Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

European History Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

7,170 Full-Text Articles 4,140 Authors 5,552,272 Downloads 245 Institutions

All Articles in European History

Faceted Search

7,170 full-text articles. Page 1 of 211.

The Nazis, The Vatican, And The Jews Of Rome, Patrick J. Gallo 2023 New York University

The Nazis, The Vatican, And The Jews Of Rome, Patrick J. Gallo

Purdue University Press Books

On October 16, 1943, the Jews of Rome were targeted for arrest and deportation. The Nazis, the Vatican, and the Jews of Rome examines why—and more importantly how—it could have been avoided, featuring new evidence and insight into the Vatican’s involvement. At the time, Rome was within reach of the Allies, but the overwhelming force of the Wehrmacht, Gestapo, and SS in Rome precluded direct confrontation. Moral condemnations would not have worked, nor would direct confrontation by the Italians, Jewish leadership, or even the Vatican.

Gallo underscores the necessity of determining what courses of actions most likely would have spared …


Neo-Nazi Postmodern: Right-Wing Terror Tactics, The Intellectual Neue Rechte, And The Destabilization Of Memory In Germany Since 1989, Esther E. Adaire 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Neo-Nazi Postmodern: Right-Wing Terror Tactics, The Intellectual Neue Rechte, And The Destabilization Of Memory In Germany Since 1989, Esther E. Adaire

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This dissertation argues that from 1989 onwards an increasingly terroristic neo-Nazi underground in Germany became gradually entangled with the reactionary Neue Rechte, whose crusade against the German culture of remembrance is also a crusade against European integration, increased migration, and the conceits of liberal democracy. This entanglement produced an ideologically coherent extreme-right political movement with a heavily armed and tactical paramilitary faction that has, contrary to what various governments of the Federal Republic have wanted to believe, been developing in Germany since the early 1990s. Moreover, tactics of information warfare initiated by so-called “postmodern” terrorists of the 1990s would, by …


David Versus Goliath: The Power Of Weakness In Asymmetric Warfare—Lessons From History, Nicholas K. Petaludis 2023 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

David Versus Goliath: The Power Of Weakness In Asymmetric Warfare—Lessons From History, Nicholas K. Petaludis

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Under what conditions do violent nonstate actors (VNA) succeed against states? Why does David sometimes beat Goliath? Since at least the time of Thucydides and the Peloponnesian Wars, the realist narrative in international relations measures power primarily in relative, coercive, and deterrent terms. Strong states should accordingly face fewer constraints and enjoy more options while pursuing their national interests. Unconventional warfare, and its subsets of terrorism and insurgency, should—given these circumstances, end in VNA failure. Sometimes, however, VNAs find success. By comparing the literature on historical and current case studies, I propose that a set of preconditions and two mechanisms …


The Rise Of Russian Peasant Witchcraft: A Response To Social Unrest In Imperial Russia, Katrina Sommer 2023 University of California, Los Angeles

The Rise Of Russian Peasant Witchcraft: A Response To Social Unrest In Imperial Russia, Katrina Sommer

Swarthmore Undergraduate History Journal

Imperial Russia became home to a unique form of witchcraft from the seventeenth to the nineteenth century. Combining its religious history, patterns of imperial expansion and governance, and social hierarchies, witchcraft accusations arose during especially troublesome economic and political times. Differing from eighteenth-century America Witchcraft trials, these trials were not only femicide. Targeting anyone who might subvert established social or cultural norms, these accusations often led to violent expungement, ending with a ritual of communal bonding.


Interpreting The Intentional Inaccessibility Of The Early Modern Roman Catholic Church, Kristen P. Quesada 2023 Brown University

Interpreting The Intentional Inaccessibility Of The Early Modern Roman Catholic Church, Kristen P. Quesada

Swarthmore Undergraduate History Journal

Many may wonder why, in the modern day, the Roman Catholic Church continues to incorporate Latin, a now barely extant language, into its canonic religious rituals and public services. However, to understand whether there is a latently malicious intent lurking beneath this esoteric tradition, we must look back to the 1545 Council of Trent, in which these traditions were first canonized. This choice on the part of the Catholic Church helped incense the Protestant Reformation’s criticisms against the Church for exclusivizing the very religion its followers were practicing. This paper investigates the origins of the Catholic Church’s suppressive practices against …


Lord Northcliffe And The Fall Of The Liberal Party, Jonathan Briffault 2023 Dartmouth College

Lord Northcliffe And The Fall Of The Liberal Party, Jonathan Briffault

Swarthmore Undergraduate History Journal

The decline of the Liberal Party following their 1906 triumph has prompted countless historical analyses. Despite their significant majorities, popular agenda, and divided opposition, the Liberal Party was unable to convert its support into political success. This paper suggests, through an analysis of the papers and writings of Lord Northcliffe, that the rise of New Journalism and, in particular, Lord Northcliffe’s dominance of the press, laid the foundation for the Liberal Party’s demise. Lord Northcliffe, through his monopolization of the press, offered a coherent and unified opposition to the Liberal agenda, successfully splintered the Liberal leadership, and guided the Conservative …


Soviet Commemoration And Myth-Making Of The Nazi Extermination Camps: Case Studies On Treblinka, Sobibór, And Majdanek, Isaac Bluestein 2023 William & Mary

Soviet Commemoration And Myth-Making Of The Nazi Extermination Camps: Case Studies On Treblinka, Sobibór, And Majdanek, Isaac Bluestein

Swarthmore Undergraduate History Journal

The Nazi extermination camps of Treblinka, Sobibór, and Majdanek, all located in Eastern Europe, are understudied, underdiscussed, and undermemorialized in public and scholarly memory. In this paper, I seek to conduct case studies of these three camps, their histories, and their commemoration efforts. Ultimately, four main factors prevented these camps from achieving the solemn recognizability they deserve and from having their victims’ stories adequately told; little remains of these camps compared to concentration camps in Germany, fewer individuals survived them to emphasize their importance, the Soviet Union possessed near complete control of their study and commemoration, which allowed for them …


Airplane Hangars And Triple Hills: Renovation, Demolition, And The Architectural Politics Of Local Belonging At The Our Lady Of Csíksomlyó Hungarian National Shrine, Marc Roscoe Loustau 2023 College of the Holy Cross

Airplane Hangars And Triple Hills: Renovation, Demolition, And The Architectural Politics Of Local Belonging At The Our Lady Of Csíksomlyó Hungarian National Shrine, Marc Roscoe Loustau

Journal of Global Catholicism

In 2019, Pope Francis, leader of the global Catholic Church, celebrated an outdoor Mass at the Our Lady of Csíksomlyó Hungarian national shrine in Romania. When the Franciscan Order that runs the shrine published renovation plans for the altar where the pope would appear, the Facebook post received over 800 outraged comments, including one man who asked, “How can such a beautiful Hungarian symbol, so perfectly integrated into the landscape, be humiliated like this?” By situating these expressions of outrage in the history of Eastern European material politics, I argue that the aesthetic value the commentators were defending – a …


The Parish Choir Movement And Generational Festivals In Romania’S Socialist Period: New Community Festivities In Transylvania’S Gheorgheni (Gyergyó) Region, Eszter Kovács 2023 College of the Holy Cross

The Parish Choir Movement And Generational Festivals In Romania’S Socialist Period: New Community Festivities In Transylvania’S Gheorgheni (Gyergyó) Region, Eszter Kovács

Journal of Global Catholicism

Among the post-1945 East European socialist regimes, Romania and Poland were the only countries where the Catholic Church—despite government interventions, controls, and bans—managed to play a significant social and political role in community life. This case study provides an ethnographic description of the parish choir movement and graduating class reunions, called “generational festivals” in Hungarian, in the Gheorgheni (Hu: Gyergyó) region in the 1970s and 1980s. The gatherings will be analyzed in the context of everyday life, the socialist system’s distinctive shortage economy, and official limits on religious activity that characterized the era. I will first describe the world of …


Overview & Acknowledgments, Marc Roscoe Loustau 2023 College of the Holy Cross

Overview & Acknowledgments, Marc Roscoe Loustau

Journal of Global Catholicism

No abstract provided.


Endogenous Political Legitimacy: The Tudor Roots Of England’S Constitutional Governance, Avner Greif, Jared Rubin 2023 Stanford University

Endogenous Political Legitimacy: The Tudor Roots Of England’S Constitutional Governance, Avner Greif, Jared Rubin

ESI Working Papers

This paper highlights the importance of endogenous changes in the foundations of legitimacy for political regimes. Specifically, it highlights the central role of legitimacy changes in the rise of constitutional monarchy in England. It first highlights the limitations of the consensus view regarding this transition, which claims that Parliament’s military power enabled it to force constitutional monarchy on the Crown after 1688. It then turns to define legitimacy and briefly elaborates a theoretical framework enabling a historical study of this unobservable variable. The third and primary section substantiates that the low-legitimacy, post-Reformation Tudor monarchs of the 16th century promoted Parliament …


Front Matter, 2023 Brigham Young University

Front Matter

Swiss American Historical Society Review

No abstract provided.


Judicial Murder: The Witch-Craze In Germany And Switzerland, Albert Winkler 2023 Brigham Young University

Judicial Murder: The Witch-Craze In Germany And Switzerland, Albert Winkler

Swiss American Historical Society Review

Among the most remarkable and puzzling social, religious and legal movements of the late Middle Ages and Early Modern periods of European history were the witch-hunts. Historians have often disagreed on the exact time frame of the witch-craze, but these actions largely spanned three centuries roughly from 1450 to 1750, most of which took place from 1500 to 1650. Some estimates on the number of people accused of witchcraft and those executed for the supposed crime reach into the hundreds of thousands. Professor Nachman Ben-Yahuda has stated, “From the early decades of the fourteenth century until 1650, continental Europeans executed …


Napoleon’S Role In The Making Of Modern Switzerland, Jost Auf der Maur 2023 Brigham Young University

Napoleon’S Role In The Making Of Modern Switzerland, Jost Auf Der Maur

Swiss American Historical Society Review

The federated and neutral nation state we know today as Switzerland owes its modern origins to Napoleon Bonaparte. When Napoleon came into the world in 1769, the Swiss Confederation was a loose configuration of tiny quarrelsome states. As the contemporary, Johannes Bürkli from Zurich, wrote:

[Switzerland] is a virtually unnoticeable dot on the map of Europe, yet it combines all species of government: despotic, oligarchic, aristocratic, democratic. You can find all of them thrown together here in a nutshell.


The Origins Of Democracy In Switzerland, Thomas Quinn Marabello 2023 Brigham Young University

The Origins Of Democracy In Switzerland, Thomas Quinn Marabello

Swiss American Historical Society Review

Switzerland is one of the world’s oldest continuous democracies. Since the Middle Ages, Swiss cantons engaged in democracy at the local level, which led to the Federal Charter of 1291. This important document laid the foundations for the Swiss Confederacy, an alliance of cantons that eventually became a unified democratic nation in the heart of Europe. For over seven centuries, Swiss democracy has impacted people and institutions in Switzerland and elsewhere. America’s founders were well versed in Swiss political institutions and borrowed from them when creating the Constitution of the United States. As democracies come under attack and see their …


2022 Tell Award For Scientific Achievement And Cooperation, C. Naseer Ahmad 2023 Brigham Young University

2022 Tell Award For Scientific Achievement And Cooperation, C. Naseer Ahmad

Swiss American Historical Society Review

Each year, the Swiss Embassy in the United States of America awards the Tell Award. This prestigious award is named after the legendary Swiss hero William Tell who symbolizes the struggle for political and individual freedom because he overcame the tyrannical rule of Albrecht Gessler who terrorized Swiss people.


Leo Schelbert Prize, 2023 Brigham Young University

Leo Schelbert Prize

Swiss American Historical Society Review

The Leo Schelbert Prize is awarded to the best submitted undergraduate or graduate research paper. The topic can be on anything that relates to the mission of the Swiss American Historical Society, which focuses on increasing an understanding of Swiss and/or Swiss-American history.


Obituary For Leo Schelbert, Fred Steiner 2023 Brigham Young University

Obituary For Leo Schelbert, Fred Steiner

Swiss American Historical Society Review

A major scholar of Swiss history and Swiss Americans, his connection with the Swiss-American Historical Society was inseparable, as he helped shaped the Society’s direction.

He served the Society as co-editor of the Review with Heinz K. Meier (1970-1986), as president (1975-1980), as sole editor of the Newsletter/Review (1980-2002), co-editor with H. Dwight Page (2002-2006), as editor of the Society’s book series (1981-2013), and as a member of the editorial board for the book publications.


Sahs Business Meeting—October 8, 2022 Washington, D.C., At The Martin Luther King Jr. Library, Robert Sherwood 2023 Brigham Young University

Sahs Business Meeting—October 8, 2022 Washington, D.C., At The Martin Luther King Jr. Library, Robert Sherwood

Swiss American Historical Society Review

Present – Morning Meeting had 14 people. Approval of Office Holders: All are as in agenda with the following exceptions: • Interim Financial Secretary should read Treasurer • Richard Hacken as Webmaster, not Secretary • Brian Wages will be the Assistant Webmaster. • Duane Freitag moved to close nominations; Richard Hacken, 2nd; unanimous vote • Ernie Thurston moved to accept nominations; Richard Hacken, 2nd; unanimous vote • President – Albert Winkler served as president for three years. Possibility of Fred Gillespie serving again as president. Nominations from the floor with Fred Gillespie (nominated by Ernie Thurston, 2nd by Richard Hacken; …


President’S Report For 2022, Albert Winkler 2023 Brigham Young University

President’S Report For 2022, Albert Winkler

Swiss American Historical Society Review

New President: As of October 2022, I no longer function as the president of the SAHS. The new president is Fred Gillespie. He is a long-term member of the Society and has served as president in the past, and I am sure he will do very well. The position as president was overwhelming for me, and I found it very difficult to serve as both the Editor-in-Chief of the SAHS Review and as president. I can now concentrate my time and effort to publish the SAHS Review.


Digital Commons powered by bepress