The Overlooked Embargo: The 1967 Oil Embargo, The Arab Cold War, And The Creation Of Oapec, 2019 The University of Akron
The Overlooked Embargo: The 1967 Oil Embargo, The Arab Cold War, And The Creation Of Oapec, Aaron Shaum
Williams Honors College, Honors Research Projects
Abstract: This paper will examine the role of the 1967 oil embargo in the historiography of the 1967 Six Day War, its aftermath, the Arab Cold War, and post-war inter-Arab politics. It argues that, for a multitude of reasons, the 1967 oil embargo is a significant part of that history that has been overlooked in the historiography.
In Response To Totalitarianism: The Hawkish Cold War Foreign Diplomacy Of The Europeans Kissinger And Brzezinski During American Détente, D'Otta M. Sniezak
University of New Orleans Theses and Dissertations
Despite historians describing the 1970s as a time of détente, both National Security Advisors that dominated America’s foreign policy pursued harsh stances against the Soviet Union. Henry Kissinger and Zbigniew Brzezinski sabotaged peace talks in order help the United States keep its edge against the other world superpower. Most historians point to the similarities between these two men, but what is most often left out of the narrative is that both men witnessed persecution at the hands of totalitarian governments: Kissinger by the Nazis and Brzezinski by both the Nazis and the Soviets. This influence is strong in their ...
The Documentality Of Memory In The Post-Truth Era, 2018 Dicen-IDF Cnam Paris (France)
The Documentality Of Memory In The Post-Truth Era, Claire Scopsi
Proceedings from the Document Academy
This article analyzes the documentality of memories in order to ground further consideration of memory for historical research in the post-truth era. The article compares discussions of the document in document theory to those in French historical epistemology in order to establish what is a reliable documentary source. Formerly, reliability was rooted in the paradigm of truth and the authenticity guaranteed by institutions and scientists. In today's post-truth era, these foundations are questioned. This article suggests that we consider the production of historical narratives as a design process, and that we evaluate the truthfulness of a source according to ...
Before Vietnam: Understanding The Initial Stages Of Us Involvement In Southeast Asia, 1945-1949, 2018 Cedarville University
Before Vietnam: Understanding The Initial Stages Of Us Involvement In Southeast Asia, 1945-1949, Jacob T. Mach
Channels: Where Disciplines Meet
The Vietnam War, widely considered the worst foreign policy debacle in American history, remains the most controversial event of the twentieth century. Much criticism for Vietnam involvement stems from two sources: 1) disapproval with how American leadership conducted the war, and 2) disagreement over the reason for the conflict in the first place. Few historians, if any, dispute the first criticism. The historical community remains divided, however, in terms of a definitive position on the basis or origin for the conflict. For a holistic approach to the origin of the Vietnam War, one must first elucidate the conception of American ...
From Riots To Sovereignty: United States Policy Makers Ideas, Perceptions, And Reactions To The Panamanian Struggle For Sovereignty, William Edward Humphrey
After the Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty of 1903 the Panamanian people had to live in an occupied country. The U.S. took control of a ten-mile stretch of land surrounding a canal of immense importance to world trade. The U.S. policy makers ignored the pleas, complaints, and demonstrations of the Panamanian people as they struggled for sovereignty in their country. This thesis will show, through the use of primary sources from the U.S. government that U.S. policy makers refused to see the importance of sovereignty to the Panamanian people until the 1964 Panamanian Flag Riots. After that episode, U ...
North Korea’S Nuclear Program And Negotiation: How Nuclear Negotiation During The Clinton Years Produced Lessons For Current International Relations, Brian Hilliker
Senior Honors Theses
North Korea’s road of survival began in the aftermath of World War II, when the United States and the Soviet Union sparred over rival ideologies. Ultimately, Korea split into a free south and an authoritarian north. Over seventy years later, North Korea remains a bastion of communism. Nuclear weaponry is a factor behind North Korea’s survival, and the history of their program can offer insight for American policy makers today. This paper offers a history of North Korea’s nuclear weapons program during the Clinton presidency, along with recommendations for present day policy makers. Without an understanding of ...
Ike’S Constitutional Venturing: The Institutionalization Of The Cia, Covert Action, And American Interventionism, 2018 Miami University - Oxford
Ike’S Constitutional Venturing: The Institutionalization Of The Cia, Covert Action, And American Interventionism, Jacob A. Bruggeman
Grand Valley Journal of History
U.S. covert action from the 1950s onward was shaped, in part, by the success a CIA-orchestrated coup d'état in which the United States deposed the popular Iranian nationalist Mohammed Mossadegh. Ordered by president Eisenhower, the coup in Iran set the precedent for utilizing covert action as a means of achieving State goals. In so doing, President Eisenhower overturned the precedent set by his immediate predecessor, President Truman: that is, the precedent of using the CIA in its intended function, gathering and evaluating intelligence. The coup, then, is an exemplary case of venture constitutionalism. Eisenhower, in ordering the coup ...
Mackinder And The Arctic's Emerging Geopolitics: Recommendations For The U.S. And Its Nato Allies, Bert Chapman
Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations
This presentation shows how Halford Mackinder (1861-1947) described Canada and the Arctic region in his geopolitical writings. It goes on to stress how the Arctic is becoming increasingly important in international geopolitical policymaking due to its significant oil and natural gas resources, how warming temperatures are increasing international access to its waters, and the how countries as diverse as Canada, China, Russia, and the U.S. see the Arctic region in their strategic policymaking. It concludes by stressing that the Arctic can no longer be viewed as a region immune from international conflict and presents recommendations for the U.S ...
The English Voyage Of Pietrobono Burzelli, 2018 West Virginia University
The English Voyage Of Pietrobono Burzelli, Evan A. Maccarthy
Praised by poets, scholars, and fellow musicians of his day, the singer, lutenist, and teacher Pietrobono Burzelli (ca. 1417–97) achieved international renown for his skill at improvisational performances on plucked instruments. Until recently, archival documents recorded his presence at many courts on the Italian peninsula and as far away as the Hungarian court. Documents until now unknown to musicologists reveal that Pietrobono also traveled to England. In August 1466 he signed a will and testament in advance of a risky trip “ad partes Anglie” that he was planning to begin the next day.
The testament offers new information about ...
An Assessment Of Parliament’S View Of The Jamestown Settlement In 1652 – 45 Years After The Initial Establishment, 2018 Murray State University
An Assessment Of Parliament’S View Of The Jamestown Settlement In 1652 – 45 Years After The Initial Establishment, Austin Valentine, Austin Valentine Jr.
Student Scholarship & Creative Works
A brief opinion piece based on parliament’s view of the Jamestown colony in 1652, 45 years after the colony’s establishment in the new world. The paper is substantiated by early English documents with a present day interpretation.
Writing The Official History Of The Joint Intelligence Committee, 2018 King's College London
Writing The Official History Of The Joint Intelligence Committee, Michael Goodman
Secrecy and Society
This article recounts the experience of a professional historian in being given the keys to the kingdom: access to the classified vaults of Britain’s Joint Intelligence Committee. This article includes some of the problems in having access, but complying with the sensitivities around official accounts, difficulties in writing a global history, or trying to make the work of a committee interesting and accessible, and of trying to determine the impact of intelligence on policy.
The Ties That Bind: How Domestic Politics Influence Ties With Extraterritorial Courts—A Study Of The Jcpc, 2018 University of North Georgia
The Ties That Bind: How Domestic Politics Influence Ties With Extraterritorial Courts—A Study Of The Jcpc, Harold Young
International Social Science Review
During the last half century, extraterritorial courts and the number of acceding states have markedly increased. It is important to better understand the relationships between the extraterritorial court and the state. This paper posits that the governments of those states will seek a change or disengage from the extraterritorial court if they perceive a disconnection between themselves and the extraterritorial court. The perception of such a disconnection is influenced by changes in the political environment that make the state more sensitive to decisions that are unfavorable to it. To test this theory, this paper examines the Judicial Committee of the ...
Effects Of The United States Reconstruction On Nationalism In The Japanese Education System, 2018 Chapman University
Effects Of The United States Reconstruction On Nationalism In The Japanese Education System, Connell Murphy
When the United States began its reconstruction of Japan after World War II, they consistently put their own interests within the country before what would benefit Japan the most . While the first two years of the occupation led to significant changes inside and outside schools, including the Ministry of Education’s diminished role, increased local involvement in the academic system, and the removal of nationalistic “morality” classes such as shushin. All of these changes were necessary efforts to denationalize and decentralize Japan’s educational system and allow more choices for teachers and schools. When Washington began to take an increased ...
Enhancing Your Intelligence Agency Information Resource Iq: Pt. 2: The Central Intelligence Agency, Bert Chapman
Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations
Provides an overview of information resources produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) including popular reference works like World Factbook and Chiefs of State and Cabinet Leaders of Foreign Governments. Additional content describes the CIA's origins and development, descriptions of current organizational components, information about it's directors, and the text of historical National Intelligence Estimates (NIE) and the President's Daily Brief covering topics as varied as North Korea, the 1973 Yom Kippur War, and NIE's on Soviet ballistic missile forces and numerous other topics. Features artifacts from the CIA Museum.
Unwritten: The Hidden History Of The Holodomor, 2018 Liberty University
Unwritten: The Hidden History Of The Holodomor, Amy Whisman
Between 1930 and 1933, Joseph Stalin unleashed an assault on Ukraine that resulted in the starvation of 5 million people. Their story went untold for decades. The fact that Soviet propaganda was largely successful in suppressing the truth speaks less to its sophistication than to the gullibility and complicity of Westerners. Although there were truth-tellers from Great Britain, the United States, and even Europe who accurately reported on the Ukrainian famine, Stalin understood that such voices could be effectively neutralized. Because the story of the Holodomor remained essentially unwritten, the West did not recognize it as the legitimate offspring of ...
America, An Aloof Friend: The Limits Of U.S.-Czechoslovak Relations From Munich To War, 2018 Liberty University
America, An Aloof Friend: The Limits Of U.S.-Czechoslovak Relations From Munich To War, Connor Schonta
Between 1918 and 1938, the United States and Czechoslovakia maintained unique, friendly, and special diplomatic relations. This was mainly due to the two countries’ shared commitment to liberal, democratic values. In 1938, however, Hitler’s aggressive foreign policy came to a head in the form of the Munich Agreement, which not only set Czechoslovakia on a course of destruction but also fundamentally transformed the nature of U.S.-Czechoslovak relations. This study seeks to unpack the development of U.S.-Czechoslovak relations in the eleven months between Munich (October 1938) and the start of World War II (September 1939). During ...
The Significance Of Mongolia's Foreign Policy And Security Apparatus On A Global And Regional Scale, 2018 University of San Francisco
The Significance Of Mongolia's Foreign Policy And Security Apparatus On A Global And Regional Scale, Bolor Lkhaajav
Master's Projects and Capstones
Mongolia, land-locked between two politically, economically, and militarily powerful nations — Russia and China — often must balance its foreign and security policies with its two neighbors and countries beyond. When discussing Mongolia’s foreign policy and security apparatus, historians and scholars look at the international relations of East Asia as a whole. This is the case not because Mongolia’s foreign policy is insignificant but because greater powers impose greater influence on smaller states. Mongolia’s partial involvement in World War II (WWII), and the Cold War introduced new challenges as well as opportunities for Mongolia to modernize its foreign policy ...
Counter Currents: Arthur Lower, Lincoln Colcord, And Ideological Isolationism In Interwar Canada And The United States, James Spruce
Electronic Theses and Dissertations
This thesis is a comparative study of the ideology of isolationism in interwar Canada and the United States. It proceeds with that comparison using an individual subject from each country as a case study. For Canada, the subject is the historian and social scientist Arthur R.M. Lower; for the United States, it is the journalist and fiction author Lincoln Ross Colcord. Both men are worthy of study as individual isolationists of note, but they are also appropriate for the comparison because of the similarity of their isolationist positions and due to their personal backgrounds. Through the 1930s, Colcord and ...
Condemning Colonization: Abraham Lincoln’S Rejected Proposal For A Central American Colony, 2018 Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
Condemning Colonization: Abraham Lincoln’S Rejected Proposal For A Central American Colony, Matthew Harris
The Gettysburg College Journal of the Civil War Era
This article focuses on a proposal by Abraham Lincoln to settle freed African Americans in Central American countries. The backlash from several countries reveals that other countries besides the warring United States were also struggling with reconciling racial issues. This also reveals how interwoven racial issues were with political crises during the Civil War because it not only effected domestic policies but also international relations.
October 1973: Rise Of A Kingdom Or Empire?, 2018 United States Military Academy
October 1973: Rise Of A Kingdom Or Empire?, Saud Bin Saud
Cadet Senior Theses in History
Located in Western Asia, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country with a deep rooted cultural background and a tremendous appreciation for individual and communal privacy. Little is really understood about the intrinsic kingdom. It was only until the end of the twentieth century that the Saudi kingdom gained the perception as a dominant power in the Arab world and one of the few Arab countries that the average American is likely to be aware of, as Saudi Arabia was involved in multiple interstate conflicts and incidences throughout its short history. In October 1973, Saudi Arabia placed an oil ...