Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Engineering Physics Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

1,583 Full-Text Articles 3,652 Authors 593,671 Downloads 125 Institutions

All Articles in Engineering Physics

Faceted Search

1,583 full-text articles. Page 8 of 68.

Magnetic Field Mapping Of 1.3 Ghz Superconducting Radio Frequency Niobium Cavities, Ishwari P. Parajuli, Gianluigi Ciovati, Jean R. Delayen, Alex V. Gurevich 2022 Old Dominion University

Magnetic Field Mapping Of 1.3 Ghz Superconducting Radio Frequency Niobium Cavities, Ishwari P. Parajuli, Gianluigi Ciovati, Jean R. Delayen, Alex V. Gurevich

Physics Faculty Publications

Niobium is the material of choice to build superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, which are fundamental building blocks of modern particle accelerators. These cavities require a cryogenic cool-down to ~2 - 4 K for optimum performance minimizing RF losses on the inner cavity surface. However, temperature-independent residual losses in SRF cavities cannot be prevented entirely. One of the significant contributor to residual losses is trapped magnetic flux. The flux trapping mechanism depends on different factors, such as surface preparations and cool-down conditions. We have developed a diagnostic magnetic field scanning system (MFSS) using Hall probes and anisotropic magneto-resistance sensors to …


Preliminary Results Of Magnetic And Temperature Map System For 3 Ghz Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities, Ishwari Parajuli, Bashu Khanal, Gianluigi Ciovati, Jean Delayen, Alex Gurevich 2022 Old Dominion University

Preliminary Results Of Magnetic And Temperature Map System For 3 Ghz Superconducting Radio Frequency Cavities, Ishwari Parajuli, Bashu Khanal, Gianluigi Ciovati, Jean Delayen, Alex Gurevich

Physics Faculty Publications

Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities are fundamental building blocks of modern particle accelerators. When we cool these cavities at cryogenic temperature ~2 – 4 K, we can get optimum performance by minimizing RF losses on the inner cavity surface. However, temperature-independent residual losses in SRF cavities cannot be prevented entirely. One of the leading sources of residual losses in SRF cavities is trapped magnetic flux. The flux trapping mechanism depends on different surface preparations and cool-down conditions. We have designed, developed, and commissioned a combined magnetic (B) and temperature (T) mapping system using anisotropic magneto-resistance (AMR) sensors and carbon resistors …


Direct Current Magnetic Hall Probe Technique For Measurement Of Field Penetration In Thin Film Superconductors For Superconducting Radio Frequency Resonators, Iresha Harshani Senevirathne, Alex Gurevich, Jean Delayen 2022 Old Dominion University

Direct Current Magnetic Hall Probe Technique For Measurement Of Field Penetration In Thin Film Superconductors For Superconducting Radio Frequency Resonators, Iresha Harshani Senevirathne, Alex Gurevich, Jean Delayen

Physics Faculty Publications

Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities used in particle accelerators are typically formed from or coated with superconducting materials. Currently, high purity niobium is the material of choice for SRF cavities that have been optimized to operate near their theoretical field limits. This brings about the need for significant R & D efforts to develop next generation superconducting materials that could outperform Nb and keep up with the demands of new accelerator facilities. To achieve high quality factors and accelerating gradients, the cavity material should be able to remain in the superconducting Meissner state under a high RF magnetic field without …


Evaluation Of Single-Cell Cavities Made Of Forged Ingot Niobium At Jefferson Lab, P. Dhakal, Bashu D. Khanal, Gianluigi Ciovati, G. R. Myneni 2022 Old Dominion University

Evaluation Of Single-Cell Cavities Made Of Forged Ingot Niobium At Jefferson Lab, P. Dhakal, Bashu D. Khanal, Gianluigi Ciovati, G. R. Myneni

Physics Faculty Publications

Currently, fine grain niobium (Nb) (grain size ∼ 50 µm) and large grain Nb (grain size of a few cm) are being used for the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities. Medium grain forged ingot with grain size of a few hundred µm may be beneficial for cost-effectiveness as well as providing better performance for future SRF-based accelerators. Forged ingot Nb with medium grain size is a novel production method to obtain Nb discs used for the fabrication of superconducting radio frequency cavities. We have fabricated two 1.5 GHz single cell cavities made from forged Nb ingot with a …


Magnetic Flux Expulsion In Superconducting Radio-Frequency Niobium Cavities Made From Cold Worked Niobium, Bashu D. Khanal, S. Balachandran, S. Chetri, P. J. Lee, P. Dhakal 2022 Old Dominion University

Magnetic Flux Expulsion In Superconducting Radio-Frequency Niobium Cavities Made From Cold Worked Niobium, Bashu D. Khanal, S. Balachandran, S. Chetri, P. J. Lee, P. Dhakal

Physics Faculty Publications

Trapped residual magnetic field during the cooldown of superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities is one of the primary source of RF residual losses leading to lower quality factor. Historically, SRF cavities have been fabricated from high purity fine grain niobium with grain size ~50 - 100 μm as well as large grain with grain size of the order of few centimeters. Non-uniform recrystallization of fine-grain Nb cavities after the post fabrication heat treatment leads to higher flux trapping during cooldown, hence the lower quality factor. We fabricated two 1.3 GHz single cell cavities from cold-worked niobium from different vendors and …


Lower Temperature Annealing Of Vapor Diffused Nb3Sn For Accelerator Cavities, Jayendrika K. Tiskumara, Jean R. Delayen, G. V. Eremeev, U. Pudasaini 2022 Old Dominion University

Lower Temperature Annealing Of Vapor Diffused Nb3Sn For Accelerator Cavities, Jayendrika K. Tiskumara, Jean R. Delayen, G. V. Eremeev, U. Pudasaini

Physics Faculty Publications

Nb3Sn is a next-generation superconducting material for the accelerator cavities with higher critical temperature and superheating field, both twice compared to Nb. It promises superior performance and higher operating temperature than Nb, resulting in significant cost reduction. So far, the Sn vapor diffusion method is the most preferred and successful technique to coat niobium cavities with Nb3Sn. Although several post-coating techniques (chemical, electrochemical, mechanical) have been explored to improve the surface quality of the coated surface, an effective process has yet to be found. Since there are only a few studies on the post-coating heat treatment …


Field Shielding Of NBT��N Based Multilayer Structure For Accelerating Cavities, Iresha Harshani Senevirathne, Jean R. Delayen, Alex Gurevich, D. R. Beverstock, A.-M. Valente-Feliciano 2022 Old Dominion University

Field Shielding Of NBT��N Based Multilayer Structure For Accelerating Cavities, Iresha Harshani Senevirathne, Jean R. Delayen, Alex Gurevich, D. R. Beverstock, A.-M. Valente-Feliciano

Physics Faculty Publications

Over the past few decades, bulk niobium (Nb) has been the material of choice for superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities used in particle accelerators to achieve higher accelerating gradients and lower RF losses. Multi-layer (SIS) structures consisting of alternating thin layers of superconductor(S) and insulator(I) deposited on a bulk Nb have been proposed to enhance the peak surface magnetic field and sustain a higher accelerating gradient. In this study, multilayers based NbTiN and AlN deposited on bulk Nb are used to test the proposed enhancement using the DC magnetic Hall probe technique. The technique detects a penetrating magnetic field through …


Improved Electrostatic Design Of The Jefferson Lab 300 Kv Dc Photogun And The Minimization Of Beam Deflection, M. A. Mamun, D. B. Bullard, J. R. Delayen, J. M. Grames, C. Hernandez-Garcia, Geoffrey A. Krafft, M. Poelker, R. Suleiman, S.A.K. Wijethunga 2022 Old Dominion University

Improved Electrostatic Design Of The Jefferson Lab 300 Kv Dc Photogun And The Minimization Of Beam Deflection, M. A. Mamun, D. B. Bullard, J. R. Delayen, J. M. Grames, C. Hernandez-Garcia, Geoffrey A. Krafft, M. Poelker, R. Suleiman, S.A.K. Wijethunga

Physics Faculty Publications

An electron beam with high bunch charge and high repetition rate is required for electron cooling of the ion beam to achieve the high luminosity required for the proposed electron-ion colliders. An improved design of the 300 kV DC high voltage photogun at Jefferson Lab was incorporated toward overcoming the beam loss and space charge current limitation experienced in the original design. To reach the bunch charge goal of ~ few nC within 75 ps bunches, the existing DC high voltage photogun electrodes and anode-cathode gap were modified to increase the longitudinal electric field (Ez) at the photocathode. The anode-cathode …


Samples For 3rd Harmonic Magnetometry Assessment Of Nbtin-Based Sis Structures, D.R. Beverstock, C.Z. Antoine, Jean R. Delayen, D. Manos, Iresha Harshani Senevirathne, J. K. Spradlin, A-M. Valente-Feliciano 2022 Old Dominion University

Samples For 3rd Harmonic Magnetometry Assessment Of Nbtin-Based Sis Structures, D.R. Beverstock, C.Z. Antoine, Jean R. Delayen, D. Manos, Iresha Harshani Senevirathne, J. K. Spradlin, A-M. Valente-Feliciano

Physics Faculty Publications

In the quest for alternative superconducting materials to bring accelerator cavity performance beyond the bulk niobium (Nb) intrinsic limits, a promising concept uses superconductor-insulator-superconductor (SIS) thin film structures that allows magnetic flux shielding in accelerator cavities to higher fields [1]. Candidate materials for such structures are NbTiN as the superconductor and AlN as the insulator. We have demonstrated high quality NbTiN and AlN deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering (DCMS), both for individual layers and multilayers. Interface quality has been assessed for bilayer stacks with 250 nm NbTiN layers and AlN thicknesses from 30 nm down to1 nm. These SIS …


Bunch Length Measurements At The Cebaf Injector At 130 Kv, Sunil Pokharel, M. W. Bruker, J. M. Grames, A. S. Hofler, R. Kazimi, Geoffrey A. Krafft, S. Zhang 2022 Old Dominion University

Bunch Length Measurements At The Cebaf Injector At 130 Kv, Sunil Pokharel, M. W. Bruker, J. M. Grames, A. S. Hofler, R. Kazimi, Geoffrey A. Krafft, S. Zhang

Physics Faculty Publications

In this work, we investigated the evolution in bunch length of beams through the CEBAF injector for low to high charge per bunch. Using the General Particle Tracer (GPT), we have simulated the beams through the beamline of the CEBAF injector and analyzed the beam to get the bunch lengths at the location of chopper. We performed these simulations with the existing injector using a 130 kV gun voltage. Finally, we describe measurements to validate these simulations. The measurements have been done using chopper scanning technique for two injector laser drive frequency modes: one with 500 MHz, and another with …


Structural, Electrical And Optical Properties Of Copper Oxide Phase Mixture: An Active Layer Of Solar Cell, Rifat Ara Shams 2022 Missouri State University

Structural, Electrical And Optical Properties Of Copper Oxide Phase Mixture: An Active Layer Of Solar Cell, Rifat Ara Shams

MSU Graduate Theses

Both CuO and Cu2O have been well studied and implemented individually as an active layer of a solar cell from early age of manufacturing. A mixture of these two-phase contents at different ratios can bring variance in absorbance which can present new and diverse aspect in solar cell fabrication with added efficiency. Previous works were successful to vary the phase mixture, and the nanostructures provided very high absorption co-efficient but poor optical response on electrical conductivity. The goal of this research is to find out the optimum parameter for the phase mixture of copper oxide with high absorption coefficient as …


Modeling, Fabrication, And Characterization Of Rf-Based Passive Wireless Sensors Composed Of Refractory Semiconducting Ceramics For High Temperature Applications, Kavin Sivaneri Varadharajan Idhaiam 2022 West Virginia University

Modeling, Fabrication, And Characterization Of Rf-Based Passive Wireless Sensors Composed Of Refractory Semiconducting Ceramics For High Temperature Applications, Kavin Sivaneri Varadharajan Idhaiam

Graduate Theses, Dissertations, and Problem Reports

Real-time health monitoring of high temperature systems (>500oC) in harsh environments is necessary to prevent catastrophic events caused by structural failures, varying pressure, and chemical reactions. Conventional solid-state temperature sensors such as resistance temperature detectors (RTDs) and thermocouples are restricted by their operating environments, sensor dimensions and often require external power sources for their operation. The current work presents the research and development of RF-based passive wireless sensing technology targeting high temperatures and harsh environmental conditions. Passive wireless devices are generally classified as near-field and far-field devices based on the interrogation distance. Near-field sensors are placed at …


Development Of A Fluxgate Magnetometer Model, Eleonora Olsmats 2022 University of New Hampshire, Durham

Development Of A Fluxgate Magnetometer Model, Eleonora Olsmats

Honors Theses and Capstones

As a part of the UNH SWFO-L1 mission to monitor space weather and the sun’s behavior, the fluxgate magnetometer is an important component to measure external magnetic fields. The basic principle of a fluxgate magnetometer is to detect changes in the ambient magnetic field by inducing a magnetic field in a ferromagnetic material via a drive winding. Each magnetometer is unique due to the ferromagnetic properties of the core material which can be seen in the hysteresis loop which is a relationship between the magnetic field strength (H) and the induced magnetic field (B). Measuring the hysteresis of a fluxgate …


Magnetic Field Penetration Technique To Study Field Shielding Of Multilayered Superconductors, Iresha Harshani Senevirathne, Alex Gurevich, Jean R. Delayen, A-M Valente-Feliciano 2022 Old Dominion University

Magnetic Field Penetration Technique To Study Field Shielding Of Multilayered Superconductors, Iresha Harshani Senevirathne, Alex Gurevich, Jean R. Delayen, A-M Valente-Feliciano

Physics Faculty Publications

The SIS structure which consists of alternative thin layers of superconductors and insulators on a bulk niobium has been proposed to shield niobium cavity surface from high magnetic field and hence increase the accelerating gradient. The study of the behavior of multilayer superconductors in an external magnetic field is essential to optimize their SRF performance. In this work we report the development of a simple and efficient technique to measure penetration of magnetic field into bulk, thin film and multilayer superconductors. Experimental setup contains a small superconducting solenoid which can produce a parallel surface magnetic field up to 0.5 T …


Athena Detector Proposal — A Totally Hermetic Electron Nucleus Apparatus Proposed For Ip6 At The Electron-Ion Collider, J. Adam, L. Adamczyk, N. Agrawal, C. Aidala, W. Akers, M. Alekseev, M.M. Allen, F. Ameli, A. Angerami, P. Antonioli, N. J. Apadula, A. Aprahamian, W. Armstrong, M. Arratia, J. R. Arrington, A. Asaturyan, E. C. Aschenauer, K. Augsten, S. Aune, M. Żurek, Et al. 2022 Old Dominion University

Athena Detector Proposal — A Totally Hermetic Electron Nucleus Apparatus Proposed For Ip6 At The Electron-Ion Collider, J. Adam, L. Adamczyk, N. Agrawal, C. Aidala, W. Akers, M. Alekseev, M.M. Allen, F. Ameli, A. Angerami, P. Antonioli, N. J. Apadula, A. Aprahamian, W. Armstrong, M. Arratia, J. R. Arrington, A. Asaturyan, E. C. Aschenauer, K. Augsten, S. Aune, M. Żurek, Et Al.

Physics Faculty Publications

ATHENA has been designed as a general purpose detector capable of delivering the full scientific scope of the Electron-Ion Collider. Careful technology choices provide fine tracking and momentum resolution, high performance electromagnetic and hadronic calorimetry, hadron identification over a wide kinematic range, and near-complete hermeticity. This article describes the detector design and its expected performance in the most relevant physics channels. It includes an evaluation of detector technology choices, the technical challenges to realizing the detector and the R&D required to meet those challenges.


197 Mhz Waveguide Loaded Crabbing Cavity Design For The Electron-Ion Collider, Subashini De Silva, Jean Delayen, J. Guo, R. A. Rimmer, Z. Li, B. P. Xiao 2022 Old Dominion University

197 Mhz Waveguide Loaded Crabbing Cavity Design For The Electron-Ion Collider, Subashini De Silva, Jean Delayen, J. Guo, R. A. Rimmer, Z. Li, B. P. Xiao

Physics Faculty Publications

The Elec­tron-Ion Col­lider will re­quire crab­bing sys­tems at both hadron and elec­tron stor­age rings in order to reach the de­sired lu­mi­nos­ity goal. The 197 MHz crab cav­ity sys­tem is one of the crit­i­cal rf sys­tems of the collider. The crab cav­ity, based on the rf-di­pole de­sign, explores the op­tion of wave­guide load damp­ing to sup­press the higher order modes and meet the tight im­ped­ance spec­i­fi­ca­tions. The cav­ity is de­signed with com­pact dog-bone wave­guides with tran­si­tions to rec­tan­gu­lar wave-guides and wave­guide loads. This paper pre­sents the com­pact 197 MHz crab cav­ity de­sign with wave­guide damp­ing and other an­cil­lar­ies.


New Results At Jlab Describing Operating Lifetime Of Gaas Photo-Guns, M. Bruker, J. Grames, C. Hernández-García, M. Poelker, S. Zhang, V. Lizárraga-Rubio, C. Valerio-Lizárraga, Joshua T. Yoskowitz 2022 Old Dominion University

New Results At Jlab Describing Operating Lifetime Of Gaas Photo-Guns, M. Bruker, J. Grames, C. Hernández-García, M. Poelker, S. Zhang, V. Lizárraga-Rubio, C. Valerio-Lizárraga, Joshua T. Yoskowitz

Physics Faculty Publications

Polarized electrons from GaAs photocathodes have been key to some of the highest-impact results of the Jefferson Lab science program over the past 30 years. During this time, various studies have given insight into improving the operational lifetime of these photocathodes in DC high-voltage photo-guns while using lasers with spatial Gaussian profiles of typically 0.5 mm to 1 mm FWHM, cathode voltages of 100 kV to 130 kV, and a wide range of beam currents up to multiple mA. In this contribution, we show recent experimental data from a 100 kV to 180 kV setup and describe our progress at …


Deep Learning Based Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavity Fault Classification At Jefferson Laboratory, Lasitha Vidyaratne, Adam Carpenter, Tom Powers, Chris Tennant, Khan M. Iftekharuddin, Md. Monibor Rahman, Anna S. Shabalina 2022 Old Dominion University

Deep Learning Based Superconducting Radio-Frequency Cavity Fault Classification At Jefferson Laboratory, Lasitha Vidyaratne, Adam Carpenter, Tom Powers, Chris Tennant, Khan M. Iftekharuddin, Md. Monibor Rahman, Anna S. Shabalina

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

This work investigates the efficacy of deep learning (DL) for classifying C100 superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavity faults in the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab. CEBAF is a large, high-power continuous wave recirculating linac that utilizes 418 SRF cavities to accelerate electrons up to 12 GeV. Recent upgrades to CEBAF include installation of 11 new cryomodules (88 cavities) equipped with a low-level RF system that records RF time-series data from each cavity at the onset of an RF failure. Typically, subject matter experts (SME) analyze this data to determine the fault type and identify the cavity of …


Beamline For E-Beam Processing At Uitf, G. Ciovati, C. Bott, S. Gregory, F. Hannon, Xi Li, M. McCaughan, R. Pearce, M. Poelker, H. Vennekate 2022 Old Dominion University

Beamline For E-Beam Processing At Uitf, G. Ciovati, C. Bott, S. Gregory, F. Hannon, Xi Li, M. Mccaughan, R. Pearce, M. Poelker, H. Vennekate

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

No abstract provided.


Real-Time Cavity Fault Prediction In Cebaf Using Deep Learning, Md. M. Rahman, K. Iftekharuddin, A. Carptenter, T. McGuckin, C. Tennant, L. Vidyaratne, Sandra Biedron (Ed.), Evgenya Simakov (Ed.), Stephen Milton (Ed.), Petr M. Anisimov (Ed.), Volker R.W. Schaa (Ed.) 2022 Old Dominion University

Real-Time Cavity Fault Prediction In Cebaf Using Deep Learning, Md. M. Rahman, K. Iftekharuddin, A. Carptenter, T. Mcguckin, C. Tennant, L. Vidyaratne, Sandra Biedron (Ed.), Evgenya Simakov (Ed.), Stephen Milton (Ed.), Petr M. Anisimov (Ed.), Volker R.W. Schaa (Ed.)

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

Data-driven prediction of future faults is a major research area for many industrial applications. In this work, we present a new procedure of real-time fault prediction for superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) using deep learning. CEBAF has been afflicted by frequent downtime caused by SRF cavity faults. We perform fault prediction using pre-fault RF signals from C100-type cryomodules. Using the pre-fault signal information, the new algorithm predicts the type of cavity fault before the actual onset. The early prediction may enable potential mitigation strategies to prevent the fault. In our work, we apply …


Digital Commons powered by bepress