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The Origins Of The Universal Declaration Of Human Rights, James V. Spickard 2017 University of Redlands

The Origins Of The Universal Declaration Of Human Rights, James V. Spickard

Working Papers

Presents the history of the 1948 adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, focusing on the prior status of human rights in international law and the cultural/ideological aspects of the debates surrounding its adoption. This chapter shows both the Western origin of the core human rights concepts and the positive-law nature of the Universal Declaration. it also shows that the cultural issues were present from the very start of the modern human rights era.


Ambassadors For The Kingdom Of God Or For America? Christian Nationalism, The Christian Right, And The Contra War, Lauren Frances Turek 2017 Trinity University

Ambassadors For The Kingdom Of God Or For America? Christian Nationalism, The Christian Right, And The Contra War, Lauren Frances Turek

Lauren Turek

This essay uses the concept of Christian nationalism to explore the religious dynamics of the Contra war and U.S.–Nicaraguan relations during Ronald Reagan’s presidency. Religious organizations and individuals played crucial roles on both sides in the war in Nicaragua and in the debates in the United States over support for the Contras. Evangelistic work strengthened transnational ties between Christians, but also raised the stakes of the war; supporters of the Sandinistas and Contras alike alleged a victory by their adversary imperiled the future of Christianity in Nicaragua. Christian nationalism thus manifested itself and intertwined in both the ...


Civil War Or Genocide? The United Nations Commission Of Experts’ Misunderstanding Of The Third Balkan War Of The 1990s, Matthew G. Morley 2017 DePaul University

Civil War Or Genocide? The United Nations Commission Of Experts’ Misunderstanding Of The Third Balkan War Of The 1990s, Matthew G. Morley

Grand Valley Journal of History

When the country of Yugoslavia disintegrated into war, the United Nations created a research commission, the Yugoslav Commission of Experts, to document war crimes. This commission, led by Cherif M. Bassiouni, depicted the conflict as a perpetual problem with historical roots and also as having victims on both sides, which presented a legal-definitional paradox to the Security Council, requiring litigation of principles, categorization of conflicts, and discussion of further involvement - if applicable. This paper traces the essentialist understandings of the Commission of Experts and the International Human Rights Law Institute – two groups that otherwise had good intentions to bring about ...


Napalm: More Than A Weapon, Edwin Martini 2016 Western Michigan University

Napalm: More Than A Weapon, Edwin Martini

Edwin A. Martini

This book will explore the military, political, and cultural history of napalm across time and space. Moving beyond the Vietnam War, this book will examine the use of napalm by the United States in World War Two, Korea, and elsewhere, and its proliferation in other countries’ arsenals as well. It will also explore the many cultural representations of napalm in the post-Vietnam war world.


Ambassadors For The Kingdom Of God Or For America? Christian Nationalism, The Christian Right, And The Contra War, Lauren Frances Turek 2016 Trinity University

Ambassadors For The Kingdom Of God Or For America? Christian Nationalism, The Christian Right, And The Contra War, Lauren Frances Turek

History Faculty Research

This essay uses the concept of Christian nationalism to explore the religious dynamics of the Contra war and U.S.–Nicaraguan relations during Ronald Reagan’s presidency. Religious organizations and individuals played crucial roles on both sides in the war in Nicaragua and in the debates in the United States over support for the Contras. Evangelistic work strengthened transnational ties between Christians, but also raised the stakes of the war; supporters of the Sandinistas and Contras alike alleged a victory by their adversary imperiled the future of Christianity in Nicaragua. Christian nationalism thus manifested itself and intertwined in both the ...


From Inaction To Action: The World Health Organisation And Tobacco Control Policies In Nigeria Since 1970, Benjamin Uchenna Anaemene 2016 United Nations University International Institute for Global Health

From Inaction To Action: The World Health Organisation And Tobacco Control Policies In Nigeria Since 1970, Benjamin Uchenna Anaemene

Journal of Retracing Africa

The need to regulate tobacco usage became internationalized in 1970 following the adoption of a resolution by the World Health Assembly calling on member states to take action in view of its damaging effects. Arising from this, two periods are discernible in the fight against the use of tobacco. The first period is from 1970 to 1995 that was characterized by weak laws which were inconsequential. The second period is from 1996 to date that was marked by multilateral cooperation and effective action at the global level. A glaring manifestation during of the second period is the adoption of the ...


Kennedy's Crisis: How John F. Kennedy Used History To Prevent Armageddon, Jordan L. Cerbone 2016 University of Connecticut

Kennedy's Crisis: How John F. Kennedy Used History To Prevent Armageddon, Jordan L. Cerbone

Honors Scholar Theses

The Cuban Missile Crisis may be equated to a dangerous game of chess played between two powerful rival nations, the United States and the Soviet Union. President John F. Kennedy’s closest advisers, including all Joint Chiefs of Staff, recommended an air strike to destroy the Cuban missiles. Although Kennedy overruled them, he was nevertheless able to resolve the Cuban Missile Crisis through a combination of brilliant intuition and successful diplomacy. The mainstream consensus is that Kennedy’s personality was responsible for ending the crisis amicably. Consequently, Americans can consider the Cuban Missile Crisis as Kennedy’s crisis.

This thesis ...


Jimmy Carter And Anwar El-Sadat: Relationships And Motivations Behind The 1978 Camp David Accords, Treston Paul Chandler 2016 Lake Forest College

Jimmy Carter And Anwar El-Sadat: Relationships And Motivations Behind The 1978 Camp David Accords, Treston Paul Chandler

Senior Theses

This thesis addresses the American and Egyptian motivations behind the conclusion of the 1978 Camp David Accords between the United States, Egypt, and Israel. In addition, it considers the role the personal relationships developed between the principal leaders played in reaching an ultimate agreement. The thesis primarily relies on recently declassified Department of State and Central Intelligence Agency documents to reconstruct the American and Egyptian impetuses for peace, as seen from the outset of Jimmy Carter’s presidency. It also draws on the memoirs and writings of those directly involved in the peace process. Then, the thesis reviews how these ...


The Poet And The Polemist: Demystifying The Natural Law Theory Of John Milton, John J. Mazola 2016 CUNY Hunter College

The Poet And The Polemist: Demystifying The Natural Law Theory Of John Milton, John J. Mazola

School of Arts & Sciences Theses

A summation of the influences behind Milton's Natural Law theory as found in the works of Aristotle, Grotius, Hobbes, and Thomas Aquinas. The essay's intent is to uncover this important thread that runs through both Milton's Poetic Verse as well as his Polemic tracts.


The Successes And Failures Of The Battle Of Mogadishu And Its Effects On U.S. Foreign Policy, Philip B. Dotson 2016 Cedarville University

The Successes And Failures Of The Battle Of Mogadishu And Its Effects On U.S. Foreign Policy, Philip B. Dotson

Channels: Where Disciplines Meet

The Battle of Mogadishu, more commonly referred to as “Black Hawk Down,” was one of the most controversial conflicts in the second half of the twentieth century. It left a lingering question in people’s minds: was it a success or a failure? While certainly there were many failures and casualties throughout the mission, based on a military definition, it was a clear cut success; Task Force Ranger (TFR) accomplished the objective of the mission, despite significant losses, by retrieving the two targets assigned them. Both the failures and successes of the mission, as well as the overarching Operation Restore ...


Geopolitical Implications Of The Sino-Japanese East China Sea Dispute For The U.S., Bert Chapman 2016 Purdue University

Geopolitical Implications Of The Sino-Japanese East China Sea Dispute For The U.S., Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

This presentation updates the article "Geopolitical Implications of the Sino-East China Sea Dispute for the U.S." published in Geopolitics, History, and International Relations which is already available in epubs.


The Non-Proliferation Treaty And The Political Aspects Of Nuclear Power In A Modern Context, Eve Gleeson 2016 SIT Study Abroad

The Non-Proliferation Treaty And The Political Aspects Of Nuclear Power In A Modern Context, Eve Gleeson

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty was created in 1967 in response to the growing threat of nuclear weapon detonation.1 Today, it has been signed and ratified by 190 countries who pledge to pursue efforts towards non-proliferation, peaceful nuclear energy, and nuclear disarmament. Five states remain outside of the treaty, four of which are nuclear weapon states: Israel, Pakistan, India, and North Korea. The nuclear weapon states in the NPT have been established as Britain, France, the U.S., Russia, and China.

The NPT has been created and maintained through the existence of power dynamics between nuclear and non-nuclear states. The ...


Conflict And Cooperation: Western Economic Interests In Ottoman Iraq 1894-1914, Jameel N. Haque 2016 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Conflict And Cooperation: Western Economic Interests In Ottoman Iraq 1894-1914, Jameel N. Haque

All Graduate Works by Year: Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation investigates underutilized U.S. archival sources in order to discuss certain aspects of late Ottoman history in Baghdad and Basra, between 1894 and 1914. Since these sources have been underutilized, their inclusion will widen the scope of possible historical investigation in the study of Late Ottoman Baghdad and Basra. This research will suggest that, in this period, there was an expanding role/presence for America and Americans that is not currently reflected in the historiography. This should, of course, be qualified since Americans and American interests in the region, although on the increase, were still significantly less than ...


The Prudential Carve-Out Clause: Is Risk The New Corrupt Moral?, John Anwesen 2016 Penn State Law

The Prudential Carve-Out Clause: Is Risk The New Corrupt Moral?, John Anwesen

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


International Legal Instruments And New Judicial Principles For Restitution Of Illegally Exported Cultural Properties, Ho-Young Song 2016 Penn State Law

International Legal Instruments And New Judicial Principles For Restitution Of Illegally Exported Cultural Properties, Ho-Young Song

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Caught In The Act But Not Punished: On Elite Rule Of Law And Deterrence, Francesca Jensenius, Abby Wood 2016 Penn State Law

Caught In The Act But Not Punished: On Elite Rule Of Law And Deterrence, Francesca Jensenius, Abby Wood

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Abused, Abandoned, Or Neglected: Legal Options For Recent Immigrant Women And Girls, Meaghan Fitzpatrick, Leslye Orloff 2016 Penn State Law

Abused, Abandoned, Or Neglected: Legal Options For Recent Immigrant Women And Girls, Meaghan Fitzpatrick, Leslye Orloff

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


The Forgotten Victim: Men And Domestic Violence - Issues For The I-360 Petition, Christine Grant 2016 Penn State Law

The Forgotten Victim: Men And Domestic Violence - Issues For The I-360 Petition, Christine Grant

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Domestic Violence Victims Need Support At State Level, Rep. Scott Conklin 2016 Penn State Law

Domestic Violence Victims Need Support At State Level, Rep. Scott Conklin

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Violence Against Women Symposium And Collected Works, 2016 Penn State Law

Violence Against Women Symposium And Collected Works

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


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