The Initial Stages Of Us Involvement In Southeast Asia, 1945-1949, Jacob T. Mach 2018 Cedarville University

Before Vietnam: Understanding The Initial Stages Of Us Involvement In Southeast Asia, 1945-1949, Jacob T. Mach

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

The Vietnam War, widely considered the worst foreign policy debacle in American history, remains the most controversial event of the twentieth century. Much criticism for Vietnam involvement stems from two sources: 1) disapproval with how American leadership conducted the war, and 2) disagreement over the reason for the conflict in the first place. Few historians, if any, dispute the first criticism. The historical community remains divided, however, in terms of a definitive position on the basis or origin for the conflict. For a holistic approach to the origin of the Vietnam War, one must first elucidate the conception of American ...


From Riots To Sovereignty: United States Policy Makers Ideas, Perceptions, And Reactions To The Panamanian Struggle For Sovereignty, William Edward Humphrey 2018 Winthrop University

From Riots To Sovereignty: United States Policy Makers Ideas, Perceptions, And Reactions To The Panamanian Struggle For Sovereignty, William Edward Humphrey

Graduate Theses

After the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty of 1903 the Panamanian people had to live in an occupied country. The U.S. took control of a ten-mile stretch of land surrounding a canal of immense importance to world trade. The U.S. policy makers ignored the pleas, complaints, and demonstrations of the Panamanian people as they struggled for sovereignty in their country. This thesis will show, through the use of primary sources from the U.S. government that U.S. policy makers refused to see the importance of sovereignty to the Panamanian people until the 1964 Panamanian Flag Riots. After that episode, U ...


North Korea’S Nuclear Program And Negotiation: How Nuclear Negotiation During The Clinton Years Produced Lessons For Current International Relations, Brian Hilliker 2018 Liberty University

North Korea’S Nuclear Program And Negotiation: How Nuclear Negotiation During The Clinton Years Produced Lessons For Current International Relations, Brian Hilliker

Senior Honors Theses

North Korea’s road of survival began in the aftermath of World War II, when the United States and the Soviet Union sparred over rival ideologies. Ultimately, Korea split into a free south and an authoritarian north. Over seventy years later, North Korea remains a bastion of communism. Nuclear weaponry is a factor behind North Korea’s survival, and the history of their program can offer insight for American policy makers today. This paper offers a history of North Korea’s nuclear weapons program during the Clinton presidency, along with recommendations for present day policy makers. Without an understanding of ...


Ike’S Constitutional Venturing: The Institutionalization Of The Cia, Covert Action, And American Interventionism, Jacob A. Bruggeman 2018 Miami University - Oxford

Ike’S Constitutional Venturing: The Institutionalization Of The Cia, Covert Action, And American Interventionism, Jacob A. Bruggeman

Grand Valley Journal of History

U.S. covert action from the 1950s onward was shaped, in part, by the success a CIA-orchestrated coup d'état in which the United States deposed the popular Iranian nationalist Mohammed Mossadegh. Ordered by president Eisenhower, the coup in Iran set the precedent for utilizing covert action as a means of achieving State goals. In so doing, President Eisenhower overturned the precedent set by his immediate predecessor, President Truman: that is, the precedent of using the CIA in its intended function, gathering and evaluating intelligence. The coup, then, is an exemplary case of venture constitutionalism. Eisenhower, in ordering the coup ...


Mackinder And The Arctic's Emerging Geopolitics: Recommendations For The U.S. And Its Nato Allies, Bert Chapman 2018 Purdue University

Mackinder And The Arctic's Emerging Geopolitics: Recommendations For The U.S. And Its Nato Allies, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

This presentation shows how Halford Mackinder (1861-1947) described Canada and the Arctic region in his geopolitical writings. It goes on to stress how the Arctic is becoming increasingly important in international geopolitical policymaking due to its significant oil and natural gas resources, how warming temperatures are increasing international access to its waters, and the how countries as diverse as Canada, China, Russia, and the U.S. see the Arctic region in their strategic policymaking. It concludes by stressing that the Arctic can no longer be viewed as a region immune from international conflict and presents recommendations for the U.S ...


The English Voyage Of Pietrobono Burzelli, Evan A. MacCarthy 2018 West Virginia University

The English Voyage Of Pietrobono Burzelli, Evan A. Maccarthy

Faculty Scholarship

Praised by poets, scholars, and fellow musicians of his day, the singer, lutenist, and teacher Pietrobono Burzelli (ca. 1417–97) achieved international renown for his skill at improvisational performances on plucked instruments. Until recently, archival documents recorded his presence at many courts on the Italian peninsula and as far away as the Hungarian court. Documents until now unknown to musicologists reveal that Pietrobono also traveled to England. In August 1466 he signed a will and testament in advance of a risky trip “ad partes Anglie” that he was planning to begin the next day.

The testament offers new information about ...


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